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  1. Pani, Prof. Amiya Kumar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2012 Section: Mathematical Sciences. Pani, Prof. Amiya Kumar Ph.D. (IIT, Kanpur), FNASc. Date of birth: 3 June 1957. Specialization: Numerical Analysis, Partial Differential Equations, Industrial Mathematics Address: Chair Professor, Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, ...

  2. Saph Pani deliverables

    OpenAIRE

    Saph Pani

    2016-01-01

    Summary Saph Pani was an India-EU collaborative project with a duration of three years. The project aimed to improve natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF), managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and natural treatment systems (NTS) for wastewater treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) in India by building on a combination of local and international expertise. An enhancement of water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri-urban areas was targ...

  3. Amiya Kumar Pani, IIT, Mumbai

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Amiya Kumar Pani, IIT, Mumbai. Scientific computing: A new way of looking at mathematics. In this talk, I plan to provide some answers to the following questions: 1. Why there is a need to relook at Mathematics? 2. In what way questions asked in traditional Mathematics are different in the new frame? 3. What are its major ...

  4. PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Parmar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI films. The graphene–PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C, response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time.

  5. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  6. Efficient radical cation stabilization of PANI-ZnO and PANI-ZnO-GO composites and its optical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathavan, T., E-mail: tjmathavan@gmail.com; Divya, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin [PG & Research Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.Vellaichamy Nadar College, Madurai-625 019 (India); Archana, J. [Research Institute of Engineering, Shizuoka University (Japan); Ramasubbu, A. [PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Govt. Arts College, Coimbatore (India); Jothirajan, M. A. [Research Department of Physics, Arul Anandar College, Karumathur, Madurai-625 514 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and its composites PANI-ZnO (Zinc oxide) and PANI-ZnO-GO (Graphene oxide) were successfully constructed. These materials were characterized by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique and ultraviolet visible spectrometry. The parameters such as line width, g-factor and spin concentration were deduced from ESR spectra, from the results the radical cation stabilization of PANI, PANI-ZnO and PANI-ZnO-GO composites were compared by the polaron and bipolaron formation. The absorption features obtained in the UV absorption spectra reveal the band gap of these modified PANI composites and also predicted the information of increasing and decreasing features of signal intensity and spin concentration.

  7. Dielectric loss property of strong acids doped polyaniline (PANi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Rianti; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita; Andreas, Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, strong acid doped polyaniline (PANi) has been successfully fabricated through the chemical oxidative polymerization process with various polymerization times. Nonconducting PANi resulting from the polymerization process at various polymerization times were then doped by a strong acid HClO4 to generate dielectric properties. Ammonium Persulfate (APS) as an initiator was used during Polymerization process to develop dark green precipitates which then called Emeraldine Base Polyaniline (PANi-EB). The PANi-EB was successively doped by strong acid HClO4 with dopant and PANi ratio 10:1 to enhance the electrical conductivity. The conductivity of doped PANi was evaluated by Four Point Probe. Results of evaluation showed that the conductivity values of HClO4 doped PANi were in the range 337-363 mS/cm. The dielectric properties of doped PANi were evaluated by Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) which suggested that an increase in the permittivity value in the conducting PANi. It is concluded that PANi could be a potential candidate for electromagnetic waves absorbing materials.

  8. "riigimees sussi pani aknale" : [luuletused] / Rudolf Rimmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rimmel, Rudolf, 1937-2003

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: "riigimees sussi pani aknale..." ; "Eesti Vabariik on ehe idüll..." ; "Eesti õigussüsteem pole paha..." ; "ajaloo me läbi käinud risti ja ka põiki..." ; "kõige küljes on ajaloo maitse..." ; "Ei tea, on see juhus või taud..." ; "Eesti Vabariik on õitsvas elujõus..." ; "on igal riigil uhkeid tunnusjooni..."

  9. PANI-nanofibers/polyethylene blends: preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.; Hubler, R.; Basso, N.R.S.; Fim, F.C.; Galland, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-nanofibers) were prepared via interfacial polymerization. The PANI-nanofibers were dispersed in polyethylene (PE) matrix by in situ polymerization of ethylene using Cp 2 ZrCl 2 [bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) dichloride)] and methylaluminoxane as catalytic system. The composites were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that nanofibers with average diameters of 200 nm were synthesized and that it was obtained well dispersed PE/PANI nanocomposites. The PANI-nanofibers load did not affect the catalytic activity, but it decreased crystallinity degree of nanocomposites. (author)

  10. UV sensing of twinned ZnO-PANI composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Rawnaq A.; Abdullah, M. J.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Mohammad, Sabah M.; Bououdina, M.

    2016-05-01

    A novel twinned ZnO-polyaniline (PANI) composite was fabricated through a chemical method using zinc acetate hexahydrate and ammonium hydroxide with the addition of 15 wt%PANI. Pure ZnO and composite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectrophotometer. FESEM images revealed that ZnO-PANI composite has a twinned rod microstructure, with homogeneous size distribution; the average length of rods becomes shorter, while the average diameter becomes larger with the addition of PANI. XRD analysis confirms the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. With the addition of PANI, the original structure of ZnO remains stable. Raman peaks were observed, which were associated with the interfacial interactions between ZnO and PANI molecular chains. The use of porous Si substrates is found to be very beneficial to favor the bonding strength between the as-grown composite and Si substrate. The optical bandgap estimated from absorbance decreases from 3.22 to 3.05 eV. The fabricated photodetector based on the newly synthesized twinned rod-like ZnO-PANI composite revealed high gain of 5.23 and better sensitivity than pure ZnO. This enhancement can be attributed to the presence of PANI, which absorbs more light in the visible region.

  11. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  12. PANI-nanofibers/polyethylene blends: preparation and properties; Blendas de nanofibras de PANI/polietileno: preparacao e propriedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, F.; Hubler, R.; Basso, N.R.S., E-mail: nrbass@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fim, F.C.; Galland, G.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In this work polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-nanofibers) were prepared via interfacial polymerization. The PANI-nanofibers were dispersed in polyethylene (PE) matrix by in situ polymerization of ethylene using Cp{sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2} [bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) dichloride)] and methylaluminoxane as catalytic system. The composites were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that nanofibers with average diameters of 200 nm were synthesized and that it was obtained well dispersed PE/PANI nanocomposites. The PANI-nanofibers load did not affect the catalytic activity, but it decreased crystallinity degree of nanocomposites. (author)

  13. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinghao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Cheng, Cheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xiao, Chengjian, E-mail: xiaocj@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Shao, Dadong, E-mail: shaodadong@126.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Zimu, E-mail: xzm@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng [Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • PANI/bentonie can be synthesized by simple plasma technique. • PANI/bentonie has an excellent adsorption capacity for trace uranium in solution. • U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH < 6.5 because of the strong complexation, and inhibits U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  14. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Pani-CaTiO3 Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parveen, Ameena; Kumar, Koppalkar Anil; Revanasidappa, M.; Ekhilikar, Shrikant; Prasad, M. V. N. Ambika

    2008-01-01

    The stability, processability and electrical and optical properties of polyaniline (PANI) have led to its being investigated for use in a wide variety of applications. Much of the initial work centered on the wide range of conductivity that can be achieved, covering some 20 orders of magnitude.

  15. Dielectrical properties of PANI/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturmukha, V. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Avinash, B. S.; Jayanna, H. S.; Lamani, Ashok R., E-mail: ashok1571972@gmail.com [Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2016-05-23

    Conducting polyaniline/titanium dioxide (PANI/TiO{sub 2}) composites have been succesfully synthesized by insitu polymerization technique. The PANI/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites of different compositions were prepared by varying weight percentage of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles such as 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt% into the fixed amount of the aniline monomer. The prepared powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The intensity of diffraction peaks for PANI/TiO{sub 2} composites is lower than that for TiO{sub 2}. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite were prepared in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied in the frequency range1K Hz–10M Hz. At higher frequencies, the composites exhibit almost zero dielectric loss and maximum value of σ{sub ac} is found for a concentration of 20 wt% TiO{sub 2} in polyaniline. The interface between polyaniline and TiO{sub 2} plays an important role in yielding a large dielectric constant in nanocomposites.

  16. PANI-CSA films: ageing and kinetics of conductivity degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, P.; Nechtschein, M.

    1998-06-01

    Ageing of PANI-CSA films has been studied through conductivity decay kinetics obtained within 358 and 446 K. For short ageing time, the conductivity loss is partly reversible. For longer one, first order kinetics is observed. This process is arrhenian-like, with an activation energy linked to the PANI quality. Extrapolation at RT predicts stability over centuries. Studies conducted on different atmospheres and FTIR characterization correlate the conductivity decay with various chemical degradations (oxydation, chemical crosslinking, dedoping and ring sulfonation mechanisms). On a étudié les cinétiques de dégradation de la conductivité de films de PANI-CSA entre 358 et 446 K. Aux temps courts de vieillissement, la perte de conductivité est partiellement réversible. Aux temps longs, elle décroît comme une cinétique du 1er ordre. Le processus est de type arréhnien, avec une énergie d'activation liée à la qualité de la PANI. L'extrapolation à température ambiante prévoit une stabilité sur plusieurs siècles. Les cinétiques sous différentes atmosphères et les études par spectroscopie IRTF corrèlent la perte de conduvtivité à divers types de modifications chimiques (oxydation, réticulation, dédopage et sulfonation des cycles).

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of gas sensing properties of PANI based graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Ganesh [Department of Chemical Engineering, University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India); Patil, Pritam [SVMIT, College of Engineering, Bharuch 392001, Gujarat (India); Patil, Devidas [Bulk and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Rani Laxmibai Mahavidyalaya Parola, Jalgaon 425111, Maharashtra (India); Naik, Jitendra, E-mail: jbnaik@nmu.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Developed GO, ZnO, PANI nanocomposites. • Evaluated for effect of GO addition on gas sensing performance. • Performed ammonia gas sensing at room temperature. • Obtained excellent recovery time of gas sensor. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers and Polyaniline/Graphene Oxide (PANI/GO), Polyaniline/Graphene Oxide/Zinc Oxide (PANI/GO/ZnO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by nanoemulsion method. The synthesized nanofibers and nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), has showed the evidence of interaction between PANI nanofibers, GO nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively. PANI nanofibers and nanocomposites were used for the sensing of NH{sub 3,} LPG, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S gases respectively at room temperature. It was observed that the PANI nanofibers and PANI/GO, PANI/GO/ZnO nanocomposites with different weight ratios of ZnO and GO had better selectivity and sensitivity towards NH{sub 3} at room temperature. Best performance was shown by PANI/GO/ZnO nanocomposite response of 5.706 (10.3 times better response than PANI sensor) for 1000 ppm NH{sub 3} at 80 ± 1 °C with the recovery time of 1 min 30 s only.

  18. Ammonia Sensing Behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO2 had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future

  20. ANALISIS POTENSI LONGSORAN PADA DAERAH RANU PANI MENGGUNAKAN METODE GEOLISTRIK RESISTIVITAS KECAMATAN SENDURO KABUPATEN LUMAJANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswo Purnomo, Sunaryo, Luchman Hakim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanah longsor merupakan salah satu bentuk bencana alam yang terjadi di permukaan bumi ini. Ranu Pani merupakan salah satu daerah  yang berpotensi longsor, karena terdapat di tepian pegunungan yang tanahnya bersifat lempung, sedikit berpasir dan tingkat kesuburannya sangat tinggi.Selain itu vegetasi penutup lahan yang ada di daerah Ranu Pani semakin berkurang. Hal ini disebabkan karena pembukaan lahan oleh masyarakat sekitar yang semakin meningkat. Salahsatu metode yang digunakan dalam menganalisis potensi longsoran adalah menggunakan metode Resistivitydengan konfigurasi Dipole-Dipole yang digunakan untuk mengetahui struktur tanah dan juga bidang gelincir yang ada di perbukitan di daerah RanuPani.Menurut klasifikasi tingkat bahaya erosi, daerah Ranu Pani merupakan daerah dengan tingkat bahaya erosi yang sangat berbahaya, karena nilai aliran debris lebih dari 180 ton/tahun. Dengan tingginya aliran debris erosi, menyebabkan sedimentasi terhadap Danau Ranu Pani juga semakin tinggi, karena Danau Ranu Pani menampung sebagian besar aliran debris erosi perbukitan yang ada di sekitarnya.

  1. PANI/NaTaO3 composite photocatalyst for enhanced hydrogen generation under UV light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska Beata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A PANI/NaTaO3 composite was successfully synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in hydrochloric acid solution containing sodium tantalate. NaTaO3 at a monoclinic structure was produced via hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic activities of the unmodified NaTaO3 and PANI/NaTaO3 were evaluated for hydrogen generation from an aqueous HCOOH solution and under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the evolution rate of H2 increased significantly when NaTaO3 was modified with PANI. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of PANI/NaTaO3 composite was ascribed to the effective charge transfer and separation between NaTaO3 and PANI, which reduced their recombination. This indicates that PANI modification of tantalate photocatalysts may open up a new way to prepare highly efficient catalytic materials for H2 generation.

  2. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  3. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on PANI and carbon nanostructures prepared by electropolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovski, Aleksandar; Paunović, Perica [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, SS Cyril and Methodius University, Rudjer Bošković, 16, 1000, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Avolio, Roberto; Errico, Maria E.; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gentile, Gennaro [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy); Grozdanov, Anita, E-mail: anita.grozdanov@yahoo.com [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, SS Cyril and Methodius University, Rudjer Bošković, 16, 1000, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Avella, Maurizio [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy); Barton, John [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Dyke Parade, T12 R5CP, Cork (Ireland); Dimitrov, Aleksandar [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, SS Cyril and Methodius University, Rudjer Bošković, 16, 1000, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanostructures (CNSs) (graphene (G) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) were prepared by in situ electrochemical polymerization. CNSs were inserted into the PANI matrix by dispersing them into the electrolyte before the electropolymerization. Electrochemical characterization by means of cyclic voltammetry and steady state polarization were performed in order to determine conditions for electro-polymerization. Electro-polymerization of the PANI based nanocomposites was carried out at 0.75 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) for 40 and 60 min. The morphology and structural characteristics of the obtained nanocomposites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, while thermal stability was determined using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). According to the morphological and structural study, fibrous and porous structure of PANI based nanocomposites was detected well embedding both G and MWCNTs. Also, strong interaction between quinoidal structure of PANI with carbon nanostructures via π–π stacking was detected by Raman spectroscopy. TGA showed the increased thermal stability of composites reinforced with CNSs, especially those reinforced with graphene. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites of PANI with carbon nanostructures were prepared for sensing application. • By cyclic voltammetry, conductive form of PANI (green colored emeraldine phase) is obtained 0.75 V • Using 4 Probe method, nanocomposite PANI/CNS tablet was tested for sensing application. • Micro-structural properties of nanocomposites were studied by SEM, TGA and Raman analysis.

  5. Synthesis of Polyaniline (PANI in Nano-Reaction Field of Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF, and Carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kaitsuka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymerization of aniline in the presence of cellulose nano-fiber (CNF is carried out. We used dried CNF, CNF suspension, and CNF treated by enzyme and ultra-sonification to obtain polyaniline (PANI/CNF as a synthetic polymer/natural nano-polymer composite. The polymerization proceeds on the surface of CNF as a nano-reaction field. Resultant composites show extended effective π-conjugation length because CNF as a reaction field in molecular level produced polymer with expanded coil structure with an aid of orientation effect of CNF. Possibility of PANI β-pleats structure in molecular level of PANI on the CNF is also discussed. SEM observation showed that fine structure is easily obtained by combining PANI with CNF. Carbonization of PANI/CNF allows production of nano-fine form with shape preserved carbonization (SPC.

  6. Ammonia Sensing by PANI-DBSA Based Gas Sensor Exploiting Kelvin Probe Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA doped polyaniline (PANI-DBSA has been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of DBSA. The UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the formation of PANI and its doping by DBSA. SEM images show the formation of submicron size rod shaped PANI particles. A vibrating capacitor based ammonia gas sensor was prepared by spin coating PANI-DBSA film over copper (Cu substrate. The sensor exploited Kelvin probe technique to monitor contact potential difference between PANI and Cu as a function of time and ammonia concentration. Upon exposure to 30 ppm ammonia, the sensor displays response time of 329 s, recovery time of 3600 s, and sensitivity value of 1.54 along with good repeatability.

  7. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-bahrani, Majid Raissan; Xu, Xiaobao; Ahmad, Waqar; Ren, Xiaoliang; Su, Jun; Cheng, Ze; Gao, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High-performance PANI/MWCNT-CE was incorporated in a Pt-CE in DSSCs. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52%. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a high catalytic activity for the reduction of I 3 − . • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a low R CT on the electrolyte/CE interface. - Abstract: A graphene-based nanosheet composite/multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/MWCNT/PANI) was synthesized via an in situ polymerization technique and applied by the spin-coating method as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combination of the high catalytic activity of PANI and outstanding conductivity of GNS/MWCNT improved the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid CE. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has high catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide to iodide and low charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE has a rough and porous structure and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of PANI coating on the surface of the GNS/CNT. In particular, current–voltage measurements showed the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52% of the DSSC based on GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE compared to the PCE of 6.69% of the DSSC based on Pt-CE

  8. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-bahrani, Majid Raissan [Center for Nanoscale Characterization and Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - HUST, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Science, Thi-Qar University, Nassiriya (Iraq); Xu, Xiaobao [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Ahmad, Waqar; Ren, Xiaoliang; Su, Jun [Center for Nanoscale Characterization and Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - HUST, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, Ze [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Yihua, E-mail: gaoyihua@hust.edu.cn [Center for Nanoscale Characterization and Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - HUST, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • High-performance PANI/MWCNT-CE was incorporated in a Pt-CE in DSSCs. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52%. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a high catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup −}. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a low R{sub CT} on the electrolyte/CE interface. - Abstract: A graphene-based nanosheet composite/multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/MWCNT/PANI) was synthesized via an in situ polymerization technique and applied by the spin-coating method as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combination of the high catalytic activity of PANI and outstanding conductivity of GNS/MWCNT improved the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid CE. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has high catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide to iodide and low charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE has a rough and porous structure and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of PANI coating on the surface of the GNS/CNT. In particular, current–voltage measurements showed the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52% of the DSSC based on GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE compared to the PCE of 6.69% of the DSSC based on Pt-CE.

  9. Conductive electrospun PANi-PEO/TiO{sub 2} fibrous membrane for photo catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, Sebastian [National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Pliszka, Damian, E-mail: nnidp@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Thavasi, Velmurugan [National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Wintermantel, Erich [Technical University of Munich, Bolzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ramakrishna, Seeram [National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The integration of electrospinning and electrospraying to prepare the fibrous catalytic filter membrane is demonstrated. The non-conductive polyethylene oxide (PEO) is blended with ({+-})-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (CSA) doped conductive polyaniline (PANi) for electrospinning. The conductive CSA/PANi-PEO composite fibers are produced upon electrospinning, which are used as the conductive collector for electrospraying process by which titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) are sprayed and allowed to adsorb on the fibers. The degree of adsorption and dispersion of nano TiO{sub 2} catalysts on the surface of the CSA/PANi-PEO fibers exhibit a stronger dependence on weight percentage (wt%) of PANi in PEO solution and the strength of electrical conductivity of the fibers used during electrospraying. CSA/PANi-PEO fibers as collector reduce the wastage of TiO{sub 2} NPs during electrospraying to lesser than 5%. Among the three different composition of PANi studied, PEO with 12 wt% PANi yields very uniform diameter and beads-free fibrous structure with higher electrical conductivity. 12 wt% CSA/PANi-PEO fibrous membrane is found to support for greater dispersion of TiO{sub 2} NPs. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2}-PANi-PEO catalytic membrane is tested against the toxicant simulant 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS) under the ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles catalysts embedded PANi-PEO fibrous membrane decontaminated the toxicant CEPS significantly, which is due to uniform dispersion of the catalysts produced by the methodology.

  10. Novel nanorods based on PANI / PEO polymers using electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hazeem, Nabeel Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Rasheed, Hiba S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we fabricated nanorods by applying an electric potential on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyaniline (PANI) as a polymeric solution by electrospinning method. Testing was conducted on the samples by field emission scanning Electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Photoluminescence. And the results showed the emergence of nanorods in the sample within glass substrate. Diameters of nanorods have ranged between (52.78-122.40)nm And a length of between (1.15 – 1.32)μm. The emergence of so the results are for the first time, never before was the fabrication of nanorods for polymers using the same method used in this research.

  11. Novel nanorods based on PANI / PEO polymers using electrospinning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hazeem, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M.; Matjafri, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Sabah, Fayroz A. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Rasheed, Hiba S. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, we fabricated nanorods by applying an electric potential on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyaniline (PANI) as a polymeric solution by electrospinning method. Testing was conducted on the samples by field emission scanning Electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Photoluminescence. And the results showed the emergence of nanorods in the sample within glass substrate. Diameters of nanorods have ranged between (52.78-122.40)nm And a length of between (1.15 – 1.32)μm. The emergence of so the results are for the first time, never before was the fabrication of nanorods for polymers using the same method used in this research.

  12. México: partida de ajedrez. Mario Pani

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Merino, Jesús Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Se ensaya aquí cómo construye su mirada el arquitecto Mario Pani Darqui (México, D.F., 1911-1993), cuya visión es la del jugador de ajedrez: estratégica, cenital y transversal, profunda y extrañada, inci- siva y extensa, mimética y contrapuesta. Todo al mismo tiempo. Con base en esta reconstrucción de su forma de ver ―crucial para el entendimiento de la arquitectura y el urbanismo de México en el si- glo XX― se plantea una acción conceptual en el entorno del río Manzanares en Madrid. Un paisa...

  13. Structural and optical characterization of In2O3/PANI nanocomposite prepared by in-situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeoo, Shashi; Sharma, Mamta; Goswamy, J.; Singh, Gurinder

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline-indium oxide (In 2 O 3 /PANI) nanocomposite have been prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline and as-synthesized In 2 O 3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectroscopy techniques are used to investigate the structural and optical properties of In 2 O 3 /PANI nanocomposite. TEM analysis shows In 2 O 3 nanoparticles are embedded in PANI nanofibers. FTIR spectra show the good interactions between PANI nanofibers and In 2 O 3 nanoparticles. The band gap and electronic transitions in In 2 O 3 /PANI nanocomposite is determined by using UV/Vis spectra.

  14. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  15. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  16. Synthesis and electromagnetic properties of PANI/PVP/CIP core–shell composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jihai [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); No. 59 Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, Chongqing 400039 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: mlsys607@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Tian, Nan; Gan, Mengyu; Xu, Fenfang; Zeng, Jun; Tu, Ying [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PANI/PVP/CIP core–shell composite was prepared, where PVP can hinder aggregation of CIP and PANI/PVP/CIP composites. • Core–shell structure increases absorbent interface, benefiting reflection, scattering and electromagnetic wave absorption. • PANI/PVP/CIP core–shell composites show better electromagnetic matching and microwave absorption in a wider frequency range. - Abstract: The polyaniline/polyvinylpyrrolidone/carbonyl iron powder (PANI/PVP/CIP) core–shell composites were prepared by in-situ polymerization in the PVP aqueous solution using toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) as dopant and ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant. The PANI/PVP/CIP was systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, electrochemical workstation, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the PANI/PVP can dramatically improve corrosion resistance of CIP. Compared with pure CIP, the PANI/PVP/CIP composites exhibited better impedance match and excellent microwave absorption properties. The reflection loss was found to <–10 dB in the 27.3–39.5 GHz range at thickness of 1.1 mm, and the minimum reflection loss of −15.28 dB was observed at 29.47 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.2 mm. A possible mechanism of the improved microwave absorption properties of the core–shell structure was obtained.

  17. Preparation of Conductive PANI/PVA Composites via an Emulsion Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and novel strategy for preparing polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol (PANI/PVA composite emulsion is reported wherein the reaction is carried out via the emulsion polymerization using ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS as the oxidizing agent and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA as the protonic acid. The PANI/PVA composite membranes have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and electrochemical workstation. It is interesting that the electrical conductivity of the PANI/PVA composites is estimated to be as high as 1.28 S/cm. The experimental results show that the surface of PANI/PVA composite membranes exhibits good integrity. The PANI particles at the nanoscale are dispersed in the PVA matrix, and the electrochromic behaviors of PANI/PVA composites obtained at different polymerization temperatures can be compared based on cyclic voltammetry (CV curves, revealing that PANI/PVA composites synthesized at room temperature are better than those synthesized at low temperature.

  18. Chemical synthesis of highly stable PVA/PANI films for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, D.S.; Shaikh, J.S.; Dalavi, D.S.; Kalagi, S.S. [Thin Films Materials laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Patil, P.S., E-mail: psp_phy@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Films Materials laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Chemical synthesis of PVA/PANI films by spin and dip coating at room temperature. {yields} Thickness dependent supercapacitor behavior of PVA/PANI film. {yields} The synthesized film are highly stable up to 20,000 cycles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyaniline (PANI) thin films were chemically synthesized by adopting two step process: initially a thin layer (200 nm) of PVA was spin coated by using an aqueous PVA solution onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate, afterwards PANI was chemically polymerized from aniline monomer and dip coated onto the precoated substrate. The thickness of PANI layer was varied from 293 nm to 2367 nm by varying deposition cycles onto the precoated PVA thin film. The resultant PVA/PANI films were characterized for their optical, morphological and electrochemical properties. The FT-IR and Raman spectra revealed characteristic features of the PANI phase. The SEM study showed porous spongy structure. Electrochemical properties were studied by electrochemical impedance measurement and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performance of PVA/PANI thin films was investigated in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The highest specific capacitance of 571 Fg{sup -1} was observed for the optimized thickness of 880 nm. The film was found to be stable for more than 20,000 cycles. The samples degraded slightly (25% decrement in specific capacitance) for the first 10,000 cycles. The degradation becomes much slower (10.8% decrement in specific capacitance) beyond 10,000 cycles. This dramatic improvement in the electrochemical stability of the PANI samples, without sacrificing specific capacitance was attributed to the optimized PVA layer.

  19. Capacitive properties of PANI/MnO2 synthesized via simultaneous-oxidation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Shu Dong; Zhang Tianren; Chen Hongyu; Zhao Haimin; Wang Yongsheng; Sun Zhenjie; Tang Shaoqing; Fang Xueming; Cao Xiufang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PANI/MnO 2 composite was synthesized by the simultaneous-oxidation route. ► Good contact in inter-molecule level between PANI and MnO 2 improves the conductivity. ► The separation between PANI and MnO 2 prevents the aggregation of nano-composite. ► The maximum specific capacitance of the PANI/MnO 2 electrode is 320 F/g. ► The as-prepared PANI/MnO 2 exhibits excellent cycle stability of 84% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) and manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) composite (PANI/MnO 2 ) was synthesized via a simultaneous-oxidation route. In this route, all reactants were dispersed homogenously in precursor solution and existed as ions and molecules, and involved reactions of ions and molecules generating PANI and MnO 2 simultaneously. In this way, PANI molecule and MnO 2 molecule contact each other and arrange alternately in the composite. The inter-molecule contact improves the conductivity of the composite. The alternative arrangement of PANI molecules and MnO 2 molecules separating each other, and prevents the aggregation of PANI and cluster of MnO 2 so as to decrease the particle size of the composite. The morphology, structure, porous and capacitive properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Branauer–Emmett–Teller test, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, charge–discharge test and the electrochemical impedance measurements. The results show that MnO 2 is predominant in the PANI/MnO 2 composite and the composite exhibits larger specific surface area than pure MnO 2 . The maximum specific capacitance of the composite electrode reaches up to 320 F/g by charge–discharge test, 1.56 times higher than that of MnO 2 (125 F/g). The specific capacitance retains approximately 84% of the initial value after 10,000 cycles, indicating the good cycle stability.

