WorldWideScience

Sample records for bird migration systems

  1. Avian Alert - a bird migration early warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in

  2. Avian Alert - a bird migration early warning system

    OpenAIRE

    van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in information on bird movements. Collecting and disseminating useful information about such mobile creatures exhibiting diverse behaviour is no simple task. However, ESA’s Integrated Application Promo...

  3. The role of the antioxidant system during intense endurance exercise: lessons from migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Mullin, Clara; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration. Here, we use bird migration as an example to discuss how RS are produced during endurance exercise and how the complex antioxidant system can protect against cellular damage caused by RS. Understanding how a bird's antioxidant system responds during migration can lend insights into how antioxidants protect birds during other life-history stages when metabolic rate may be high, and how antioxidants protect other vertebrates from oxidative damage during endurance exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...

  5. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  6. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  7. Combining radar systems to get a 3D - picture of the bird migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liechti, F.; Dokter, A.; Shamoun, J.; van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.

    2008-01-01

    For military training flights bird strikes en route are still a severe problem. To reduce collisions an international project has been launched by the European Space agency (ESA), aiming 1) for a compilation of information on current bird movements by various sensors, 2) to combine them in a single

  8. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-07-01

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.

  9. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  10. Extracting bird migration information from C-band Doppler weather radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.

    2008-01-01

    Although radar has been used in studies of bird migration for 60 years, there is still no network in Europe for comprehensive monitoring of bird migration. Europe has a dense network of military air surveillance radars but most systems are not directly suitable for reliable bird monitoring. Since

  11. Circadian flight schedules in night-migrating birds caught on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppack, Timothy; Becker, Simon F; Becker, Philipp J J

    2008-12-23

    Many species of migratory birds migrate in a series of solitary nocturnal flights. Between flights, they stop to rest and refuel for the next segment of their journey. The mechanism controlling this behaviour has long remained elusive. Here, we show that wild-caught migratory redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) are consistent in their flight scheduling. An advanced videographic system enabled us to determine the precise timing of flight activity in redstarts caught at a northern European stopover site during their return trip from Africa. Birds were held captive for three days in the absence of photoperiodic cues (constant dim light) and under permanent food availability. Despite the absence of external temporal cues, birds showed clear bimodal activity patterns: intense nocturnal activity alternating with diurnal foraging and resting periods. The onset of their migratory activity coincided with the time of local sunset and was individually consistent on consecutive nights. The data demonstrate that night-migrating birds are driven by autonomous circadian clocks entrained by sunset cues. This timekeeping system is probably the key factor in the overall control of nocturnal songbird migration.

  12. The natural link between Europe and Africa - 2.1 billion birds on migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Bauer, S.; Liechti, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Palaearctic–African migration system comprises enormous numbers of birds travelling between Europe and Africa twice each year. Migratory birds may form strong links between the two continents given they can act as both transport vehicles for parasites and diseases as well as temporary consumers

  13. Bird migration patterns in the arid southwest-Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Felix, Rodney K.; Dieh, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure full life-cycle conservation, we need to understand migrant behavior en route and how migrating species use stopover and migration aerohabitats. In the Southwest, birds traverse arid and mountainous landscapes in migration. Migrants are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrant density varies across the Southwest seasonally and annually, and how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Furthermore, we lack information about migrant flight altitudes, speeds, and directions of travel, and how these patterns vary seasonally and annually across the Southwest. Using weather surveillance radar data, we identified targets likely dominated by nocturnally migrating birds and determined their flight altitudes, speeds, directions over ground, and variations in abundance. Migrating or foraging bats likely are present across the region in some of these data, particularly in central Texas. We found that migrants flew at significantly lower altitudes and significantly higher speeds in spring than in fall. In all seasons migrants maintained seasonally appropriate directions of movement. We detected significant differences in vertical structure of migrant densities that varied both geographically within seasons and seasonally within sites. We also found that in fall there was a greater and more variable passage of migrants through the central part of the borderlands (New Mexico and west Texas); in spring there was some suggestion of greater and more variable passage of migrants in the eastern borderlands (central and south Texas). Such patterns are consistent with the existence of at least two migration systems through western North America and the use of different migration routes in spring and fall for at least some species. Using radar data and satellite land cover data, we determined the habitats with which migrants are associated during migration stopover. There were significant differences in bird densities among

  14. Light pollution is greatest within migration passage areas for nocturnally-migrating birds around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-19

    Excessive or misdirected artificial light at night (ALAN) produces light pollution that influences several aspects of the biology and ecology of birds, including disruption of circadian rhythms and disorientation during flight. Many migrating birds traverse large expanses of land twice every year at night when ALAN illuminates the sky. Considering the extensive and increasing encroachment of light pollution around the world, we evaluated the association of the annual mean ALAN intensity over land within the geographic ranges of 298 nocturnally migrating bird species with five factors: phase of annual cycle, mean distance between breeding and non-breeding ranges, range size, global hemisphere of range, and IUCN category of conservation concern. Light pollution within geographic ranges was relatively greater during the migration season, for shorter-distance migrants, for species with smaller ranges, and for species in the western hemisphere. Our results suggest that migratory birds may be subject to the effects of light pollution particularly during migration, the most critical stage in their annual cycle. We hope these results will spur further research on how light pollution affects not only migrating birds, but also other highly mobile animals throughout their annual cycle.

  15. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  16. Modeling Bird Migration under Climate Change: A Mechanistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2009-01-01

    How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this

  17. Emergence of long distance bird migrations: a new model integrating global climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine

    2008-12-01

    During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the ‘shifting home’ model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not ‘northern’ or ‘southern’ but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.

  18. Understanding soaring bird migration through interactions and decisions at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Davis, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Many soaring bird species migrate southwards in autumn from their breeding grounds in Europe and Central Asia towards their wintering grounds. Our knowledge about interactions between migrating birds, thermal selection during migration and mechanisms that lead to flocking or convergent travel

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Si

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.

  20. Is there a connection between weather at departure sites, onset of migration and timing of soaring-bird autumn migration in Israel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.; Alon, D.; Alpert, P.; Yom-Tov, Y.; Leshem, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Aims Different aspects of soaring-bird migration are influenced by weather. However, the relationship between weather and the onset of soaring-bird migration, particularly in autumn, is not clear. Although long-term migration counts are often unavailable near the breeding areas of many soaring birds

  1. Analysis of genomic data as an approach to understanding migration in song birds

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, John

    2015-01-01

    Many species of birds migrate every year thousands of kilometers, relying on sight, memory, magnetic sensors and instincts to find their way across continents. Many juvenile birds travel complicated migration routes without the guidance of more experienced adults. To successfully accomplish this they need instincts that utilizes multiple navigational senses together with a time dependent schedule. Little is known of the genetics behind migration behavior and which cellular processes are invol...

  2. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  3. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...

  4. How birds weather the weather: avian migration in the mid-latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, M.U.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of many bird species involves the twice-annual movement between a breeding ground and a wintering ground that we refer to as `migration'. To complete these journeys, birds must successfully navigate many obstacles including a dynamic atmosphere. To make optimal use of this

  5. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, J.D.; Buler, J.J.; Schreckengost, T.; Smolinsky, J.A.; Boone, M.; van Loon, E.E.; Dawson, D.K.; Walters, E.L.

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne

  6. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Perdeck, A.C.; van Balen, J.H.; Both, C.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  8. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  9. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  10. Why do some, but not all, tropical birds migrate? A comparative study of diet breadth and fruit preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, W.A.; Conway, C.J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    Annual migrations of birds profoundly influence terrestrial communities. However, few empirical studies examine why birds migrate, in part due to the difficulty of testing causal hypotheses in long-distance migration systems. Short-distance altitudinal migrations provide relatively tractable systems in which to test explanations for migration. Many past studies explain tropical altitudinal migration as a response to spatial and temporal variation in fruit availability. Yet this hypothesis fails to explain why some coexisting, closely-related frugivorous birds remain resident year-round. We take a mechanistic approach by proposing and evaluating two hypotheses (one based on competitive exclusion and the other based on differences in dietary specialization) to explain why some, but not all, tropical frugivores migrate. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing diets, fruit preferences, and the relationships between diet and preference in closely-related pairs of migrant and resident species. Fecal samples and experimental choice trials revealed that sympatric migrants and residents differed in both their diets and fruit preferences. Migrants consumed a greater diversity of fruits and fewer arthropods than did their resident counterparts. Migrants also tended to have slightly stronger fruit preferences than residents. Most critically, diets of migrants more closely matched their preferences than did the diets of residents. These results suggest that migrants may be competitively superior foragers for fruit compared to residents (rather than vice versa), implying that current competitive interactions are unlikely to explain variation in migratory behavior among coexisting frugivores. We found some support for the dietary specialization hypothesis, propose refinements to the mechanism underlying this hypothesis, and discuss how dietary specialization might ultimately reflect past interspecific competition. We recommend that future studies quantify variation

  11. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.

  12. Co-fluctuation among bird species in their migration timing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-164 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migratory birds * phenology * spring arrival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/159-164.pdf

  13. Can variation in risk of nest predation explain altitudinal migration in tropical birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, W Alice

    2008-03-01

    Migration is among the best studied of animal behaviors, yet few empirical studies have tested hypotheses explaining the ultimate causes of these cyclical annual movements. Fretwell's (1980) hypothesis predicts that if nest predation explains why many tropical birds migrate uphill to breed, then predation risk must be negatively associated with elevation. Data from 385 artificial nests spanning 2,740 m of elevation on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica show an overall decline in predation with increasing elevation. However, nest predation risk was highest at intermediate elevations (500-650 m), not at lowest elevations. The proportion of nests depredated by different types of predators differed among elevations. These results imply that over half of the altitudinal migrant bird species in this region migrate to safer breeding areas than their non-breeding areas, suggesting that variation in nest predation risk could be an important benefit of uphill migrations of many species.

  14. Stop early to travel fast: modelling risk-averse scheduling among nocturnally migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, J.D.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.

    2013-01-01

    Many migrating birds divide their journeys into nocturnal flights interspersed by stopovers where they build up energy reserves (fuel) for subsequent flights. Given the difficulty in monitoring fuel loads of individual migrants over long distances, theoretical models are often used to interpret

  15. The paradox of Spoonbill migration : Most birds travel to where survival rates are lowest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-01

    Migrant birds face a choice where to spend the winter. Presumably there is a trade-off between migration distance (costs) and the quality of the wintering site (benefits). Wintering site fidelity is often high and increases with age. Hypotheses to explain such a pattern assume that wintering site

  16. Do birds of like feather flock together? The use of a novel 13C+D combustion isotope analyzer to track bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, N.

    2011-12-01

    Information on spring migration routes, geographic linkages among winter, spring, and breeding locations, and potential geographic effects on arrival body condition of a variety of avian species is so far little known. Stable isotope ratios are exquisitely sensitive to the biochemistry of living organisms and the nutrients available to them. Isotope ratios provide detailed knowledge useful in a variety of fields, including birds migration, through a combination of stable-isotope measurements of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) isotopes of flight feathers and breast feathers of tissues representing different periods of dietary integration and body composition analyses. Associations among specific geographic areas, habitat use, and arrival condition can be elucidated through the measurement of these dual isotopes. We report here on the development of a novel laser spectroscopy based system for the simultaneous analysis of the stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) that is robust, easy-to-use, and is the first stable isotope ratio analysis system to combine the measurement of 13C/12C and D/H in one simple analysis from a bulk organic sample with an application to bird migration. The system comprises a combustion module to convert the organic sample into CO2 and H2O and a Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS) that analyzes the combustion species inside an optical cavity based on the molecular absorption of individual isotopomers. This CRDS uses dual lasers to target the four isotpomers of interest: 12CO2, 13CO2, H2O and HDO. The system delivers a typical precision of 0.1 permil for δ13C and 1.5 permil for δD that parallels that achieved by IRMS, but with an unprecedented simplicity that allows ecologists to leverage the science and elucidate the avian migration patterns.

  17. Local temperature fine-tunes the timing of spring migration in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P.; Rainio, Kalle; Coppack, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory birds. In order to better understand migration phenology and adaptation in environmental changes, we here assess the scale at which weather affects timing of spring migration in passerine birds. We use three commonly used proxies of spring......-time climatic conditions: (1) vegetation "greenness" (NDVI) in Europe, (2) local spring temperatures in northern Europe, and (3) the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) as predictors of the phenology of avian migration as well as the strength of their effect on different subsets of populations...... breeding area. Local temperature was the best single predictor of phenology with the highest explanatory power achieved in combination with NAO. Furthermore, early individuals are more affected by climatic variation compared to individuals on later passage, indicating that climatic change affects subsets...