  20. Enhancement removal of tartrazine dye using HCl-doped polyaniline and TiO2-decorated PANI particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Gobara, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    HCl-doped polyaniline (HCl-PANI) and titanium dioxide decorated with polyaniline (TiO2-decorated PANI) with different TiO2:PANI ratios were chemically prepared and utilized for the removal of tartrazine (TZ) dye from a synthetic aqueous solution. The mechanism of preparation of the sample suggested that aniline was adsorbed on the TiO2 surface before the polymerization process took place. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that HCl-PANI and TiO2-decorated PANI have an amorphous structure. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was characterized using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. HCl-PANI is stable up to 200 °C and the relative weight per cent of PANI in the TiO2-decorated PANI was 20, 25, 40 and 45%. The removal activity of TiO2-decorated PANI via TZ azo dye was investigated under UV light irradiations and compared with HCl-PANI and TiO2 particles. The results indicated the superiority of the TiO2-decorated PANI over pure HCl-PANI and TiO2. However, the excessive PANI percentage tends to form a relatively thick layer, and even aggregates on the surface of TiO2. This hinders the migration of excited electrons from the outer PANI layer to the inner TiO2 particles, which consequently leads to a decrease in the removal efficiency. A possible mechanism for the removal oxidative degradation is also mentioned.

  1. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Antibacterial and Antifungal Studies of PANI/V2O5 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakradhar Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 nanoparticles and their antibacterial and antifungal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, respectively, by agar diffusion method. The metal oxide has been synthesized by employing the sol-gel method, polyaniline (PANI has been synthesized by chemical oxidation, and PANI/V2O5 composites have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method with different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 weight% of V2O5 in PANI. The newly prepared composites were characterized by FTIR and powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD techniques and are found to be formed of PANI/V2O5 nanocomposites, and also the compounds showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  2. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Preetam; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO 2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO 2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO 2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement

  3. Synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) and functionalized polyaniline (F-PANI) nanoparticles with controlled size by solvent displacement method. Application in fluorescence detection and bacteria killing by photothermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni Abel, Silvestre; Yslas, Edith I.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Barbero, Cesar A.

    2018-03-01

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) were easily obtained applying the solvent displacement method by using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as good solvent and water as poor solvent. Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), chondroitin sulfate (ChS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were used as stabilizers. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy corroborated the size and morphology of the formed NPs. It was demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles could be controlled by setting the concentration of PANI in NMP, the NMP to water ratio, and the stabilizer’s nature. The functionalization and fluorescence of NPs were checked by spectroscopic techniques. Since polyaniline show only weak intrinsic luminescence, fluorescent groups were linked to the polyaniline chains prior to the nanoparticle formation using a linker. Polyaniline chains were functionalized by nucleophilic addition of cysteamine trough the thiol group thereby incorporating pendant primary aliphatic amine groups to the polyaniline backbone. Then, dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl), which could act as an extrinsic chromophore, was conjugated to the amine pendant groups. Later, the functionalized polyaniline was used to produce nanoparticles by solvent displacement. The optical and functional properties of fluorescent nanoparticles (F-PANI-NPs) were determined. F-PANI-NPs in the conductive state (pH < 4) are able to absorb near infrared radiation (NIR) creating a photothermal effect in an aqueous medium. Thus, multifunctional nanoparticles are obtained. The application of NIR on a F-PANI-NPs dispersion in contact with Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes bacterial death. Therefore, the F-PANI-NPs could be tracked and applied to inhibit different diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and resistant to antibiotics as well as a new disinfection method to surgical materials.

  4. Analisis Sifat Listrik Komposit Polianilin (Pani) Terhadap Penambahan Bottom Ash Sebagai Elektroda Superkapasitor

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita, Ria; Muttaqin, Afdal

    2013-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pembuatan dan analisis sifat listrik elektroda superkapasitor berbahan dasar polimer PANi dengan penambahan bottom ash. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari sifat listrik polimer konduktif polianilin terhadap penambahan bottom ash dibawah pengaruh temperatur antara 308 K hingga 373 K. Sampel komposit PANi-bottom ash dibuat dalam bentuk tablet dengan ukuran tebal 0,324 cm, luas permukaan 1,3143 cm2 dan massa jenis ± 1,3624 g/cm3, dengan komposisi penambahan bottom ash 0 ...

  5. Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-31

    Lactobacillus panis strain PM1 is an obligatory heterofermentative and aerotolerant microorganism that also produces 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. This study investigated the metabolic responses of L. panis PM1 to oxidative stress under aerobic conditions. Growth under aerobic culture triggered an early entrance of L. panis PM1 into the stationary phase along with marked changes in end-product profiles. A ten-fold higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide was accumulated during aerobic culture compared to microaerobic culture. This H2O2 level was sufficient for the complete inhibition of L. panis PM1 cell growth, along with a significant reduction in end-products typically found during anaerobic growth. In silico analysis revealed that L. panis possessed two genes for NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase, but their expression levels were not significantly affected by the presence of oxygen. Specific activities for these two enzymes were observed in crude extracts from L. panis PM1. Enzyme assays demonstrated that the majority of the H2O2 in the culture media was the product of NADH: H2O2 oxidase which was constitutively-active under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions; whereas, NADH peroxidase was positively-activated by the presence of oxygen and had a long induction time in contrast to NADH oxidase. These observations indicated that a coupled NADH oxidase - NADH peroxidase system was the main oxidative stress resistance mechanism in L. panis PM1, and was regulated by oxygen availability. Under aerobic conditions, NADH is mainly reoxidized by the NADH oxidase - peroxidase system rather than through the production of ethanol (or 1,3-propanediol or succinic acid production if glycerol or citric acid is available). This system helped L. panis PM1 directly use oxygen in its energy metabolism by producing extra ATP in contrast to homofermentative lactobacilli.

  6. Changes in the structure of doped poly aniline (Pani-HCL) due to the process of de-doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Everton Carlos; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora Silva de

    2009-01-01

    The poly aniline (PAni) is much studied, partly due to its relatively ease chemical or electrochemical synthesis, thermal stability in air and redox behavior. The chemical synthesis of poly aniline (PAni) was performed in a medium containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a doping agent. After that, the obtained polymer was de-doped in alkaline medium (NH4OH). Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) showed that the doped polymer, PAni-HCl, shows better thermal stability in comparison with the de-doped polymer (PAni-NH4OH). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show that the number of processes occurring during the heating of the polymer, as well as the complexity of them, is much higher in the PAni-HCl than the in the PAni-NH4OH. Through the spectra of FTIR and Raman could conclude that dedoping PAni-HCl was not complete, but the degree of doping of PAni-NH4OH decreased by treatment with ammonium hydroxide. XRD analysis pointed out that as the PAni-HCl as the PAni-NH4OH are partially crystalline. (author)

  7. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  8. CuO-PANI nanostructure with tunable spectral selectivity for solar selective coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindrella, L., E-mail: cind@nitt.edu; Prabhu, S., E-mail: sprabhuk@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • CuO-PANI nanostructure has been reported as the solar selective absorber coating. • Solar selectivity and efficiency of the coatings have been evaluated. • PANI provides a surface texture favourable for multiple reflection. - Abstract: CuO-PANI nanostructure has been demonstrated as the solar selective absorber coating for the first time. The effortless chemical methods and easily scalable techniques such as precipitation, in-situ polymerization and spray coating were adopted for the fabrication of CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructures for solar application. The synthesis was carried out without using any template. The morphology and phase structure of fabricated CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructure coatings were studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra and elemental mapping confirm the presence of the chosen elements in the nanostructure. The solar absorptance (α{sub s}), thermal emittance (ε{sub t}) and selectivity (ξ) of the nanostructure coatings on glass substrate were optimized to 0.94, 0.01 and 94 respectively by changing the polyaniline content on the surface of the CuO nanorods. The efficiency of the solar selective coatings were evaluated. The optimized solar absorber coating of CuO-PANI nanostructure is highly promising for its selective optical properties.

  9. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PVA/PANI/Nickel Nanocomposites Synthesized by Gamma Radiolytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Mohd Meftah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a simultaneous synthesis of polyaniline (PANI and nickel (Ni nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA film matrix by gamma radiolytic method. The mechanism of formation of PANI and Ni nanoparticles were proposed via oxidation of aniline and reduction of Ni ions, respectively. The effects of dose and Ni ions concentration on structural, optical, and electrical properties of the final PVA/PANI/Ni nanocomposites film were carefully examined. The structural and morphological studies show the presence of PANI with irregular granular microstructure and Ni nanoparticles with spherical shape and diameter less than 60 nm. The average particle size of Ni nanoparticles decreased with increasing dose and decreasing of precursor concentration due to increase of nucleation process over aggregation process during gamma irradiation. The optical absorption spectra showed that the absorption peak of Ni nanoparticles at about 390 nm shifted to lower wavelength and the absorbance increased with increasing dose. The formation of PANI was also revealed at 730 nm absorption peak with the absorbance increasing by the increase of dose. The electrical conductivity increased with increasing of dose and chlorine concentration due to number of polarons formation increases in the PVA/PANI/Ni nanocomposites.

  10. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  11. Preparation and Characterization of WS₂@SiO₂ and WS₂@PANI Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Hagit; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2018-03-10

    Two tungsten disulfide (WS₂)-based core-shell nanocomposites were fabricated using readily available reagents and simple procedures. The surface was pre-treated with a surfactant couple in a layer-by-layer approach, enabling good dispersion of the WS₂ nanostructures in aqueous media and providing a template for the polymerization of a silica (SiO₂) shell. After a Stöber-like reaction, a conformal silica coating was achieved. Inspired by the resulting nanocomposite, a second one was prepared by reacting the surfactant-modified WS₂ nanostructures with aniline and an oxidizing agent in an aqueous medium. Here too, a conformal coating of polyaniline (PANI) was obtained, giving a WS₂@PANI nanocomposite. Both nanocomposites were analyzed by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and FTIR, verifying the core-shell structure and the character of shells. The silica shell was amorphous and mesoporous and the surface area of the composite increases with shell thickness. Polyaniline shells slightly differ in their morphologies dependent on the acid used in the polymerization process and are amorphous like the silica shell. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the WS₂@PANI nanocomposite showed variation between bulk PANI and the PANI shell. These two nanocomposites have great potential to expand the use of transition metals dichalcogenides (TMDCs) for new applications in different fields.

  12. Biocompatibility Assessment of Conducting PANI/Chitosan Nanofibers for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Moutsatsou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As electroactive polymers have recently presented potential in applications in the tissue engineering and biomedical field, this study is aiming at the fabrication of composite nanofibrous membranes containing conducting polyaniline and at the evaluation of their biocompatibility. For that purpose, conducting polyaniline–chitosan (PANI/CS defect free nanofibres of different ratios (1:3; 3:5 and 1:1 were produced with the electrospinning method. They were characterized as for their morphology, hydrophilicity and electrical conductivity. The membranes were then evaluated for their cellular biocompatibility in terms of cell attachment, morphology and cell proliferation. The effect of the PANI content on the membrane properties is discussed. Increase in PANI content resulted in membranes with higher hydrophobicity and higher electrical conductivity. It was found that none of the membranes showed any toxic effects on osteoblasts and fibroblasts, and that they all supported cell attachment and growth, even to a greater extent than tissue culture plastic. The membrane with the PANI/CS ratio 1:3 supports better cell attachment and proliferation for both cell lines due to a synergistic effect of hydrophilicity retention due to the high chitosan content and the conductivity that PANI introduced to the membrane.

  13. Soft actuator based on Kraton with GO/Ag/Pani composite electrodes for robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ajahar; Kant Jain, Ravi; Banerjee, Priyabrata; Inamuddin; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, electrochemically-driven Kraton/graphene oxide/Ag/polyaniline (Kraton/GO/Ag/Pani) polymer composite based ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) was fabricated as a soft actuator. Silver nanopowder with polyaniline coating used as an electrode material is a novel approach in the fabrication of IPMC, which gives new opportunities for development of the electrode on ionic polymer actuator surfaces directly without electroless plating of Pt or Au metal. The Kraton/GO/Ag/Pani membrane showed much higher water-uptake (WU), ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity than those of several reported IPMC membranes. The enhanced actuation performance indicates that the Kraton/GO/Ag/Pani is a better alternative to the highly expensive commercialized IPMC actuator.

  14. Degradation behavior and biocompatibility of PEG/PANI-derived polyurethane co-polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Ling; Nan, Yun-Fei; Xu, Feng; Chen, Ya-Shao; Zhao, Pei

    2010-01-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU) co-polymers with designable molecular weight between cross-linking dots was synthesized by a hydrogen transfer polymerization route from polyaniline (PANI), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), various curing agents and chain extenders using dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. Their swelling, hydrophilicity, degradation and biocompatibility were inspected and assessed based on different degrees of polymerization of PANI and PEG, and their component proportion. Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and goniometry were used to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the synthesized PEG/PANI-based PU co-polymers, PU residues after degradation and degraded polymers at different time periods of hydrolysis. The thermal properties, aggregate structure and surface microstructure were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hemolysis, static platelet adhesion, dynamic clotting measurements and MTT assays were adopted to evaluate the hemo- or cytocompatibility. The experimental results indicated that these polymers exhibit various degrees of micro-phase separation, depending on the concentration and degree of polymerization of PANI, molecular weight of PEG, type of curing agent and chain extender, which further influence their swelling, hydrophilicity, degradable properties and biological performances in vitro. The incorporation of PANI and PANI* in co-polymers led to decreased thermal stability but slower decomposition rates than typical PEG-based PUs. The stress-strain tests showed that the as-prepared PU co-polymers possessed increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased toughness in comparison with the blank PEG-based PU. These co-polymers are expected to find specific applications in tissue engineering or controlled drug release.

  15. Ammonia gas sensors based on In2O3/PANI hetero-nanofibers operating at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxin Nie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indium nitrate/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (In(NO33/PVP composite nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning, and then hollow structure indium oxide (In2O3 nanofibers were obtained through calcination with PVP as template material. In situ polymerization was used to prepare indium oxide/polyaniline (In2O3/PANI composite nanofibers with different mass ratios of In2O3 to aniline. The structure and morphology of In(NO33/PVP, In2O3/PANI composite nanofibers and pure PANI were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and current–voltage (I–V measurements. The gas sensing properties of these materials towards NH3 vapor (100 to 1000 ppm were measured at room temperature. The results revealed that the gas sensing abilities of In2O3/PANI composite nanofibers were better than pure PANI. In addition, the mass ratio of In2O3 to aniline and the p–n heterostructure between In2O3 and PANI influences the sensing performance of the In2O3/PANI composite nanofibers. In this paper, In2O3/PANI composite nanofibers with a mass ratio of 1:2 exhibited the highest response values, excellent selectivity, good repeatability and reversibility.

  16. Surface acoustic wave sensors with Graphene/PANI nanocomposites for nitric oxide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Lingling

    2017-12-01

    Surface acoustic wave sensors with grapheme/PANI nanocomposite sensitive films for detecting nitric oxide (NO) were fabricated and experimentally studied. Morphological characterization and functionalization of the sensing material were explored using SEM and FTIR, respectively. The study of sensor response compared film sensitivity, response time, reversibility, and limit of detection for nanocomposite films, pure grapheme and pure PANI to the detection of NO. The response and recovery times were 40s and 20s when detecting 4ppm NO, respectively. The frequency response was discovered to be linear in the NO concentration range 1-50 ppm. The nanocomposite sensors had improved sensitivities compared to the polymer devices, and better response times.

  17. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  18. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of PANI/ZnMoO4 nanocomposite for simultaneous improvement in anticorrosion, physico-chemical properties and its application in gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanvase, B A; Darda, N S; Veerkar, N C; Shende, A S; Satpute, S R; Sonawane, S H

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound assisted in-situ semi-batch emulsion polymerization has been used for the preparation of polyaniline (PANI) and PANI/ZnMoO4 nanocomposite with different loading of ZnMoO4 (ZM) nanoparticles. ZM nanoparticles were functionalized using Myristic acid (MA) for better compatibility with PANI. The cavitational effects induced due to ultrasonic irradiations have been shown significant enhancement in the dispersion of functionalized ZM nanoparticles into the PANI during ultrasound assisted in-situ emulsion polymerization process. TEM images of PANI/ZM nanocomposite particles give the direct evidence of fine dispersion and encapsulation of MA treated ZM nanoparticles in PANI matrix. The presence of ZM nanoparticles in PANI/ZM nanocomposite shows significant improvement in the mechanical (cross-cut adhesion), thermal, anticorrosion and sensing properties of PANI/ZM nanocomposite/alkyd coatings over PANI/alkyd and neat alkyd resin coating. Fine and uniform dispersion of ZM nanoparticles in PANI matrix using this novel synthesis method (PANI (p-type)/ZM (n-type) hetero-junction) improves LPG sensing ability and minimizes response time to sense LPG significantly compared with neat PANI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological, Electromagnetic, and Absorbing Properties of POMA and PAni/Carbon Black Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Simone de Souza; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira

    2017-08-01

    This work deals with the study of radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on conductive composites obtained by synthesis in situ of poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) and polyaniline (PAni), respectively, on carbon black (CB) particles. Samples containing 20 wt.% of POMA/CB and 20 wt.% of PAni/CB in epoxy resin were prepared. Electrical conductivity results show that POMA/CB (7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1) and PAni/CB (4.1 × 10-1 S cm-1) composites present higher values than the neat POMA (5.4 × 10-4 S cm-1) and PAni (5.5 × 10-2 S cm-1) polymers. SEM analyses show that both composites present different morphologies, characterized by irregular agglomerates of CB and conducting polymers particles. Experimental measurements of the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of the composites in epoxy resin were performed in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). From these parameters, computational simulations of reflection loss (RL) of the prepared RAM were performed aiming to evaluate the microwave attenuation performance of the composites in epoxy resin. These simulations considered the influence of sample thicknesses. The computational predictions of RAM behavior show a good fit with experimental results. Simulated RL results show that both composites behave as RAM with good results (up to 99.5%) of microwave attenuation in the frequencies of X-band.

  20. Preparation and characterization of PANI@G/CWO nanocomposite for enhanced 2-nitrophenol sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Inamuddin; Alamry, Khalid A.; Hameed, Salem A.

    2018-03-01

    A new material by polymer insertion via graphene oxide into cerium tungstate was prepared by very simple oxidation-reduction method. Aniline polymerization was done on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) which was reduced to graphene (G) simultaneously mixed with separately prepared inorganic matrices of cerium tungstate (Ce2(WO4)3 (CWO)). PANI@G/CWO was characterized by various spectroscopic methods as SEM, FTIR, TGA, XRD and XPS to confirm its possibilities. Selective 2-nitrophenol sensor was fabricated on flat glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and PANI@G/CWO nanocomposites in the form of thin layer. It was found excellent sensitivity as well as long life spam with broad dynamic concentration range (LDR) that showed efficient electrochemical performance towards 2-nitrophenol on fabricated chemical sensor by PANI@G/CWO. The linear calibration curve (r2 = 0.9914) with wide range of 2-nitrophenol concentration (1.0 nM-1.0 mM) was found having the detection limit of 0.87 nM while the sensitivity of the sensor was around 1.229 μ A μM-1 cm-2. It was introduced a new route for the development of a versatile phenolic sensor based on PANI@G/CWO nanocomposites by I-V method that is proved more selective and sensitive for environmental toxic materials.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and microwave characteristics of ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/doped Sr-hexaferrite/PANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Substituted strontium ferrite (sub-SF) nanoparticles are prepared by a sol-gel method and added to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline on MWCNTs/sub-SF reaction mixture. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are investigated by SEM, XRD, FTIR and VSM, respectively. The microwave characteristics are measured using a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns exhibit representative diffraction peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure, and the structure of the MWCNTs is not distorted. SEM micrographs show that sub-SF nanoparticles and PANI chains are uniformly dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs. The MWCNTs/sub-SF/PANI exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth and a matching thickness of 5 mm. This excellent microwave characteristic indicates the synergistic effect of the three components to enhance the impedance matching and improve the microwave absorption properties of the composite. - Highlights: • Novel ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization. • The prepared single composite absorber are lightweight with 20 wt% filler content in parafin. • Composites with a combination of magnetic and dielectric fillers exhibit wider reflection loss peaks. • Composite absorber exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth with a matching thickness of 5 mm.

  2. Preparation and characterizations of polyaniline (PANI)/ZnO nanocomposites film using solution casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Faheem; Kumar, Shalendra; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M.S.; Su-Yeon, Lee; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Park, Dae-Won; Koo, Bon Heun; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)-ZnO nanoparticles composites film has been successfully fabricated by solution casting technique on glass substrate in which ZnO nanopowder was prepared via auto combustion method and used as inorganic materials. The as-grown nanocomposites film has been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for their structural and morphological characterizations. X-ray diffraction studies of as-grown film showed the reflection of ZnO nanoparticles along with a broad peak of PANI. The AFM study of the film shows the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the polymer matrix which was further supported by roughness measurement. TEM images showed that the size of ZnO nanoparticles in the nanocomposites increase from ∼ 35 nm to ∼ 45 nm, indicating the interaction of nanoparticles with PANI molecular chains. FTIR spectra showed a band at 501 cm -1 due to ZnO nanoparticles while the hydrogen bonding between the amine group of PANI and ZnO nanoparticles had been confirmed from the presence of the absorption band at 1148 cm -1 .

  3. Arhitekt Jan Verwijnen - Euroopa urbanist, kes pani aluse Eesti Kunstiakadeemia linnauuringute programmile : in memoriam / Panu Lehtovuori

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtovuori, Panu, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Jan (Johannes) Verwijnen sündis Hollandis Haagis 19. VIII 1949, suri Helsingis 14. X 2005. Jan Verwijneni tööst Hollandis ja Soomes, külaskäikudest Eestisse. 2004. a. pani ta aluse urbanistika magistriprogrammile Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  4. The impact of the PANI project on the reliability of NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, B.; Worrall, G.

    2003-01-01

    There have been many trials which have highlighted potential shortcomings in the application of manual ultrasonics. PANI 1 did this for the non-nuclear industry in the UK. However, efforts have subsequently been made to minimise these shortcomings. As a result the HSE have produced a series of Best Practice documents to improve communication of issues which affect the reliability of NDT. A new qualification scheme for the inspection of shell boilers has been developed and implemented. Companies have also responded to the PANI 1 results. The HSE also started PANI 2 with a view to establishing quantified data on the benefits of following the PANI 1 recommendations. This project is nearing its completion and a wealth of data has been gathered. The report is currently being drafted and will be presented at a results seminar. Recommendations for improving the application of manual ultrasonics will be made. Hopefully, these recommendations will lead us to solutions that improve the reliability of manual ultrasonics and which can be adopted by industry. We wand to avoid an ageing group of operators turning around in another twenty years and saying: ''We were doing these trials 40 years ago. Why are we still doing them?'' (orig.)

  5. Functioning of Water Users Associations or Pani Panchayat in Orissa: Principle, Procedure, Performance and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper deals with an evaluation of water management through community participation and emergence of Pani Panchayat (PP in a case study of the Vir Bajrang Bali Pani Panchayat under Lift Irrigation Project of the Hirakud Command Area (HCA, Orissa state in Eastern India . The broad objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of Water User Association (WUA or Pani Panchayat promoted by the State and the local traditional irrigation institutions in the HCA, Orissa and to evaluate their functioning & characteristics in the context of local water management. The precise objectives are: (1 to analytically review the Orissa Farmers Management of Irrigation Systems Act and study the functioning of the Pani Panchayat, (2 to examine people's participation (3 study the apparatus of water management and control, and the impact of such management on productivity among the members and (4 to recommend policy interventions to make the formal institutions more successful. The paper concludes that the Pani Panchayats performance as regulatory institutions in charge of water distribution on equitable basis has been weak and unsuccessful. Even though the Pani Panchayat has been initiated and endorsed in the State for more than a couple of years, the acceptance of this model have been lethargic and scattered. As Pani Panchayat is a new concept needing experimentation and experience before finalisation of its content in greater detail, the irrigation agency is not in a position to spell out the different components of the programme in concrete terms. A detailed action plan should be prepared by the irrigation authority in consultation with the water users through Participatory Rural Appraisal method. A feasibility study should be under taken by examining the caste/class conflict, groupism, political differences and history of confrontation and conflict, if any. It is necessary to apply a bottom-up approach instead of a top-down one for

  6. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  7. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  8. Chemical synthesis of composite HML / PDMcT / PAni and its application as the trhiodan adsorbent in aqueous solutions; Sintese quimica de compositos de HML/PDMcT/PAni e sua aplicacao como adsorvente do trhiodan em solucoes aquosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girotto, L.G.; Pacheco, I.; Freitas, L.L. de; Oliveira, R.S.; Amaral, F.A. do; Canobre, S.C., E-mail: aylagg.eab@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    The mixed hydroxide lamellar [Co -Al- Cl] was synthesize by the co- precipitation method constant pH 8. The synthesis composite HML/PDMcT/PAni was carried out via chemical. The DRX composite HML/PDMcT/PAni showed that one amorphicity in the conductor polymer doesn't hid the diffraction peaks characteristic of HML. The MEV micrographs of composite HDL / PDMcT / PAni showed a large number of crystallites compacts with several shapes characteristic to PDMcT and nanofibers of polyaniline indicating an association between the different constituents forming the composite. The results of the adsorption was 98% of the pesticide in the composite HML / PDMcT / PAni , the composite can contribute so significantly to one Thiodon withdrawal in contaminated pesticide waters. (author)

  9. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

    2008-01-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor (σ 0 ), activation energy (ΔE) and T 0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T 0 . The calculated values of T 0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain

  10. One-step synthesis of monodisperse AuNPs@PANI composite nanospheres as recyclable catalysts for 4-nitrophenol reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Runming; Li, Zhiyuan; Wu, Qiang; Li, Dongfeng; Shi, Jiahua, E-mail: sjiahua@henu.edu.cn; Chen, Yuewen; Yu, Shuling; Ding, Tao; Qiao, Congzhen [Henan University, Institute of Fine Chemical and Engineering, Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Henan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-06-15

    Oxidative polymerization of aniline was carried out in ethanol using chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}) as the oxidant. Simultaneous reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} and formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polyaniline (PANI) composite nanospheres (AuNPs@PANI nanospheres) were achieved without using any templates or structure-directing agents. The composite nanospheres are uniformly distributed with an average diameter of about 400 nm, in which the ultrafine AuNPs with size of about 2–4 nm were evenly embedded in the PANI matrix which acted as the dispersing agent and stabilizer of AuNPs. In addition, the catalytic performance of these composite nanospheres towards the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} was studied. Furthermore, the possible formation mechanism and catalytic mechanism of the self-assembled AuNPs@PANI nanospheres were also discussed.Graphical Abstract.

  11. Chemical synthesis of composite HML / PDMcT / PAni and its application as the trhiodan adsorbent in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girotto, L.G.; Pacheco, I.; Freitas, L.L. de; Oliveira, R.S.; Amaral, F.A. do; Canobre, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    The mixed hydroxide lamellar [Co -Al- Cl] was synthesize by the co- precipitation method constant pH 8. The synthesis composite HML/PDMcT/PAni was carried out via chemical. The DRX composite HML/PDMcT/PAni showed that one amorphicity in the conductor polymer doesn't hid the diffraction peaks characteristic of HML. The MEV micrographs of composite HDL / PDMcT / PAni showed a large number of crystallites compacts with several shapes characteristic to PDMcT and nanofibers of polyaniline indicating an association between the different constituents forming the composite. The results of the adsorption was 98% of the pesticide in the composite HML / PDMcT / PAni , the composite can contribute so significantly to one Thiodon withdrawal in contaminated pesticide waters. (author)

  12. Thermal sensor properties of PANI(EB)–CSAX (X = 0⋅4 ± 0⋅1 mol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values, high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) i.e. α values, and figure of merit (ρα) values of ... flask (covered with ice cubes–salt mixtures to maintain ... 2.4 Solubility test. The solubility of PANI(EB) in m-cresol has been repor- ted by Tang et al (1996). So, we examined the solubility of PANI(EB)–CSAX. (X = 0⋅5 ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization thin films of conductive polymer (PANI) for optoelectronic device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarad, Amer N., E-mail: amer78malay@yahoo.com.my; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi, E-mail: kamarul@usm.my; Ahmed, Nasser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com [Nano-optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory School of physics, University of Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work we report preparation and investigation of structural and optical properties of polyaniline conducting polymer. By using sol-gel in spin coating technique to synthesize thin films of conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). Conducting polymer polyaniline was synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers. The thin films were characterized by technique: Hall effect, High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyaniline conductive polymer exhibit amorphous nature as confirmed by HR-XRD. The presence of characteristic bonds of polyaniline was observed from FTIR spectroscopy technique. Electrical and optical properties revealed that (p-type) conductivity PANI with room temperature, the conductivity was 6.289×10{sup −5} (Ω.cm){sup −1}, with tow of absorption peak at 426,805 nm has been attributed due to quantized size of polyaniline conducting polymer.