  18. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  20. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  1. Spring Flyways of Migrating Soaring Birds in Akkar/Northern Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan Jaradi, Gh.; Ramadan Jaradi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Beale and Ramadan Jaradi initiated in 2001 the first large scale survey in Lebanon to trace the main routes of migrating raptors and other soaring birds, aiming at contributing to the conservation of flyways and stopover sites through the identification of areas where protection is most needed. Nowadays, the study of the flyways and stopover sites at micro level becomes necessary following the development of the national wind atlas map that will assist among others in locating potential wind farms which on their turn may influence the migratory birds flyways, especially that the wind farms use winds for their function and the soaring birds use wind for their transportation. The present work starts from where the work of Beale and Ramadan-Jaradi ended but in an attempt toprovide policy makers, scientists and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with wind farms impacts and to prevent collisions of birds with blades of wind urbines. The study is meant to be conducted during spring and autumn passage ofbirds. This paper concerns the spring migration as at the time of writing it the autumn migration didn't start yet. The present spring season study revealed among others that the migratory soaring birds that may use the wind ridge lifts for their soaring travel in windy areas are more influenced by two other main factors:1) presence of depressions perpendicular to mountains ridgesand 2) abundance of the thermals in these depressions, a matter that naturally reduce the impact of wind turbines by attracting the birds away from their blade. (author)

  2. Habitat associations of migrating and overwintering grassland birds in Southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Bart M.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the habitat associations of 21 species of grassland birds overwintering in or migrating through southern Texas, during 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Ninety percent of our grassland bird observations were made during winter and spring, and only 10% occurred during fall. Grassland species made up a high proportion of the total bird densities in grassland and shrub-grassland habitats, but much lower proportions in the habitats with more woody vegetation. Fewer grassland species were observed in grassland and woodland than in brushland, parkland, and shrub-grassland habitats. Grassland birds generally were found in higher densities in habitats that had woody canopy coverage of < 30%; densities of grassland birds were highest in shrub-grassland habitat and lowest in woodland habitat. Species that are grassland specialists on their breeding grounds tended to be more habitat specific during the nonbreeding season compared to shrub-grassland specialists, which were more general in their nonbreeding-habitat usage. Nonetheless, our data demonstrate that grassland birds occur in a variety of habitats during the nonbreeding season and seem to occupy a broader range of habitats than previously described.

  3. Influenza a virus migration and persistence in North American wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Bahl

    Full Text Available Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  4. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  5. Impact of climate change effecting Decline on Migration Birds of Bhadalwadi Lake Indapur Taluka M.S India

    OpenAIRE

    U.S .Gantaloo; Sangeeta B Dongare

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes are now a day’s happening regularly day to day increase in temperature ,Scarcity of rainfall ,Drying of lakes have strong implication on Biodiversity .) .Global warming has set in motion and is affecting the timing of migration of birds .Birds are reliable indicator of environment change for centuries and their arrival indicate start of winter and departure summer in study area .There are many example of the effect of climate change on birds from all around t...

  6. Avian influenza H5N1 viral and bird migration networks in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaivu; Zhou, Sen; Dong, Lu; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Cui, Yujun; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiao, Xiangming; Wu, Yarong; Cazelles, Bernard; Huang, Shanqian; Yang, Ruifu; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The spatial spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and its long-term persistence in Asia have resulted in avian influenza panzootics and enormous economic losses in the poultry sector. However, an understanding of the regional long-distance transmission and seasonal patterns of the virus is still lacking. In this study, we present a phylogeographic approach to reconstruct the viral migration network. We show that within each wild fowl migratory flyway, the timing of H5N1 outbreaks and viral migrations are closely associated, but little viral transmission was observed between the flyways. The bird migration network is shown to better reflect the observed viral gene sequence data than other networks and contributes to seasonal H5N1 epidemics in local regions and its large-scale transmission along flyways. These findings have potentially far-reaching consequences, improving our understanding of how bird migration drives the periodic reemergence of H5N1 in Asia.

  7. Obese super athletes: fat-fueled migration in birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2018-03-07

    Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified. Migratory bats have high aerobic capacity and fatty acid oxidation potential; however, endurance flight fueled by adipose-stored fat has not been demonstrated. Patterns of fattening and expression of muscle fatty acid transporters are inconsistent, and bats may partially fuel migratory flight with ingested nutrients. Changes in energy intake, digestive capacity, liver lipid metabolism and body temperature regulation may contribute to migratory fattening. Although control of appetite is similar in birds and mammals, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal changes in fuel store set-points in migrants remain poorly understood. Triacylglycerol of birds and bats contains mostly 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids with variable amounts of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 depending on diet. Unsaturation of fat converges near 70% during migration, and unsaturated fatty acids are preferentially mobilized and oxidized, making them good fuel. Twenty and 22 carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may affect membrane function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. However, evidence for dietary PUFA as doping agents in migratory birds is equivocal and requires further study. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Thermal impact of migrating birds' wing color on their flight performance: Possibility of new generation of biologically inspired drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Abdelmoula, H; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2017-05-01

    The thermal impact of the birds' color on their flight performance are investigated. In most of the large migrating birds, the top of their wings is black. Considering this natural phenomenon in the migrating birds, such as albatross, a thermal analysis of the boundary layer of their wings is performed during the year depending on the solar insulation. It is shown that the temperature difference between the bright and dark colored top wing surface is around 10°C. The dark color on the top of the wing increases the temperature of the boundary layer over the wing which consequently reduces the skin drag force over the wing. This reduction in the drag force can be considered as one of the effective factors for long endurance of these migrating birds. This research should lead to improved designs of the drones by applying the inspired colors which can help drones increase their endurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Arthropods and associated arthropod-borne diseases transmitted by migrating birds. The case of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva

    2015-09-30

    Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bird Migration Under Climate Change - A Mechanistic Approach Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Blattner, Tim; Messmer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The broad-scale reductions and shifts that may be expected under climate change in the availability and quality of stopover habitat for long-distance migrants is an area of increasing concern for conservation biologists. Researchers generally have taken two broad approaches to the modeling of migration behaviour to understand the impact of these changes on migratory bird populations. These include models based on causal processes and their response to environmental stimulation, "mechanistic models", or models that primarily are based on observed animal distribution patterns and the correlation of these patterns with environmental variables, i.e. "data driven" models. Investigators have applied the latter technique to forecast changes in migration patterns with changes in the environment, for example, as might be expected under climate change, by forecasting how the underlying environmental data layers upon which the relationships are built will change over time. The learned geostatstical correlations are then applied to the modified data layers.. However, this is problematic. Even if the projections of how the underlying data layers will change are correct, it is not evident that the statistical relationships will remain the same, i.e. that the animal organism may not adapt its' behaviour to the changing conditions. Mechanistic models that explicitly take into account the physical, biological, and behaviour responses of an organism as well as the underlying changes in the landscape offer an alternative to address these shortcomings. The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies enable the application of the mechanistic models to predict how continental bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier work, we simulated the impact of effects of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of

  11. Migrating birds and carnivores introduce ticks and tick borne pathogens to Denmark – but are they also a public health risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Vrbová, Erika; Højgaard, Jesper

    Since the end of the ice age, spring migrating birds from Africa and Europe and autumn migrating birds from Northern Scandinavia have entered Denmark, and recently a small wave of long migrating carnivores have started arriving in Denmark from Central Europe. Theoretically, migrating birds could...... introduce new tick species as well as tick-associated pathogens to Denmark. These migrating animals may also carry ticks and pathogens which already exist in native tick populations in Denmark. The potential supplement of native ticks and existing pathogens to the established high density tick populations...... in Danish forest and nature areas can be expected to be of little practical importance. However, some of the infected ticks, introduced by migrating birds, may be deposited in private gardens and public parks that are otherwise not able to sustain a viable tick population. Migrating birds may therefore...

  12. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  13. Flying, fasting, and feeding in birds during migration: a nutritional and physiological ecology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McWilliams, S.R.; Guglielmo, C.; Pierce, B.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike exercising mammals, migratory birds fuel very high intensity exercise (e.g., flight) with fatty acids delivered from the adipose tissue to the working muscles by the circulatory system. Given the primary importance of fatty acids for fueling intense exercise, we discuss the likely limiting

  14. New software methods in radar ornithology using WSR-88D weather data and potential application to monitoring effects of climate change on bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Reginald; Paxton, John; Sojda, Richard S.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Radar ornithology has provided tools for studying the movement of birds, especially related to migration. Researchers have presented qualitative evidence suggesting that birds, or at least migration events, can be identified using large broad scale radars such as the WSR-88D used in the NEXRAD weather surveillance system. This is potentially a boon for ornithologists because such data cover a large portion of the United States, are constantly being produced, are freely available, and have been archived since the early 1990s. A major obstacle to this research, however, has been that identifying birds in NEXRAD data has required a trained technician to manually inspect a graphically rendered radar sweep. A single site completes one volume scan every five to ten minutes, producing over 52,000 volume scans in one year. This is an immense amount of data, and manual classification is infeasible. We have developed a system that identifies biological echoes using machine learning techniques. This approach begins with training data using scans that have been classified by experts, or uses bird data collected in the field. The data are preprocessed to ensure quality and to emphasize relevant features. A classifier is then trained using this data and cross validation is used to measure performance. We compared neural networks, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Empirical evidence is provided showing that this system can achieve classification accuracies in the 80th to 90th percentile. We propose to apply these methods to studying bird migration phenology and how it is affected by climate variability and change over multiple temporal scales.

  15. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  16. Emerging practices of wind farm planning in a dense bird migration area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present part of The Wind Atlas for Egypt project aiming at developing a firm basis for planning and utilization of the vast wind energy resources available in Egypt. The project should recommend a common planning framework for wind farm development in Egypt...... is briefly introduced. As a case study to illustrate the planning process a 60 MW wind farm located at the Gulf of El-Zayt at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt will be analysed. This area is chosen for its very high wind energy potential and the high concentration of migrating birds during spring and autumn. During...... the site selection and layout of a wind farm the balancing of interests and land use will be described....

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, C.lari and C.coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldenstrom, J.; Broman, T.; Carlsson, I.; Hasselquist, D.; Achterberg, R.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Olsen, B.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based

  18. Bird migration and avian influenza: a comparison of hydrogen stable isotopes and satellite tracking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Yamage, Mat; Haque, Enam Ul; Islam, Mohammad Anwarul; Mundkur, Taej; Yavuz, Kiraz Erciyas; Leader, Paul; Leung, Connie Y.H.; Smith, Bena; Spragens, Kyle A.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Saif, Samia; Mohsanin, Samiul; Mikolon, Andrea; Islam, Ausrafal; George, Acty; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based tracking of migratory waterfowl is an important tool for understanding the potential role of wild birds in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However, employing this technique on a continental scale is prohibitively expensive. This study explores the utility of stable isotope ratios in feathers in examining both the distances traveled by migratory birds and variation in migration behavior. We compared the satellite-derived movement data of 22 ducks from 8 species captured at wintering areas in Bangladesh, Turkey, and Hong Kong with deuterium ratios (δD) in the feathers of these and other individuals captured at the same locations. We derived likely molting locations from the satellite tracking data and generated expected isotope ratios based on an interpolated map of δD in rainwater. Although δD was correlated with the distance between wintering and molting locations, surprisingly, measured δD values were not correlated with either expected values or latitudes of molting sites. However, population-level parameters derived from the satellite-tracking data, such as mean distance between wintering and molting locations and variation in migration distance, were reflected by means and variation of the stable isotope values. Our findings call into question the relevance of the rainfall isotope map for Asia for linking feather isotopes to molting locations, and underscore the need for extensive ground truthing in the form of feather-based isoscapes. Nevertheless, stable isotopes from feathers could inform disease models by characterizing the degree to which regional breeding populations interact at common wintering locations. Feather isotopes also could aid in surveying wintering locations to determine where high-resolution tracking techniques (e.g. satellite tracking) could most effectively be employed. Moreover, intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes offer the only means of inferring movement information from

  19. Birds of passage no more: migration decision making among Filipino immigrants in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F

    1987-03-01

    Using data primarily from the Honolulu Destination Survey (HDS), which is part of the Philippine Migration Study (a study of a migration system that has its origins in Ilocos Norte, a largely rural province in the Philippines), the author examines migration decision making among Philippine immigrants in Hawaii. The HDS, conducted in 1981, interviewed 1484 residents of Honolulu who immigrated from the Ilocos Region after the US immigration law was liberalized in 1965. Results from the Philippine Migration Study (PMS) survey show that of those who did not have any intentions to move within 2 years in 1980, 88% did not move between 1980 and 1982. Of those who said they were certain to move within 2 years, 54% actually moved, while only 36% who were fairly certain and 31% who were uncertain moved. Virtually all of those who actually moved to Hawaii from 1980-1982 had intended to move to Hawaii in 1980. It thus appears that most migration is planned well in advance. For those who have already migrated, their behavior in the destination is influenced by their expectations about future migration. An estimated 20-38.7% of legal immigrants to the US from the Philippines in 1971 had emigrated as of January 1979. 49% of HDS respondents said that they did not intend to move out of Hawaii any time in the future. Among those who intend to move in the future, 69% want to return to Ilocos and 26% intend to move to the US mainland. 40% want to leave Hawaii for economic reasons and 27% for affiliation purposes. The value expectancy framework used in the PMS measures expectations of achieving one's most important goals in alternative locations. The analysis employs both binomial and multinomial logit analysis to identify significant determinants of future migration intentions. The 7 conceptual categories are: wealth, status, comfort, stimulation, autonomy, affiliation, and morality. 90% consider "having a peaceful life" followed by "getting ahead in the world" the most important

  20. Birds of Two Oceans? Trans-Andean and Divergent Migration of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) from the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa C; Goodenough, Katharine S; Haugaasen, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal flooding compels some birds that breed in aquatic habitats in Amazonia to undertake annual migrations, yet we know little about how the complex landscape of the Amazon region is used seasonally by these species. The possibility of trans-Andes migration for Amazonian breeding birds has largely been discounted given the high geographic barrier posed by the Andean Cordillera and the desert habitat along much of the Pacific Coast. Here we demonstrate a trans-Andes route for Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) breeding on the Manu River (in the lowlands of Manu National Park, Perú), as well as divergent movement patterns both regionally and across the continent. Of eight skimmers tracked with satellite telemetry, three provided data on their outbound migrations, with two crossing the high Peruvian Andes to the Pacific. A third traveled over 1800 km to the southeast before transmissions ended in eastern Paraguay. One of the two trans-Andean migrants demonstrated a full round-trip migration back to its tagging location after traveling down the Pacific Coast from latitude 9° South to latitude 37° S, spending the austral summer in the Gulf of Arauco, Chile. This is the first documentation of a trans-Andes migration observed for any bird breeding in lowland Amazonia. To our knowledge, this research also documents the first example of a tropical-breeding waterbird migrating out of the tropics to spend the non-breeding season in the temperate summer, this being the reverse pattern with respect to seasonality for austral migrants in general.

  1. Influence of Riparian Tree Phenology on Lower Colorado River Spring-Migrating Birds: Implications of Flower Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Neotropical migrant birds make choices about which habitats are most likely to provide successful foraging locations during migration, but little is known about how these birds recognize and process environmental clues that indicate the presence of prey species. Aspects of tree phenology, notably flowering of trees along the lower Colorado River corridor, coincide with the migratory stopovers of leaf-gleaning insectivorous songbirds and may be an important indicator of arthropod prey species availability. Shifting tree flowering and leaf flush during the spring migration period presents avian insectivores with an assortment of foraging opportunities. During two field seasons at Cibola National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Arizona, we examined riparian tree species to test whether leaf-gleaning insectivorous birds are attracted to the flowering condition of trees in choosing foraging sites. We predicted that flowering trees would host more insect prey resources, would thus show increased visit rates, length of stays and attack ratios of migrant avian insectivores, and that those arthropods would be found in the stomach contents of the birds. Paired trees of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), displaying heavy and light degrees of flowering were observed to test these predictions. To test whether birds are tracking arthropods directly or are using flowers as a proximate cue, we removed flowers from selected trees and paired these treated trees with neighboring high flowering trees, which served as controls. Avian foraging behavior, avian diets, arthropods, and phenology data were collected at the same time to control for temporal differences in insect availability, plant phenology, and differences in stopover arrivals of birds. We documented five patterns from this study: 1) Higher abundance and richness of arthropods were found on honey mesquite trees with greater numbers of flowers. 2) Arthropod abundance and richness increased as flowering

  2. WT-BIRD. Bird collision monitoring system for multi-megawatt wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    A new method for detection and registration of bird collisions has been developed that is suitable for continuous remote operation in both onshore and offshore wind farms. The characteristic sound of a collision is detected by sensors in the blades, which triggers the storage of video registrations and sends an alert message to the operator. A prototype has been tested successfully on a Nordex N80/2.5MW turbine at ECN's Wind turbine Test park Wieringermeer. Compared to other methods employed so far this monitoring system will reduce the uncertainty in the number of birds killed by collisions with wind turbines. Further, the system enables the operator to identify species and to study the collision mechanisms. It has been found that this system can also be used for monitoring of other events in order to save costs for inspection and repair after incidents. For offshore wind farms, the WT-Bird system is currently the only alternative to count the number of bird collisions. Functional tests with tennis balls that were shot against rotating blades showed that the majority of the impacts were detected. The flight track of these dummies and the collision events were clearly visible on the video registrations. During the monitoring period of about one year two bird collisions were detected. The video recordings confirmed that a collision took place and showed that the location of both collisions was near the blade root, which resulted that in both cases the bird was not (immediately) killed. Therefore no corpses could be found beneath the turbine after these events. Also during the rest of the monitoring period no corpses were found beneath the turbine.

  3. Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996--July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, P.

    2002-03-01

    A 6-megawatt, 11 turbine wind power development was constructed by Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, southern Vermont, in 1996. To determine whether birds were impacted, a series of modified BA (Before, After) studies was conducted before construction (1993-1996), during (1996), and after (1997) construction on the project site. The studies were designed to monitor changes in breeding bird community (species composition and abundance) on the site, examine the behavior and numbers of songbirds migrating at night over the site and hawks migrating over the site in daylight, and search for carcasses of birds that might have collided with the turbines.

  4. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  5. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  6. The Importance of Corps of Engineers Lands to Migrating and Breeding Birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... Birding is one of the fastest growing recreational activities in the United States. The economic impacts associated with this recreational activity on local communities have only recently been recognized...

  7. Performance Monitoring Enterprise Applications with the BlackBird System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, João P.; da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues; Silva, Fernando M.

    This work describes the BlackBird system, which is an analysis and monitoring service for data-intensive enterprise applications, without restrictions on the targeted architecture or employed technologies. A case study is presented for the monitoring of Billing applications from Vodafone Portugal. Monitoring systems are an essential tool for the effective management of Enterprise Applications and the attainment of the demanding service level agreements imposed to these applications. However, due to the increasing complexity and diversity of these applications, adequate monitoring systems are rarely available. The BlackBird monitoring system is able to interact with these applications through different technologies employed by the Monitored Application, and is able to produce Metrics regarding the application service level goals. The BlackBird system can be specified using a set of pre-defined Configuration Objects, allowing it to be extensible and adaptable for applications with different architectures.

  8. The effects of a wind farm on birds in a migration point: the Strait of Gibraltar.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Manuela de; Janss, Guyonne, F.E.; Ferrer, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between birds and wind turbines is an important factor to consider when a wind farm is constructed. A wind farm and two control areas were studied in Tarifa (Andalusia Province, southern Spain, 30STF590000–30STE610950).Variables were studied along linear transects in each area and observations of flight were also recorded from fixed points in the wind farm. The main purpose of our research was to determine the impact and the degree of flight behavioural change in birds flights...

  9. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Cervera, J.; Ferrero, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated

  10. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, S.; Cobben, M.M.P.; Ens, B.J.; Nolet, B.A.

    2017-01-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset

  11. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  12. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places.

  13. Consistency in long-distance bird migration: contrasting patterns in time and space for two raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    As the evolutionary responses to environmental change depend on selection acting on individual differences, disentangling within- and between-individual variation becomes imperative. In animal migration research, multiyear tracks are thus needed to estimate the individual consistency of phenotypic

  14. Migration-induced architectures of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Podlewska-Gaca, Edyta

    2012-06-01

    The recent increase in number of known multi-planet systems gives a unique opportunity to study the processes responsible for planetary formation and evolution. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mean-motion resonances, because they carry important information about the history of the planetary systems. At the early stages of the evolution, when planets are still embedded in a gaseous disc, the tidal interactions between the disc and planets cause the planetary orbital migration. The convergent differential migration of two planets embedded in a gaseous disc may result in the capture into a mean-motion resonance. The orbital migration taking place during the early phases of the planetary system formation may play an important role in shaping stable planetary configurations. An understanding of this stage of the evolution will provide insight on the most frequently formed architectures, which in turn are relevant for determining the planet habitability. The aim of this paper is to present the observational properties of these planetary systems which contain confirmed or suspected resonant configurations. A complete list of known systems with such configurations is given. This list will be kept by us updated from now on and it will be a valuable reference for studying the dynamics of extrasolar systems and testing theoretical predictions concerned with the origin and the evolution of planets, which are the most plausible places for existence and development of life.

  15. Migration distance is positively associated with sex-linked genetic diversity in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gohli, J.; Lifjeld, J. T.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-52 ISSN 0394-9370 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : autosomes * female promiscuity * introns * seasonal migration * Z chromosome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2016

  16. The Calabrian Apennines: Important Bird Area (IBA for the Autumn migration of Raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Panuccio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the autumn migration of raptors were carried out on the Calabrian Appennines in the area where the Italian peninsula is only 30 km wide. We used three different watch points at the same time between 24 August and 12 September 2005 and 2006. We observed 4,842 raptors in 2005 and 5,324 in 2006; most of these were Honey Buzzards, Black Kites, Marsh Harriers and Montagu’s Harriers.

  17. Challenging a 15-year-old claim: The North Atlantic Oscillation index as a predictor of spring migration phenology of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haest, Birgen; Hüppop, Ommo; Bairlein, Franz

    2018-04-01

    Many migrant bird species that breed in the Northern Hemisphere show advancement in spring arrival dates. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is one of the climatic variables that have been most often investigated and shown to be correlated with these changes in spring arrival. Although the NAO is often claimed to be a good predictor or even to have a marked effect on interannual changes in spring migration phenology of Northern Hemisphere breeding birds, the results on relations between spring migration phenology and NAO show a large variety, ranging from no, over weak, to a strong association. Several factors, such as geographic location, migration phase, and the NAO index time window, have been suggested to partly explain these observed differences in association. A combination of a literature meta-analysis, and a meta-analysis and sliding time window analysis of a dataset of 23 short- and long-distance migrants from the constant-effort trapping garden at Helgoland, Germany, however, paints a completely different picture. We found a statistically significant overall effect size of the NAO on spring migration phenology (coefficient = -0.14, SE = 0.054), but this on average only explains 0%-6% of the variance in spring migration phenology across all species. As such, the value and biological meaning of the NAO as a general predictor or explanatory variable for climate change effects on migration phenology of birds, seems highly questionable. We found little to no definite support for previously suggested factors, such as geographic location, migration phenology phase, or the NAO time window, to explain the heterogeneity in correlation differences. We, however, did find compelling evidence that the lack of accounting for trends in both time series has led to strongly inflated (spurious) correlations in many studies (coefficient = -0.13, SE = 0.019). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Automatic Parking Based on a Bird's Eye View Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at realizing an automatic parking method through a bird's eye view vision system. With this method, vehicles can make robust and real-time detection and recognition of parking spaces. During parking process, the omnidirectional information of the environment can be obtained by using four on-board fisheye cameras around the vehicle, which are the main part of the bird's eye view vision system. In order to achieve this purpose, a polynomial fisheye distortion model is firstly used for camera calibration. An image mosaicking method based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to combine four individual images from fisheye cameras into one omnidirectional bird's eye view image. Secondly, features of the parking spaces are extracted with a Radon transform based method. Finally, double circular trajectory planning and a preview control strategy are utilized to realize autonomous parking. Through experimental analysis, we can see that the proposed method can get effective and robust real-time results in both parking space recognition and automatic parking.

  19. Status and distribution of migrating and breeding marine birds in north Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarade, Gh.R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)

  20. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H

    2014-05-22

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration.