  14. Isolation and characterization of novel 1,3-propanediol-producing Lactobacillus panis PM1 from bioethanol thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nurul H; Kang, Tae Sun; Grahame, Douglas A S; Haakensen, Monique C; Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Reaney, Martin J; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is an attractive option to increase the economic efficiency of the biofuel industry. A bacterial strain that produced 1,3-PDO in the presence of glycerol was isolated from thin stillage, the fermentation residue of bioethanol production. This 1,3-PDO-producing organism was identified as Lactobacillus panis through biochemical characteristics and by 16S rRNA sequencing. Characterization of the L. panis strain hereafter designated as PM1 revealed it was an aerotolerant acidophilic anaerobe able to grow over a wide range of temperatures; tolerant to high concentrations of sodium chloride, ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid; and resistant to many common antibiotics. L. panis PM1 could utilize glucose, lactose, galactose, maltose, xylose, and arabinose, but could not grow on sucrose or fructose. Production of 1,3-PDO by L. panis PM1 occurred only when glucose was available as the carbon source in the absence of oxygen. These metabolic characteristics strongly suggested NADH recycling for glucose metabolism is achieved through 1,3-PDO production by this strain. These characteristics classified L. panis PM1 within the group III heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which includes the well-characterized 1,3-PDO-producing strain, Lactobacillus reuteri. Metabolite production profiles showed that L. panis PM1 produced considerable amounts of succinic acid (~11-12 mM) from normal MRS medium, which distinguishes this strain from L. reuteri strains.

  15. Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Fe3O4/PANI/AuNP Detecting Interface for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, Chamali; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Nguyen, Loc Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Thuy, Nguyen Thi My; Dai Lam, Tran

    2017-10-01

    A low-cost screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with Fe3O4, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and polyaniline (PANI) has been developed for rapid measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) biomarker. The electrode surface was covered with Fe3O4 nanoparticles by drop coating then with PANI via electropolymerization. The resulting surface was further modified by AuNPs via electrodeposition. Key factors affecting the electrochemical behavior and sensing performance of the electrode were investigated. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4 mass loading of 2 mg/cm2 and 15 cycles of PANI polymerization were optimal for electrochemical measurement of CEA biomarker. In addition, compared with bare SPCE, coating the electrode surface with PANI, Fe3O4/PANI, and Fe3O4/PANI/AuNP significantly enhanced the peak oxidation current by approximately 16%, 52%, and 93%, respectively. The sensors exhibited linear trends with CEA concentration from 0 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. The limit of detection and sensitivity of the electrode were estimated to be 0.25 ng/mL and 0.3827 μA/ng mL-1, respectively. Such sensors could be easily integrated into microfluidic platforms and could serve as a low-cost, rapid, point-of-care measurement method for CEA cancer biomarker.

  16. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  17. ZnO-nanowires/PANI inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Wang, Jun-an; Zhang, Wenfei; Song, Jizhong; Pei, Changlong; Chen, Xiaoban

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we report a flexible inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode, in which inorganic ZnO nanowires are the optically active components and organic polyaniline (PANI) is the hole-transporting layer. The fabrication of the hybrid LED is as follows, the ordered single-crystalline ZnO nanowires were uniformly distributed on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based indium-tin-oxide-coated substrates by our polymer-assisted growth method, and proper materials were chosen as electrode and carrier. In this construction, an array of ZnO nanowires grown on PET substrate is successfully embedded in a polyaniline thin film. The performance of the hybrid device of organic-inorganic hetero-junction of ITO/(ZnO nanowires-PANI) for LED application in the blue and UV ranges are investigated, and tunable electroluminescence has been demonstrated by contacting the upper tips of ZnO nanowires and the PET substrate. The effect of surface capping with polyvinyl alcohol (PANI) on the photocarrier relaxation of the aqueous chemically grown ZnO nanowires has been investigated. The photoluminescence spectrum shows an enhanced ultraviolet emission and reduced defect-related emission in the capped ZnO NWs compared to bare ZnO. The results of our study may offer a fundamental understanding in the field of inorganic/organic heterostructure light-emitting diode, which may be useful for potential applications of hybrid ZnO nanowires with conductive polymers.

  18. Influence of compositional variation on electrical properties of PANI/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturmukha, V. S.; Avinash, B. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Harish, B. M.; Suresha, S.; Jayanna, H. S.; Lamani, Ashok R., E-mail: ashok1571972@gmail.com [Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Prasanna, G. D. [Department of Engineering Physics, GMIT, Davangere-577006, Karnataka (India)

    2016-05-06

    Conducting polyaniline/tin oxide (PANI/SnO{sub 2}) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by in-situ polymerization technique. The PANI/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites of different compositions were prepared by varying weight percentage of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles such as 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt% into the fixed amount of the aniline monomer. The prepared powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The intensity of diffraction peaks for PANI/SnO{sub 2} composites is increases with increasing SnO{sub 2} wt%. SEM observation showed that the prepared SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and highly stabilized throughout the macromolecular chain that formed a uniform metal-polymer nanocomposite material. AC electrical conductivity and dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1 KHz -1 MHz. At higher frequencies, the composites exhibit almost zero dielectric loss and maximum value of AC electrical conductivity (σ{sub ac}) of 0.21 S/m is found for a concentration of 30 wt% of SnO{sub 2} in polyaniline.

  19. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from ... or look dirty may be ill. Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which include appearing ...

  20. The effect on poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) / polyaniline (PAni) films by ethylene dimethacrylate as surface modifier: electrical conductivity and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, M. I. M.; Ghani, S. A.; Osman, A. F.; Din, S. H. M.; Jin, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the electrical conductivity and the characterizations of poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) / polyaniline (PEO/PVC/PAni) films with and without the presence of Ethylene Dimethacrylate (EDMA) were investigated. The films were prepared using solution casting method using tetrahydrofuran as the solvent. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity of PEO/PVC/PAni films increased as the PAni loadings increased while PEO/PVC/PAni films with EDMA showed higher electrical conductivity than PEO/PVC/PAni films. PEO/PVC/PAni films with EDMA showed a value as high as 0.68 × 10-4 S/mm as it enhanced the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the filler as proved by the SEM morphology. Meanwhile, the FTIR analysis confirmed there are no new chemical bonding occurred with the introduction of EDMA into the films.

  1. Chemically synthesized TiO2 and PANI/TiO2 thin films for ethanol sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawri, Isha; Ridhi, R.; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol sensing properties of chemically synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline/titanium dioxide nanocomposites (PANI/TiO2) had been performed at room temperature. In-situ oxidative polymerization process had been employed with aniline as a monomer in presence of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The prepared samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by x-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectra, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was revealed by XRD and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of chemical bonding between the polymer chains and metal oxide nanoparticles. HR-TEM micrographs depicted that TiO2 particles were embedded in polymer matrix, which provides an advantage over pure TiO2 nanoparticles in efficient adsorption of vapours. These images also revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were irregular in shape with size around 17 nm. FE-SEM studies revealed that in the porous structure of PANI/TiO2 film, the intercalation of TiO2 in PANI chains provides an advantage over pure TiO2 film for uniform interaction with ethanol vapors. The sensitivity values of prepared samples were examined towards ethanol vapours at room temperature. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited better sensing response and faster response-recovery examined at different ethanol concentrations ranging from 5 ppm to 20 ppm in comparison to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The increase in vapour sensing of PANI/TiO2 sensing film as compared to pure TiO2 film had been explained in detail with the help of gas sensing mechanism of TiO2 and PANI/TiO2. This provides strong evidence that gas sensing properties of TiO2 had been considerably improved and enhanced with the addition of polymer matrix.

  2. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO{sub 2}/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchichi, Karima, E-mail: ferchichikarima1@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Hbaieb, Souhaira, E-mail: souhaira.bouchaira@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Amdouni, Noureddine, E-mail: nouredin.amdouni@fst.rnu.tn [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kalfat, Rafik, E-mail: rafik.kalfat@gmail.com [Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); Chevalier, Yves, E-mail: chevalier@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Génie des Procédés (LAGEP), CNRS UMR 5007, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO{sub 2} and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO{sub 2} particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO{sub 2} particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO{sub 2} content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO{sub 2} blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO{sub 2} when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed by chemical decomposition of Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO{sub 2} was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO{sub 2} into Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  3. Influence of the deposition parameters on the morphology and electrical conductivity of PANI/PSS self-assembled films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Guilherme S. [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletronicos, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, 158, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)], E-mail: gbraga@lme.usp.br; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Lima, John Paul H.; Fonseca, Fernando J. [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletronicos, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, 158, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Andrade, Adnei M. de [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletronicos, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, 158, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Luciano Gualberto, 1289, 05508-010, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-01

    The influence of deposition parameters, namely polymer concentration and pH of the deposition solution, cleaning, and drying steps on the morphology and electrical characteristics of polyaniline and sulfonated polystyrene (PANI/PSS) nanostructured films deposited by the self-assembly technique is evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopy, and electrical resistance measurements. It is found that stirring the cleaning solution during the cleaning step is crucial for obtaining homogenous films. Stirring of the cleaning solution also influences the amount of PANI adsorbed in the films. In this regard, the drying process seems to be less critical since PANI amount and film thickness are similar in films dried with N{sub 2} flow or with an absorbent tissue. It is observed, however, that drying with N{sub 2} flow results in rougher films. As an additional point, an assessment of the influence of the deposition method (manual versus mechanical) on the film characteristics was carried out. A significant difference on the amount of PANI and film thickness between films prepared by different human operators and by a homemade mechanical device was observed. The variability in film thickness and PANI adsorbed amount is smaller in films mechanically assembled.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of WS2@SiO2 and WS2@PANI Core-Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Sade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tungsten disulfide (WS2-based core-shell nanocomposites were fabricated using readily available reagents and simple procedures. The surface was pre-treated with a surfactant couple in a layer-by-layer approach, enabling good dispersion of the WS2 nanostructures in aqueous media and providing a template for the polymerization of a silica (SiO2 shell. After a Stöber-like reaction, a conformal silica coating was achieved. Inspired by the resulting nanocomposite, a second one was prepared by reacting the surfactant-modified WS2 nanostructures with aniline and an oxidizing agent in an aqueous medium. Here too, a conformal coating of polyaniline (PANI was obtained, giving a WS2@PANI nanocomposite. Both nanocomposites were analyzed by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and FTIR, verifying the core-shell structure and the character of shells. The silica shell was amorphous and mesoporous and the surface area of the composite increases with shell thickness. Polyaniline shells slightly differ in their morphologies dependent on the acid used in the polymerization process and are amorphous like the silica shell. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the WS2@PANI nanocomposite showed variation between bulk PANI and the PANI shell. These two nanocomposites have great potential to expand the use of transition metals dichalcogenides (TMDCs for new applications in different fields.

  5. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  6. MWCNTs-PANi nanocomposite films prepared by AC-EPD technique and its potential for enhance supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, Nur Shamimie Nadzwin; Eleas, Nor Hamizah; Mohammad, Nurul Nazwa; Yusof, Azmi Mohamed; Zaine, Intan Syaffinazzilla

    2017-08-01

    MWCNTs-PANi nanocomposite thin film has been prepared by using alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) technique. The AC-EPD technique is used in aqueous suspension to avoid damage film deposited caused by the decomposition of water. The frequency and the waveform used in EPD process were 1 kHz and rectangular signal respectively. AC electric field applied in EPD process produced a smooth deposit of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-PANi nanocomposite on nickel foils. The films produced also have been evaluated for its potential application of supercapacitor electrode. Results show AC-EPD is a promising technique for successful MWCNTs-PANi nanocomposite film deposition and its potential application as supercapacitor electrode.

  7. Fabricating 3D porous PANI/TiO2-graphene hydrogel for the enhanced UV-light photocatalytic degradation of BPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangyuan; An, Weijia; Li, Yao; Liang, Yinghua; Cui, Wenquan

    2018-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/TiO2 composite graphene hydrogel was successfully prepared by chemical reduction method. TiO2 and PANI were uniformly dispersed in the three-dimensional network of graphene hydrogels. This rich network of macroscopic structures not only provides desirable conditions for synergistic adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, but also improves the chemical stability of composites. Specifically, 80% PANI/TiO2-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel (rGH) can completely degrade BPA in 40 min, and BPA was almost completely mineralized into small molecules in 65 min. After five cycles of experiments, the degradation rate of PANI/TiO2-rGH for BPA was more than 90%. XPS analysis indicated that there is a strong interaction between PANI and TiO2. Hydrogen bonding between TiO2 and rGH was also demonstrated. Quenching experiments indicated •O2- and h+ are the main active species in the degradation of BPA by PANI/TiO2-rGH and •OH and h+ are the main active species by PANI/TiO2, suggesting that rGH and PANI acts as a transmitter for e- and h+, respectively.

  8. Utilization of Polyaniline (PAni) as Conductive Filler on Poly (Ethylene Oxide) / Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Films: Effects of Naphthalene as Surface Modifier on Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Mohammed Izzuddeen Bin Mohd; Ghani, Supri A.; Jin, Tan Soo; Fazlina Osman, Azlin; Din, Siti Hajar Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to utilize polyaniline (PAni) as conductive filler in poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) (PEO/PVC) films. Naphthalene was used as surface modifier to increase the properties of PEO/PVC/PAni films. The electrical conductivity of PEO/PVC/PAni film improved with higher loading of PAni until it reached the percolation threshold at 10 wt%. Moreover, the conductivity of the films also improved with the addition of naphthalene compared to the films without naphthalene. These enhancements were due to the improved interfacial bonding between PEO/PVC blend and PAni, which were supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. In addition, no new chemical bonding was created with the incorporation of naphthalene as proved by the FTIR analysis.

  9. Visible-light-assisted SLCs template synthesis of sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites with high electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li

    2018-03-01

    Sea anemone-like palladium (Pd)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via visible-light-assisted swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) template method. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The electrocatalytic properties of Pd/PANI nanocomposites modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) for methane oxidation were investigated by cycle voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Those dispersed sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites had an average diameter of 320 nm. The obtained Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 45 nm were uniformly distributed in PANI matrix. Sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxidation of methane (CH4).

  10. Structural and optical characterization of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PANI nanocomposite prepared by in-situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeoo, Shashi; Sharma, Mamta, E-mail: mamta.phy85@gmail.com; Goswamy, J. [Department of Applied Sciences (Physics), UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Singh, Gurinder [Department of Applied Sciences (Physics), UIET, PUSSGSRC, Hoshiarpur (Punjab) (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline-indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PANI) nanocomposite have been prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline and as-synthesized In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectroscopy techniques are used to investigate the structural and optical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PANI nanocomposite. TEM analysis shows In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are embedded in PANI nanofibers. FTIR spectra show the good interactions between PANI nanofibers and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The band gap and electronic transitions in In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PANI nanocomposite is determined by using UV/Vis spectra.

  11. Mesoporous silica wrapped with graphene oxide-conducting PANI nanowires as a novel hybrid electrode for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mohsin; Abbas, Syed Mustansar; Siddiq, Mohammad; Han, Dongxue; Niu, Li

    2018-02-01

    A high charge-carrier transport is an important aim in the synthesis of nanostructures for an effective supercapacitor. This article describes a methodology to prepare mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) wrapped with graphene oxide (GO) together with conducting polyaniline (PANI) wires. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared samples have been tested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas the stability and electrostatic interaction of the structures have been verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The supercapacitive behaviour of these nanocomposites has been analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with pristine MSNs and PANI, the 20%-GO@MSNs/PANI nanocomposite had the highest specific capacitance, reaching 412 F g-1. The nanocomposite structure maximizes the synergy between mesoporous metal oxide, conducting PANI, and GO, yielding a significantly enhanced specific capacitance, rapid charge-discharge rates, and good cycling stability of the resulting device. The wrapping with GO prevents the structural breakdown and acts as a highly conductive pathway by bridging the individual particles, whereas the MSNs nanoparticles greatly enlarge the specific surface area to facilitate ion transport and charge transfer throughout the cycling performance of supercapacitor. The approach adopted in this article can be applied for preparing similar novel functional materials in future for electrochemical applications.

  12. Preparation and Application of Immobilized Surfactant-Modified PANi-CNT/TiO2 under Visible-Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermally and sol-gel-synthesized immobilized surfactant-modified polyaniline-carbon nanotubes/TiO2 (PANi-CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared and their application in the degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP under visible light at 410 nm was investigated in this sturdy. To improve the dispersion of nanoparticles and the transfer of electrons, the TiO2 surface was modified with both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT-COOH and CNT-COCl. With the addition of PANi, which was increased from 1%–5%, the adsorption edge of the prepared photocatalysts shifted to 442 nm. The SDS linked the PANi polymers to achieve a thickness of coating of the film of up to 314–400 nm and 1301–1600 nm for sol-gel hydrolysis and hydrothermally-synthesized photocatalysts, respectively. An appropriate film thickness would extend the transfer path of the electrons and inhibit the recombination of the electrons and the electron-holes. The photo-degradation performance of DEP by the hydrothermally-synthesized photocatalysts was better than those by sol-gel hydrolysis. The results revealed that the hydroxyl radicals were the key oxidant in the degradation of DEP using hydrothermally-synthesized PANi-CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts. The morphology and functional groups of the raw materials of photocatalysts were characterized and a comparison of photocatalytic activity with other TiO2-based photocatalysts was also provided.

  13. Preparation of mixed matrix PES-based nanofiltration membrane filled with PANI-co-MWCNT composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheripour, Ehsan; Moghadassi, Abdolreza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Mixed matrix polyethersulfone/PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle nanofiltration membrane was prepared by casting solution technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was also used as membrane pore former in membrane fabrication. The effect of polyaniline-co-multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution on membrane structure and performance was investigated. Scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, FTIR analysis, porosity, mean pore size, contact angle, water content, NaCl/Na2SO4 rejection, water flux, tensile strength measurements and 3D surface image were also carried out in membrane characterization. SOM images showed nanoparticle agglomeration at high additive loading ratio. SEM images showed the membrane sub-layer porosity and thickness were changed by use of nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The membrane water content, porosity and pore size were increased by increase of nanoparticle concentration, except for 1%wt. Use of PANI-co- MWCNT nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused a decrease of membrane contact angle from 63.43 to 46.76o. Salt rejection and water flux were improved initially by increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.1%wt and then decreased by more additive concentration. In addition, the membranes tensile strength was reduced by increase of PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle concentration. 3D surface images showed a smoother surface for mixed matrix membrane filled with 0.1wt% PANI-co-MWCNTs. Modified membrane containing 0.1wt% composite nanoparticles showed better performance compared to others.

  14. Preparation of mixed matrix PES-based nanofiltration membrane filled with PANI-co-MWCNT composite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheripour, Ehsan; Moghadassi, Abdolreza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mixed matrix polyethersulfone/PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle nanofiltration membrane was prepared by casting solution technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was also used as membrane pore former in membrane fabrication. The effect of polyaniline-co-multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution on membrane structure and performance was investigated. Scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, FTIR analysis, porosity, mean pore size, contact angle, water content, NaCl/Na2SO4 rejection, water flux, tensile strength measurements and 3D surface image were also carried out in membrane characterization. SOM images showed nanoparticle agglomeration at high additive loading ratio. SEM images showed the membrane sub-layer porosity and thickness were changed by use of nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The membrane water content, porosity and pore size were increased by increase of nanoparticle concentration, except for 1%wt. Use of PANI-co- MWCNT nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused a decrease of membrane contact angle from 63.43 to 46.76o. Salt rejection and water flux were improved initially by increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.1%wt and then decreased by more additive concentration. In addition, the membranes tensile strength was reduced by increase of PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle concentration. 3D surface images showed a smoother surface for mixed matrix membrane filled with 0.1wt% PANI-co-MWCNTs. Modified membrane containing 0.1wt% composite nanoparticles showed better performance compared to others.

  15. In Situ Complementary Doping, Thermoelectric Improvements, and Strain-Induced Structure within Alternating PEDOT:PSS/PANI Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Virgil; Bethke, Kevin; Madzharova, Fani; Bronneberg, Aafke Cecile; Kneipp, Janina; Rademann, Klaus

    2017-09-27

    Although the deposition of alternating layers from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (PANI) salts has recently provided a breakthrough in the field of conductive polymers, the cause for the conductivity improvement has remained unclear. In this work, we report a cooperative doping effect between alternating PANI base and PEDOT:PSS layers, resulting in electrical conductivities of 50-100 S cm -1 and power factors of up to 3.0 ± 0.5 μW m -1 K -2 , which surpass some of the recent values obtained for protonated PANI/PEDOT:PSS multilayers by a factor of 20. In this case, the simultaneous improvement in the electrical conductivity of both types of layers is caused by the in situ protonation of PANI, which corresponds to the removal of the excess acidic PSS chains from the PEDOT:PSS grains. The interplay between the functional groups' reactivity and the supramolecular chain reorganization leads to an array of preparation-dependent phenomena, including a stepwise increase in the film thickness, an alternation in the electrical conductivity, and the formation of a diverse surface landscape. The latter effect can be traced to a buildup of strain within the layers, which results in either the formation of folds or the shrinkage of the film. These results open new paths for designing nanostructured thin-film thermoelectrics.

  16. C-S@PANI composite with a polymer spherical network structure for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junkai; Yue, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Kang L; Duan, Lianfeng

    2016-01-07

    A unique C-S@PANI composite with a conductive polymer spherical network (PSN) has been successfully designed and synthesized by a simple processing approach. The PSN framework is formed at the surface of the oxidized carbon black by conductive polymer self-assembly and grafting, followed by pouring elemental sulfur into the pores of the polymer matrix. As the cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries, the C-S@PANI composite delivered a high specific capacity of 1453 mA h g(-1) at a 0.1 C current rate and a stable cycling performance of 948 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles. The composite also demonstrated high capacities of 922 and 581 mA h g(-1) at 50 °C and 0 °C, respectively, after 200 cycles. The conductive PANI coatings were connected with the C-S core-shell composites to form a three-dimensional conducting network, which improves the utilization of the active mass and dual conduction of Li(+) and electrons, while at the same time encapsulating sulfur into the PANI hollow spherical network. The structure effectively inhibits the dissolution and migration of polysulfides into the electrolyte, while improving the cycling stability and the coulombic efficiency of the electrode at high current rates, especially the low temperature electrochemical properties of Li-S batteries.

  17. Mistura PAni.DBSA/SBS Obtida por Polimerização "In Situ": Propriedades Elétrica, Dielétrica e Dinâmico-Mecânica PAni.DBSA/SBS blends prepared from "in situ" polymerization: electric, dielectric and dynamic-mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Leyva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas elastoméricas condutoras de eletricidade envolvendo copolímero tribloco poli(estireno-b-butadieno-b-estireno (SBS e polianilina dopada com ácido dodecilbenzenosulfônico (Pani.DBSA foram obtidas por polimerização "in situ". Os filmes obtidos por moldagem por compressão mostraram baixo limiar de percolação, apresentando valores de condutividade semelhantes aos encontrados para o polímero condutor puro com cerca de 20 % em massa de Pani.DBSA. A caracterização das misturas por análise termodinâmico-mecânica (DMTA evidenciou uma ligeira interação da Pani.DBSA com ambas fases do copolímero SBS. Na região borrachosa, o módulo da mistura aumenta com o aumento do conteúdo de Pani. No entanto, existe uma progressiva queda no fator de amortecimento ("damping" com o aumento da concentração de Pani. A energia de ativação, Ea, do processo de transição vítreo-borrachoso de ambas fases do SBS foi calculada, utilizando a equação de Arrhenius com os dados obtidos tanto por DMTA como por análise termodielétrica (DETA. A caracterização dielétrica não proporcionou informações a respeito da localização da Pani.DBSA na matriz de SBS. No entanto, observou-se o fenômeno de polarização interfacial entre a Pani e o SBS. Uma morfologia do tipo microtubos foi observada para Pani.DBSA na mistura SBS/Pani.DBSA, utilizando-se a técnica de microscopia eletrônica de varredura.Conducting rubbery blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS triblock copolymer and polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (Pani.DBSA were produced by "in situ" polymerization. The films obtained by compression-molding display low percolation threshold with conductivity values similar to that found for pure Pani.DBSA with only 20 wt% of Pani.DBSA in the SBS/Pani.DBSA blend. The dynamic-mechanical characterization demonstrated that PAni.DBSA presents a slight interaction with both phases of the SBS copolymer. In the rubbery region, the modulus

  18. Torn Paper Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  19. Contributions of citrate in redox potential maintenance and ATP production: metabolic pathways and their regulation in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli and can utilize various NADH-reoxidizing routes (e.g., citrate, glycerol, and oxygen) according to environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the ability of L. panis PM1 to produce succinate, acetate, and lactate via citrate utilization. Possible pathways, as well as regulation, for citrate metabolism were examined on the basis of the genome sequence data and metabolic profiles of L. panis PM1. The presence of citrate led to the up-regulation, at the transcriptional level, of the genes encoding for citrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme of the citrate pathways by 10- to 120-fold. The transcriptional regulator of the dha operon coding for glycerol dehydratase of L. panis PM1 repressed the expression of the citrate lyase gene (10-fold). Metabolite analyses indicated that the transcriptional enhancement by citrate stimulated succinate yield. Citrate metabolism contributed to energy production by providing a major alternate pathway for NAD(+) regeneration and allowed acetyl phosphate to yield acetate/ATP instead of ethanol/NAD(+). Additionally, a branching pathway from oxaloacetate to pyruvate increased the pool of lactate, which was then used to produce ATP during stationary phase. However, the redirection of NADH-to-citrate utilization resulted in stress caused by end-products (i.e., succinate and acetate). This stress reduced succinate production by up to 50 % but did not cause significant changes at transcriptional level. Overall, citrate utilization was beneficial for the growth of L. panis PM1 by providing a NAD(+) regeneration route and producing extra ATP.

  20. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yu; Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO 2 is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: ► Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. ► Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. ► CO 2 was produced as the final product during the reaction process. ► The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO 2 is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

  1. Structural characterization, morphological and the magnetic composite of PVDF / Pani / Nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, G.C.; Paula, F.R. de; Malmonge, J.A.; Malmonge, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of conductive fillers and the discovery of intrinsic conductive polymers in the preparation of conductive blends and composites have great emphasis in research. In our study, morphologic, structural and magnetic properties of composite PVDF / Pani with the incorporation of nickel particles by physically mixing the resulting powder with the synthesis of polymeric material were studied. Flexible and homogeneous films were obtained by pressing at 180 ° C. Diffraction analysis (XRD), magnetic survey (M-H) rays were done, and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. The results showed characteristic X-ray peaks of α phase of PVDF and the nickel particles, the micrographs confirmed the presence of the nickel particles homogeneously dispersed throughout the film. The magnetic survey showed that the composite passes a diamagnetic behavior for the presence of ferromagnetic particles.(author)

  2. Fabrication of polymer Schottky diode with Al-PANI/MWCNT-Au structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajibadali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, Schottky diode with Al-PANI/MWCNT-Au structure was fabricated using spin coating of composite polymer and physical vapor deposition of metals. For this purpose, a thin layer of gold was coated on glass and then composite of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube was synthesized and spin-coated on gold layer. Finally, a thin layer of aluminum was coated on polymer layer. The current-voltage characteristics of diode were studied and found that I-V curve is nonlinear and nonsymmetrical, showing rectifying behavior. I-V characteristics plotted on a logarithmic scale for Schottky diode showed two distinct power law regions. At lower voltages, the mechanism follows Ohm’s Law and at higher voltages, the mechanism is consistent with space charge limited conduction (SCLC emission. The parameters extracted from I-V characteristics were also calculated.