  2. Recovery Migration to the City of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A Migration Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Curtis, Katherine J; Dewaard, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina's effect on the population of the City of New Orleans provides a model of how severe weather events, which are likely to increase in frequency and strength as the climate warms, might affect other large coastal cities. Our research focuses on changes in the migration system - defined as the system of ties between Orleans Parish and all other U.S. counties - between the pre-disaster (1999-2004) and recovery (2007-2009) periods. Using Internal Revenue Service county-to-county migration flow data, we find that in the recovery period Orleans Parish increased the number of migration ties with and received larger migration flows from nearby counties in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region, thereby spatially concentrating and intensifying the in-migration dimension of this predominantly urban system, while the out-migration dimension contracted and had smaller flows. We interpret these changes as the migration system relying on its strongest ties to nearby and less damaged counties to generate recovery in-migration.

  3. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  4. Sex chromosomes and speciation in birds and other ZW systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Darren E

    2018-02-14

    Theory and empirical patterns suggest a disproportionate role for sex chromosomes in evolution and speciation. Focusing on ZW sex determination (females ZW, males ZZ; the system in birds, many snakes, and lepidopterans), I review how evolutionary dynamics are expected to differ between the Z, W and the autosomes, discuss how these differences may lead to a greater role of the sex chromosomes in speciation and use data from birds to compare relative evolutionary rates of sex chromosomes and autosomes. Neutral mutations, partially or completely recessive beneficial mutations, and deleterious mutations under many conditions are expected to accumulate faster on the Z than on autosomes. Sexually antagonistic polymorphisms are expected to arise on the Z, raising the possibility of the spread of preference alleles. The faster accumulation of many types of mutations and the potential for complex evolutionary dynamics of sexually antagonistic traits and preferences contribute to a role for the Z chromosome in speciation. A quantitative comparison among a wide variety of bird species shows that the Z tends to have less within-population diversity and greater between-species differentiation than the autosomes, likely due to both adaptive evolution and a greater rate of fixation of deleterious alleles. The W chromosome also shows strong potential to be involved in speciation, in part because of its co-inheritance with the mitochondrial genome. While theory and empirical evidence suggest a disproportionate role for sex chromosomes in speciation, the importance of sex chromosomes is moderated by their small size compared to the whole genome. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Migrating Legacy Systems in the Global Merger & Acquisition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerattanakul, Pairin; Kam, Hwee-Joo; Lee, James J.; Hong, Soongoo

    2009-01-01

    The MetaFrame system migration project at WorldPharma, while driven by merger and acquisition, had faced complexities caused by both technical challenges and organizational issues in the climate of uncertainties. However, WorldPharma still insisted on instigating this post-merger system migration project. This project served to (1) consolidate the…

  6. Kenya Bird Map: an internet-based system for monitoring bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collection for the first Kenya Bird Atlas started in the 1970s and continued until. 1984 ... butions received directly from observers, nest record cards submitted to the EANHS .... is poor, and an application for use in smart phones is planned.

  7. Efficient process migration in the EMPS multiprocessor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G.J.W.; Gils, van M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The process migration facility in the Eindhoven multiprocessor system (EMPS) is presented. In the EMPS system, mailboxes are used for interprocess communication. These mailboxes provide transparency of location for communicating processes. The major advantages of mailbox communication in the EMPS

  8. The Identification of Military Installations as Important Migratory Bird Stopover Sites and the Development of Bird Migration Forecast Models: A Radar Ornithology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    civilian and military flights. Since 1985, nearly 38,000 bird-military aircraft collisions have been reported. These collisions have killed 33 pilots...stations in the contiguous United States. Edges of the circles are at 124 nautical mile range (230 km). and 2004, approximately 194 people were killed ... Mockingbird Wilson’s Snipe Pileated Woodpecker American Wigeon Red-bellied Woodpecker American Coot Red-cockaded Woodpecker Black-crowned Night

  9. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  10. Candidate genes have sex-specific effects on timing of spring migration and moult speed in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Podofillini, Stefano; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Cecere, Jacopo G; Spina, Fernando; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2017-10-01

    The timing of major life-history events, such as migration and moult, is set by endogenous circadian and circannual clocks, that have been well characterized at the molecular level. Conversely, the genetic sources of variation in phenology and in other behavioral traits have been sparsely addressed. It has been proposed that inter-individual variability in the timing of seasonal events may arise from allelic polymorphism at phenological candidate genes involved in the signaling cascade of the endogenous clocks. In this study of a long-distance migratory passerine bird, the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus , we investigated whether allelic variation at 5 polymorphic loci of 4 candidate genes ( Adcyap1 , Clock , Creb1 , and Npas2 ), predicted 2 major components of the annual schedule, namely timing of spring migration across the central Mediterranean sea and moult speed, the latter gauged from ptilochronological analyses of tail feathers moulted in the African winter quarters. We identified a novel Clock gene locus ( Clock region 3) showing polyQ polymorphism, which was however not significantly associated with any phenotypic trait. Npas2 allele size predicted male (but not female) spring migration date, with males bearing longer alleles migrating significantly earlier than those bearing shorter alleles. Creb1 allele size significantly predicted male (but not female) moult speed, longer alleles being associated with faster moult. All other genotype-phenotype associations were statistically non-significant. These findings provide new evidence for a role of candidate genes in modulating the phenology of different circannual activities in long-distance migratory birds, and for the occurrence of sex-specific candidate gene effects.

  11. Migration check tool: automatic plan verification following treatment management systems upgrade and database migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Scott W; White, Dale; Chen, Xiaoping; Moran, Jean M; Keranen, Wayne M

    2013-11-04

    Software upgrades of the treatment management system (TMS) sometimes require that all data be migrated from one version of the database to another. It is necessary to verify that the data are correctly migrated to assure patient safety. It is impossible to verify by hand the thousands of parameters that go into each patient's radiation therapy treatment plan. Repeating pretreatment QA is costly, time-consuming, and may be inadequate in detecting errors that are introduced during the migration. In this work we investigate the use of an automatic Plan Comparison Tool to verify that plan data have been correctly migrated to a new version of a TMS database from an older version. We developed software to query and compare treatment plans between different versions of the TMS. The same plan in the two TMS systems are translated into an XML schema. A plan comparison module takes the two XML schemas as input and reports any differences in parameters between the two versions of the same plan by applying a schema mapping. A console application is used to query the database to obtain a list of active or in-preparation plans to be tested. It then runs in batch mode to compare all the plans, and a report of success or failure of the comparison is saved for review. This software tool was used as part of software upgrade and database migration from Varian's Aria 8.9 to Aria 11 TMS. Parameters were compared for 358 treatment plans in 89 minutes. This direct comparison of all plan parameters in the migrated TMS against the previous TMS surpasses current QA methods that relied on repeating pretreatment QA measurements or labor-intensive and fallible hand comparisons.

  12. DMFS: A Data Migration File System for NetBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenmund, William

    2000-01-01

    I have recently developed DMFS, a Data Migration File System, for NetBSD. This file system provides kernel support for the data migration system being developed by my research group at NASA/Ames. The file system utilizes an underlying file store to provide the file backing, and coordinates user and system access to the files. It stores its internal metadata in a flat file, which resides on a separate file system. This paper will first describe our data migration system to provide a context for DMFS, then it will describe DMFS. It also will describe the changes to NetBSD needed to make DMFS work. Then it will give an overview of the file archival and restoration procedures, and describe how some typical user actions are modified by DMFS. Lastly, the paper will present simple performance measurements which indicate that there is little performance loss due to the use of the DMFS layer.

  13. Migration in the Anthropocene: how collective navigation, environmental system and taxonomy shape the vulnerability of migratory species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty-Moore, Molly; Deinet, Stefanie; Freeman, Robin; Titcomb, Georgia C; Dillon, Erin M; Stears, Keenan; Klope, Maggie; Bui, An; Orr, Devyn; Young, Hillary S; Miller-Ter Kuile, Ana; Hughey, Lacey F; McCauley, Douglas J

    2018-05-19

    Recent increases in human disturbance pose significant threats to migratory species using collective movement strategies. Key threats to migrants may differ depending on behavioural traits (e.g. collective navigation), taxonomy and the environmental system (i.e. freshwater, marine or terrestrial) associated with migration. We quantitatively assess how collective navigation, taxonomic membership and environmental system impact species' vulnerability by (i) evaluating population change in migratory and non-migratory bird, mammal and fish species using the Living Planet Database (LPD), (ii) analysing the role of collective navigation and environmental system on migrant extinction risk using International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifications and (iii) compiling literature on geographical range change of migratory species. Likelihood of population decrease differed by taxonomic group: migratory birds were more likely to experience annual declines than non-migrants, while mammals displayed the opposite pattern. Within migratory species in IUCN, we observed that collective navigation and environmental system were important predictors of extinction risk for fishes and birds, but not for mammals, which had overall higher extinction risk than other taxa. We found high phylogenetic relatedness among collectively navigating species, which could have obscured its importance in determining extinction risk. Overall, outputs from these analyses can help guide strategic interventions to conserve the most vulnerable migrations.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Disease dynamics and bird migration--linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza A virus in time and space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Gunnarsson

    Full Text Available The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (δ(2H of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  15. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has

  16. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  17. Investigation of influenza in migrating birds, the primordial reservoir and transmitters of influenza in Brazil Investigação de influenza em aves migratórias, principal reservatório e transporte de influenza no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are the most important reservoirs of the influenza virus. Its maintenance in its natural hosts, including man, allows the influenza virus to reassorts its strains. The recent report of an avian influenza A (H5N1 virus in humans, was in a child with fatal respiratory illness in China, 1997. The current study was conducted to elucidate the transportation of the influenza by birds that migrate, annually, through the both Northern and Southern hemispheres, with special attention paid to the Vireo olivaceus [Juruviara(BR or Red-eyed vireo(USA] species, which travels from the USA to Brazil, and vice versa, and the Elaenia mesoleuca [Tuque(BR or (USA] species that flies over the entire Southern Hemisphere. There are two species of birds, which breed and migrate in São Paulo State, Brazil, and which were demonstrated to carry Influenza virus, were selected. The viral particles isolated were observed by electron microscopy. The influenza virus was detected by the House Duplex/PCR and Gloria molecular biology tests. The results demonstrated that the Elaenia mesoleuca and Vireo olivaceus bird species are carrying the Influenza virus whilst crossing both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. To understand the role that these migrating birds may play in epidemic influenza, in Brazil, characterization of avian influenza subtypes will be done.Os mais importantes reservatórios do vírus influenza são os pássaros. A manutenção do vírus influenza em hospedeiros naturais, inclusive o homem, permite que esse vírus realize rearranjos entre as suas cepas. O recente relato de uma cepa influenza aviária A(H5N1, em humanos, se deu em uma criança com doença respiratória fatal, na China em 1977. O presente estudo foi conduzido para elucidar o transporte da influenza por pássaros que migram, anualmente, através de ambos hemisférios o do Norte e do Sul, com especial atenção voltada à espécies Vireo olivaceo [Juruviara(BR e Red-eyed vireo(USA] que

  18. Tracking bird migration at the Baie-des-Sables wind farm site : Innergex II Inc.; Suivi des migrations des oiseaux sur le site d'implantation d'un parc eolien a Baie-des-Sables : Innergex II Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Ouellet, J.F.; Pelletier, N.; Gallant, F.; Lavoie, J. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2004-12-21

    The global production of electricity from wind power has increased significantly in recent years. As part of Hydro-Quebec's plans to increase wind power production, Cartier Wind Power plans to install 61 wind turbines at Baie-des-Sables on Quebec's Gaspe Peninsula where wind energy is abundant. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on birds and their habitat and migration patterns. In particular, it characterized the migratory passage of birds in the area through 900 hours of visual and auditory observation beginning with spring migration, spring nesting to autumnal migration. The behavior of different migratory birds as well as local species was studied and the results of the ornithological inventory were revealed in terms of species abundance and diversity; distribution and use of the territory by birds; migratory activities; period and importance of migration; characterization of displacement; height of flight; direction of migration; and, use of the territory by the avifauna. The inventory identified 121 species of birds including 14 species of raptors which moved mainly along the river and flew very high. The study revealed that although the bird habitats at Baie-des-Sables were already strongly disturbed by agricultural activities, it is unlikely that the turbines will not have any impact on the avifauna. However, most of the wind turbines will be installed in farmers fields, and as such, will not exert additional pressure on the forest medium. The factors that influence the rate of bird collisions with wind turbines were discussed. In order to lessen the impact on birds, it was suggested that installation work should occur outside of the nesting season and that the electrical supply networks should be hidden to limit the harmful effects posed by power lines. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs., 11 maps, 9 appendices.