  3. Tuning of wettability of PANI-GNP composites using keV energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, G.B.V.S., E-mail: lakshmigbvs@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 67 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-15

    Polyaniline nanofiber composites with various nanomaterials have several applications in electrochemical biosensors. The surface properties of these composites coated electrodes play crucial role in enzyme absorption and analyte detection process. In the present study, Polyaniline-Graphene nanopowder (PANI-GNP) composites were prepared by rapid-mixing polymerization method. The films were prepared on ITO coated glass substrates and irradiated with 42 keV He{sup +} ions produced by indigenously fabricated accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi. The films were characterized before and after irradiation by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The as-prepared films show superhydrophilic nature and after irradiation the films show highly hydrophobic nature with water contact angle (135°). The surface morphology was studied by SEM and structural changes were studied by Raman spectra. The surface morphological modifications induced by keV energy ions helps in tuning the wettability at different ion fluences.

  4. Regulation of dual glycolytic pathways for fructose metabolism in heterofermentative Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 belongs to the group III heterofermentative lactobacilli that use the 6-phosphogluconate/phosphoketolase (6-PG/PK) pathway as their central metabolic pathway and are reportedly unable to grow on fructose as a sole carbon source. We isolated a variant PM1 strain capable of sporadic growth on fructose medium and observed its distinctive characteristics of fructose metabolism. The end product pattern was different from what is expected in typical group III lactobacilli using the 6-PG/PK pathway (i.e., more lactate, less acetate, and no mannitol). In addition, in silico analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding most of critical enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway. These observations indicated that fructose was metabolized via two pathways. Fructose metabolism in the PM1 strain was influenced by the activities of two enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). A lack of TPI resulted in the intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) in PM1, the toxicity of which caused early growth cessation during fructose fermentation. The activity of PGI was enhanced by the presence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP), which allowed additional fructose to enter into the 6-PG/PK pathway to avoid toxicity by DHAP. Exogenous TPI gene expression shifted fructose metabolism from heterolactic to homolactic fermentation, indicating that TPI enabled the PM1 strain to mainly use the EM pathway for fructose fermentation. These findings clearly demonstrate that the balance in the accumulation of GAP and DHAP determines the fate of fructose metabolism and the activity of TPI plays a critical role during fructose fermentation via the EM pathway in L. panis PM1.

  5. Effect of some operational parameters on the hydrogen generation efficiency of Ni-ZnO/PANI composite under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsib, Mohamed Faouzi, E-mail: Mohamed.faouzi.ncib@gmail.com [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Naffati, Naima [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Rayes, Ali; Moussa, Noomen [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Houas, Ammar [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: UV–vis spectra of PANI, ZnO, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O/PANI3 and Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.9}O/PANI{sub 10} nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/PANI{sub y} photocatalysts are synthesized by the impregnation method. • Ni{sup 2+} amount control the morphology of ZnO and enhances its photoactivity. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI extend the light absorption of ZnO toward the visible region. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI enhance the electron–hole separation. - Abstract: Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/Polyaniline hybrid photocatalysts are synthesized and used for the experiments of hydrogen production from water-splitting under visible irradiation. XRD, UV–vis DRS and SEM are used to characterize the prepared materials. It is shown that the Ni{sup 2+} amount doped into ZnO controls its morphology and enhances its photoactivity for H{sub 2} generation. Polyaniline (PANI) is shown to sensitize ZnO and to extend its light absorption toward the visible region. The hybrid photocatalyst with 10 mol% Ni{sup 2+} and 10 wt.% PANI shows the maximum photocatalytic H{sub 2} production for one hour of visible irradiation: ∼558 μmol while only ∼178 μmol in the presence of pure ZnO. Additives like sacrificial electron donors and carbonate salts are found to play a key role in the improvement of H{sub 2} evolution. Thus, the hydrogen photoproduction efficiency increases in the order: thiosulfate > sulfide > propanol and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} > CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}.

  6. Thermal sensor properties of PANI (EB)–CSAX (X= 0⋅ 4±0⋅ 1 mol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 mol) polymer films were developed through controlled temperature atmosphere 60 ± 2°C for 60 min, and with the help of temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ) values, high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) i.e. values, and figure of merit (ρ ) values of these films, ...

  7. Preparation and microwave-absorbing property of EP/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/PANI composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Huixia, E-mail: fenghx@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Bai, Dezhong [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Tan, Lin; Chen, Nali [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Wang, Yueyi [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we introduced expanded perlite (EP) into the system of ferrite composites for the first time. By sol-gel self-propagating combustion method, expanded perlite/barium ferrite (EP/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) was prepared, and then ternary composites of expanded perlite/barium ferrite/polyaniline (EP/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/PANI) were obtained by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline on EP/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} mixture. Although, as is well known, the values of saturation magnetization (Ms), remnant magnetization (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) of composites are all lower than the pure BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles owing to the existence of the nonmagnetic EP and PANI, the EP/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/PANI composites exhibit absorption characteristics at the range of 2–18 GHz, the effective absorption bandwidth (less than −4 dB) reached 12.12 GHz and the minimum reflection loss of −5.66 dB at 8.48 GHz with only 2 mm thickness of absorbing layer. So the composites could resist urban electromagnetic pollution, such as wireless network, communication and so on, effectively. - Highlights: • The expanded perlite (EP) was introduced into the system of ferrite composites at the first time. • Novel ternary nanocomposite of EP/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/PANI is prepared by in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Composite absorber exhibit a minimum reflection loss of -5.66 dB at 8.48 GHz with a matching thickness of 2 mm. • Composite absorber possess the features like low-cost, lightweight and wide bandwidth absorption of civil EM radiation.

  8. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  9. Effect of CSA Concentration on the Ammonia Sensing Properties of CSA-Doped PA6/PANI Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyuan Pang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Camphor sulfonic acid (CSA-doped polyamide 6/polyaniline (PA6/PANI composite nanofibers were fabricated using in situ polymerization of aniline under different CSA concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M with electrospun PA6 nanofibers as templates. The structural, morphological and ammonia sensing properties of the prepared composite nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, four-point probe techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD and a home-made gas sensing test system. All the results indicated that the CSA concentration had a great influence on the sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers. The composite nanofibers doped with 0.02 M CSA showed the best ammonia sensing properties, with a significant sensitivity toward ammonia (NH3 at room temperature, superior to that of the composite nanofibers doped with 0.04–0.10 mol/L CSA. It was found that for high concentrations of CSA, the number of PANI–H+ reacted with NH3 would not make up a high proportion of all PANI–H+ within certain limits. As a result, within a certain range even though higher CSA-doped PA6/PANI nanofibers had better conductivity, their ammonia sensing performance would degrade.

  10. Transcriptional repressor role of PocR on the 1,3-propanediol biosynthetic pathway by Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-06-01

    The regulatory role of a transcriptional regulator (PocR) in the 1,3-propanediol biosynthetic pathway of Lactobacillus panis PM1 contributes to the optimization of 1,3-propanediol production by this strain, which potentially will lead to 1,3-propanediol manufacturing efficiencies. Lactobacillus panis PM1 can utilize a 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) biosynthetic pathway, consisting of diol dehydratase (PduCDE) and 1,3-PDO dehydrogenase, as a NADH recycling system, to survive under various environmental conditions. In this study, we identified a key transcriptional repressor (PocR) which was annotated as a transcriptional factor of AraC family as part of the 1,3-PDO biosynthetic pathway of L. panis PM1. The over-expression of the PocR gene resulted in the significant repression (81 %) of pduC (PduCDE large subunit) transcription, and subsequently, the decreased activity of PduCDE by 22 %. As a result of the regulation of PduCDE, production of both 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and 1,3-PDO in the PocR over-expressing strain were significantly decreased by 40 % relative to the control strain. These results clearly demonstrate the transcriptional repressor role of PocR in the 1,3-PDO biosynthetic pathway.

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  12. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  13. Angry Birds in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    When space computers first started listening into space radio, they noticed that there were radio noises that happened on the morning side of the Earth. Because these waves sounded like noises birds make in the morning, we named these waves after them. These bird sounding waves can move around the Earth, flying up and down, and sometimes move into an area where there is more stuff. This area is also much colder than where these bird noises are first made. When the waves move into this cold area where there is more stuff, they start to sound like angry birds instead of happy birds. Both of these waves, the happy and angry bird sounding waves, are very important to our understanding of how the tiny things in space move and change. Sometimes the waves which sound like birds can push these tiniest of things into the sky. The happy bird sounding waves can push the tiniest things quickly while the angry bird sounding waves push the tinest of things more slowly. When the tiny things fall into the sky, they create beautiful space lights and light that burns which can hurt people in up goers and not so up goers as well as our things like phones, and space computers. We study these waves that sound like birds to better understand when and where the tiny things will fall. That way we can be prepared and enjoy watching the pretty space lights at night with no worries.

  14. Three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI EMI shielding fabric with high Microwave Absorption Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Dan

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI EMI shielding fabric with a layer by layer structure was designed and prepared to obtain excellent microwave attenuation performance. Firstly, PANI/PI fabric was prepared via in-situ deposition method. Then, the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles functionalized by oleic acid were uniformly dispersed in epoxy resin and coated on the top and bottom of PANI/PI fabric with 0.041 mm total thickness. The investigation of chemical structure and surface morphologies indicated the composite structure of f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric. Various parameters like magnetic property, reflection loss and attenuation constant were used to evaluate its microwave attenuation performance. The results demonstrated that the 30f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric had a highest attenuation effectiveness with the minimum reflection loss value of -42.5 dB (>90% attenuation) at 12.5 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth was 3.4 GHz. The study of attenuation mechanism indicated that the dielectric loss from PANI, the magnetic loss caused by f-NiFe2O4 and the layer by layer structure effectively improved microwave attenuation performance of composite fabric. Furthermore, the favorable flexibility and dimensional stability of this resultant fabric would allow the composite fabric for a long time service under pressure or foldable conditions. In sum, the study clearly indicated that three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric was a good candidate as electromagnetic shielding materials in many fields.

  15. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  16. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  17. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  18. Bioconversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in thin stillage-based media by engineered Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-04-01

    Thin stillage (TS) is a waste residue that remains after bioethanol production, and its disposal reflects the high costs of bioethanol production. Thus, the development of cost-effective ways to process TS is a pending issue in bioethanol plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of TS for the production of the valuable chemical, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), by Lactobacillus panis PM1. Different fermentation parameters, including temperature, pH and strains [wild-type and a recombinant strain expressing a NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (YqhD) gene] were tested in batch and fed-batch cultivations. The highest 1,3-PDO concentration (12.85 g/L) and yield (0.84 g/g) were achieved by batch fermentation at pH-4.5/30 °C by the YqhD recombinant strain. Furthermore, pH-controlled batch fermentation reduced the total fermentation period, resulting in the maximal 1,3-PDO concentration of 16.23 g/L and yield of 0.72 g/g in TS without an expensive nutrient or nitrogen (e.g., yeast extract, beef extract, and peptone) supplementation. The addition of two trace elements, Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), in TS increased 1,3-PDO yield (0.74 g/g) without 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde production, the only intermediate of 1,3-PDO biosynthetic pathway in L. panis PM1. Our results suggest that L. panis PM1 can offer a cost-effective process that utilizes the TS to produce a value-added chemical, 1,3-PDO.

  19. Co(OH)2 @PANI Hybrid Nanosheets with 3D Networks as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Xian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Xu, Han; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-11-25

    Hybrid electrocatalysts with excellent electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen reduction are fabricated using an efficient and facile electrochemical route. The electronic and synergistic effects between Co(OH)2 and polyaniline (PANI) in the composite structure are the key factors that generate the high electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability. A highly efficient, non-precious metal-based flexible electrocatalyst for high-performance electrocatalysts is shown, which reveals a novel route for the design and synthesis of electrocatalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  1. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  2. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  3. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  4. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  5. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Soufhern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry.

  6. Enhanced microwave absorption property of epoxy nanocomposites based on PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles with three-phase heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingfeng; Cai, Haopeng; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Siqi; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-01

    Novel electromagnetic functionalized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized by coating with Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles and conducting polymers polyaniline (PANI) on CNFs through a layer by layer assembly. The Fe3O4@CNFs were first prepared by coating nano-Fe3O4 particles on CNFs via co-precipitation method; Then the PANI was coated on Fe3O4@CNFs using an in situ polymerization process to obtain PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles. The prepared PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles were dispersed in the epoxy matrix to fabricate microwave absorbing nanocomposites. Compared with the Fe3O4@CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites, the PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites exhibit better microwave absorbing properties. The composite containing 15 wt% of PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs with the thickness of 2 mm showed a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of ‑23.7 dB with an effective absorption bandwidth which is about 3.7 GHz (11.9–15.6 GHz) in the frequency range of 1–18 GHz, indicating that it is an attractive candidate for efficient microwave absorber. A potential absorption mechanism was proposed for enhancement of the impedance-matching condition and electromagnetic wave-attenuation characteristic of materials. Specifically, the impedance-matching condition was improved by the combination of conductive polymers and magnetic nanoparticles with CNFs. The electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic was enhanced by multiple reflections, due to the increased propagation paths.

  7. Estudo espectroeletroquímico de um copolímero alternado de PANI e PPS: PPSA-poli(sulfeto de fenileno-fenilenamina)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ferraz Camilo Bazito

    2002-01-01

    Os polímeros condutores intrínsecos são materiais isolantes ou semicondutores que, quando submetidos a um processo de dopagem, passam a apresentar condutividade próxima à metálica. Dentre os polímeros condutores sintetizados mais estudados está a poli(anilina), (PANI), que apesar de ter sido sintetizada pela primeira vez há aproximadamente 150 anos, continua sendo objeto de estudo de muitos grupos de pesquisa por todo o mundo até hoje. Apesar das características atrativas da PANI (facilidade ...

  8. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  9. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  10. Bird brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  11. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  12. Photodegradation of diethyl phthalate with PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} immobilized on glass plate irradiated with visible light and simulated sunlight—effect of synthesized method and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chung-Hsuang, E-mail: jeremyh@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 1, University Rd., Yenchau Dist., Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China); Yuan, Ching, E-mail: caroline@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan-Tzu Dist., Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan (China); Li, Huei-Wen, E-mail: soillab@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Nan-Tzu Dist., Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Photocatalysts doped with polyaniline and functionalized CNTs onto TiO{sub 2} were developed. • The PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts possessed both advantages of PANi and CNTs. • The fabricated PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts exhibited high photocatalytic activity under sunlight. • The hydrothermal synthesized PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} presented a good photocatalytic activity and the sol–gel ones presented a good photocatalytic stability. - Abstract: Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is one of the most common phthalates for industrial use and has widely spread in environment. A series of PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} potocatalysts immobilized on glass plate irradiated with visible light were presented to degrade DEP in this study. The PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} potocatalysts were fabricated by co-doping with polyaniline (PANi) and two functionalized CNT (CNT-COCl and CNT-COOH) onto TiO{sub 2} followed by a hydrothermal synthesis and a sol–gel hydrolysis. Doping of PANi resulted in the absorption edge of the fabricated potocatalysts shifting to 421–437 nm and the most distinguished red-shift effect was found in hydrothermal synthesized photocatalysts. The best DEP degradation of 41.5–59.0% and 44.5–67.4% was found in the simulated sunlight system irradiated for 120 min for sol–gel hydrolysis PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts and hydrothermal synthesized ones, respectively. The optimum pH was determined at 5.0 and 7.0 for the two PANi/CNT/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts mentioned above, respectively. The reusability of the sol–gel hydrolyzed photocatalysts up to 5 times was observed no decline in the photodegradation efficiency but less photocatalytic stability of the hydrothermal synthesized ones was found. Meanwhile, the active species of OH radicals generated in the DEP degradation system was identified by free radical scavenging experiments.

  13. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  14. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  15. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  16. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  17. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  18. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  19. Birds in portuguese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Soares, Filipa

    2016-01-01

    UID/ELT/00657/2013 WOS:000374914600004 IF/00222/2013 Birds are emblematic natural elements of landscapes. Readily noticeable and appreciated due to their songs and flight, they have been thoroughly used as components of literary scenarios. This paper analyses their representations in a broad corpus (144 writings by 67 writers) since the nineteenth century, divided in three time-periods. It aims to understand which wild birds are represented in Portuguese literature, how those represe...

  20. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ electrochemical polymerization of a nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite in a reverse micelle electrolyte and its application in a supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Tu, Jiguo; Jiao, Shuqiang; Hou, Jungang; Zhu, Hongmin; Fray, Derek J

    2012-12-05

    Highly porous nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite films were prepared by in situ electrochemical polymerization onto an ITO substrate in a reverse micelle electrolyte. The morphology and microstructure of the composite films were analyzed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope. It was observed that the films were highly porous and the nanorod PANI films were inserted by graphene nanosheets. This indicated that a good conductive network between PANI nanorods and graphene sheets was formed. Further electrochemical tests involved cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 1 mol L(-1) HClO(4) solution. The results showed that the composite film had a favorable capacitance with a high electron transfer rate and low resistance. The highest specific capacitance that could be achieved was as high as 878.57 F g(-1) with the charge loading of 500 mC at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The GCD at different charge loadings showed good cycle stability with a low fading rate of specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. The results demonstrated that the nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite was proved to be of great potential as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

  2. Design of flexible PANI-coated CuO-TiO2-SiO2 heterostructure nanofibers with high ammonia sensing response values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zengyuan; Nie, Qingxin; Lv, Pengfei; Yu, Jian; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2017-06-01

    We report a room-temperature ammonia sensor with extra high response values and ideal flexibility, including polyaniline (PANI)-coated titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) or copper oxide-titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (CuO-TiO2-SiO2) composite nanofibers. Such flexible inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by calcination. Then, in situ polymerization of aniline monomers was carried out with inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers as templates. Gas sensing tests at room temperature indicated that the obtained CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers had much higher response values to ammonia gas (ca. 45.67-100 ppm) than most of those reported before as well as the prepared TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers here. These excellent sensing properties may be due to the P-N, P-P heterojunctions and a structure similar to field-effect transistors formed on the interfaces between PANI, TiO2, and CuO, which is p-type, n-type, and p-type semiconductor, respectively. In addition, the prepared free-standing CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofiber membrane was easy to handle and possessed ideal flexibility, which is promising for potential applications in wearable sensors in the future.

  3. APPLICATION OF PAN/PANI COMPOSITE MEMBRANES IN PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER GENERATED DURING PROCESSING OF METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the use of composite membranes of polyacrylonitrile (PAN doped polyaniline (PANI to remove contaminations of industrial wastewater generated during the processing of metals. Wastewater obtained from industry was pre-treated with the flocculant Magnafloc®336, and then the supernatant solution was introduced into the ultrafiltration cell, AMICON (Millipore equipped in the previously prepared polymer membrane. Using spectrophotometer UV-Vis (HACH and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS pollution indicators was marked before and after the integrated purification proces, to determine the degree of removal of selected ions from wastewater. As a result of flocculation from wastewater there have been removed phosphates (79%, chlorides (11-14%, sulfates (2-10% and iron (36-92%, cobalt (~ 80%, cadmium (~ 31% and nickel (~ 25%. However, the pressure membrane process almost completely removed zinc, copper and cadmium (~ 100%, iron (by a further 43-69% and phosphate anions, which was a little.

  4. Influence of Monomer Concentration on the Morphologies and Electrochemical Properties of PEDOT, PANI, and PPy Prepared from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Kulandaivalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyhiophene (PEDOT, polyaniline (PANI, and polypyrrole (PPy were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO substrate via potentiostatic from aqueous solutions containing monomer and lithium perchlorate. The concentration of monomers was varied between 1 and 10 mM. The effects of monomer concentration on the polymers formation were investigated and compared by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. FTIR and Raman spectra showed no changes in the peaks upon the increment of the concentration. Based on the SEM images, the increment in monomer concentration gives significant effect on morphologies and eventually affects the electrochemical properties. PEDOT electrodeposited from 10 mM solution showed excellent electrochemical properties with the highest specific capacitance value of 12.8 mF/cm2.

  5. Glycerol and environmental factors: effects on 1,3-propanediol production and NAD(+) regeneration in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T S; Korber, D R; Tanaka, T

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to understand the influences of fermentation factors in NADH recycling and mechanisms of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production in Lactobacillus panis PM1. We conducted metabolite analyses, qRT-PCR of the glycerol reductive pathway [glycerol dehydratase (DhaB) and 1,3-PDO dehydrogenase (DhaT)] and DhaT activity assays at different pH, temperature and initial glycerol concentrations. The supplementation of 150 mmol l(-1) glycerol caused a shift in NADH flux from ethanol to 1,3-PDO production, whereas 300 mol l(-1) glycerol negatively affected the regeneration of NAD(+) via 1,3-PDO production. This retardation decreased transcription levels and specific activities of DhaT. The decreased DhaT activity eventually caused the shutdown of 1,3-PDO production. Temperature and pH did not significantly affect the specific activity of DhaT, whereas expression of genes for DhaB and DhaT was activated under acidic conditions. Moreover, fresh glucose addition after its depletion could not restart the glycerol reduction, but increased ethanol production. Those environmental factors affect 1,3-PDO production in different ways through changing the expression level of enzymes and shifting the NAD(+) regeneration pathways. Our findings elucidated a key element to optimize 1,3-PDO production by Lact. panis PM1, which potentially improves 1,3-PDO manufacturing efficiencies. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  7. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... and (ii) genus- and family-level data for invertebrates (when available). We used three distinct species data sets for sub-Saharan Africa, Denmark and Uganda, which cover different spatial scales, biogeographic regions and taxa (vertebrates, invertebrates and plants). 3. We found that networks of priority...

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  10. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  11. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  12. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Sr(ZnZr){sub x} Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19}-PANI composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.L., E-mail: junelong@mail2000.com.t [Deparment of Chemistry, ROC. Military Academy, No 1, Fengshon Kaohsiung, 830 Taiwan (China); Hong, Y.S.; Lin, C.H. [Department of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, NDU, No 190, Sanyuan 1st St. Dahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Strontium zinc zirconium hexaferrites/polyaniline (Sr(ZnZr){sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19}-PANI, x=0, 0.5, 1.0) composites were synthesized by oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline in the presence of ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS). The structure and morphology of the product was characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The particle size of the core material was found to be about 250-500 nm. After coating with polyaniline, the particle size of Sr(ZnZr){sub 0.5}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 19}-PANI composites grew upto 0.5-1.0 {mu}m. XRD of the ferrites indicated that the structure of the core materials is hexagonal, with lattice constants around 5.886-5.885 A. It was found that the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) for Sr(ZnZr){sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19}-PANI composites decreased after polyaniline coating. The composite under applied magnetic field, exhibited ferromagnetic hysteretic loops with high saturation magnetization (M{sub S}=18.9-3.8 emu/g) and coercivity (H{sub C}=3850.0-583.91 Oe). - Highlights: To date, there have not been any other detailed studies related to modifying the magnetic properties of conducting polyaniline coatings and strontium zinc zirconium hexaferrite composites (Sr(ZnZr){sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19}/PANI) with our method. In this work, electromagnetic functionalized Sr(ZnZr){sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19}/PANI composites were synthesized by oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline in the presence of ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS). The Sr(ZnZr){sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} particles were magnetic cores obtained by aqueous combustion synthesis (ACS) in a glycine-metal nitrate sol-gel system. Polyaniline (PANI) was the conducting shell.

  14. Climate change impacts: birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, B.M.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Gienapp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can affect populations and species in various ways. Rising temperatures can shift geographical distributions and lead to (phenotypic or genetic) changes in traits, mostly phenology, which may affect demography. Most of these effects are well documented in birds. For example, the

  15. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  16. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... domesticated birds. If possible, avoid rural areas, small farms and open-air markets. Wash your hands. This is one of the simplest and best ways to prevent infections of all kinds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol ...

  17. Breeding Ecology of Birds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0022-0032. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory; coloniality; heronries. ecology; nesting strategies. Author Affiliations. Abdul Jamil Urfi1. Department of Environmental Biology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  18. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  19. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  20. Birds of Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Harriet

    Introducing students to different hawks and owls found in Wisconsin and building a basis for appreciation of these birds in their own environment is the purpose of this teacher's guide. Primarily geared for upper elementary and junior high grades, the concepts presented could be used in conjunction with the study of ecology. A filmstrip is…

  1. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  2. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  3. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  4. Long migration flights of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.

  5. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  6. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  8. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300°C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm–424 nm and 426 nm–464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  9. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......, and conclude that the currently believed theoretical framework is insufficient to explain the observed performance. The other study investigates the ability of a displaced experienced migrant to navigate back to the normal migration route. It documents the capability, but also finds interesting patterns...

  10. Alkaline conditions stimulate the production of 1,3-propanediol in Lactobacillus panis PM1 through shifting metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Douglas A S; Kang, Tae Sun; Khan, Nurul H; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-07-01

    A novel Lactobacillus panis PM1 isolate was found to be capable of converting glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), an increasingly valuable commodity chemical. In this study the effects of various process parameters, including glucose and glycerol concentrations, inoculum size, temperature, aeration, pH, and carbon source were examined to determine the optimal conditions for the production of 1,3-PDO using a culture method simulating late log to early stationary phases. Inoculum size did not influence the production of 1,3-PDO, and temperature variance showed similar 1,3-PDO production between 25 and 37 °C under the examined conditions. Glycerol concentration and pH played a primary role in the final concentration of 1,3-PDO. The highest production occurred at 150-250 mM glycerol when 50 mM glucose was available. Alkaline initial conditions (pH 9-10) stimulated the production of 1,3-PDO which concurrently occurred with increased acetic acid production. Under these conditions, 213.6 mM of 1,3-PDO were produced from 300 mM glycerol (conversion efficiency was 71 %). These observations indicated that the production of 1,3-PDO was associated with the shift of the metabolic end-product ethanol to acetic acid, and that this shift resulted in an excess concentration of NADH available for the processing of glycerol to 1,3-PDO.

  11. PANI-Ag-Cu Nanocomposite Thin Films Based Impedimetric Microbial Sensor for Detection of E. coli Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Cu nanocomposite thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on the glass substrate using spin coating technique. Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of nitric acid. The films were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The performance of the sensor was conducted using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to obtain the change in impedance of the sensor film before and after incubation with E. coli bacteria in water. The peaks in XRD pattern confirm the presence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis shows the stretching of N–H in the polyaniline structure. The absorption band from UV-Visible spectroscopy shows high peaks between 400 nm and 500 nm which indicate the presence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles, respectively. Impedance analysis indicates that the change in impedance of the films decreases with the presence of E. coli. The sensitivity on E. coli increases for the sample with high concentration of Cu.

  12. Electromagnetic properties of absorber fabric coated with BaFe12O19/MWCNTs/PANi nanocomposite in X and Ku bands frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Arezoo; Mottaghitalab, Vahid; Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman; Jafarian, Mojtaba; Atassi, Yomen

    2017-11-01

    Current investigation focuses on the electromagnetic properties of nonwoven fabric coated with BaFe12O19 (BHF) /MWCNTs/PANi nanocomposite in X and Ku bands. The BHF/MWCNTs and BHF/MWCNTs/PANi nanocomposites are prepared using the sol gel and in-situ polymerization methods respectively. The absorbent fabric was prepared based on applying a 40 wt% of BHF/MWCNTs/PANi nanocomposite in silicon resin on nonwoven fabric via roller coating technique The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analysis (VNA) are used to peruse microstructural, magnetic and electromagnetic features of the composite and absorber fabric respectively. The microscopic images of the fabric coated with magnetic nanocomposite shows a homogenous layer of nanoparticles on the fabric surface. The maximum reflection loss of binary nano-composite BHF/MWCNTs was measured about -28.50 dB at 11.72 GHz with 1.7 GHz bandwidth (RL < -10 dB) in X band. Moreover in Ku band, the maximum reflection loss is -29.66 dB at 15.78 GHz with 3.2 GHz bandwidths. Also the ternary nanocomposite BHF/MWCNTs/PANi exhibits a broad band absorber over a wide range of X band with a maximum reflection loss of -36.2 dB at 10.2 GHz with 1.5 GHz bandwidth and in the Ku band has arrived a maximum reflection loss of -37.65 dB at 12.84 GHz with 2.43 GHz bandwidth. This result reflects the synergistic effect of the different components with different loss mechanisms. As it is observed due to the presence of PANi in the structure of nanocomposite, the amount of absorption has increased extraordinarily. The absorber fabric exhibits a maximum reflection loss of -24.2 dB at 11.6 GHz with 4 GHz bandwidth in X band. However, in Ku band, the absorber fabric has had the maximum absorption in 16.88 GHz that is about -24.34 dB with 6 GHz bandwidth. Therefore, results indicate that the fabric samples coated represents appreciable maximum absorption value of more than 99% in

  13. High performance and durability of order-structured cathode catalyst layer based on TiO{sub 2}@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Meng; Yang, Zhaoyi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xindong, E-mail: echem@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays were prepared and applied as catalyst support. • As-prepared Pt-TiO{sub 2}@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays were applied as order-structured cathode catalyst layer. • The novel cathode catalyst structure without Nafion{sup ®} ionomer enhance the performance and durability of PEMFC. - Abstract: In this paper, an order-structured cathode catalyst layer consisting of Pt-TiO{sub 2}@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays that in situ grown on commercial gas diffusion layer (GDL) are prepared and applied to membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In order to prepare the TiO{sub 2}@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays with suitable porosity and prominent conductivity, the morphologies of the TiO{sub 2} nanoarray and electrochemical polymerization process of aniline are schematically investigated. The MEA with order-structured cathode catalyst layer is assembled in the single cell to evaluate the electrochemical performance and durability of PEMFC. As a result, the PEMFC with order-structured cathode catalyst layer shows higher peak power density (773.54 mW cm{sup −2}) than conventional PEMFC (699.30 mW cm{sup −2}). Electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and charge transfer impedance (R{sub ct}) are measured before and after accelerated degradation test (ADT), and the corresponding experimental results indicate the novel cathode structure exhibits a better stability with respect to conventional cathode. The enhanced electrochemical performance and durability toward PEMFC can be ascribed to the order-structured cathode nanoarray structure with high specific surface area increases the utilization of catalyst and reduces the tortuosity of transport pathways, and the synergistic effect between TiO{sub 2}@PANI support and Pt nanoparticles promotes the high efficiency of electrochemical reaction and improves the stability of catalyst. This research provides a facile and

  14. Threatened bird valuation in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    Full Text Available Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding. A contingent valuation survey of a broadly representative sample of the Australian public found that almost two thirds (63% supported funding of threatened bird conservation. These included 45% of a sample of 645 respondents willing to pay into a fund for threatened bird conservation, 3% who already supported bird conservation in another form, and 15% who could not afford to pay into a conservation fund but who nevertheless thought that humans have a moral obligation to protect threatened birds. Only 6% explicitly opposed such payments. Respondents were willing to pay about AUD 11 annually into a conservation fund (median value, including those who would pay nothing. Highest values were offered by young or middle aged men, and those with knowledge of birds and those with an emotional response to encountering an endangered bird. However, the prospect of a bird going extinct alarmed almost everybody, even most of those inclined to put the interests of people ahead of birds and those who resent the way threatened species sometimes hold up development. The results suggest that funding for threatened birds has widespread popular support among the Australian population. Conservatively they would be willing to pay about AUD 14 million per year, and realistically about AUD 70 million, which is substantially more than the AUD 10 million currently thought to be required to prevent Australian bird extinctions.

  15. Radar studies of bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  16. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  17. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  18. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  2. Effects of the molar mass of the matrix on electrical properties, structure and morphology of plasticized PANI-PMMA blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmati, Fethi; Fattoum, Arbi; Bohli, Nadra; Mohamed, Abdellatif Belhadj

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the molar mass of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) on electrical, structural and morphological properties of conductive polyaniline-polymethylmethacrylate blends have been studied. We have plasticized the PMMA matrix by using dioctyl phthalate (DioPh). Three different molar masses of PMMA, 15 000, 120 000 and 350 000 g mol -1 , have been used. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous structure for all our studied PANI-PMMA blend films. The SEM micrographs showed more aggregation with the lowest molar mass of PMMA matrix. The direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) electrical conductivities have been investigated in the temperature range 20-300 K and frequency range 7-1 x 10 8 Hz. The results of this study indicate an increase of the conductivity when the molar mass of PMMA decreases. With the lowest molar mass of PMMA (15 000 g mol -1 ), we obtained the lowest percolation threshold (p c ∼0.3%). The dc conductivity is governed by Mott's three-dimensional variable range hopping (3D VRH) model; different Mott's parameters have been evaluated. At high frequencies, the ac conductivity follows the power law σ(ω,T) = A(T)ω s(T,ω) , which is characteristic for charge transport in disordered materials by hopping or tunnelling processes. The observed decrease in the frequency exponent s with increasing temperature suggests that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model best describes the ac conduction mechanism. All our blends are well described by the scaling law σ(ω)/σ dc = 1+(ω/ω c ) n with n∼0.51-0.52

  3. Study of structural and magnetic properties of (Co–Cu)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PANI composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd., E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Information Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kumar, Shalendra [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jotania, R.B. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 171 005, HP (India)

    2013-08-15

    The nanocomposites of the polyaniline and Co{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PANI/CoCuFe) were prepared by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline. Prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by using various experimental techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Mössbauer spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–VIS). The elemental analysis as obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) measurement is in close agreement with the expected composition from the stoichiometry of the reactant solutions. XRD result confirms that all the samples have the single phase cubic spinel structure. Unit cell parameter ‘a’ is found to decrease with the increase in copper ion substitution. The crystallite size was investigated by using the Debye–Scherer formula and it was found in the range of ∼28–37 nm. FE-SEM confirmed the homogeneous and well defined surface morphology of the synthesized samples. FT-IR study showed the main absorption bands corresponding to the spinel structure those arose due to the tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrations. Cation distribution was estimated using XRD data. Hysteresis measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization decreased with increase in Cu{sup 2+} substitution. Magnetic environment of {sup 57}Fe in Cu-doped cobalt ferrite was investigated by using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer study evidenced the ferrimagnetic behavior of the synthesized samples. - Highlights: • Crystallite size decreases with increasing Cu{sup 2+} substitution. • The prepared samples show the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. • Cation distribution shows that Cu and Co ions shows strong preference toward octahedral B site. • Magnetization decreases with increasing Cu{sup 2+} substitution. • Mössbauer study shows

  4. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resultant intensive agricultural projects that follow. Such impacts have resulted in a decline in both bird habitats and biodiversity. Of particular concern are the areas important to all our endemic bird species, and already we are witnessing a series of very worrying developments. Taking each. Scopus 32: 27–34, June 2013 ...

  5. The BIRD payload platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ingo; Briess, Klaus; Baerwald, Wolfgang; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Schrandt, Fredrich

    2003-04-01

    For hot spot events as forest fires, volcanic activity or burning oil spills and coal seams a dedicate dspace instrumentation does not exist. With its successful launch end of October 2001 with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle the German Aerospace Center starts closing this gap with the micro-satellite mission BIRD. As space segment serves a three-axis stabilized satellite of 92 kg including a contingent of over 30% for the scientific instruments. The main payload of the BIRD micro-satellite is the newly developed Hot Spot Recognition System. It's a dual-channel instrument for middle and thermal IR imagery based on cooled MCT line detectors. The miniaturization by integrated detector/cooler assemblies provides a highly efficient design. A complement for the hot spot detection is the wide-angle stereo-scanner WAOSS-B. It is a hardware re-use dedicated to vegetation and cloud assessment in the visible spectral range. Besides the main objective of hot spot detection the mission has to answer several technological questions of the operation of cooled detectors in space, special aspects of their adaptation to the satellite platform as well as their calibration.

  6. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    OpenAIRE

    MINDA, Haruya; FURUZAWA, Fumie A.; SATOH, Shinsuke; NAKAMURA, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  7. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There

  8. High performance and durability of order-structured cathode catalyst layer based on TiO2@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Meng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xindong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an order-structured cathode catalyst layer consisting of Pt-TiO2@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays that in situ grown on commercial gas diffusion layer (GDL) are prepared and applied to membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In order to prepare the TiO2@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays with suitable porosity and prominent conductivity, the morphologies of the TiO2 nanoarray and electrochemical polymerization process of aniline are schematically investigated. The MEA with order-structured cathode catalyst layer is assembled in the single cell to evaluate the electrochemical performance and durability of PEMFC. As a result, the PEMFC with order-structured cathode catalyst layer shows higher peak power density (773.54 mW cm-2) than conventional PEMFC (699.30 mW cm-2). Electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and charge transfer impedance (Rct) are measured before and after accelerated degradation test (ADT), and the corresponding experimental results indicate the novel cathode structure exhibits a better stability with respect to conventional cathode. The enhanced electrochemical performance and durability toward PEMFC can be ascribed to the order-structured cathode nanoarray structure with high specific surface area increases the utilization of catalyst and reduces the tortuosity of transport pathways, and the synergistic effect between TiO2@PANI support and Pt nanoparticles promotes the high efficiency of electrochemical reaction and improves the stability of catalyst. This research provides a facile and controllable method to prepare order-structured membrane electrode with lower Pt loading for PEMFC in the future.

  9. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A.; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can......For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds...... system that enables experienced birds to navigate and guide inexperienced, young birds to their species-specific winter grounds...

  10. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  11. Conservation of wading birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  12. Estudo Reológico de Tintas de Poliuretano Contendo PAni-DBSA Aplicadas como Materiais Absorvedores de Microondas (8-12 GHz Rheological Study of Paints Based on Polyurethane and PAni-DBSA and its Application as Microwave Absorbing Materials (8 - 12 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério S. Biscaro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho preparou-se tintas condutoras baseadas em blendas de poliuretano contendo polianilina em diferentes proporções. Estudou-se as influências do método de dopagem da polianilina (PAni e do tempo de processamento da mistura no comportamento reológico da tinta. Verificou-se que a dopagem, com o ácido dodecilbenzeno sulfônico (DBSA, por processamento reativo (PAni-DBSA-pr afetou, de maneira mais acentuada, a viscosidade da tinta devido, principalmente, ao excesso de ácido dopante presente nessa amostra. Esse efeito foi observado pelas análises reológicas devido às alterações nos valores de viscosidade complexa, controlando-se o tempo de repouso das misturas. Medidas espectrofotométricas na região do infravermelho foram realizadas para verificar a ocorrência de interações entre os componentes da mistura (o poliuretano e a polianilina, constatando-se que, possivelmente, não ocorreram ligações químicas, mas somente interações físicas. Observou-se também que, amostras contendo 15% (m/m de PAni-DBSA-pr absorveram aproximadamente 48% da radiação eletromagnética incidente (8-12 GHz, indicando a viabilidade do uso desta tinta como material absorvedor de radiação.In this work, conducting paints based on blends of polyurethane and polyaniline in different proportions were prepared. The effects of both, polyaniline doping method and the blend processing time on the paint rheological behavior were evaluated. It was observed that the doping of the polyaniline with dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA by reactive processing (PAni-DBSA-pr altered the paint complex viscosity due to the excess of the DBSA used in that doping process. This effect was observed during the rheological analyses by controlling the resting time of the prepared samples. FTIR analyses were carried out to verify possible interactions among the components of the mixture (polyurethane and polyaniline, suggesting that no chemical reactions occurred, but

  13. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  14. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  15. Introduction to Avian Medicine: Companion Birds and Wild Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction to Avian Medicine: Companion Birds and Wild Birds. T W deMaar. Abstract. No abstract. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21 2001: pp. 20-22. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/kenvet.v21i1.39504 · AJOL African Journals ...

  16. Hierarchical Mesoporous NiO/MnO2@PANI Core-Shell Microspheres, Highly Efficient and Stable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junkai; Wang, Mingchao; Wang, Wenbo; Miao, Ran; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Sheng-Yu; Poges, Shannon; Jafari, Tahereh; Song, Wenqiao; Liu, Jiachen; Suib, Steven L

    2017-12-13

    We report on the new facile synthesis of mesoporous NiO/MnO 2 in one step by modifying inverse micelle templated UCT (University of Connecticut) methods. The catalyst shows excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media after further coating with polyaniline (PANI). For electrochemical performance, the optimized catalyst exhibits a potential gap, ΔE, of 0.75 V to achieve a current of 10 mA cm -2 for the OER and -3 mA cm -2 for the ORR in 0.1 M KOH solution. Extensive characterization methods were applied to investigate the structure-property of the catalyst for correlations with activity (e.g., XRD, BET, SEM, HRTEM, FIB-TEM, XPS, TGA, and Raman). The high electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst closely relates to the good electrical conductivity of PANI, accessible mesoporous structure, high surface area, as well as the synergistic effect of the specific core-shell structure. This work opens a new avenue for the rational design of core-shell structure catalysts for energy conversion and storage applications.

  17. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  18. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : birds nests * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  19. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  1. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... resources including migratory birds and their habitats. Large-scale efforts to influence bird migration and... timing and speed of bird migrations. It is possible that re-distribution of birds at smaller scales could...-0040; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season...

  2. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting...

  3. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  4. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting...] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  5. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  6. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  7. Fabrication of water-dispersible and highly conductive PSS-doped PANI/graphene nanocomposites using a high-molecular weight PSS dopant and their application in H2S detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Jun Seop; Jun, Jaemoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was used as both a doping agent and a binding agent for the polymerization of aniline monomers in a biphasic system (water-chloroform) at -50 °C. The high Mw of PSS resulted in relatively large particle sizes and smooth surfaces of the PSS-doped PANI. These physical characteristics, in turn, resulted in low interparticle resistance and high conductivity. In addition, the PSS allowed homogeneous dispersion of reduced graphene sheets through electrostatic repulsion. The prepared PSS-doped PANI/graphene solutions showed good compatibility with flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates, making them suitable for flexible sensor electrodes. Changes in the charge-transport properties, such as protonation level, conjugation length, crystalline structure, and charge-transfer resistance, of the electrode materials were the main factors influencing the electrical and sensor performance of the PSS-doped PANI-based electrodes. PSS-doped PANI/graphene composites containing 30 wt% graphene showed the highest conductivity (168.4 S cm-1) and the lowest minimum detection level (MDL) for H2S gas (1 ppm). This result is consistent with the observed improvements in charge transport in the electrode materials via strong π-π stacking interactions between the PANI and the graphene sheets.This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was

  8. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration

    OpenAIRE

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-01-01

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 ...

  9. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  12. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  13. A multidisciplinary approach to study the functional properties of neuron-like cell models constituting a living bio-hybrid system: SH-SY5Y cells adhering to PANI substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caponi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A living bio-hybrid system has been successfully implemented. It is constituted by neuroblastic cells, the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, adhering to a poly-anyline (PANI a semiconductor polymer with memristive properties. By a multidisciplinary approach, the biocompatibility of the substrate has been analyzed and the functionality of the adhering cells has been investigated. We found that the PANI films can support the cell adhesion. Moreover, the SH-SY5Y cells were successfully differentiated into neuron-like cells for in vitro applications demonstrating that PANI can also promote cell differentiation. In order to deeply characterize the modifications of the bio-functionality induced by the cell-substrate interaction, the functional properties of the cells have been characterized by electrophysiology and Raman spectroscopy. Our results confirm that the PANI films do not strongly affect the general properties of the cells, ensuring their viability without toxic effects on their physiology. Ascribed to the adhesion process, however, a slight increase of the markers of the cell suffering has been evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and accordingly the electrophysiology shows a reduction at positive stimulations in the cells excitability.

  14. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hong D.; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure. PMID:27270506

  15. Book review: Birds of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2001-01-01

    Located along Delaware Bay and the Atlantic coast, the state of Delaware’s significance for bird conservation has been well established for decades. The extensive tidal habitats and marshes bordering Delaware Bay host shorebird and waterbird populations of hemispheric importance, and protecting these populations has become an urgent conservation priority in recent years. Other habitats found in the state vary from barrier beaches to dry coniferous woods on the coastal plain and mesophytic communities along the Piedmont in the north, allowing a diverse avifauna to prosper within a small geographic area. Ornithologists and birders have actively studied birds within the state for more than a century, but surprisingly, no single reference has provided a complete summary of the status and distribution of the state’s birds until publication of the Birds of Delaware.Review info: Birds of Delaware. By Gene K. Hess, Richard L. West, Maurice V. Barnhill III, and Lorraine M. Fleming, 2000. ISBN: 0-8229-4069-8, 635 pp.

  16. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  17. Parthenogenesis in birds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Reshma; McDaniel, Cd

    2018-03-20

    Parthenogenesis or "virgin birth" is embryonic development in unfertilized eggs. It is a routine means of reproduction in many invertebrates. However even though parthenogenesis occurs naturally in even more advanced vertebrates, like birds, it is mostly abortive in nature. In fact, multiple limiting factors, such as delayed and unorganized development as well as unfavorable conditions developing within the unfertilized egg upon incubation, are associated with termination of progressive development of parthenogenetic embryos. In birds, diploid parthenogenesis is automictic and facultative producing only males. However, the mechanisms controlling parthenogenesis in birds are not clearly elucidated. Additionally, it appears from even very recent research that these mechanisms may hinder the normal fertilization process and subsequent embryonic development. For instance, virgin quail and turkey hens exhibiting parthenogenesis have reduced reproductive performance following mating. Also, genetic selection and environmental factors, such as live virus vaccinations, are known to trigger the process of parthenogenesis in birds. Therefore, parthenogenesis has a plausible negative impact on the poultry industry. Hence, a better understanding of parthenogenesis and the mechanisms that control it could benefit commercial poultry production. In this context, the aim of this review is to provide a complete overview of the process of parthenogenesis in birds.

  18. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hong D; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-08

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure.

  19. The Aerodynamics of Bird Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, Geoffrey

    2002-11-01

    The manifest success of birds in flight over small and large distances, in confined quarters and also in gusty conditions has inspired admiration, investigation and sometimes imitation from the earthbound human. Birds occupy a range of scales (2 g - 12 kg in mass, and 0.05 - 3 m in wingspan) that overlaps certain micro air vehicle (MAV) designs and there is interest in whether some bird-like properties (flapping wings, deformable feathers, movable tails) might be useful or even necessary for successful MAVs. A bird with 5 cm mean chord flying at 8 m/s has a nominal Reynolds number of 2 - 3 x 10^4. This is an extremely inconvenient range for design, operation and analysis of lifting surfaces, even in steady motion, because their properties are very sensitive to boundary layer separation. The moderate- to high-amplitude flapping motions, together with the complex surface geometry and mechanical properties of the wings themselves lead to yet further challenges. This talk will review some of the theoretical and practical approaches towards understanding and analyzing the aerodynamics of various types of bird flight, including some recent research results that suggest that this effort is far from complete.

  20. Magnetic field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat of the doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DB3EPSA){sub 0.5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurado, D; Pron, A; Jacquot, J F; Travers, J P [Structure et Proprietes d' Architectures Moleculaires UMR5819 (CEA-CNRS-UJF), INAC/SPrAM and INAC/SCIB, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054-Grenoble-cedex9 (France); Adriano, C; Vargas, J M; Pagliuso, P G; Rettori, C [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , UNICAMP, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lesseux, G G; Fier, I; Walmsley, L, E-mail: walmsley@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Caixa Postal 178, CEP 13500-970, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-05-25

    Specific heat, magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) data obtained from a self-standing film of the doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DB3EPSA){sub 0.5} are shown. No long range magnetic order has been observed at zero magnetic field, above 2 K. For a magnetic field of 3.3 kOe applied perpendicular to the plane of the film, a clear signature of an induced ordered state can be seen in the specific heat data and ESR also reveals this antiferromagnetic order. An electronic contribution is detected from ESR, magnetization and specific heat; however, for T {<=} 5 K, the specific heat data show the existence of a gap. Magnetization data also show a low temperature dominant Curie behaviour which cannot be seen from ESR, probably due to a very large linewidth, suggesting short range correlations among spin 1/2 polarons.

  1. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  2. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  3. Flexible camphor sulfonic acid-doped PAni/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite films and their room temperature ammonia sensing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandgar, D.K. [Functional Materials Research Laboratory (FMRL), School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Navale, S.T. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Navale, Y.H.; Ingole, S.M. [Functional Materials Research Laboratory (FMRL), School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Stadler, F.J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Ramgir, N.; Aswal, D.K.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics Division, Babha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, M.S. (India); Mane, R.S. [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India); Patil, V.B., E-mail: drvbpatil@gmail.com [Functional Materials Research Laboratory (FMRL), School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India)

    2017-03-01

    Composite nanostructures play a crucial role in gas sensing applications owing to their tunable properties and sizes. The main goal of this article is to prepare camphor sulfonic acid (10–50 wt%)-doped PAni/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (PFC) composite nanostructured films on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate through in-situ polymerization process and study their gas sensing activity towards various gases. Structural and morphological measurements along with gas sensing properties in terms of selectivity, response, stability, and response-recovery times are investigated and reported. The gas selectivity tests of flexible PFC nanostructured composite films are performed towards different gases such as NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, LPG, CH{sub 3}OH, and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH etc., wherein all the flexible PFC (10–50%) films demonstrate a superior selectivity towards NH{sub 3} gas even in the presence of other test gases. Among the different compositions, 30% PFC flexible film exhibits highest response of 72% to 100 ppm NH{sub 3} with good response time of 65 s. The systematic study between PFC flexible nanocomposite films and NH{sub 3} gas is conducted and reported. In addition, the interfacial charge transfer kinetics across NH{sub 3} and PFC film interface was investigated by means of impendence spectroscopy study. - Highlights: • Novel route of preparation of camphor sulfonic acid doped PAni-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (PFC) flexible films. • XRD, FTIR, and RAMAN analysis confirms the formation of PFC composites. • PFC films are highly selective towards NH{sub 3} gas at room temperature. • PFC films able to detect as low as 2.5 ppm concentration of NH{sub 3} gas. • 30% PFC flexible film exhibits highest response of 72%–100 ppm NH{sub 3} gas with good response time of 65 s.

  4. Bird watching and estimation of bird diversity – not always ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some occurrences of rare or unusual bird species reported by us in a previous paper (Ostrich 86(3): 267–276, 2015) are considered to be doubtful by Hogg and Vande weghe (Ostrich 88(1): 83–88, 2017). We believe that some of the problems raised are taxonomic. The main objective of our study was to obtain reliable ...

  5. Important Bird Areas California Audubon [ds485

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The objective of this project was to digitally map the boundaries of Audubon California's Important Bird Areas (IBA). Existing Important Bird Areas identify critical...

  6. Managing mainland salt marshes for breeding birds

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Wadden Sea region is one of the most important breeding areas in Western Europe for coastal breeding bird species. It is expected that management of salt marshes is important for successful conservation of breeding bird populations but the impact of management on the habitat quality for breeding birds is still not fully understood. In this study the effects of management on the three crucial habitat characteristics for breeding birds were studied on mainland salt marshes: effects of manag...

  7. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  8. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish...

  9. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird... 50 CFR Part 20 [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2011-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird...

  10. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...

  11. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  12. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  13. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nesting in colonies.· Some field tests of the model are discussed in Box 2. Some interesting ideas have been advanced by ecologists to explore the advantages which birds could derive from nesting in colonies and the most persuasive of these is the geometric model. Box 2. Field Tests of the Economic Defendability Model.

  14. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  15. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One day out of the great wilderness of the water there came an albatross. Circling the ship on .... and mathematicians. Conventional aerodynamic ... suspended in air has inspired over a dozen aerodynamic models. GENERAL I ARTICLE scaling concepts fail to explain subtle features of bird flight, as debated by over fifty ...

  16. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  17. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    business opportunities for universities, laboratories and corpo- rations. Modern scientists seem to be getting increasingly ob- sessed with seasonal and sensational .... around SHAR and the Nelapattu Sanctuary, Professor Dhawan distilled the essence of bird flight for the expert and the neo- phyte alike. The sheer biometric ...

  18. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  19. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or... 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical installation...

  20. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  1. Simulating the Risk of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast-time simulation environment for assessing the risk of bird strikes in aviation. An existing air traffic simulator was enhanced in order to simulate air and bird traffic simultaneously and to recognize collisions between birds and aircraft. Furthermore, a method was

  2. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  3. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  4. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  5. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  6. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  7. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  8. Synthesis, characterisation and study of thermal, electrical and photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite of PANI with [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})] Cl{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O photoadduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqash, Waseem; Majid, Kowsar, E-mail: Kowsarmajid@rediffmail.com

    2016-10-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of new polyaniline nanocomposite with [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})] Cl{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O photoadduct. • Characterisation of the photoadduct and nanocomposite by FTIR, XRD and UV–Vis analysis. • Thermal study shows improved thermal stability of PANI nanocomposite over PANI. • Electrical study reveals modified non-linear I–V characteristic of nanocomposite. • The nanocomposite possesses photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A new polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite with [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 4} (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})] Cl{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O photoadduct as filler was synthesised via in-situ oxidative polymerisation by ammonium persulphate in non-aqueous DMSO medium. The photoadduct has been synthesised through photo substitution by 1,10-phenenthroline (phen) ligand on irradiation. The as synthesised photoadduct was reduced in size prior to its incorporation in the PANI matrix. The synthesised photoadduct and PANI nanocomposite were characterised by FTIR, XRD, UV–Vis, SEM and elemental analysis. The results showed successful synthesis of photoadduct and PANI nanocomposite. The thermal and electrical measurement of PANI nanocomposite was carried out by thermal gravimetric technique (TGA) and four probe conductivity metre respectively. The results showed improvement in the thermal stability and conductance of nanocomposite over PANI. Besides, the nanocomposite was investigated for photocatalytic activity in the photochemical degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye.

  9. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  10. An Effective Electrical Throughput from PANI Supplement ZnS Nanorods and PDMS-Based Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerator for Power up Portable Electronic Devices: An Alternative of MWCNT Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ayesha; Alam, Md Mehebub; Garain, Samiran; Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mandal, Dipankar

    2015-09-02

    We demonstrate the requirement of electrical poling can be avoided in flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (FPNGs) made of low-temperature hydrothermally grown wurtzite zinc sulfide nanorods (ZnS-NRs) blended with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). It has been found that conductive fillers, such as polyaniline (PANI) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), can subsequently improve the overall performance of FPNG. A large electrical throughput (open circuit voltage ∼35 V with power density ∼2.43 μW/cm(3)) from PANI supplement added nanogenerator (PZP-FPNG) indicates that it is an effective means to replace the MWCNTs filler. The time constant (τ) estimated from the transient response of the capacitor charging curves signifying that the FPNGs are very much capable to charge the capacitors in very short time span (e.g., 3 V is accomplished in 50 s) and thus expected to be perfectly suitable in portable, wearable and flexible electronics devices. We demonstrate that FPNG can instantly lit up several commercial Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (15 red, 25 green, and 55 blue, individually) and power up several portable electronic gadgets, for example, wrist watch, calculator, and LCD screen. Thus, a realization of potential use of PANI in low-temperature-synthesized ZnS-NRs comprising piezoelectric based nanogenerator fabrication is experimentally verified so as to acquire a potential impact in sustainable energy applications. Beside this, wireless piezoelectric signal detection possibility is also worked out where a concept of self-powered smart sensor is introduced.

  11. Binary Channel SAW Mustard Gas Sensor Based on PdPc0.3PANI0.7 hybrid Sensitive Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. B.; Xiang, J. J.; Feng, Q. H.; Hu, Z. P.; Zhang, H. Q.; Guo, J. Y.

    2006-10-01

    This paper discussed the working principle of binary channel surface acoustic wave (SAW) lithium niobate piezoelectric chip detecting mustard, established the mathematic model of beat frequency output Δf and the mustard gas density δ. The MEMS craft solved the parameters of the binary channel SAW chip such as its interdigital electrode number was 15~25 couple, width and spacing were both 25µm, degree of overlapping was 2mm, fundamental frequency was 10~35MHz, frequency-domain width was 5~20Hz, and its back pt hot film's. According to TG-DSC thermal analysis, vacuum coating craft was adopted to solve the hybrid sensitive film forming craft parameter of PdPc0.3PANI0.7(phthalocyanine palladium0.3Poiyaniline0.7). The micro-appearance of sensitive film was analyzed through SEM. The sensor's sensitivity and response characteristic were tested and analyzed: appear linear change, its response time is less than 5min while its recovery time is less than 8min.