  19. OmniBird: a miniature PTZ NIR sensor system for UCAV day/night autonomous operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Steven; Li, Hui

    2007-04-01

    Through a SBIR funding from NAVAIR, we have successfully developed an innovative, miniaturized, and lightweight PTZ UCAV imager called OmniBird for UCAV taxiing. The proposed OmniBird will be able to fit in a small space. The designed zoom capability allows it to acquire focused images for targets ranging from 10 to 250 feet. The innovative panning mechanism also allows the system to have a field of view of +/- 100 degrees within the provided limited spacing (6 cubic inches). The integrated optics, camera sensor, and mechanics solution will allow the OmniBird to stay optically aligned and shock-proof under harsh environments.

  20. Global crisis and the Europe-Latin America migration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Sassone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the changes in the connections of the European-Latin American migration system over the past decades. First, we analyse the changing trends and re-routing of the flows between the two ends of the system. Then, we address the complex rearrangements of immigration policies, which in both spaces are again beginning to turn inwards. Lastly, we briefly review the partnerships that are being established between Europe and Latin America via Spain. Within this framework, we wonder whether we are entering a new phase of the globalisation of migration, the dynamic of which is a pendulum with global and regional effects.

  1. Object migration and authentication. [in computer operating systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Lindsay, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a mechanism permitting a type manager to fabricate a migrated object representation which can be entrusted to other subsystems or transmitted outside of the control of a local computer system. The migrated object representation is signed by the type manager in such a way that the type manager's signature cannot be forged and the manager is able to authenticate its own signature. Subsequently, the type manager can retrieve the migrated representation and validate its contents before reconstructing the object in its original representation. This facility allows type managers to authenticate the contents of off-line or network storage and solves problems stemming from the hierarchical structure of the system itself.

  2. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  3. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneet Bhatia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1 in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  4. The Manú Gradient as a study system for bird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Mannfred Ma; Scholer, Micah N; Kennedy, Jeremiah Jc; Heavyside, Julian M; Daza, Aniceto; Guevara-Apaza, David; Jankowski, Jill E

    2018-01-01

    This study establishes an altiudinal gradient, spanning from the highland Andes (2400 m) to lowland Amazon, as a productive region for the study of bird pollination in Southeastern Peru. The 'Manú Gradient' has a rich history of ornithological research, the published data and resources from which lay the groundwork for analyses of plant-bird interactions. In this preliminary expedition we documented 44 plants exhibting aspects of the bird pollination syndrome, and made field observations of hummingbird visits at three sites spanning the Manú Gradient: 2800 m (Wayqecha), 1400 m (San Pedro), and 400 m (Pantiacolla). Some of the documented plant taxa are underrepresented in the bird pollination literature and could be promising avenues for future analyses of their pollination biology. The Manú Gradient is currently the focus of a concerted, international effort to describe and study the birds in the region; we propose that this region of Southeastern Peru is a productive and perhaps underestimated system to gain insight into the ecology and evolution of bird pollination. Observations were made on 11, 19, and 14 putatively bird pollinated plant species found at the high-, mid- and low-elevation sites along the gradient, respectively. Hummingbirds visited 18 of these plant species, with some plant species being visited by multiple hummingbird species or the same hummingbird species on differing occasions. Morphometric data is presented for putatively bird-pollinated plants, along with bill measurements from hummingbirds captured at each of three sites. Voucher specimens from this study are deposited in the herbaria of the Universidad Nacional de Agraria de La Molina (MOL), Peru and the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada. The specimens collected represent a 'snapshot' of the diversity of bird-pollinated flora as observed over 10 day sampling windows (per site) during the breeding season for hummingbirds of Manú .

  5. Microservices: Migration of a Mission Critical System

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoni, Nicola; Dustdar, Schahram; Larsen, Stephan T.; Mazzara, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The microservices paradigm aims at changing the way in which software is perceived, conceived and designed. One of the foundational characteristics of this new promising paradigm, compared for instance to monolithic architectures, is scalability. In this paper, we present a real world case study in order to demonstrate how scalability is positively affected by re-implementing a monolithic architecture into microservices. The case study is based on the FX Core system, a mission critical system...

  6. Natural systems prediction of radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the application (and limitations) of data from natural systems to the verification of performance assessments, particularly as they apply to the evaluation of the long-term performance of waste forms, backfill, canister materials, and finally, the integrity of the repository itself. Two specific examples, the corrosion of borosilicate glass and the formation of alteration products of spent fuel, will be discussed. In both cases, inferences are of three types: 1) directly applicable data (i.e. radiation effects, stable phase assemblages): 2) inferences based on the analogous behaviour of the natural and repository systems (e.g. long-term corrosion rate); 3) specific identification of new phenomena that could not have been anticipated from the short term laboratory data (i.e. new mechanisms for the retention or release of radionuclides). The latter can only be derived from the observation of natural systems. Finally, specific attention will be paid to the limitations in the use of natural systems, particularly as the spatial and temporal scales expand, and to the inherent limitations of prediction and verification. (J.P.N.)

  7. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  8. Impact of nest sanitation on the immune system of parents and nestlings in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jessica K; Griffith, Simon C; Klasing, Kirk C; Buchanan, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial communities are thought to have fundamental effects on the growth and development of nestling birds. The antigen exposure hypothesis suggests that, for both nestlings and adult birds, exposure to a diverse range of bacteria would select for stronger immune defences. However, there are relatively few studies that have tested the immune/bacterial relationships outside of domestic poultry. We therefore sought to examine indices of immunity (microbial killing ability in naive birds, which is a measure of innate immunity, and the antibody response to sheep red blood cells, which measures adaptive immunity) in both adult and nestling zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We did this throughout breeding and between reproductive attempts in nests that were experimentally manipulated to change the intensity of bacterial exposure. Our results suggest that nest sanitation and bacterial load affected measures of the adaptive immune system, but not the innate immune parameters tested. Adult finches breeding in clean nests had a lower primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells, particularly males, and a greater difference between primary and secondary responses. Adult microbial killing of Escherichia coli decreased as parents moved from incubation to nestling rearing for both nest treatments; however, killing of Candida albicans remained consistent throughout. In nestlings, both innate microbial killing and the adaptive antibody response did not differ between nest environments. Together, these results suggest that exposure to microorganisms in the environment affects the adaptive immune system in nesting birds, with exposure upregulating the antibody response in adult birds. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Gas generation and migration analysis for TRU waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kenichi; Noda, Masaru; Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro

    2005-09-01

    In TRU waste disposal system, significant quantities of gases may be generated due to metal corrosion, radiolysis effect and microorganism activities. It is therefore recommended that the potential impact of gas generation and migration on TRU waste repository should be evaluated. In this study, gas generation rates were calculated in the repository and gas migration analysis in the disposal system were carried out using two phase flow model with results of gas generation rates. First, the time dependencies of gas generation rate in each TRU waste repositories were evaluated based on amounts of metal, organic matter and radioactivity. Next, the accumulation pressure of gases and expelled pore water volume nuclides in the repository were calculated by TOUGH2 code. After that, the results showed that the increase of gas pressure was the range of 1.3 to 1.4 MPa. In the repository with and without buffer, the rate of expelled pore water was 0.006 - 0.009 m 3 /y and 0.018 - 0.24m 3 /y, respectively. In addition, the radioactive gas migration through the repository and geosphere are evaluated. And re-saturation analysis is also performed to evaluate the initial condition of the system. (author)

  10. Java Source Code Analysis for API Migration to Embedded Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); McCoy, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerrero, Jonathan [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); Reinke, Carl Werner [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Embedded systems form an integral part of our technological infrastructure and oftentimes play a complex and critical role within larger systems. From the perspective of reliability, security, and safety, strong arguments can be made favoring the use of Java over C in such systems. In part, this argument is based on the assumption that suitable subsets of Java’s APIs and extension libraries are available to embedded software developers. In practice, a number of Java-based embedded processors do not support the full features of the JVM. For such processors, source code migration is a mechanism by which key abstractions offered by APIs and extension libraries can made available to embedded software developers. The analysis required for Java source code-level library migration is based on the ability to correctly resolve element references to their corresponding element declarations. A key challenge in this setting is how to perform analysis for incomplete source-code bases (e.g., subsets of libraries) from which types and packages have been omitted. This article formalizes an approach that can be used to extend code bases targeted for migration in such a manner that the threats associated the analysis of incomplete code bases are eliminated.

  11. Social Mating System and Sex-Biased Dispersal in Mammals and Birds: A Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Karen E.; Shelley, Erin L.; Davis, Katie E.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that patterns of sex-biased dispersal are related to social mating system in mammals and birds has gained widespread acceptance over the past 30 years. However, two major complications have obscured the relationship between these two behaviors: 1) dispersal frequency and dispersal distance, which measure different aspects of the dispersal process, have often been confounded, and 2) the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in these vertebrate groups has not been examined using modern phylogenetic comparative methods. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in mammals and birds. Results indicate that the evolution of female-biased dispersal in mammals may be more likely on monogamous branches of the phylogeny, and that females may disperse farther than males in socially monogamous mammalian species. However, we found no support for a relationship between social mating system and sex-biased dispersal in birds when the effects of phylogeny are taken into consideration. We caution that although there are larger-scale behavioral differences in mating system and sex-biased dispersal between mammals and birds, mating system and sex-biased dispersal are far from perfectly associated within these taxa. PMID:23483957

  12. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure

  13. An automated system for monitoring bird collisions with power lines and tower guys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, R.G. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An automated system for monitoring collisions between birds and power lines was presented. The bird strike indicator (BSI) was developed to gather bird collision information that is difficult to obtain through direct human observation as well as to aid in the calculation of inherent biases which must be considered when attempting to determine total mortality from data obtained in on-the-ground dead bird searches. The BSI can be placed directly on power lines, static wires, or tower guy cables with a standard hot stick power line clamp. The sensor consists of a state-of-the-art accelerometers, power supplies, signal processors, and data acquisition systems. The BSI also includes a communication system for transmitting data to a ground-based unit in which raw data can be stored. A complete BSI consists of 30 sensors with signal processing and data logging capabilities, and a base station. The sensors integrate several components, including wireless radio, data storage, and a microcontroller with an A/D converter. Full-scale field deployment has shown that the BSI is both robust and sensitive to vibrations in the guy wires, as the system has been tuned to eliminate vibrations induced by wind. 3 figs.

  14. IUSSP Committee on International Migration, Workshop on International Migration Systems and Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lin Lean

    1987-01-01

    This mini-workshop sought a framework for examining the dynamics of migration processes, especially the interlinkages between sending and receiving countries. These two focuses emerged as directions for further research: (1) a topology reflecting the concepts underlying international migration; and (2) empirical studies which attempt to apply the…

  15. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  16. Innovative water withdrawal system re-establishes fish migration runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This article described a unique water withdrawal and fish bypass structure that is under construction in Oregon to re-establish anadromous fish runs and to improve water quality downstream of the Round Butte dam. Portland General Electric and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, which co-own the dam, have committed to re-establish fish runs in response to concerns over the declining numbers of salmon and trout in the region. Water intakes are routinely added at hydroelectric facilities to protect native fish in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Clean Water Act. The Round Butte Hydroelectric project had a complex set of challenges whereby surface-current directions had to be changed to help migrating salmon swim easily into a fish handling area and create a fish collection system. CH2M HILL designed the system which consists of a large floating structure, an access bridge, a large vertical conduit and a base structure resting on the lake bed. Instead of using 2D CAD file methods, CH2M HILL decided to take advantage of 3D models to visualize the complex geometry of these structures. The 3D models were used to help designers and consultants understand the issues, resolve conflicts and design solutions. The objective is to have the system operating by the 2009 migrating season. 1 ref., 4 figs

  17. Grading system for migrated lumbar disc herniation on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging. An agreement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.; Jeong, T.S. [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, T.; Jeon, J.Y. [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    Migrated lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) in the sagittal plane are common. Disc migration grading can be applied as a useful measurement tool in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome evaluation of migrated LDH. No study has evaluated the reliability of migrated LDH grading. We evaluated the reliability and functionality of the current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading system for migrated LDH. We assessed a six-level grading system developed based on sagittal MRI and graded according to the direction (rostral and caudal) and degree (low, high, and very high) of disc migration. One-hundred and one migrated LDHs treated with minimally invasive endoscopic discectomy were analyzed independently by two experienced radiologists. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were assessed by kappa statistics. The most common migrated LDH grade was grade 4 (30.94%; caudal, low-grade migration). Rostral and caudal migrations were more common in the upper and lower lumbar levels, respectively. Interobserver agreement in the grading of migrated LDH was good at both the first (kappa = 0.737) and second assessment (kappa = 0.657). The intraobserver agreement for reader 1 was very good (kappa = 0.827) and for reader 2 was good (kappa = 0.620). The current grading system for migrated LDH was found to be reliable and functional with good interobserver and intraobserver agreement. It may be useful in the interpretation of disc migration patterns and outcomes of various minimally invasive surgical procedures. (orig.)