  12. Electrochemiluminescence behavior of AgNCs and its application in immunosensors based on PANI/PPy-Ag dendrite-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Wang, Yanhu; Shen, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei

    2017-07-10

    In this study, hyperbranched polyethyleneimine-protected silver nanoclusters (hPEI-AgNCs) with excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission in the presence of coreactant K 2 S 2 O 8 were prepared by chemical reduction of silver ions (silver nitrate) coordinated with dendrigraft polymer, and successfully used for the construction of an ECL immunosensor. Polyaniline (PANI)/polypyrrole (PPy)-silver (Ag) dendrites with good electrical conductivity and biocompatibility were electropolymerized on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as carriers. Porous ZnO sphere-loaded hPEI-AgNCs-induced signal amplification strategies were integrated exquisitely and applied sufficiently. Taking carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as an example, under optimal conditions, the CEA concentration was determined to be in the range of 10 -3 ng mL -1 -100 ng mL -1 and with a detection limit of 0.4 pg mL -1 using this method; it exhibited excellent selectivity, high stability, and acceptable fabrication reproducibility. It was anticipated that hPEI-AgNCs would have promising applications in green, selective, and sensitive detection of target analytes in the future.

  13. Physicochemical properties of silica gel coated with a thin layer of polyaniline (PANI) and its application in non-suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Kocjan, Ryszard; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Swieboda, Ryszard; Zajdel, Dominika; Hajnos, Mieczysław

    2013-10-15

    Physicochemical properties of a new sorbent and its potential application in non-suppressed ion chromatography (IC) have been investigated. The sorbent was obtained in a process of covering silica gel particles with a film of polyaniline (PANI). The properties of silica modified with polyaniline such as particle size, porosity, average quantity of polyaniline covering carrier and density of sorbent were determined. In our study the following methods were used: microscopic analysis, laser diffraction technique, combustion analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry. Column with the newly obtained packing was used for the separation of inorganic anions. Optimized chromatographic system was successfully employed for analysis of iodide and bromide in selected pharmaceutical products (Bochnia salt and Iwonicz salt) applied in chronic respiratory disease. Analysis was carried out using 0.1M solution of HCl in mixture of methanol/water (50:50v/v) as a mobile phase; the flow rate was 0.3 mL min(-1), temperature was 24°C and λ=210 nm. Validation parameters such as correlation coefficient, RSD values, recovery, detection and quantification limits were found to be satisfactory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 69223 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... birds in those parts of the United States adapted thereto where the same have become scarce or extinct, and also to regulate the introduction of American or foreign birds or animals in localities where they...

  15. Birds and bird habitats: guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    Established in 2009, the Green Energy Act aims to increase the use of renewable energy sources including wind, water, solar and bioenergy in Ontario. The development of these resources is a major component of the province's plan, which aims to mitigate the contribution to climate change and to involve the Ontario's economy in the improvement of the quality of the environment. The Green Energy Act also considers as important the implementation of a coordinated provincial approval process, suggesting the integration of all Ministry requirements into a unique process during the evaluation of newly proposed renewable energy projects. The Ministry of the Environment's Renewable Energy Approval Regulation details the requirements for wind power projects involving significant natural features. Birds are an important part of Ontario's biodiversity and, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources, their habitats are considered as significant wildlife habitat (SWH). The Renewable Energy Approval Regulation and this guideline are meant to provide elements and guidance in order to protect bird SWH during the selection of a location of wind power facilities. . 27 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  17. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  18. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  19. Some Ectoparasites of the Birds of Asia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIRDS, PARASITES, CLASSIFICATION, ARTHROPODA , DISTRIBUTION, FLIGHT, MITES, ECOLOGY, LICE, INDIA, JAPAN, TAIWAN, CHINA, PHILIPPINES, THAILAND, BORNEO, INDONESIA, SINGAPORE, ASIA, TABLES(DATA), HANDBOOKS, ARMY RESEARCH, DIPTERA.

  20. Bird strike incidence at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time and rate of bird strike incidences, species composition and number of birds involved in strikes, and the behaviour of birds were recorded at Bole International Airport from December 1994 to December 1995. The gut contents of the birds struck by aircraft were analyzed. A total of 33 bird strikes were recorded during ...

  1. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... is now owned by the Royal Library. The acquisition of the Danish set by the Classen’s Library is examined by analyzing previously unpublished letters and is described for the first time, although not comprehensively, in this article. The provenance of this work, as described by Waldemar Fries in 1973...

  2. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  3. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Fish and... migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the...

  4. 78 FR 65576 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-0060; FF09M21200-134-XMB123199BPP0] RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid'' Migratory Bird AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to birds protected under...

  5. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-91200 FF09M26000] Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments...) or 703- 358-2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  6. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2011 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in...

  7. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  8. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  9. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  11. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  12. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  13. Effects of bird-feeding activities on the health of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxen, Travis E; Horn, David J; Hogan, Brianna M; Hubble, Cody N; Huber, Sarah J; Flamm, Joseph; Knott, Madeline; Lundstrom, Lisa; Salik, Faaria; Wassenhove, Samantha J; Wrobel, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Among the most popular reasons that people feed wild birds is that they want to help birds. The extent to which supplemental food helps birds, however, is not well established. From spring 2011 to spring 2014, we examined how feeding of wild birds influences the health of individual birds at forested sites in central Illinois, USA. Specifically, we compared three forested sites where we provided supplemental food with three forested sites for which no supplemental food was available and monitored changes in the individual health of birds. In addition, we determined whether any changes in bird health had occurred after feeders had been removed from sites 10 months before. Generally, the individual health of birds improved with supplemental feeding, including increased antioxidant levels, reduced stress (heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and more rapid feather growth. In some species, we also found improved body condition index scores and innate immune defense. The difference among sites was not present 10 months after feeders were removed, suggesting that the impact on health was indeed related to supplemental feeding. Potential negative effects of supplemental feeding were also found, including an increase in infectious disease prevalence among individual birds at forested sites where supplemental food was offered. Birds with clear signs of pathology showed deficits in most of the physiological metrics in which birds at feeder sites typically showed improved health condition. At the peak of prevalence of infectious disease, 8.3% of all birds at feeders exhibited symptoms of conjunctivitis, pox, dermal disease or cloacal disease. We found both positive and negative impacts of wild bird feeding, and that, in general, birds that had access to supplemental food were in better physiological condition. Moreover, the negative effects we found may be mitigated by hobbyists engaging in safer bird-feeding practices.

  14. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  15. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  16. Endogenous timing factors in bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    Several species of warbler birds were observed in an effort to determine what initiates and terminates migration. Environmental and endogenous timing mechanisms were analyzed. The results indicate that endogenous stimuli are dominant factors for bird migration especially for long distances. It was concluded that environmental factors act as an assist mechanism.

  17. An integrative approach to understanding bird origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Zhonghe; Dudley, Robert; Mackem, Susan; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Erickson, Gregory M; Varricchio, David J

    2014-12-12

    Recent discoveries of spectacular dinosaur fossils overwhelmingly support the hypothesis that birds are descended from maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, and furthermore, demonstrate that distinctive bird characteristics such as feathers, flight, endothermic physiology, unique strategies for reproduction and growth, and a novel pulmonary system originated among Mesozoic terrestrial dinosaurs. The transition from ground-living to flight-capable theropod dinosaurs now probably represents one of the best-documented major evolutionary transitions in life history. Recent studies in developmental biology and other disciplines provide additional insights into how bird characteristics originated and evolved. The iconic features of extant birds for the most part evolved in a gradual and stepwise fashion throughout archosaur evolution. However, new data also highlight occasional bursts of morphological novelty at certain stages particularly close to the origin of birds and an unavoidable complex, mosaic evolutionary distribution of major bird characteristics on the theropod tree. Research into bird origins provides a premier example of how paleontological and neontological data can interact to reveal the complexity of major innovations, to answer key evolutionary questions, and to lead to new research directions. A better understanding of bird origins requires multifaceted and integrative approaches, yet fossils necessarily provide the final test of any evolutionary model. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, S.P.; Balthazart, J.

    2010-01-01

    Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing

  19. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses

  20. Fire and bird communities in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2002-01-01

    Fire has long been a natural and anthropogenic force shaping southern forests and their fauna. Some species are attracted to recent burns. There is little direct mortality of adult birds by fire, but growing season fires may consume some nests. Fire affects bird communities mainly through effects on vegetation. Fires effective enough to limit understory hardwood...

  1. PREVALENCE OF BIRD LOUSE, MENACANTHUS CORNUTUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Bird Louse, Kano Sub-urb areas, Menacanthus cornutus, Poultry, Prevalence ... including retarded growth, low egg production and ..... Bush, S. E. and Clayton, D. H.. (2005). Correlated evolution of host and parasite body size: Tests of Harrison's rule using birds and lice. Evolution, 59: 1744-.

  2. Prevalence of Bird Louse, Menacanthus Cornutus (Pthiraptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the prevalence of bird lice in four selected farms in Kano metropolis was conducted to determine the lice species richness, lice abundance and percent prevalence in the four poultry farms. Two hundred and forty (240) birds were examined from four poultry farms within Kano in Tofa, Fagge, Brigade and Gwarzo ...

  3. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  4. Bird feeders and their effects on bird-window collisions at residential houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding wild birds creates an important link between homeowners and conservation. The effects of bird feeders and year-round feeding on birds have not been well studied, however, particularly in relationship to bird-window collisions. We determined effects of bird feeder presence and placement on bird-window collisions at residential homes. Paired month-long trials in which a feeder was either present or absent for one month and then removed or added for the second month were completed at 55 windows at 43 houses. In each trial, homeowners were asked to search their study window daily for evidence of a bird-window collision. During the study there were 51 collisions when there was no bird feeder and 94 when the feeder was present. The season when each trial was set up was the best individual predictor of bird-window collisions. The largest number of collisions was observed during fall migration and the lowest during the winter months. There were no collisions at 26 of the study windows. High variance was observed in the number of collisions at different houses, indicating that effects of bird feeders are context dependent. Changing the occurrence, timing, and placement of feeders can alter collision rates but is only one of many factors that influence whether a residential house is likely to have a bird window-collision or not.

  5. The Origin and Diversification of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-10-05

    Birds are one of the most recognizable and diverse groups of modern vertebrates. Over the past two decades, a wealth of new fossil discoveries and phylogenetic and macroevolutionary studies has transformed our understanding of how birds originated and became so successful. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic (around 165-150 million years ago) and their classic small, lightweight, feathered, and winged body plan was pieced together gradually over tens of millions of years of evolution rather than in one burst of innovation. Early birds diversified throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous, becoming capable fliers with supercharged growth rates, but were decimated at the end-Cretaceous extinction alongside their close dinosaurian relatives. After the mass extinction, modern birds (members of the avian crown group) explosively diversified, culminating in more than 10,000 species distributed worldwide today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood parasites in birds from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Boano, G

    2007-06-01

    This study aims at evaluating the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in a native population of immature and adult male and female birds of Burkina Faso. Protists from the orders Eucoccidiorida, Kinetoplastida, as well as microfilaria were found. During the period from the 27th to the 29th of November 2003, we trapped 110 birds: on 101 sampled birds, 47 harboured blood parasites, with an overall prevalence of infection of 46.5%; 15 birds (14.8%) harboured mixed infections. Haemoproteus (prevalence of infection 30.7%), Plasmodium (13.9%), Trypanosoma (10.9%), microfilaria (8.9%) and Leucocytozoon (5.9%) were most frequently recorded. Occurrence of blood parasites was very high in comparison to that seen in birds from other areas of Africa.

  7. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-10-22

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 July to 19 August 2005 and we encountered extensive bird migration in the whole Beringia range from latitude 64 degrees N in Bering Strait up to latitude 75 degrees N far north of Wrangel Island, with eastward flights making up 79% of all track directions. The results from Beringia were used in combination with radar studies from the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and in the Beaufort Sea to make a reconstruction of a major Siberian-American bird migration system in a wide Arctic sector between longitudes 110 degrees E and 130 degrees W, spanning one-third of the entire circumpolar circle. This system was estimated to involve more than 2 million birds, mainly shorebirds, terns and skuas, flying across the Arctic Ocean at mean altitudes exceeding 1 km (maximum altitudes 3-5 km). Great circle orientation provided a significantly better fit with observed flight directions at 20 different sites and areas than constant geographical compass orientation. The long flights over the sea spanned 40-80 degrees of longitude, corresponding to distances and durations of 1400-2600 km and 26-48 hours, respectively. The birds continued from this eastward migration system over the Arctic Ocean into several different flyway systems at the American continents and the Pacific Ocean. Minimization of distances between tundra breeding sectors and northerly stopover sites, in combination with the Beringia glacial refugium and colonization history, seemed to be important for the evolution of this major

  8. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  10. Evidence for Bird Mafia! Threat Pays

    OpenAIRE

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Kolatkar, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Birds are remarkable for their extraordinary efforts at nest building and brood care. Given that so many species of birds spend so much time and effort at these activities, there is plenty of room for some species to take it easy, lay their eggs in the nests of other species and hitch-hike on their hosts. The cuckoo that lays its eggs in the nests of a variety of host species is well known. Indeed, over 80 species, i.e., over 1% of bird species are known to be such obligate inter-specific bro...

  11. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Julie M.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  12. Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2014-11-01

    Exotic species are thought to alter the structure of natural communities and disrupt ecosystem functioning through invasion. Nevertheless, exotic species may also provide ecological insurance when they contribute to maintain ecosystem functions after the decline of native species following anthropogenic disturbance. Here, this hypothesis is tested with the assemblage of frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants of New Zealand, which has suffered strong historical declines in native birds while simultaneously gaining new frugivores introduced by European settlers. We studied the plant-frugivore assemblage from measures of fruit and bird abundances and fruit consumption in nine forest patches, and tested how this changed across a gradient of relative abundance of exotic birds. We then examined how each bird species' role in the assemblage (the proportion of fruits and the number of plant species consumed) varied with their relative abundance, body size and native/exotic status. The more abundant and, to a lesser extent, larger birds species consumed a higher proportion of fruits from more plant species. Exotic birds consumed fruits less selectively and more proportionate to the local availability than did native species. Interaction networks in which exotic birds had a stronger role as frugivores had higher generalization, higher nestedness and higher redundancy of plants. Exotic birds maintained frugivory when native birds became rarer, and diversified the local spectrum of frugivores for co-occurring native plants. These effects seemed related to the fact that species abundances, rather than trait-matching constraints, ultimately determined the patterns of interactions between birds and plants. By altering the structure of plant-frugivore assemblages, exotic birds likely enhance the stability of the community-wide seed dispersal in the face of continued anthropogenic impact. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  13. Birds and bird-lore in the literature of Anglo-Saxon England

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, M. E. R.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an interdisciplinary approach towards understanding the ways in which Anglo-Saxons perceived the birds around them and the cultural associations with which we find them endowed in the literature. It focuses on closely examining the entire range of primary sources available to us in order to build as accurate and as complete a picture of Anglo-Saxon bird-lore as possible, and it stresses the indivisibility of observational experiences of birds and their cultural associatio...

  14. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    the establishment of long grass aisles at both sides of the main runway and a weekly record of the distribution of lapwings. Virtually no birds were...an exhibition was organized in the Air France Communication Showroom to inform aircrews about birdstrike hazards. This exhibition was supported by a...sensors, Virtual (computerized) and artificial birds, and detailed analyses of existing data bases to detect and explain "non-randomness" in bird strikes

  15. Ornithologists by Design: Kindergarteners Design, Construct, and Evaluate Bird Feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Angela; Segers, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    How can an engineer design a bird feeder that attracts many birds? This question resulted from kindergarten students' observations of the bird feeders in their school's bird sanctuary. The challenging question is the heart of project-based learning (PBL), a teaching strategy in which students tackle real-world problems and design projects to solve…

  16. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or gather...

  17. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  18. 50 CFR 20.37 - Custody of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of birds of another. 20.37 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.37 Custody of birds of another. No person shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person unless such...

  19. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  20. 50 CFR 20.42 - Transportation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of birds of another. 20.42... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Transportation Within the United States § 20.42 Transportation of birds of another. No person shall transport migratory game birds belonging to another person...

  1. 50 CFR 20.62 - Importation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds of another. 20.62... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.62 Importation of birds of another. No person shall import migratory game birds belonging to another person. ...

  2. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  3. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds... eradicated and that replacement birds or poultry will not become infected with END. ...

  4. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...

  5. Potential effects of climate change on birds of the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.L. Rodenhouse; S.N. Matthews; K.P. McFarland; J.D. Lambert; L.R. Iverson; A. Prasad; T.S. Stillett; R.T. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    We used three approaches to assess potential effects of climate change on birds of the Northeast. First, we created distribution and abundance models for common bird species using climate, elevation, and tree species variables and modeled how bird distributions might change as habitats shift. Second, we assessed potential effects on high-elevation birds, especially...

  6. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other.... The policy memorandum and conditions govern current administration of Federal Migratory Bird Special...

  7. Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus bird hunting behaviour and capture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detailed observations were made of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus behaviour when hunting birds, the bird prey species and bird capture success in northern Cameroon. Four hunting strategies are described to capture birds: fast contour flight, overt approach with rapid acceleration, covert ambush, and stoop from flight.

  8. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... and held in ``temporary'' caging for extended periods of time, i.e., multiple birds held in a trailer...

  9. Riparian Birds - Sierra Nevada Foothill [ds303

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at multiple sample points along 36 randomly...

  10. Behavioral aspects of captive birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M P

    2001-09-01

    This article describes concepts of raptor behavior in captive birds of prey with inferences from the behavior of their wild counterparts that will assist the veterinarian in understanding the causes of managing abnormal behaviors.

  11. Modeling and the management of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of migratory bird populations is reviewed in the context of migratory bird management. We focus on dynamic models of waterfowl, since most management-oriented migratory bird models concern waterfowl species. We describe the management context for these modeling efforts, with a focus on large-scale operational data collection programs and on processes by which waterfowl harvest is regulated and waterfowl habitats are protected and managed. Through their impacts on key population parameters such as recruitment and survival rate, these activities can influence population dynamics, thereby providing managers some measure of control over the status of populations. Recent applications of the modeling of waterfowl are described in terms of objectives, mathematical structures, and contributions to management. Finally, we discuss research needs and data limitations in migratory bird modeling, and offer suggestions to increase the value to managers of future modeling efforts.

  12. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  13. Birds - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds315

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at 15 sample points within Spears and Didion...

  14. Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

  15. Identification of bird representations in prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vojislav F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Figures of birds and bird heads are frequently represented in the Bronze and Iron Age in Europe. Birds are usually represented as amulets, vases and parts of vases, parts of complex objects or compositions and are among the most wide spread symbols that are connected with cult, magic and mythology of that time. There has been much discussion on this topic up to now. There are many assumptions concerning the role of different bird representations in the spiritual life of man of that period, which are still not firmly based. Our goal, in the study of this topic, is not to talk about these assumptions, more or less acceptable, but to pay more attention to the creation of bird figures and heads and to conclude to what extent it is possible to identify ornithological, among these numerous representations, individual birds, characteristics of their morphology and way of life. Namely, if the premise is correct, that the users of these ornithomorphic objects as well as their craftsmen, were able to differentiate bird types, morphologically and bionomically, or more correctly taxonomic groups of bird types (families, subfamilies, tribes genuses, to the extent to which these differences are expressed lexicological (nomenclatorilly, in the majority of classical languages then the attempt to make a further step towards the ornithological identification of motifs of these objects can be considered possible. In cases when it seems that the details on an object and their combination can be used for a more convincing identification, we take the freedom to speculate about the cultural-economic value of the recognized birds. Here we deal with three examples of bird representations from the Bronze and Iron Age of the Central Balkans. These are: the Dupljaja Cart, the Posamenterie Fibula from Dobrinci and the Bronze Cart from Glasinac, with the help of which we will try to demonstrate this new type of collaboration between archaeology and ornithology. We hope that

  16. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  17. Nocturnal bird migration in opaque clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The use of a tracking radar to measure the flight paths of migrating birds on nights with opaque clouds is discussed. The effects of wind and lack of visual references are examined. The limitations of the radar observations are described, and samples of tracks obtained during radar observations are included. It is concluded that nonvisual mechanisms of orientation make it possible for birds to migrate in opaque clouds, but the exact nature of the sensory information cannot be determined by radar observations.

  18. Phylogeny of nematodes from birds of prey

    OpenAIRE

    Honisch, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Birds of prey host a wide variety of endoparasites. The majority of these endoparasites are nematodes. They can be found mainly in the digestive and respiratory system. The current accepted phylogeny of nematodes found in birds of prey is based on morphological traits. In this study molecular data were used to assess phylogenetic relationships in this group of parasitic nematodes. The aim of the study was to evaluate a method for rapid species identification, to construct a phylogeny of paras...

  19. Body frontal area in passerine birds

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenström, Anders; Rosén, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Projected body frontal area is used when estimating the parasite drag of bird flight. We investigated the relationship between projected frontal area and body mass among passerine birds, and compared it with an equation based on waterfowl and raptors, which is used as default procedure in a widespread software package for flight performance calculations. The allometric equation based on waterfowl/raptors underestimates the frontal area compared to the passerine equation presented here. Conseq...

  20. Impact of wind turbines on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausager, I.; Nohr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a review of the present knowledge on impacts of wind turbines on birds, requested by the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy. The main conclusions of the review are, that in nearly all the studies so far the numbers of birds recorded colliding with wind turbines have been limited. Some studies indicate that stationary (breeding) birds inside the wind turbine area in the short run habituate to wind turbines, especially the noise and visual impacts, and that the risk for collision becomes low. However, some of the few more long term studies indicate that a negative impact may occur in later generations of breeding birds. In some studies a disturbance effect on bird species, which temporarily stay inside a wind turbine area in order to forage or rest, is observed. The degree of impact is species-specific. An effect is typically recorded inside a zone of up to 250-800 m, with geese and waders as the most sensitive groups of birds. (author)

  1. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityay I.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.

  2. Eimeria tenella: host specificity in gallinaceous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterling, J M

    1976-02-01

    Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.

  3. American Bird conservancy's approach to the U.S. Important Bird Area Program - identifying the top 500 global sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Chipley

    2005-01-01

    The idea for the Important Bird Area Program originated in a series of studies in the early 1980s conducted by BirdLife International. Recognizing that these studies could become a powerful tool for conservation, BirdLife International began an effort to identify and gather data regarding the most important areas for birds in Europe and to make this information...

  4. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists. (a...

  5. ON CORRELATING BIRD MIGRATION TRAJECTORY WITH CLIMATE CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oleinik, Janaina; de Macedo, Jose Antonio Fernandes; Yuanjian, Wang Zufferey

    2009-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to affect bird migration in several aspects including timing changes, breeding and migration orientation. The correlation analysis of several climate conditions (e.g. temperature, wind, humidity, etc) and bird migration trajectory is the key for explaining bird behavior during migration. Moreover, the resulting correlation can be used for predicting new bird behavior according to climate changes. In this paper we propose an integrated solution for correlating bird...

  6. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  7. A Review of Research on Bird Impacting on Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuecheng

    2018-03-01

    Bird strikes can lead to permanent deformations, sudden decrease of thrust, even engine failure during the flight. Bird strikes on rotating blades can also cause slices of birds hitting other parts which may lead to greater damages. Bird strikes cannot be completely avoided. However, reduction of bird impacting on jet engines can be achieved by suitable design and manufacturing, through the mathematical modelling, simulation analysis and practical experiment of jet engines.

  8. Book review: Bird census techniques, Second edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation concerns, federal mandates to monitor birds, and citizen science programs have spawned a variety of surveys that collect information on bird populations. Unfortunately, all too frequently these surveys are poorly designed and use inappropriate counting methods. Some of the flawed approaches reflect a lack of understanding of statistical design; many ornithologists simply are not aware that many of our most entrenched counting methods (such as point counts) cannot appropriately be used in studies that compare densities of birds over space and time. It is likely that most of the readers of The Condor have participated in a bird population survey that has been criticized for poor sampling methods. For example, North American readers may be surprised to read in Bird Census Techniques that the North American Breeding Bird Survey 'is seriously flawed in its design,' and that 'Analysis of trends is impossible from points that are positioned along roads' (p. 109). Our conservation efforts are at risk if we do not acknowledge these concerns and improve our survey designs. Other surveys suffer from a lack of focus. In Bird Census Techniques, the authors emphasize that all surveys require clear statements of objectives and an understanding of appropriate survey designs to meet their objectives. Too often, we view survey design as the realm of ornithologists who know the life histories and logistical issues relevant to counting birds. This view reflects pure hubris: survey design is a collaboration between ornithologists, statisticians, and managers, in which goals based on management needs are met by applying statistical principles for design to the biological context of the species of interest. Poor survey design is often due to exclusion of some of these partners from survey development. Because ornithologists are too frequently unaware of these issues, books such as Bird Census Techniques take on added importance as manuals for educating ornithologists about

  9. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  10. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird... between real and perceived changes, and the absence of adequate experimental controls. Consequently, we... options and a study plan to evaluate the effect of the proposed action in achieving those objectives. It...

  11. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mityay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics

  12. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  13. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  14. Comparing Aerodynamic Efficiency in Birds and Bats Suggests Better Flight Performance in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  15. Cognitive adaptations of social bonding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Nathan J; Seed, Amanda M; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Clayton, Nicola S

    2007-04-29

    The 'social intelligence hypothesis' was originally conceived to explain how primates may have evolved their superior intellect and large brains when compared with other animals. Although some birds such as corvids may be intellectually comparable to apes, the same relationship between sociality and brain size seen in primates has not been found for birds, possibly suggesting a role for other non-social factors. But bird sociality is different from primate sociality. Most monkeys and apes form stable groups, whereas most birds are monogamous, and only form large flocks outside of the breeding season. Some birds form lifelong pair bonds and these species tend to have the largest brains relative to body size. Some of these species are known for their intellectual abilities (e.g. corvids and parrots), while others are not (e.g. geese and albatrosses). Although socio-ecological factors may explain some of the differences in brain size and intelligence between corvids/parrots and geese/albatrosses, we predict that the type and quality of the bonded relationship is also critical. Indeed, we present empirical evidence that rook and jackdaw partnerships resemble primate and dolphin alliances. Although social interactions within a pair may seem simple on the surface, we argue that cognition may play an important role in the maintenance of long-term relationships, something we name as 'relationship intelligence'.

  16. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  17. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  18. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  19. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  20. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  1. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Globally threatened birds in Mongolia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews status of globally threatened birds (GTBs in Mongolia. Here, we review 26 GTBs from eight orders. In addition, we summarize 10 GTBs recorded during our 2016 field surveys. Swan Geese were most numerous and most frequently sighted of the GTBs with mean 33.8 ± 54.1 counted birds. The Mongolian avifauna survey assessed 476 species of 19 different orders. Twenty-six (5.1% out of 476 species are listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List as GTBs. In addition, there is still a huge lack of investigation for GTBs (indeed, all avifauna of Mongolia. Keywords: Globally threatened birds, International union for conservation of nature, Red list

  3. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  4. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  5. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  6. Tracking radar techniques for studying migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of NASA tracking radar at Wallops Island and the islands of Bermuda and Antigua to plot the paths of migatory birds in three dimensional space is discussed. Attempts were also made to obtain data on the direction, speed, and density of large numbers of migrating birds. Observational results show that the performance of tracking radars vary considerably with the density of bird migration. At light to moderate levels of migration it is possible to obtain tracks of a variety of types of targets, both large and small. During heavy periods of migration the sky is so filled with targets, that only the largest targets can be tracked for more than a few minutes.

  7. Escherichia albertii in Wild and Domestic Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E.; Walk, Seth T.; Gordon, David M.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Burek, Kathy A.; Haldorson, Gary J.; Bradway, Dan S.; Ouellette, Lindsey; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; Davis, Margaret A.; Dobbin, Greg; Whittam, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia albertii has been associated with diarrhea in humans but not with disease or infection in animals. However, in December 2004, E. albertii was found, by biochemical and genetic methods, to be the probable cause of death for redpoll finches (Carduelis flammea) in Alaska. Subsequent investigation found this organism in dead and subclinically infected birds of other species from North America and Australia. Isolates from dead finches in Scotland, previously identified as Escherichia coli O86:K61, also were shown to be E. albertii. Similar to the isolates from humans, E. albertii isolates from birds possessed intimin (eae) and cytolethal distending toxin (cdtB) genes but lacked Shiga toxin (stx) genes. Genetic analysis of eae and cdtB sequences, multilocus sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns showed that the E. albertii strains from birds are heterogeneous but similar to isolates that cause disease in humans. PMID:20350378

  8. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds.

  9. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.P.W.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983 concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the area showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of 137 Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10 -4 mSv h -1 (∼ 8.4 x 10 -4 mGy h -1 , whole-body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10 -4 mGy h -1 . As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day -1 has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effects. (author)

  10. Chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X X; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Qian, A D; Zhu, X Q

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen with a wide range of avian hosts and may be transmitted to humans and cause severe disease. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by pet birds, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci antibodies in 360 Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), 289 oriental skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and 36 black-tailed grosbeaks (Coccothraustes migratorius) in Gansu province, north-western China was detected by an indirect haemagglutination assay. Twenty-seven out of 289 (9.34 %) Alauda arvensis, 45 out of 360 (12.50 %) Carduelis spinus and 2 out of 36 (5.56 %) Coccothraustes migratorius were positive for Chlamydia psittaci infection at a cut-off dilution of 1 : 16. The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci was higher in Carduelis spinus (12.5 %) than in Alauda arvensis (9.34 %) and Coccothraustes migratorius (5.56 %); however, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Statistical analysis indicated that Chlamydia psittaci seroprevalence in adult pet birds (12.4 %, 67/540) was significantly higher than that in juvenile pet birds (4.83 %, 7/145) (P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in Chlamydia psittaci seroprevalence between male (12.4 %) and female (8.27 %) birds. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds in China. Our results indicate that close contact with pet birds poses the risk of zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci.

  11. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Immunogenic proteins specific to different bird species in bird fancier's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzet, Adeline; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Barrera, Coralie; De Vuyst, Paul; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence; Roussel, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Bird fancier's lung (BFL) is a disease produced by exposure to avian proteins present in droppings, blooms, and serum of a variety of birds. Although serological test results are currently used to confirm clinical diagnosis of the disease, bird species specificity is poorly understood. This study aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the specificity of immunogenic proteins revealed from the droppings of three bird species. Sera from four patients with BFL and two controls without exposure were analyzed by Western blotting with antigens from droppings of two pigeon and budgerigar strains and two hen species. When the antigens from the droppings of the three bird species were compared, the profile of immunogenic proteins was different and there were similarities between strains of the same species. Only one 68-kD protein was common to pigeon and budgerigar droppings, while proteins of 200, 175, 140, 100, and 35 kD were detected as specific in one bird species. These results provide insight to further characterize these proteins, and to design new serological tests specific to different bird species. These tests may help to refine strategies of antigenic exclusion and also to allow a patient compensation in case of BFL of occupational origin.

  13. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  14. Radionuclide carrying-out by migratory birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Sabinevskij, B.V.; Komissar, A.D.; Ermakov, A.A.; Kryzhanovskij, V.I.; Mikityuk, Yu.A.; Arkhipchuk, V.A.; Panov, G.M.; Kolesnik, A.D.; Filimonov, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the zoogenic transfer of radionuclides from the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP was necessary because of the enormous heavily polluted territory and mighty flow of migratory birds who tended to large rivers, the Dnieper and Pripyat. The integral estimate of the transferred amount was obtained as a product of three variables: the transfer factor (0.0077 m 2 /kg for 137 Cs; 0.00107 m 2 /kg for 90 Sr), the density of birds (0.002 kg/m 2 , at the mass of migrants about 5000 t per year), and the total fund of radionuclides throughout the territory

  15. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2010-01-01

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  16. An overview of migratory birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Somenzari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the occurrences and distributional patterns of migratory species of birds in Brazil. A species was classified as migratory when at least part of its population performs cyclical, seasonal movements with high fidelity to its breeding grounds. Of the 1,919 species of birds recorded in Brazil, 198 (10.3% are migratory. Of these, 127 (64% were classified as Migratory and 71 (36% as Partially Migratory. A few species (83; 4.3% were classified as Vagrant and eight (0,4% species could not be defined due to limited information available, or due to conflicting data.

  17. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium avium in pet birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Silvia Neri; Sakamoto, Sidnei Miyoshi; de Paula, Cátia Dejuste; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a report on the presence of Mycobacterium avium in four birds of the psittaciform order kept as pets. Anatomopathological diagnosis showed lesions suggestive of the agent and presence of alcohol-acid resistant bacilli (AARB) shown by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The identification of Mycobacterium avium was performed by means of PRA (PCR Restriction Analysis). DNA was directly extracted from tissue of the lesions and blocked in paraffin. The role of this agent in pet bird infection is discussed, as well as its zoonotic potential. PMID:24031356

  20. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcass removal by scavengers has been identified as one of the largest biases in estimating bird mortality from anthropogenic sources. Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies. We placed a bird carcass and time-lapse camera at 44 houses in Edmonton, Alberta. In total, 166 7-day trials were conducted throughout 2015. Time-to-event (survival analysis was used to identify covariates that affected removal. The carcass removal rate was determined for use in estimating the number of birds killed from bird-window collisions at houses in Alberta. In total, 67.5% of carcasses were removed. The date the carcass was placed, the year the house was built, and the level of development within 50 m of the house were the covariates that had the largest effect on carcass removal. In calculating our removal rate, the number of detected carcasses in the first 24 hours was adjusted by 1.47 to account for removal by scavengers. Previously collected citizen science data were used to create an estimate of 957,440 bird deaths each year in Alberta as a result of bird-window collisions with houses. This number is based on the most detailed bird-window collision study at houses to date and a carcass removal study conducted in the same area. Similar localized studies across Canada will need to be completed to reduce the biases that exist with the previous bird-window collision mortality estimate for houses in Canada.

  1. Risk Considerations of Bird Strikes to Space Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.

  2. Net-bottom Cage Inserts for Water Bird Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available My Bright Idea is a net-bottomed cage insert, which is used to support pelagic avian casualties. The idea was designed and modified by the International Bird Rescue in California (Bird Rescue.

  3. Evolution: How Some Birds Survived When All Other Dinosaurs Died.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L

    2016-05-23

    The end-Cretaceous mass extinction wiped out the dinosaurs, including many birds. But some bird lineages survived. May seed-eating have been the key? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  5. From a Bird's Eye View: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Juliann

    2007-01-01

    Inspiring students to learn about birds can be a daunting task--students see birds just about every day and often don't think twice about them. The activity described here is designed to excite students to "become" birds. Students are asked to create a model and tell the life story of a bird by mapping its migration pattern. (Contains 6 figures, 6…

  6. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as follows...

  7. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti–T. gondii–specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  8. Birds of ill omen in Slavic beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksić Nina V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with birds of ill omen and beliefs related to their cries and calls. According to the presence of the ill omen attribute, these birds are sorted into three groups. The paper describes various divination types according to the calls of so-called unclean birds, as well as various prophecies, i.e. their ominous „weight“, on the basis of numerous examples from the Slavic cultural sphere, with additional, more recent examples from the Serbian space. The final remarks are related to four segments: the type of the listed birds’ bad omen (death, disease / year of famine, fire, bad weather; prophecy of evil or merely information, i.e. warning about a possible bad event; the manner of the bird’s prophecy or report of misfortune (a call, a manner of flight etc.; existence of undesirable actions related to certain birds (actions that could result in negative consequences for the person who performs them. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije i izrada multimedijalnog internet portala „Pojmovnik srpske kulture

  9. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...... allowed to settle and express migratory restlessness for at least 30 minutes. Secondly, the flight simulation axis (e.g. E-W or N-S) with the largest angle relative to the bird's migration course was chosen and "flights" of simulated calling conspecifics or the "ding" sound along this axis continued...

  10. Omnivory in birds is a macroevolutionary sink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burin, G.; Kissling, W.D.; Guimarães, P.R.; Şekercioğlu, Ç.H.; Quental, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Diet is commonly assumed to affect the evolution of species, but few studies have directly tested its effect at macroevolutionary scales. Here we use Bayesian models of trait-dependent diversification and a comprehensive dietary database of all birds worldwide to assess speciation and extinction

  11. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  12. Official opening remarks: bird conservation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. W. Bradstreet

    1997-01-01

    It is my pleasure, as Executive Director of Bird Studies Canada (BSC), to take part in the opening ceremonies of the Second International Symposium: Biology and Conservation of Owls of the Northern Hemisphere. It is entirely appropriate that this symposium should take place in one of the colder cities in the Northern Hemisphere, in mid-winter, and it is fitting that...

  13. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan: Some Thoughts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan: Some Thoughts. K R Y Simha. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 31-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/10/0031-0039 ...

  14. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  15. Intractable Tangles in the Bird Family Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Roland G

    2015-08-01

    Rapid sequential speciation events can outpace the fixation of genetic variants, resulting in a family tree that lacks clear branching patterns. A new study of bird genomes reveals such an explosive super-radiation that may coincide with the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period.

  16. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  17. Teaching Bird Identification & Vocabulary with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Tyler A.; Robinson, W. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Species identification is essential to biology, conservation, and management. The ability to focus on specific diagnostic characteristics of a species helps improve the speed and accuracy of identification. Birds are excellent subjects for teaching species identification because, in combination with their different shapes and sizes, their plumages…

  18. Fungal diseases of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L

    2003-05-01

    Aspergillosis and candidiasis are ranked among the most common infectious diseases in birds of prey. The prevention of these fungal diseases is often easier than treatment. Thus the clinician should strive to prevent infection by minimizing stress, maintaining a healthy environment, limiting long-term use of antibiotics and corticosteroids, and reducing exposure to fungal organisms. Although less commonly diagnosed among wild, free-ranging birds of prey, a high incidence in a free-ranging population should make the clinician think of an immunocompromising factor (i.e., toxins, human encroachment or low prey base) that may be contributing to infection. The diagnosis of aspergillosis and candidiasis often requires more than just the identification of the agent, as these ubiquitous organisms often are cultured from healthy birds of prey. In those birds of prey in which a fungal infection is highly suspected or proven, antifungal drugs remain the mainstay of treatment, although available drugs and modes of delivery have improved in recent years.

  19. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian’s clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed. PMID:23687940

  20. On the magnetoreception mechanism in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses a mechanism of avian magnetoreception, which is based on the interaction of magnetite and maghemite micro particles, recently found in subcellular compartments within the sensory dendrites of the upper beak of several bird species. The analysis of forces acting between...

  1. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, D.S.; Gangoso, L.; Bouten, W.; Figuerola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has

  2. Book review - The saga of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sankar Chatterjee 2015. The Rise of Birds. 225 Million Years of Evolution. Second Edition. 370 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1590-1 (hardcover. Price $59.95; e-book $59.95.

  3. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  4. Influence of hiking trails on montane birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William V. Deluca; David I. King

    2014-01-01

    Montane forests contribute significantly to regional biodiversity. Long-term monitoring data, often located along hiking trails, suggests that several indicator species of this ecosystem have declined in recent decades. Declining montane bird populations have been attributed to anthropogenic stressors such as climate change and atmospheric deposition. Several studies...

  5. Burning for birds: concepts and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Todd Engstrom; David J. Brownlie

    2002-01-01

    Prescribed fire is being used extensively for habitat management of non-game birds, although the area burned today is small relative to the amount of land that burned historically. Results of a non-scientific questionnaire of public and private land managers in the eastern U.S. revealed prescribed fire is being used to provide winter, breeding season, and migration...

  6. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseret, Geraldine; Losson, Bertrand; Mainil, Jacques G; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-05-20

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian's clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed.

  7. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  8. Angry Birds Mathematics: Parabolas and Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, John H.

    2013-01-01

    John Lamb, a professor of mathematics education and a teacher of high school precalculus, describes how he developed a way to use the elements of the game Angry Birds® as a platform to engage his students with the concepts of parabolas and vectors. The game could be categorized as a type of microworld game in which students interact with the…

  9. Flightlessness affects cranial morphology in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Cubo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Flightless birds belonging to phylogenetically distant clades share several morphological features in the pectoral and pelvic apparatus. There are indications that skull morphology is also influenced by flightlessness. In this study we used a large number of flightless species to test whether

  10. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two gradients of increasing vegetation structural heterogeneity were most important in influencing bird community composition and had positive effects on species diversity and the presence of most of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, which also had positive effects on species ...

  11. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1. Basic characteristics of the four small forests included in this study. Feature. Ziika. Rubanga. Rabongo. Zoka. Size (ha). 12 c.20 c.200 c.700 ... FF species are forest interior specialists, often uncommon even at the forest edge. F species are generalists in their ecology, occasionally occurring outside forests. Birds of ...

  12. Bird-marking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Since May of this year the Museum of Natural History at Leyden is carrying into execution the inquiry into migration and other movements of birds in the Netherlands by means of aluminium rings. The results will be published in this periodical and at the same time in Dutch in the periodical of the

  13. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome

  14. Bird of Passage at Four Universities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE │ May 2010. GENERAL │ ARTICLE. Bird of Passage at Four Universities. Student Days of Rudolph Peierls. G Baskaran. Keywords. Peierls, Sommerfeld, Heisen- berg, Pauli, theoretical physics, electron theory of solids. G Baskaran is a theoretical physicist. This article is his first contribution to. Resonance.

  15. Optimal moult strategies in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zoltán; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Weber, Thomas P; Hedenström, Anders; Feró, Orsolya

    2008-01-27

    Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after arrival in the wintering quarters. Here we use an optimal annual routine model to investigate why this variation exists. The modelled bird's decisions depend on the time of year, its energy reserves, breeding status, experience, flight feather quality and location. Our results suggest that the temporal and spatial variations in food are an important influence on a migratory bird's annual cycle. Summer moult occurs when food has a high peak on the breeding site in the summer, but it is less seasonal elsewhere. Winter moult occurs if there is a short period of high food availability in summer and a strong winter peak at different locations (i.e. the food is very seasonal but in opposite phase on these areas). This finding might explain why only long-distance migrants have a winter moult.

  16. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... shared a common scientific underpinning. Alternative 39 was deemed to best balance tradeoffs among... Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88- 14),'' filed with the Environmental...

  17. 78 FR 65955 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control Order for Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... 2 asphyxiation. Any time that euthanasia of a bird is necessary, you must follow the American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines on Euthanasia. (2) If you use a firearm to kill cattle egrets or...

  18. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... adequately and, therefore, we made them final beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season. We should stress... MCP sport harvest, including crippling losses, was 38,561 birds, which was a 51 percent increase from...

  19. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... adequately and, therefore, we made them final beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season. We should stress... American MCP sport harvest, including crippling losses, was 25,731 birds, which was a 39 percent decrease...

  20. Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Worthy, Trevor H; Wood, Jamie; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-23

    The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    Oil-pollution monitoring at sea through beach bird surveying would undoubtedly benefit from a further standardisation of methods, enhancing the efficiency of data collection. In order to come up with useful recommendations, we evaluated various approaches of beached bird collection at the Belgian coast during seven winters (1993-1999). Data received in a passive way by one major rehabilitation centre were compared to the results of targeted beach surveys carried out at different scales by trained ornithologists: 'weekly' surveys - with a mean interval of 9 days - restricted to a fixed 16.7 km beach stretch, 'monthly' surveys over the entire coastline (62.1 km) and an annual 'international' survey in Belgium over the same distance at the end of February. Data collected through Belgian rehabilitation centres concern injured, living birds collected in a non-systematical way. Oil rates derived from these centres appear to be strongly biased to oiled auks and inshore bird species, and are hence of little use in assessing the extent of oil pollution at sea. The major asset of rehabilitation centres in terms of data collection seems to be their continuous warning function for events of mass mortality. Weekly surveys on a representative and large enough section rendered reliable data on oil rates, estimates of total number of bird victims, representation of various taxonomic groups and species-richness and were most sensitive in detecting events quickly (wrecks, oil-slicks, severe winter mortality, etc.). Monthly surveys gave comparable results, although they overlooked some important beaching events and demonstrated slightly higher oil rates, probably due to the higher chance to miss short-lasting wrecks of auks. Since the monthly surveys in Belgium were carried out by a network of volunteers and were spread over a larger beach section, they should be considered as best performing. Single 'international beached bird surveys' in February gave reliable data on total victim

  2. Preliminary checklists for two Important Bird Areas of Ethiopia: Sof ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia harbours 837 bird species, 18 of which are endemic and a further 14 near endemic (shared with Eritrea) (Ash & Atkins 2009). To promote the conservation of these birds and their habitats, 69 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) were identified for. Ethiopia (Fishpool & Evans 2001). These important areas were selected ...

  3. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  4. Bird use of banana plantations adjacent to Kibale National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate bird use of a widespread matrix habitat in forested landscapes of western Uganda, I used mist nets to compare bird communities in the understory of continuous forest and adjacent banana plantations. Frugivorous and insectivorous birds accounted for a higher proportion of captures in the forest habitat than in ...

  5. European birds and aposematic Heteroptera: review of comparative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Svádová, K.; Fousová, P.; Fučiková, E.; Ježová, D.; Niederlová, A.; Kopečková, M.; Štys, P.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of defensive mechanisms in 11 European aposematic species of Heteroptera against various passerine predators was analysed. Bird species differed in their reactions to aposematic preys: small insectivorous birds generally avoided aposematic bugs, but granivorous birds as well as large

  6. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance AGENCY: Fish and... mail to: Attention: Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish... implementing statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  7. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17 Section 14.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port...

  8. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or birds...

  9. Birds as subjects in Setswana folklore: Depiction of their relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setswana folktales and proverbs about birds demonstrate the deep-rooted understanding of natural history by Africans in general and the Batswana people in particular. Traditionally, birds played a central role in the life of the Batswana, because birds share their physical space, resources and food, and in so doing impact ...

  10. All about Birds. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Winged, feathered friends helped to inspire the airplane and have always interested human bird watchers. In this videotape, children learn about the main characteristics of birds and look at their similar needs. Students find out about the process of egg laying and hatching in some of the most common birds. This videotape correlates to the…

  11. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  12. Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avifauna of differently disturbed forest types of Kakamega Afrotropical forest were compared from December 2004 to May 2005. A total of 11 220 individual birds comprising of 129 bird species were recorded. Significant differences in abundance of birds among Psidium guajava, Bischoffia javanica, mixed indigenous, ...

  13. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  14. Combined Fish and Birds survey in the Dutch coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, M.S.; Couperus, A.S.; Grift, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between birds and fish is important when assessing the impact of infrastructural development on birds and fish in the coastal zone. It can have a direct effect on bird migration routes and resting areas. It can also have an indirect effect by changing the fish community

  15. The Birds of Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1957-01-01

    This is the second and concluding part of a report on the birds of the Netherlands Antilles, the first part dealt with the birds of St. Martin, Saba, and St. Eustatius (Studies fauna Curaçao Car. Is. 6, no. 25, 1955, p. 1-82). The present part will give a full account of the birds of Aruba, Curaçao,

  16. A review of climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?

  17. Integrated bird conservation web site in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxanne Bogart; Chris Eberly; Elizabeth Martin

    2005-01-01

    In working towards a vision of integrated bird conservation, scientists, conservationists, land managers, and administrators are faced with a variety of scientific, managerial, administrative, and logistical challenges and complexities. The broad scope of integrated bird conservation requires organizations to work together to conserve birds across taxonomic groups,...

  18. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  19. Nest defense- Grassland bird responses to snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Predation is the primary source of nest mortality for most passerines; thus, behaviors to reduce the impacts of predation are frequently quantified to study learning, adaptation, and coevolution among predator and prey species. Video surveillance of nests has made it possible to examine real-time parental nest defense. During 1999-2009, we used video camera systems to monitor 518 nests of grassland birds. We reviewed video of 48 visits by snakes to 34 nests; 37 of these visits resulted in predation of active nests. When adult birds encountered snakes at the nest (n = 33 visits), 76% of the encounters resulted in a form of nest defense (nonaggressive or aggressive); in 47% of the encounters, birds physically struck snakes. When defending nests, most birds pecked at the snakes; Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) pecked most frequently in anyone encounter. Also, two Eastern Meadowlarks ran around snakes, frequently with wings spread, and three Bobolinks struck at snakes from the air. Nest defense rarely appeared to alter snake behavior; the contents of seven nests defended aggressively and two nests defended nonaggressively were partially depredated, whereas the contents of six nests defended each way were consumed completely. One fledgling was produced at each of three nests that had been aggressively defended. During aggressive defense, one snake appeared to be driven away and one was wounded. Our findings should be a useful starting point for further research. For example, future researchers may be able to determine whether the behavioral variation we observed in nest defense reflects species differences, anatomic or phylogenetic constraints, or individual differences related to a bird's prior experience. There appears to be much potential for studying nest defense behavior using video recording of both real and simulated encounters. 

  20. Music for the birds: effects of auditory enrichment on captive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of mixed species exhibits in zoos, targeting enrichment for individual species may be problematic. Often, mammals may be the primary targets of enrichment, yet other species that share their environment (such as birds) will unavoidably be exposed to the enrichment as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) auditory stimuli designed for enrichment of primates influenced the behavior of captive birds in the zoo setting, and (2) if the specific type of auditory enrichment impacted bird behavior. Three different African bird species were observed at the Buffalo Zoo during exposure to natural sounds, classical music and rock music. The results revealed that the average frequency of flying in all three bird species increased with naturalistic sounds and decreased with rock music (F = 7.63, df = 3,6, P = 0.018); vocalizations for two of the three species (Superb Starlings and Mousebirds) increased (F = 18.61, df = 2,6, P = 0.0027) in response to all auditory stimuli, however one species (Lady Ross's Turacos) increased frequency of duetting only in response to rock music (X(2) = 18.5, df = 2, P < 0.0001). Auditory enrichment implemented for large mammals may influence behavior in non-target species as well, in this case leading to increased activity by birds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bird species and numbers of birds in oak savannas of the Southwestern Borderlands region including effects of burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Hui Chen; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Oak savannas of the Southwestern Borderlands region provide food, cover, and sites for nesting, roosting, and perching for a diversity of bird species. The results of a five-year (2003-2007) study of bird species, numbers of birds, and their diversities in the naturally occurring (unburned) oak savannas of the region are reported in this paper. Effects of cool-season...

  2. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for...

  3. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  4. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  5. The use of birds as pets in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rold?n-Clar?, Blanca; Toledo, V?ctor M.; Espejel, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of birds as pets has been a historical tradition in Mexico since prehispanic times. It has survived through bird traders, called pajareros, which is a local name given to the trade (derived from p?jaro, the Spanish word for bird). However, the trade of birds has not been sufficiently described; therefore, the goal of this paper is to analyze the bird trade in Mexico using the components of an ethnoecology scheme known as kosmos-corpus-praxis complex. Methods Qualitative res...

  6. Radionuclides in Tissues of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.; Matishov, D.

    2004-01-01

    The birds are higher links of trophic nets of marine ecosystems and are capable to store in organs and tissues radionuclides. We can inspect radionuclides contents in marine ecosystems on a their contents of in birds. Objects of our research were marine birds, including seagull (the Herring gull Larus aregentatus, the Great Blackback Larus marinus), the Black guillemot Cepphus grylle, the Eider Somateria mollissima, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and the Arctic Stercorarius parasiticus. Researches were conducted in August 2000 and 2001 near to the biological station of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in a point Dalnije Zelentsy on the cost of the Sea Barents. Contents of plutonium-239, 240, cesium-137 and strontium-90 in bones, skin and fatherless and muscles of birds were researched. The contents of cesium - 137 varied from 0,99 Bq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Herring gull up to 177 Bq/kg in muscles of the Great Blackback, the contents strontium-90 varied from 25 mBq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant up to 7140 mBq/kg in bones the Eider. The contents of plutonium-239,240 varied from 1,8 mBq/kg in muscles of the Eider up to 23 mBq/kg in skeleton of the Great Blackback. The content of this radionuclide was higher for adult, i.e. was enlarged with age. Higher concentrations in tissues are founded for the Eider and the Great Blackback. So, the average concentrations of cesium - 137 in muscles the Eider have constituted 1,5 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback -73,5 Bq/kg, the Black guillemot -16 Bq/kg, the Arctic scua - 1,3 Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 8,7 Bq/kg. Average concentrations of cesium - 137 in bones of the Eider were1,6 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback - 19,8Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 2,2 Bq/kg. The average concentrations strontium-90 in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant were 20 mBq/kg, the Great Blackback - 1288 mBq/kg, the Herring gull - 690 mBq/kg. It is founded that distribution the contents of strontium-90 in bones significantly varies from species

  7. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  8. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei; An, Na; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Qi

    2014-12-12

    Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous protein-coding sites than autosomes, driven by the male-to-female mutation bias ('male-driven evolution' effect). Our genome-wide estimate reveals that the degree of such a bias ranges from 1.6 to 3.8 among different species. G + C content of third codon positions exhibits the same trend of gradual changes with that of introns, between chrZ and autosomes or regions with increasing ages of becoming Z-linked, therefore codon usage bias in birds is probably driven by the mutational bias. On the other hand, Z chromosomes also evolve significantly faster at nonsynonymous sites relative to autosomes ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic drift. Finally, we show in species except for chicken, gene expression becomes more male-biased within Z-linked regions that have became hemizygous in females for a longer time, suggesting a lack of global dosage compensation in birds, and the reported regional dosage compensation in chicken has only evolved very recently. In conclusion, we uncover that the sequence and expression patterns of Z chromosome genes covary with their ages of becoming Z-linked. In contrast to the mammalian X chromosomes, such

  9. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hen Hsieh

    Full Text Available From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  10. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Wu, Jianhong; Fang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Lou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic) birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  11. THE SEMANTICS OF BIRD DENOMINATIONS IN THE MARI LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Yuzieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the semantics of bird denominations in Mari: an attempt is made to define the factors, or features, motivating bird denominations. Analysis is based on a set of words of inner origin that are part of the corpus of bird names compiled by the author. The results show that the ornithonomy of the Mari language, created over centuries, constitutes a well-shaped system. It reflects a variety of features associated with the appearance, way of life of the birds, sounds they produce, etc. Many bird terms reflect features of appearance. It is interesting to note that the names of birds not seen for some reason may relate to the characteristics of the birds’ voices. In some cases, terms are based on a combination of features.In dialects, different names for same birds may occur, as observed in the sources.

  12. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  13. Bird community response to filter strips in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Dively, G.P.; Gill, D.E.; Rewa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Filter strips are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted along agricultural field margins adjacent to streams or wetlands and are designed to intercept sediment, nutrients, and agrichemicals. Roughly 16,000 ha of filter strips have been established in Maryland through the United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program. Filter strips often represent the only uncultivated herbaceous areas on farmland in Maryland and therefore may be important habitat for early-successional bird species. Most filter strips in Maryland are planted to either native warm-season grasses or cool-season grasses and range in width from 10.7 m to 91.4 m. From 2004 to 2007 we studied the breeding and wintering bird communities in filter strips adjacent to wooded edges and non-buffered field edges and the effect that grass type and width of filter strips had on bird community composition. We used 5 bird community metrics (total bird density, species richness, scrub-shrub bird density, grassland bird density, and total avian conservation value), species-specific densities, nest densities, and nest survival estimates to assess the habitat value of filter strips for birds. Breeding and wintering bird community metrics were greater in filter strips than in non-buffered field edges but did not differ between cool-season and warm-season grass filter strips. Most breeding bird community metrics were negatively related to the percent cover of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) in ???1 yr. Breeding bird density was greater in narrow (60 m) filter strips. Our results suggest that narrow filter strips adjacent to wooded edges can provide habitat for many bird species but that wide filter strips provide better habitat for grassland birds, particularly obligate grassland species. If bird conservation is an objective, avoid planting orchardgrass in filter strips and reduce or eliminate orchardgrass from filter strips through management practices. Copyright ?? 2011 The

  14. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  15. Forest fragmentation and its effects on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Johnson, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest land, whether by suburban development, highways, transmission lines, or poorly planned cutting regimes, seriously affects reproduction by the large numbers of obligate forest interior birds. Many of our warblers, vireos, thrushes, tanagers, and flycatchers are highly migratory insectivorous birds that spend more than half the year in the neotropics, but migrate north to the United States and Canada to rear their young. These tropical visitors are especially vulnerable to predation and cowbird parasitism and are unable to maintain their populations within 100-200 m of forest edge. Habitats for these declining species can be provided by managing forest lands in large blocks so as to maintain at all times extensive contiguous areas of successional stages as well as of mature forest. Avoiding scattered small cuts will also help by reducing edge, road construction, and other disturbance.