  18. Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at L'Anse-a-Valleau wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de l'Anse-a-Valleau : rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at L'Anse-a-Valleau in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 100.5 MW wind turbine park in L'Anse-a-Valleau was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between April 1 and May 14, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2003. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds over a 12 day period in L'Anse-a-Valleau as well as Lac du Grand Etang. During the 12 day observation period, bird watching took place for about four hours a day, from 10:00 to 15:00, given favourable weather conditions such as absence of rain and good visibility. Overall, 14 birds of prey were observed over a period of 44 hours. With 5 sightings, the red-tailed hawk was the most frequently observed species during this study. Very few signs of migration were noticed in L'Anse-a-Valleau. The results indicate that this region is not on the migratory path of birds of prey during their flight on the south side of the Saint-Lawrence River. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  19. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  20. Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at the Baie-des-Sables wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de Baie-des-Sables : rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at Baie-des-Sables in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 109.5 MW wind turbine park in Baie-des-Sables was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between March 31 and May 23, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2004. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds during the monitoring period. Nine species of birds of prey were identified. Overall, 448 individual birds were observed over a total period of 92 hours. With 137 sightings of the red-tailed hawk and 95 sightings of the rough-legged hawk, these 2 species were the most frequently indexed species, accounting for 51.8 per cent of the sightings. No evidence of nesting particular to birds of prey was observed at the site. The flight patterns of the birds were also observed with reference to height and direction of flight. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices.

  1. The research status and prospect of tritium migration in soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the research significance and progress of tritium migration in soil-plant system are briefly introduced, which includes spatial and temporal distribution, migration pattern and influence factors, chemical forms, mathematical models of tritium migration in different soil and plant. The research results are summarized, and the existing problems in research process are analyzed and discussed. (authors)

  2. Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Wörner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of charge at the molecular level plays a fundamental role in many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. Today, more than 60 years after the seminal work of R. A. Marcus, charge transfer is still a very active field of research. An important recent impetus comes from the ability to resolve ever faster temporal events, down to the attosecond time scale. Such a high temporal resolution now offers the possibility to unravel the most elementary quantum dynamics of both electrons and nuclei that participate in the complex process of charge transfer. This review covers recent research that addresses the following questions. Can we reconstruct the migration of charge across a molecule on the atomic length and electronic time scales? Can we use strong laser fields to control charge migration? Can we temporally resolve and understand intramolecular charge transfer in dissociative ionization of small molecules, in transition-metal complexes and in conjugated polymers? Can we tailor molecular systems towards specific charge-transfer processes? What are the time scales of the elementary steps of charge transfer in liquids and nanoparticles? Important new insights into each of these topics, obtained from state-of-the-art ultrafast spectroscopy and/or theoretical methods, are summarized in this review.

  3. Acuity of a Cryptochrome and vision-based magnetoreception system in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mouritsen, Henrik; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space, and this assumpt......The magnetic compass of birds is embedded in the visual system and it has been hypothesized that the primary sensory mechanism is based on a radical pair reaction. Previous models of magnetoreception have assumed that the radical pair-forming molecules are rigidly fixed in space...... of the radical pair-forming protein needs to be partially constrained, while the other two rotational degrees of freedom do not impact the magnetoreceptive properties of the protein. The result implies that any membrane-associated protein is sufficiently restricted in its motion to function as a radical pair...

  4. Health and demographic surveillance systems: contributing to an understanding of the dynamics in migration and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Annette; Bocquier, Philippe; White, Michael; Mbacké, Cheikh; Alam, Nurul; Beguy, Donatien; Odhiambo, Frank; Sacoor, Charfudin; Phuc, Ho Dang; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Collinson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is difficult to measure because it is highly repeatable. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a unique opportunity to study migration as multiple episodes of migration are captured over time. A conceptual framework is needed to show the public health implications of migration. Objective/design Research conducted in seven HDSS centres [International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) Network], published in a peer-reviewed volume in 2009, is summarised focussing on the age–sex profile of migrants, the relation between migration and livelihoods, and the impact of migration on health. This illustrates the conceptual structure of the implications of migration. The next phase is described, the Multi-centre Analysis of the Dynamics In Migration And Health (MADIMAH) project, consisting of workshops focussed on preparing data and conducting the analyses for comparative studies amongst HDSS centres in Africa and Asia. The focus here is on the (standardisation of) determinants of migration and the impact of migration on adult mortality. Results The findings in the volume showed a relatively regular age structure for migration among all HDSS centres. Furthermore, migration generally contributes to improved living conditions at the place of origin. However, there are potential negative consequences of migration on health. It was concluded that there is a need to compare results from multiple centres using uniform covariate definitions as well as longitudinal analysis techniques. This was the starting point for the on-going MADIMAH initiative, which has increased capacity at the participating HDSS centres to produce the required datasets and conduct the analyses. Conclusions HDSS centres brought together within INDEPTH Network have already provided strong evidence of the potential negative consequences of migration on health, which contrast with the beneficial impacts of migration on

  5. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaugg, S.; Saporta, G.; van Loon, E.; Schmaljohann, H.; Liechti, F.

    2008-01-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical

  6. Of mice, birds, and men: the mouse ultrasonic song system has some features similar to humans and song-learning birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arriaga

    Full Text Available Humans and song-learning birds communicate acoustically using learned vocalizations. The characteristic features of this social communication behavior include vocal control by forebrain motor areas, a direct cortical projection to brainstem vocal motor neurons, and dependence on auditory feedback to develop and maintain learned vocalizations. These features have so far not been found in closely related primate and avian species that do not learn vocalizations. Male mice produce courtship ultrasonic vocalizations with acoustic features similar to songs of song-learning birds. However, it is assumed that mice lack a forebrain system for vocal modification and that their ultrasonic vocalizations are innate. Here we investigated the mouse song system and discovered that it includes a motor cortex region active during singing, that projects directly to brainstem vocal motor neurons and is necessary for keeping song more stereotyped and on pitch. We also discovered that male mice depend on auditory feedback to maintain some ultrasonic song features, and that sub-strains with differences in their songs can match each other's pitch when cross-housed under competitive social conditions. We conclude that male mice have some limited vocal modification abilities with at least some neuroanatomical features thought to be unique to humans and song-learning birds. To explain our findings, we propose a continuum hypothesis of vocal learning.

  7. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  8. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  9. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  10. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the

  11. Architecture-driven Migration of Legacy Systems to Cloud-enabled Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    of legacy systems to cloud computing. The framework leverages the software reengineering concepts that aim to recover the architecture from legacy source code. Then the framework exploits the software evolution concepts to support architecture-driven migration of legacy systems to cloud-based architectures....... The Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe comprises of four processes: (i) architecture migration planning, (ii) architecture recovery and consistency, (iii) architecture transformation and (iv) architecture-based development of cloud-enabled software. We aim to discover, document and apply the migration...

  12. Many routes leading to Rome: Potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Ens, B.J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes.

  13. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  14. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A.; Knowles, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts

  15. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  16. Population specific migration patterns of an European-Afrotropical songbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Thorup, Kasper

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between the European and African continent. The fascinating behaviour of migration that we are witnessing today is assumed to have evolved through a series of dispersal events from Africa into Europe since the last glaciation period....... Recent technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our...... understanding of entire species migration systems is thus still limited. In this project we analyse the spatio-temporal migration schedule of Red-backed Shrikes, Lanius collurio, using tracking data from individuals originating from geographically distinct breeding populations (Scandinavia, the Netherlands...

  17. Using molt cycles to categorize the age of tropical birds: an integrative new system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Thomas B. Ryder; Peter Pyle

    2010-01-01

    Accurately differentiating age classes is essential for the long-term monitoring of resident New World tropical bird species. Molt and plumage criteria have long been used to accurately age temperate birds, but application of temperate age-classification models to the Neotropics has been hindered because annual life-cycle events of tropical birds do not always...

  18. Altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness and density in relation to climate, habitat heterogeneity, and migration influence in a temperate montane forest (South Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Lee, Sanghun; Shin, Man-Seok; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Seo, Changwan; Eo, Soo Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns in the population ecology of mountain bird species are useful for predicting species occurrence and behavior. Numerous hypotheses about the complex interactions among environmental factors have been proposed; however, these still remain controversial. This study aimed to identify the altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness or density and to test the hypotheses that climate, habitat heterogeneity (horizontal and vertical), and heterospecific attraction in a temperate forest, South Korea. We conducted a field survey of 142 plots at altitudes between 200 and 1,400 m a.s.l in the breeding season. A total of 2,771 individuals from 53 breeding bird species were recorded. Altitudinal patterns of species richness and density showed a hump-shaped pattern, indicating that the highest richness and density could be observed at moderate altitudes. Models constructed with 13 combinations of six variables demonstrated that species richness was positively correlated with vertical and horizontal habitat heterogeneity. Density was positively correlated with vertical, but not horizontal habitat heterogeneity, and negatively correlated with migratory bird ratio. No significant relationships were found between spring temperature and species richness or density. Therefore, the observed patterns in species richness support the hypothesis that habitat heterogeneity, rather than climate, is the main driver of species richness. Also, neither habitat heterogeneity nor climate hypotheses fully explains the observed patterns in density. However, vertical habitat heterogeneity does likely help explain observed patterns in density. The heterospecific attraction hypothesis did not apply to the distribution of birds along the altitudinal gradient. Appropriate management of vertical habitat heterogeneity, such as vegetation cover, should be maintained for the conservation of bird diversity in this area.

  19. No fly zones : oilsands mines use wide variety of bird deterrents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed the bird deterrent practices that several Canadian operators have in place at their tailings ponds. Regulations require that oilsands operators prevent birds from coming into contact with toxic tailings. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has a 2-man team constantly monitoring bird landings at its Horizon tailings pond. The team fires flares at birds or harasses them in boats to stop them from landing on the pond. Remote sensing technologies are used, including long-range acoustic devices, propane cannons, human effigies, balloons, and pyrotechnics. The vegetation around the pond is controlled to make the area inhospitable to birds, and highly desirable bird habitat was created as an alternative bird landing site. Following a high-mortality incident in 2008, Syncrude now deploys 190 shore-based sound canons at all tailings settling basins and open-water areas and uses scarecrows and effigies fitted with reflectors to deter waterfowl from landing. A radar-based migration monitoring system helps the company to optimize its deterrent system. At its Muskeg River Mine, Shell Canada Limited uses an on-demand radar-activated bird-deterrent program, which is what major airports use to deter birds. In the presence of a bird, the system launches a radio signal that sets off strobe lights, propane cannons, scarecrows, and mechanical models of falcons. 1 fig.

  20. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  1. Experiences from the Architectural Migration of a Joint Replacement Surgery Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuli Niiranen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present the experiences gathered from the migration of an existing and deployed joint replacement surgery information system from a classical 2-tier architecture to a 4-tier architecture. These include discussion on the motivation for the migration and on the technical benefits of the chosen technical migration path and an evaluation of user experiences. The results from the analysis of clinical end-user and administrator experiences show an increase in the perceived performance and maintainability of the system and a high level of acceptance for the new system version.

  2. The CEBAF accelerator control system: migrating from a TACL to an EPICS based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III; Barker, David; Bickley, Matthew; Gupta, Pratik; Johnson, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    CEBAF is in the process of migrating its accelerator and experimental hall control systems to one based upon EPICS, a control system toolkit developed by a collaboration among several DOE laboratories in the US. The new system design interfaces existing CAMAC hardware via a CAMAC serial highway to VME-based I/O controllers running the EPICS software; future additions and upgrades will for the most part go directly into VME. The decision to use EPICS followed difficulties in scaling the CEBAF-developed TACL system to full machine operation. TACL and EPICS share many design concepts, facilitating the conversion of software from one toolkit to the other. In particular, each supports graphical entry of algorithms built up from modular code, graphical displays with a display editor, and a client-server architecture with name-based I/O. During the migration, TACL and EPICS will interoperate through a socket-based I/O gateway. As part of a collaboration with other laboratories, CEBAF will add relational database support for system management and high level applications support. Initial experience with EPICS is presented, along with a plan for the full migration which is expected to be finished next year. ((orig.))