  16. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget D. Samuels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways.

  17. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Bridget D

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways.

  18. Project BIRD WATCH at Dover AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    in a BIRDWATCH warning system, (3) quantified the relationship between the detection coverage requirements and the time delay required to detect a...ATC Battalions who performed the immediate BIRDWaTCH functions at Dover AFB in a timely, effective, and professional manner. iv1 iv * TABLE OF CONTENTS...7 3.0 DEFINITION OF A BIRDWATCH WARNING SYSTEM ... ...... 25 3.1 Bird Threat Definition ...... ............ 25 3.2 Radar Cross

  19. Blood parasites in birds from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Amy F; Robert, Vincent; Goodman, Steven M; Raharimanga, Vahomalala; Raherilalao, Marie Jeanne; Andrianarimisa, Aristide; Ariey, Frédéric; Greiner, Ellis C

    2009-10-01

    Madagascar has long been recognized for its unique and diverse biota. In particular, significant effort has been made to establish baseline population data to better conserve the endemic avifauna. During field expeditions between 1993 and 2004, birds were mist-netted at 11 different sites, at elevations from 60 m to 2,050 m above sea level. Data on endemic status, forest type, and habitat preference were recorded. Thin blood films from 947 birds, belonging to 26 families and 64 species, were examined by light microscopy to determine the prevalence of blood parasites. Of these 947 birds, 30.7% were infected by at least one species of blood parasite, 26.8% of which were infected by more than one species. Species of Haemoproteus were the most prevalent (17.4%), followed by microfilariae (11.0%), Leucocytozoon spp. (9.4%), Plasmodium spp. (1.9%), Trypanosoma spp. (0.9%), and Babesia spp. (0.2%). Species level identifications confirmed the presence of 47 species of hemosporidians and trypanosomes, which is notably high and mirrors the diversity of their avian hosts. Eleven (23.4%) of these parasite species were new to science and thought to be endemic to the island. Significant differences in prevalence were observed by sample site, forest type (humid vs. dry), and habitat preference. Birds from all elevational zones sampled were infected, although not all parasite genera were present in each zone. Four of the six endemic avian families or subfamilies (Bernieridae, Brachypteraciidae, Philepittinae [Eurylaimidae], and Vangidae) were sampled and found to be parasitized. Of the families with the largest sample sizes, the Zosteropidae and Ploceidae had the highest prevalence of infection (65.6% and 49.3%, respectively). The vectors of hematozoan parasites in Madagascar are currently unknown. These results add to the current knowledge of avian parasitism in Madagascar and are of particular interest for the conservation of endemic species, as well as threatened or endangered

  20. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  1. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  2. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mityay I.S.; Matsyura A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similar...

  3. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Mityay; A. V. Matsyura

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa,...

  4. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2010-01-01

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound (∼0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  5. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobalske, Bret W, E-mail: bret.tobalske@mso.umt.ed [Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound ({approx}0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  6. Landscape associations of birds during migratory stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert Howard

    The challenge for migratory bird conservation is habitat preservation that sustains breeding, migration, and non-breeding biological processes. In choosing an appropriately scaled conservation arena for habitat preservation, a conservative and thorough examination of stopover habitat use patterns by migrants works back from the larger scales at which such relationships may occur. Because the use of stopover habitats by migrating birds occurs at spatial scales larger than traditional field techniques can easily accommodate, I quantify these relationship using the United States system of weather surveillance radars (popularly known as NEXRAD). To provide perspective on use of this system for biologists, I first describe the technical challenges as well as some of the biological potential of these radars for ornithological research. Using data from these radars, I then examined the influence of Lake Michigan and the distribution of woodland habitat on migrant concentrations in northeastern Illinois habitats during stopover. Lake Michigan exerted less influence on migrant abundance and density than the distribution and availability of habitat for stopover. There was evidence of post-migratory movement resulting in habitats within suburban landscapes experiencing higher migrant abundance but lower migrant density than habitats within nearby urban and agricultural landscapes. Finally, in the context of hierarchy theory, I examined the influence of landscape ecological and behavioral processes on bird density during migratory stopover. Migrant abundance did not vary across landscapes that differed considerably in the amount of habitat available for stopover. As a result, smaller, more isolated patches held higher densities of birds. Spatial models of migrant habitat selection based on migrant proximity to a patch explained nearly as much variance in the number of migrants occupying patches (R2 = 0.88) as selection models based on migrant interception of patches during

  7. Phylogeny and species traits predict bird detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymos, Peter; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Stralberg, Diana; Barker, Nicole K. S.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2018-01-01

    Avian acoustic communication has resulted from evolutionary pressures and ecological constraints. We therefore expect that auditory detectability in birds might be predictable by species traits and phylogenetic relatedness. We evaluated the relationship between phylogeny, species traits, and field‐based estimates of the two processes that determine species detectability (singing rate and detection distance) for 141 bird species breeding in boreal North America. We used phylogenetic mixed models and cross‐validation to compare the relative merits of using trait data only, phylogeny only, or the combination of both to predict detectability. We found a strong phylogenetic signal in both singing rates and detection distances; however the strength of phylogenetic effects was less than expected under Brownian motion evolution. The evolution of behavioural traits that determine singing rates was found to be more labile, leaving more room for species to evolve independently, whereas detection distance was mostly determined by anatomy (i.e. body size) and thus the laws of physics. Our findings can help in disentangling how complex ecological and evolutionary mechanisms have shaped different aspects of detectability in boreal birds. Such information can greatly inform single‐ and multi‐species models but more work is required to better understand how to best correct possible biases in phylogenetic diversity and other community metrics.

  8. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  9. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  10. On the maintenance of bird song dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planqué, Robert; Britton, Nicholas F; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Many bird species, especially song birds but also for instance some hummingbirds and parrots, have noted dialects. By this we mean that locally a particular song is sung by the majority of the birds, but that neighbouring patches may feature different song types. Behavioural ecologists have been interested in how such dialects come about and how they are maintained for over 45 years. As a result, a great deal is known about different mechanisms at play, such as dispersal, assortative mating and learning of songs, and there are several competing hypotheses to explain the dialect patterns known in nature. There is, however, surprisingly little theoretical work testing these different hypotheses at present. We analyse the simplest kind of model that takes into account the most important biological mechanisms, and in which one may speak of dialects: a model in which there are but two patches, and two song types. It teaches us that a combination of little dispersal and strong assortative mating ensures dialects are maintained. Assuming a simple, linear frequency-dependent learning rule has little effect on the maintenance of dialects. A nonlinear learning rule, however, has dramatic consequences and greatly facilitates dialect maintenance. Adding fitness benefits for singing particular songs in a given patch also has a great impact. Now rare song types may invade and remain in the population.

  11. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are no guidelines available specifically describing the practice of data management, preparation and analyses of ringing datasets. Here, we present the first of a series of comprehensive tutorials that may help fill this gap. We describe in detail and through a real-life example the intricacies of data cleaning and how to create a data table ready for analyses from raw ringing data in the R software environment. Moreover, we created and present here the R package; ringR, designed to carry out various specific tasks and plots related to bird ringing data. Most methods described here can also be applied to a wide range of capture-recapture type data based on individual marking, regardless to taxa or research question.

  12. Avian malaria and bird humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Jessica; Jenkins, Tania; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe

    2018-02-09

    Plasmodium parasites are known to impose fitness costs on their vertebrate hosts. Some of these costs are due to the activation of the immune response, which may divert resources away from self-maintenance. Plasmodium parasites may also immuno-deplete their hosts. Thus, infected individuals may be less able to mount an immune response to a new pathogen than uninfected ones. However, this has been poorly investigated. The effect of Plasmodium infection on bird humoral immune response when encountering a novel antigen was tested. A laboratory experiment was conducted on canaries (Serinus canaria) experimentally infected with Plasmodium relictum (lineage SGS1) under controlled conditions. Birds were immune challenged with an intra-pectoral injection of a novel non-pathogenic antigen (keyhole limpet haemocyanin, KLH). One week later they were challenged again. The immune responses to the primary and to the secondary contacts were quantified as anti-KLH antibody production via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was no significant difference in antibody production between uninfected and Plasmodium infected birds at both primary and secondary contact. However, Plasmodium parasite intensity in the blood increased after the primary contact with the antigen. There was no effect of Plasmodium infection on the magnitude of the humoral immune response. However, there was a cost of mounting an immune response in infected individuals as parasitaemia increased after the immune challenge, suggesting a trade-off between current control of chronic Plasmodium infection and investment against a new immune challenge.

  13. A new basal bird from China with implications for morphological diversity in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2016-01-25

    The Chinese Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group is the second oldest fossil bird-bearing deposit, only surpassed by Archaeopteryx from the German Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestones. Here we report a new bird, Chongmingia zhengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Jehol Biota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Chongmingia zhengi is basal to the dominant Mesozoic avian clades Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, and represents a new basal avialan lineage. This new discovery adds to our knowledge regarding the phylogenetic differentiation and morphological diversity in early avian evolution. The furcula of Chongmingia is rigid (reducing its efficiency), consequently requiring more power for flight. However, the elongated forelimb and the large deltopectoral crest on the humerus might indicate that the power was available. The unique combination of features present in this species demonstrates that numerous evolutionary experimentations took place in the early evolution of powered flight. The occurrence of gastroliths further confirms that herbivory was common among basal birds. The Jehol birds faced competition with pterosaurs, and occupied sympatric habitats with non-avian theropods, some of which consumed birds. Thus, avialan herbivory may have reduced ecological competition from carnivorous close relatives and other volant vertebrates early in their evolutionary history.

  14. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  15. A new basal bird from China with implications for morphological diversity in early birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group is the second oldest fossil bird-bearing deposit, only surpassed by Archaeopteryx from the German Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestones. Here we report a new bird, Chongmingia zhengi gen. et sp. nov., from the Jehol Biota. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Chongmingia zhengi is basal to the dominant Mesozoic avian clades Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, and represents a new basal avialan lineage. This new discovery adds to our knowledge regarding the phylogenetic differentiation and morphological diversity in early avian evolution. The furcula of Chongmingia is rigid (reducing its efficiency), consequently requiring more power for flight. However, the elongated forelimb and the large deltopectoral crest on the humerus might indicate that the power was available. The unique combination of features present in this species demonstrates that numerous evolutionary experimentations took place in the early evolution of powered flight. The occurrence of gastroliths further confirms that herbivory was common among basal birds. The Jehol birds faced competition with pterosaurs, and occupied sympatric habitats with non-avian theropods, some of which consumed birds. Thus, avialan herbivory may have reduced ecological competition from carnivorous close relatives and other volant vertebrates early in their evolutionary history. PMID:26806355

  16. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Steadman, David W; Witt, Christopher C

    2016-04-26

    Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The "island rule" predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its general applicability to birds is questionable. However, convergent evolution has clearly occurred in the island bird lineages that have undergone transitions to secondary flightlessness, a process involving drastic reduction of the flight muscles and enlargement of the hindlimbs. Here, we investigated whether volant island bird populations tend to change shape in a way that converges subtly on the flightless form. We found that island bird species have evolved smaller flight muscles than their continental relatives. Furthermore, in 366 populations of Caribbean and Pacific birds, smaller flight muscles and longer legs evolved in response to increasing insularity and, strikingly, the scarcity of avian and mammalian predators. On smaller islands with fewer predators, birds exhibited shifts in investment from forelimbs to hindlimbs that were qualitatively similar to anatomical rearrangements observed in flightless birds. These findings suggest that island bird populations tend to evolve on a trajectory toward flightlessness, even if most remain volant. This pattern was consistent across nine families and four orders that vary in lifestyle, foraging behavior, flight style, and body size. These predictable shifts in avian morphology may reduce the physical capacity for escape via flight and diminish the potential for small-island taxa to diversify via dispersal.

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. Kelly [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, Murray [CDM Smith, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [Xcel Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, Robert Trent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950 2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species approximately 10% of the total number of species observed have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, M. C. [CDM Smith (United States); Haines, A. M. [Xcel Engineering, Inc.(United States); Evans, J. W. [Tennessee WIldlife Resources Agency (WRA), Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950-2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species--approximately 10% of the total number of species observed--have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  19. Phylogeny mandalas of birds using the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masami; Kuroda, Sayako

    2017-12-01

    The phylogeny mandala, which is a circular phylogeny with photos or drawings of species, is a suitable way to show visually how the biodiversity has developed in the course of evolution as clarified by the molecular phylogenetics. In this article, in order to demonstrate the recent progress of avian molecular phylogenetics, six phylogeny mandalas of various taxonomic groups of birds are presented with the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books; i.e., (1) whole Aves, (2) Passeriformes, (3) Paradisaeidae in Corvoidea (Passeriformes), (4) Meliphagoidea (Passeriformes), (5) Trochili in Apodiformes, and (6) Galliformes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavior and spatial learning in radial mazes in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskacheva, M G

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses studies of spatial memory and learning in birds performed using the radial maze method. Descriptions of different versions of this test (standard and "giant" tunnel-type mazes, as well as unstructured "analogs") are described and the methodological problems of testing birds are discussed. Behavioral measures from birds and laboratory rats, as the "standard" system for radial maze studies, are compared. The characteristics of spatial learning in birds of different systematic groups (pigeons, tits, corvids, chickens, etc.) are compared. Particular attention is paid to studies addressing spatial memory in closely related bird species with different ecological features, in terms of the ability to hoard food and finding their hoards after prolonged time periods, as well as to the few reports of results from experiments with migrant birds and homing pigeons.

  1. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  2. Avian Alert - a bird migration early warning system

    OpenAIRE

    van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in information on bird movements. Collecting and disseminating useful information about such mobile creatures exhibiting diverse behaviour is no simple task. However, ESA’s Integrated Application Promo...

  3. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  4. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisel...

  5. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  6. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  7. Factors affecting food choices by birds in winter

    OpenAIRE

    Korencová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    I studied food choices of four small passerine species in winter on an artifical source of food, a bird feeder. I did experiments with two different types of food. I proposed that birds would prefer the type of food with higher contain of fat and calories. Food preferences were shown, but independently on calories contain. Greenfinches always selected sunflower seeds. I conclude, this species is affected by tradition, because it is usually fed by sunflower seeds in all bird feeders in vicinit...

  8. Neurotoxic pesticides and behavioural effects upon birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C H

    2003-01-01

    Organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides and organomercury fungicides are all neurotoxic and therefore have the potential to cause behavioural disturbances in birds. A number of studies have described behavioural effects caused to captive birds by neurotoxic pesticides, but it is very difficult to measure such effects in the field, which is a serous limitation given their potential to cause adverse effects at the population level. The mode of action, and the neurotoxic and behavioural effects of these compounds are briefly reviewed before considering evidence for their effects in the laboratory and field. Behavioural effects may cause adverse changes at the population level either directly or indirectly. Direct effects upon avian populations may be due to disturbances of reproduction, feeding, or avoidance of predation. Indirect effects on predators may be the consequence of direct action upon the prey population leading to either (1) reduction of numbers of the prey population, or (2) selective predation by the predator upon the most contaminated individuals within the prey population. Attention is given to the historic evidence for neurotoxic and behavioural effects of persistent organochlorine insecticides, raising the question of retrospective analysis of existing data for this once important and intensively studied class of compounds. Less persistent pesticides currently in use may also have neurotoxic effects upon birds in the field. Sometimes, as with some OPs, their effects may outlast the persistence of their residues, and the ecotoxicity and persistence of some may be affected by interactions with other environmental chemicals. The development of new mechanistic biomarker assays could improve understanding of behavioural effects and possible associated effects at the population level caused by such compounds in the field.

  9. Light dulls and darkens bird eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Y Navarro

    Full Text Available Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250-800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.

  10. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J; Forbes, N A; Thielebein, J; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2003-12-13

    Pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was applied to 111 diurnal and nocturnal raptors of both sexes weighing between 190 and 4200 g. In the first stage, 40 birds were examined without special preparation; in the second stage, 15 birds were examined first when they were not anaesthetised and then when they were anaesthetised; in the third stage, 41 birds were examined after they had been fasted for different periods of time; and finally 15 birds, in which echocardiography had not been possible by using standard (dorsal) restraint and positioning, were examined after being placed in lateral and ventral recumbency. Doppler-derived diastolic inflow into the ventricles was detectable in approximately 80 per cent of the birds weighing between 190 and 2300 g independently of their weight, heart rate and whether they had been anaesthetised or fasted, and aortic blood flow was detected in about 50 per cent of them. It was possible to apply the technique under standard conditions of dorsal recumbency to only one of the birds weighing more than 3000 g and to about 80 per cent of those weighing between 190 and 2300 g. In 11 of 15 birds in which the technique could not be applied under standard conditions, blood flow could be detected in the ventricles and/or the aorta after the birds had been repositioned. No systolic blood flow through the pulmonary artery was detectable in any of the birds.

  12. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...... individuals specialised in pecking at other specific birds, at specific areas of the body or at birds engaged in specific activities. 5. Growers (3 groups, experiment 2) that had just feather pecked engaged in more feather pecking during a subsequent 2-min focal observation than control birds that had...

  13. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaugg, S.; Saporta, G.; van Loon, E.; Schmaljohann, H.; Liechti, F.

    2008-01-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical

  14. 19 CFR 10.75 - Wild animals and birds; zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. 10... Animals and Birds § 10.75 Wild animals and birds; zoological collections. When wild animals or birds are... animals or birds were specially imported pursuant to negotiations conducted prior to importation for the...

  15. Songbirds and Birds of Prey, Unit 6, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jon K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on songbirds and birds of prey is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue environmental projects. The manual explains bird anatomy and physiology, bird watching, types of feeders and shelter, and bird identification. Descriptions of feeding, hunting, and nesting habits are given for many species of birds. Also,…

  16. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Kanno, F.; Karatsu, K.; Kiuchi, K.; Koyano, R.; Kutsuma, H.; Lee, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Naruse, M.; Oguri, S.; Okada, T.; Otani, C.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Sekimoto, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Taino, T.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10-35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  17. Bird's eye views earth's magnetic lines

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Migratory birds, as well as many other animals, are able to sense the magnetic field of the earth, but how do they do it? "A fascinating possibility is that they may actually see the earth's magnetic lines as patterns of color or light intensity superimposed on their visual surroundings," said John B. Phillips, associate professor of biology in the College of Science at Virginia Tech. The results of more than two decades of research allow him to let such an image cross his mind.

  18. South African red data book – Birds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brooke, RK

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available in the Transkei? If so, what does it eat and where does it forage? Lappetfaced Vulture: what does each age class eat and where does each forage? Whiteheaded Vulture: what does each age class eat and where does each forage? Cuckoo Hawk: breeding distribution... and exclude information that has originated after that date. iv SOUTH AFRICAN RED DATA BOOK - BIRDS Acknowledgements Although this book has a single author it is truly a cooperative work. Without the assistance of the institutions and persons listed below...

  19. Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.; Davis, S.A.; Reiter, P.; Hubálek, Z.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is principally considered to be maintained in a mosquito–bird transmission cycle. Under experimental conditions, several other transmission routes have been observed, but the significance of these additional routes in nature is unknown. Here, we derive an expression for the

  20. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... rulemaking. (2) You can make an appointment, during normal business hours, to view the comments and materials... opportunity to harvest migratory birds in a way that maintains the culture and traditional harvest of the... (gill) nets on the North Slope. Yellow-billed loons are culturally important to the Inupiat Eskimo of...

  1. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... transporting game birds off the Colorado River Indian Reservation must have a valid transport declaration form... early season will be open from one-half hour before sunrise until noon. For the late season, shooting... part 20 regarding manner of taking. In addition, shooting hours are sunrise to sunset, and each...

  2. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... partners, developed measures in 2009 to further reduce the potential for shooting mortality or injury of... conservation via the bird fair, meetings, radio shows, signs, school visits, and one-on-one contacts. We also... of the harvest. Our primary strategy to reduce the threat of shooting mortality of threatened eiders...

  3. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Impact Statement: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88... the final frameworks reflect any such modifications. Our biological opinions resulting from this... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...

  4. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88- 14),'' filed with... the final frameworks reflect any such modifications. Our biological opinions resulting from this... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...

  5. A Sensor for the Determination of Lindane Using PANI/Zn, Fe(III Oxides and Nylon 6,6/MWCNT/Zn, Fe(III Oxides Nanofibers Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reproducible and environmentally friendly PANI/Zn, Fe(III and Nylon 6,6/MWCNT/Zn, Fe(III oxides nanofibers modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared and used for the electrochemical reduction of lindane. The modified electrodes offer a high sensing current for lindane. The modified electrodes were highly stable with respect to time, so that the single electrode can be used for the multiple analysis of the lindane sample. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were used as the sensing techniques. The dynamic range for the lindane determination was between 9.9 × 10−12 mol/L and 5 × 10−6 mol/L with detection limits of 51 and 32 nM for Nylon 6,6/MWCNT/ZnO and Nylon 6,6/MWCNT/Fe3O4 sensors, respectively. The LoD value reveals that the best electrode is Nylon 6,6/MWCNT/Fe3O4. The analytical utility of the proposed method was checked with drinking water samples.

  6. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

  7. Insight into the growth pattern and bone fusion of basal birds from an Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Zhiheng; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2017-10-24

    Bird skeletons exhibit remarkable modifications that allow for flight. The most distinguishable features are the fusion of the bones in the hand, feet, and pelvis into composite rigid and bony structures. However, the historical origins of these avian bone fusions remain elusive because of the rarity of transitional fossils and developmental studies on modern birds. Here, we describe an Early Cretaceous bird (120 Mya) that has fully fused alular-major metacarpals and pelvis. We discuss the manus and pelvis fusions across Paravian phylogeny and demonstrate that these features evolved independently across nonavian theropods, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The fusions of these bones are rare in known nonavian theropods and Early Cretaceous birds but are well established among Late Cretaceous and modern birds, revealing a complicated evolution pattern unrecognized previously. We posit that the developments of bone fusion were polymorphic close to the origin of birds, resulting in the varying degrees of fusion in Paraves. However, that development polymorphism appears to be fundamentally restricted along the line to modern birds by the Late Cretaceous, where all birds have a completely fused manus and pelvis. Such changes likely correspond to a refinement of flight capability. Alternatively, the degree of bone fusion in this primitive bird may have been related to modifications in genes or developmental paths. Future studies and fossil discoveries are required to clarify these hypotheses and pinpoint the developmental pathways involving the bone fusions in early avian evolution through to their modern pattern.

  8. Urban and rural habitats differ in number and type of bird feeders and in bird species consuming supplementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Skórka, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-10-01

    Bird feeding is one of the most widespread direct interactions between man and nature, and this has important social and environmental consequences. However, this activity can differ between rural and urban habitats, due to inter alia habitat structure, human behaviour and the composition of wintering bird communities. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km(2) each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 towns and cities across Poland (in each urban area, we surveyed 3 squares and also 3 squares in nearby rural areas). At each count, we noted the number of bird feeders, the number of bird feeders with food, the type of feeders, additional food supplies potentially available for birds (bread offered by people, bins) and finally the birds themselves. In winter, urban and rural areas differ in the availability of food offered intentionally and unintentionally to birds by humans. Both types of food availability are higher in urban areas. Our findings suggest that different types of bird feeder support only those species specialized for that particular food type and this relationship is similar in urban and rural areas.

  9. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  11. Wavelets in Recognition of Bird Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha T. Tanttu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to recognize inharmonic and transient bird sounds efficiently. The recognition algorithm consists of feature extraction using wavelet decomposition and recognition using either supervised or unsupervised classifier. The proposed method was tested on sounds of eight bird species of which five species have inharmonic sounds and three reference species have harmonic sounds. Inharmonic sounds are not well matched to the conventional spectral analysis methods, because the spectral domain does not include any visible trajectories that computer can track and identify. Thus, the wavelet analysis was selected due to its ability to preserve both frequency and temporal information, and its ability to analyze signals which contain discontinuities and sharp spikes. The shift invariant feature vectors calculated from the wavelet coefficients were used as inputs of two neural networks: the unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM and the supervised multilayer perceptron (MLP. The results were encouraging: the SOM network recognized 78% and the MLP network 96% of the test sounds correctly.

  12. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  13. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  14. Density-dependent cladogenesis in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert B Phillimore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic signature of adaptive radiation is a slowing of the rate of speciation toward the present. On the basis of molecular phylogenies, studies of single clades have frequently found evidence for a slowdown in diversification rate and have interpreted this as evidence for density dependent speciation. However, we demonstrated via simulation that large clades are expected to show stronger slowdowns than small clades, even if the probability of speciation and extinction remains constant through time. This is a consequence of exponential growth: clades, which, by chance, diversify at above the average rate early in their history, will tend to be large. They will also tend to regress back to the average diversification rate later on, and therefore show a slowdown. We conducted a meta-analysis of the distribution of speciation events through time, focusing on sequence-based phylogenies for 45 clades of birds. Thirteen of the 23 clades (57% that include more than 20 species show significant slowdowns. The high frequency of slowdowns observed in large clades is even more extreme than expected under a purely stochastic constant-rate model, but is consistent with the adaptive radiation model. Taken together, our data strongly support a model of density-dependent speciation in birds, whereby speciation slows as ecological opportunities and geographical space place limits on clade growth.

  15. Factors affecting escape distance in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto J. Piratelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The flight initiation distance has been used either to understand the cost-benefit trade-offs related to the risk of predation or as an important tool for wildlife managers. Although this variable is well-discussed for temperate regions, it is still poorly known in the Neotropics. Here we analyze the escape behavior of birds from southeastern Brazil, comparing an urban to a non-urban area. We tested for the influence of sites (urban vs. non-urban area, approaching (by one vs. two people, daytime (morning vs. afternoon, seasons (breeding vs. non-breeding and body mass on the determination of the initial (FID and final (FFD flight distances across different bird species. We predict that FID will be greater in rural areas and under a greater threat (higher number of predators approaching in the afternoon and in the non-breeding season. We also expect a direct relationship between body mass and FID and between FID and FFD. We sampled 11 species after measuring 331 escape behaviors, and we confirmed our predictions for sites (five species, daytime (one species and rejected our premise about seasons for one species. Mean FID was strongly affected by body mass, and directly affected FFD. Adjustments in FID are, most likely, an important adaptive trait in urban habitats and may partially explain the predominance of species with higher ecological plasticity in cities.

  16. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  17. Ringed Birds: Story of Bird Banding at the Lorado Taft Field Campus, 1956-1973. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guptill, Wayne; Wade, Douglas E.

    Published to aid students in comprehending the philosophy of the Department of Outdoor Teacher Education at Northern Illinois' Taft Field Campus, this paper on bird banding encompasses: (1) a brief history of bird banding; (2) the rationale behind bird banding; (3) a description of the bird banding station at the Lorado Taft Field Campus and its…

  18. Important bird areas in the neotropics: the backbone of a coordinated, on-the-ground bird conservation initiative in the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelica Estrada; Ian Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program was developed by BirdLife International as an approach to conserving birds and associated biodiversity throughout the world. The IBA program seeks to identify and protect a network of sites, at a biogeographic scale, which are critical for the long-term viability of naturally occurring bird populations for which site-based...

  19. Can Birds Fly? Can First Graders Learn the Importance of Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    A project was designed to infuse technology education into the first-grade classroom. Students learned bird identification, read fiction about birds, built bird feeders, learned about binoculars through birdwatching, and wrote a book about the experience. (JOW)

  20. 76 FR 5820 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird... Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is open to the public. The Advisory Group for the Neotropical Migratory Bird...