  3. Confined Li ion migration in the silicon-graphene complex system: An ab initio investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Xu, Bo; Shi, Jing; Lei, Xueling; Ouyang, Chuying

    2018-04-01

    Silicon-Carbon complex systems play an important role in enhancing the performance of Si-based anode materials for Li ion batteries. In this work, the Li migration property of the Silicon-Graphene (Si-Gr) complex systems are investigated by using first-principles calculations. Especially, the effects of graphene coating on the migration of Li ions are discussed in detail. The distance between Si surface and graphene in the Si-Gr system significantly affects the lateral migration of Li ions. With the decrease of the distance from 4.715 to 3.844 Å, the energy barrier of Li ion migration also decreases from 0.115 to 0.067 eV, which are all lower than that of the case without graphene d(0.135 eV). However, smaller distance (3.586 Å) brings the high energy barrier (0.237 eV). Through AIMD calculations, it is found that the graphene coating in the Si-Gr complex system would result in the larger intercalation depths, more uniform distributions, and higher migration coefficients of Li ions. Further calculations of migration coefficients of Li ions at different temperature are used to obtained the activation energy for Li ions migration in the Si-Gr system, which is as low as 0.028 eV. This low activation energy shows that it is easy for Li ions migrating in the Si-Gr system. Our study provided the basically information to understand the migration mechanism of Li ions in Si-C system.

  4. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  5. Migration of the CERN IT data centre support system to ServiceNow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Alonso, R; Arneodo, G; Barring, O

    2014-01-01

    The large potential and flexibility of the ServiceNow infrastructure based on 'best practises' methods is allowing the migration of some of the ticketing systems traditionally used for the monitoring of the servers and services available at the CERN IT Computer Centre. This migration enables the standardization and globalization of the ticketing and control systems implementing a generic system extensible to other departments and users. One of the activities of the Service Management project together with the Computing Facilities group has been the migration of the ITCM structure based on Remedy to ServiceNow within the context of one of the ITIL processes called Event Management. The experience gained during the first months of operation has been instrumental towards the migration to ServiceNow of other service monitoring systems and databases. The usage of this structure is also extended to the service tracking at the Wigner Centre in Budapest.

  6. Migration of the CERN IT Data Centre Support System to ServiceNow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Alonso, R.; Arneodo, G.; Barring, O.; Bonfillou, E.; Coelho dos Santos, M.; Dore, V.; Lefebure, V.; Fedorko, I.; Grossir, A.; Hefferman, J.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Moller, M.; Pera Mira, O.; Salter, W.; Trevisani, F.; Toteva, Z.

    2014-06-01

    The large potential and flexibility of the ServiceNow infrastructure based on "best practises" methods is allowing the migration of some of the ticketing systems traditionally used for the monitoring of the servers and services available at the CERN IT Computer Centre. This migration enables the standardization and globalization of the ticketing and control systems implementing a generic system extensible to other departments and users. One of the activities of the Service Management project together with the Computing Facilities group has been the migration of the ITCM structure based on Remedy to ServiceNow within the context of one of the ITIL processes called Event Management. The experience gained during the first months of operation has been instrumental towards the migration to ServiceNow of other service monitoring systems and databases. The usage of this structure is also extended to the service tracking at the Wigner Centre in Budapest.

  7. A Comparative Study of Species Diversity of Migrant Birds Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory birds in the ...

  8. Landscape associations of birds during migratory stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert Howard

    The challenge for migratory bird conservation is habitat preservation that sustains breeding, migration, and non-breeding biological processes. In choosing an appropriately scaled conservation arena for habitat preservation, a conservative and thorough examination of stopover habitat use patterns by migrants works back from the larger scales at which such relationships may occur. Because the use of stopover habitats by migrating birds occurs at spatial scales larger than traditional field techniques can easily accommodate, I quantify these relationship using the United States system of weather surveillance radars (popularly known as NEXRAD). To provide perspective on use of this system for biologists, I first describe the technical challenges as well as some of the biological potential of these radars for ornithological research. Using data from these radars, I then examined the influence of Lake Michigan and the distribution of woodland habitat on migrant concentrations in northeastern Illinois habitats during stopover. Lake Michigan exerted less influence on migrant abundance and density than the distribution and availability of habitat for stopover. There was evidence of post-migratory movement resulting in habitats within suburban landscapes experiencing higher migrant abundance but lower migrant density than habitats within nearby urban and agricultural landscapes. Finally, in the context of hierarchy theory, I examined the influence of landscape ecological and behavioral processes on bird density during migratory stopover. Migrant abundance did not vary across landscapes that differed considerably in the amount of habitat available for stopover. As a result, smaller, more isolated patches held higher densities of birds. Spatial models of migrant habitat selection based on migrant proximity to a patch explained nearly as much variance in the number of migrants occupying patches (R2 = 0.88) as selection models based on migrant interception of patches during

  9. Polarization and migration in the zebrafish posterior lateral line system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildur Knutsdottir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective cell migration plays an important role in development. Here, we study the posterior lateral line primordium (PLLP a group of about 100 cells, destined to form sensory structures, that migrates from head to tail in the zebrafish embryo. We model mutually inhibitory FGF-Wnt signalling network in the PLLP and link tissue subdivision (Wnt receptor and FGF receptor activity domains to receptor-ligand parameters. We then use a 3D cell-based simulation with realistic cell-cell adhesion, interaction forces, and chemotaxis. Our model is able to reproduce experimentally observed motility with leading cells migrating up a gradient of CXCL12a, and trailing (FGF receptor active cells moving actively by chemotaxis towards FGF ligand secreted by the leading cells. The 3D simulation framework, combined with experiments, allows an investigation of the role of cell division, chemotaxis, adhesion, and other parameters on the shape and speed of the PLLP. The 3D model demonstrates reasonable behaviour of control as well as mutant phenotypes.

  10. Development of migration prediction system (MIGSTEM) for cationic species of radionuclides through soil layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi

    1989-01-01

    The migration prediction system (MIGSTEM) has been developed for estimating the migration of cationic species of radionuclides through soil layers systematically. The MIGSTEM consists of the migration experiments, the one-dimensional fitting code (inverse analysis code) for determining retardation factor and dispersivity (migration factors) and the three-dimensional differential code (prediction code) for estimating the migration of the radionuclides. The migration experiments are carried out for obtaining the concentration profiles of the radionuclides in unsaturated and saturated soil layers. Using the inverse analysis code, the migration factors are obtained at one time by fitting the concentration profiles calculated to those observed. The prediction code can give the contours of concentration and the one-dimensional concentration profiles at selected time, as well as the changing in the concentration at a selected position with time. The validity of the MIGSTEM was obtained by the benchmark test on the prediction and inverse analysis codes. The MIGSTEM was applied to estimate the migration of Sr 2+ through the sandy soil. (author)

  11. Modelling migration in multilayer systems by a finite difference method: the spherical symmetry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojbota, C I; Toşa, V; Mercea, P V

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical model based on finite differences to solve the problem of chemical impurity migration within a multilayer spherical system. Migration here means diffusion of chemical species in conditions of concentration partitioning at layer interfaces due to different solubilities of the migrant in different layers. We detail here the numerical model and discuss the results of its implementation. To validate the method we compare it with cases where an analytic solution exists. We also present an application of our model to a practical problem in which we compute the migration of caprolactam from the packaging multilayer foil into the food

  12. AmBird: Mediating Intimacy for Long Distance Relationships through an Ambient Awareness System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sine; Stounbjerg, Rasmus Balthasar Kloth; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the AmBird concept that explores how to provide alternatives for mediating intimacy for people that are living apart. The initial design and implementation of the AmBird concept is described as well as a preliminary concept validation. Based on the lessons learned, we...

  13. Disease dynamics and bird migration-linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza a virus in time and space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Gunnarsson (Gunnar); N. Latorre-Margalef (Neus); K.A. Hobson (Keith); S.L. van Wilgenburg (Steven); J. Elmberg (Johan); B. Olsen (Björn); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J. Waldenström (Jonas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and

  14. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  15. The role of natural organics in radionuclide migration in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wide variety of organic compounds present in natural waters is assessed for the role they may play in radionuclide and, especially, actinide migration. Some natural analog and environmental data are briefly reviewed for evaluation of the effect of organics in these systems. The binding constants and the kinetics of complexation of actinides by humics are discussed in terms of probable effects on actinide migration. The role of organics in redox, and in sorption, is also considered. (orig.)

  16. Migration of the Almaraz NPP integrated operation management system to a new computer platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Crego, E.; Martin Lopez-Suevos, C.

    1996-01-01

    In all power plants, it becomes necessary, with the passage of time, to migrate the initial operation management systems to adapt them to current technologies. That is a good time to improve the inclusion of data in the corporative database and standardize the system interfaces and operation, whilst maintaining data system operability. This article contains Almaraz experience in migrating its Integrated Operation Management System to an advanced computer platform based on open systems (UNIX), communications network (ETHERNET) and database (ORACLE). To this effect, clear objectives and strict standards were established to facilitate the work. The most noteworthy results obtained are: Better quality of information and structure in the corporative database Standardised user interface in all applications. Joint migration of applications for Maintenance, Components and Spare parts, Warehouses and Purchases. Integration of new applications into the system. Introduction of the navigator, which allows movement around the database using all available applications. (Author)

  17. Impact of environmental factors on the migration of Pu, Am, Np and Tc in geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, M.; Pennders, R.M.J.; Frissel, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide geochemical data to be included in a model under construction to describe the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. A large series of distribution coefficients was determined by batch and column experiments. The radionuclides were: Americium-241, Plutonium-238, 239 and 240, Neptunium-237 and Technetium-99. Geological materials were glauconite containing sand and materials from near Gorleben (Federal Republic of Germany). THe main variables of which the impact was studied were: pH, redox potential (Eh), salt concentration and contact time. Also the influence of textural composition, CEC, organic matter content and ionic composition of the associated ground waters on the sorption of the radionuclides was studied. From the data of the batch, column and microcosm studies it can be concluded that the migration of Pu, Am, Np and Tc will be strongly delayed due to adsorption of these nuclides on geological material. In anaerobic systems at low pH values Pu and Am will migrate faster than Np. For aerobic conditions, but also for anaerobic conditions at high pH, Np will migrate faster than Pu and Am. Tc may migrate in aerobic systems; it will become less mobile if reduction occurs. As far as modelling is concerned, without a rather detailed knowledge of the local redox potential and pH, a fair estimate of the migration is not possible

  18. Migration of the CNA maintenance information system to a client server architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Crego, E.; Martin Lopez-Suevos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper explains the guidelines and methodology followed to carry out regulation of the CNA computerized maintenance system (SIGE) to a system with a client/server architecture based on ORACLE. The following guidelines were established to carry out migration: 1 Ensure that the new system would contain all the information of the former system, ie, no information would be lost during migration. 2 Improve the technical design of the application, while maintaining at least the functionality of the former application 3 incorporate modifications into the application which would permit incremental improvement of its functionality. 4 Carry out migration at the minimum cost in time and resources to construct the application, a strict development methodology was followed and certain standards were drawn up to significantly increase the speed. Special use was made of: 1 Data models 2 Process models which operate the data model 3 SQL-FORMS standards 4 Safety features

  19. The design of the high energy physics massive data migration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jingyan; Zang Dongsong; Cheng Yaodong

    2010-01-01

    High energy physics is the typical data massive computing application due to its huge experiment data. For example, the amount of BESⅢ experiment data reaches to 4PB. Hierarchical storage system is adapted for the application in which disk array and tape library are used. It is quite important to migrate massive data from disk array to tape library. The article introduces the design and realization for the high performance data migration system between disk array and tape library. Besides, the system provides web page as the friendly user interface. (authors)

  20. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological

  1. Transparent checkpointing and process migration in a distributed system

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A distributed system for creating a checkpoint for a plurality of processes running on the distributed system. The distributed system includes a plurality of compute nodes with an operating system executing on each compute node. A checkpoint library resides at the user level on each of the compute nodes, and the checkpoint library is transparent to the operating system residing on the same compute node and to the other compute nodes. Each checkpoint library uses a windowed messaging logging p...

  2. Faculty Technology Usage Resulting from Institutional Migration to a New Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Ryan; Downey, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Research literature is flush with articles discussing how teachers use individual learning management systems. However, very few studies examine how faculty are affected as they move from one platform to another. This study addresses that gap and examines how faculty adapt their online teaching practices as they migrate systems. In doing so,…

  3. What Does Global Migration Network Say about Recent Changes in the World System Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the structure of the international migration system has remained stable through the recent turbulent changes in the world system. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology draws on the social network analysis framework--but with some noteworthy limitations stipulated by the specifics of…

  4. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  5. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10 -7 m s -1 (13 m y -1 ) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10 -4 m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component

  6. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SCORM CONTENT MIGRATION IN THE LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of learning management systems increases the possibility of teachers and students in achieving their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help to organize and to monitor training progress, help to collect statistics. However, the transition from one LMS to another there is a problem of content migration, because all training materials and tests should either be recreated, or somehow be migrated to the new system. Content migration by hand is a very time-consuming process, so the leading developers of the learning management systems developed a standard for the organization and storage of content, called SCORM (Eng., Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Created by this standard, the content must migrate to the learning management system provided its support for these systems. SCORM standard allows you to create training content that is not dependent on the learning management system, but the loosely embedded in it. This approach enables teachers to develop unique courses and put them free available or for sale in the Internet for all interested persons, and to use educational content created by the best specialists around the world to carry out their activities. The content on the SCORM standard imposes certain requirements on the learning management systems, as they do not distort the training content and properly interact with the tests. The aim of this article is a software implementation of a content migration by SCORM standard from other learning management systems in its own development used at the Software Department of the Faculty of Information Technology and Robotics of the Belarusian National Technical University.

  7. System integrational and migrational concepts and methods within healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endsleff, F; Loubjerg, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an overview and comparison of the basic concepts and methods behind different system integrational implementations is given, including the DHE, which is based on the coming Healthcare Information Systems Architecture pre-standard HISA, developed by CEN TC251. This standard and the DHE...... (Distributed Healthcare Environment) not only provides highly relevant standards, but also provides an efficient and well structured platform for Healthcare IT Systems....

  8. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Andrade, Horasa Lima; de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  9. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horasa Lima Silva-Andrade

    Full Text Available Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  10. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  11. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  12. Automated and Assistive Tools for Accelerated Code migration of Scientific Computing on to Heterogeneous MultiCore Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0029 Automated and Assistive Tools for Accelerated Code migration of Scientific Computing on to Heterogeneous MultiCore Systems ...2012, “ Automated and Assistive Tools for Accelerated Code migration of Scientific Computing on to Heterogeneous MultiCore Systems .” 2. The objective...2012 - 01/25/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Automated and Assistive Tools for Accelerated Code migration of Scientific Computing on to Heterogeneous

  13. Limitations and mechanisms influencing the migratory performance of soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia A. Miller; Brooks Robert P.; Michael J. Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Junior A. Tremblay; Jay Wilhelm; Adam Duerr; Todd E. Katzner

    2016-01-01

    Migration is costly in terms of time, energy and safety. Optimal migration theory suggests that individual migratory birds will choose between these three costs depending on their motivation and available resources. To test hypotheses about use of migratory strategies by large soaring birds, we used GPS telemetry to track 18 adult, 13 sub-adult and 15 juvenile Golden...

  14. The Impact of Possible Migration Scenarios after ‘Brexit’ on the State Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Armstrong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the impacts of changes in migration flows—in particular, those resulting from possible migration policy changes after a UK exit (‘Brexit’ from the European Union (EU—on the finances of the UK state pension system. We find that the aggregate effects of considered shocks to immigration associated with Brexit on the funding of UK state pensions are dwarfed by associated uncertainties, and by coincident cost increases due to population aging and (domestic pension’s policy.

  15. A Computational Model of Water Migration Flux in Freezing Soil in a Closed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘春晗

    2005-01-01

    A computational model of water migration flux of fine porous soil in frost heave was investigated in a closed system. The model was established with the heat-mass conservation law and from some previous experimental results. Through defining an auxiliary function an empirical function in the water migration flux, which is difficult to get, was replaced. The data needed are about the water content along the soft colunm after test with enough long time. We adopt the test data of sample soil colunms in [1] to verify the model. The result shows it can reflect the real situation on the whole.

  16. Identifying the Return on Investment for Army Migration to a Modular Open Systems Approach for Future and Legacy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Identifying the Return on Investment for Army Migration to a Modular Open Systems Approach for Future and Legacy Systems Phillip Minor...Authorization Act (NDAA) of 2015, cites the modular open systems approach (MOSA) as both a business and technical strategy to reduce the cost of system ...access the service over the network. Combine the advances cited above with the emergence of systems developed using the modular open systems approach

  17. Studies on Horizontal and Vertical Migration of 90Sr in Soil Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, J.; Chibowski, S.

    2002-01-01

    Here are presented results of studies on vertical and horizontal migration of strontium 90 Sr isotope in soil systems of Bug river valleys. Mean radioactivity of strontium in these soils was 26.15 ± 22.2 Bq/kg. Atmospheric precipitation of strontium on this area was 0.35 kBq/m2/cm. Radioactivity in soil profiles ranged from 17 to 130 Bq/m2/cm and the isotope was detected even at 30 cm depth. Some tendency to vertical migration of strontium towards the river was noticed. Obtained results were compared with concentrations of calcium and strontium in the soil. Any clear influence of these elements on the migration of strontium 90 Sr was noticed. (author)

  18. Excitation migration in fluctuating light-harvesting antenna systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmeliov, J.; Trinkunas, G.; Amerongen, van H.; Valkunas, L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex multi-exponential fluorescence decay kinetics observed in various photosynthetic systems like photosystem II (PSII) have often been explained by the reversible quenching mechanism of the charge separation taking place in the reaction center (RC) of PSII. However, this description does not

  19. Elaboration of thermal control systems on heat pipes for microsatellites Magion 4, 5 and bird

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baturkin, V.; Zhuk, S.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Lura, F.; Biering, B.; Loetzke, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2003), s. 1109-1117 ISSN 1359-4311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : microsatellite * project INTERBALL * BIRD Subject RIV: JV - Space Technology Impact factor: 0.675, year: 2003

  20. Learning Management System Migration: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this mixed methods study the authors describe the institution-level perceptions of stakeholders transitioning to a new learning management system (LMS. We address issues related to change, the institution’s administration of the transition process, problems encountered, and realized learning via online survey data collection, analysis, and interpretation. We further detail results of a faculty survey, which sought to illuminate the LMS transition experience. The summation includes suggestions for institutions as they prepare for, and move through, foreseeable LMS change and transition.

  1. Adsorption and migration of transplutonium elements in environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balukova, V.D.; Kaymin, E.P.; Ushakov, S.I.

    Behavior of long decay-time transuranium and transplutonium elements in natural systems was addressed. The most dangerous among them are /sup 238/Np, /sup 241/ /sup 243/Am, /sup 244/ /sup 245/ /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 239/ /sup 240/ /sup 242/ /sup 244/Pu. Their transportation through natural deposits is tightly connected with ground water movements. The principal parameters determining behavior of these radionuclides in ground formations are coefficients of isotope distribution between various phases, adsorption capacities of component minerals, effective porosity, filtration coefficients of the liquid, etc. These data are presented in tabular and graphic forms. In carbonate-bicarbonate ground waters containing silicate minerals, the content of radionuclides could be quickly decreased by hydrolysis and formation of insoluble precipitates. 2 references, 3 figures.

  2. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  3. A Cost-Effective Approach for Migrating Enterprise Electronic Mail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Omojokun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail (E-mail is one of the most utilized application software systems in modern-day organizations. The major messaging application programs used in the enterprise are IBM Lotus Notes also known as Domino, Microsoft Exchange Servers, and Novel GroupWise. For various reasons – such as high cost of maintenance, undeliverable e-mail issue and loss of attachments, companies find it necessary to either migrate to newer versions of their messaging software or to an entirely different software. In either case, the process must be carefully planned, well designed and properly implemented to avoid disaster. In this paper, we present a cost-effective approach for migrating a particular messaging software. The approach was implemented and tested for the migration of GroupWise 5.5 to Exchange Server 2003. We present our success story and lessons learned from the case. A six-week and one-year post migration system-audits indicated that the organization derived several benefits including significant cost savings as a result of this particular approach. Chief information/technology officers and e-mail administrators will benefit immensely from the "best practice" strategy hereby presented.

  4. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ perceptions of birds’ interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers’ knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas. PMID:27243222

  5. Proceedings of the international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted/intact systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-03-01

    The international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted / intact systems was held at ENTRY, JAEA, Tokai on 21st - 23rd January, 2009. This workshop was hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as part of the project on the mechanistic model/database development for radionuclide sorption and diffusion behavior in compacted / intact systems. The overall goal of the project is to develop the mechanistic model / database for a consistent understanding and prediction of migration parameters and its uncertainties for performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The objective of the workshop is to integrate the state-of-the-art of mechanistic sorption and diffusion model in compacted / intact systems, especially in bentonite / clay systems, and discuss the JAEA's mechanistic approaches and future challenges, especially the following discussions points; 1) What's the status and difficulties for mechanistic model/database development? 2) What's the status and difficulties for applicability of mechanistic model to the compacted/intact system? 3) What's the status and difficulties for obtaining evidences for mechanistic model? 4) What's the status and difficulties for standardization of experimental methodology for batch sorption and diffusion? 5) What's the uncertainties of transport parameters in radionuclides migration analysis due to a lack of understanding/experimental methodologies, and how do we derive them? This report includes workshop program, overview and materials of each presentation, summary of discussions. (author)

  6. The Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts: A powerful system to study cell migration at single-cell resolution in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Lorenzo; Fernandes Póvoa, Euclides E; Korswagen, Hendrik C

    2016-04-01

    During development, cell migration plays a central role in the formation of tissues and organs. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive and control these migrations is a key challenge in developmental biology that will provide important insights into disease processes, including cancer cell metastasis. In this article, we discuss the Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts and their descendants as a tool to study cell migration at single-cell resolution in vivo. The highly stereotypical migration of these cells provides a powerful system to study the dynamic cytoskeletal processes that drive migration as well as the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways (including different Wnt signaling cascades) that guide the cells along their specific trajectories. Here, we provide an overview of what is currently known about Q neuroblast migration and highlight the live-cell imaging, genome editing, and quantitative gene expression techniques that have been developed to study this process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Shobrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.

  8. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  9. Application of magnetic techniques to lateral hydrocarbon migration - Lower Tertiary reservoir systems, UK North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, S. A.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Fraser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments show that magnetic minerals can be produced inorganically during oil formation in the `oil-kitchen'. Here we try to identify a magnetic proxy that can be used to trace hydrocarbon migration pathways by determining the morphology, abundance, mineralogy and size of the magnetic minerals present in reservoirs. We address this by examining the Tay formation in the Western Central Graben in the North Sea. The Tertiary sandstones are undeformed and laterally continuous in the form of an east-west trending channel, facilitating long distance updip migration of oil and gas to the west. We have collected 179 samples from 20 oil-stained wells and 15 samples from three dry wells from the British Geological Survey Core Repository. Samples were selected based on geological observations (water-wet sandstone, oil-stained sandstone, siltstones and shale). The magnetic properties of the samples were determined using room-temperature measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), low-temperature (0-300K) measurements on a Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) and high-temperature (300-973K) measurements on a Kappabridge susceptibility meter. We identified magnetite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and siderite in the samples. An increasing presence of ferrimagnetic iron sulphides is noticed along the known hydrocarbon migration pathway. Our initial results suggest mineralogy coupled with changes in grain size are possible proxies for hydrocarbon migration.

  10. MODELLING OF RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE SYSTEM OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BIOLOGICAL PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Кутлахмедов

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration of radionuclide coming from nuclear power plant into the system of biological pondsand then into the water reservoir-cooler is considered in the article. The theme of the work ismodeling of radionuclide migration process in the system of biological ponds on the example of thePivdennoukrainska nuclear power plant using chamber models method. Typical water ecosystemconsisting of three chambers (chamber-water, chamber-biota and chamber-bed silt was the basistaken by the authors. Application of chamber models method allowed authors to develop thedynamic chamber model of radionuclide migration in nuclear power plant biological ponds. Thismodel allows to forecast values and dynamics of radioactive water pollution based on limitedecosystem monitoring data. Thus, parameters of radioactive capacity of nuclear power plantbiological ponds system and water reservoir-cooler were modeled by authors, the estimation andprognosis of radionuclide distribution and accumulation in the system of nuclear power plantbiological ponds were done. Authors also explain the roles of basin water, biomass and bed silt inradionuclide deposition

  11. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  12. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  13. On the Transition and Migration of Flight Functions in the Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Allan Terry; Young, Steve D.

    2012-01-01

    Since 400 BC, when man first replicated flying behavior with kites, up until the turn of the 20th century, when the Wright brothers performed the first successful powered human flight, flight functions have become available to man via significant support from man-made structures and devices. Over the past 100 years or so, technology has enabled several flight functions to migrate to automation and/or decision support systems. This migration continues with the United States NextGen and Europe s Single European Sky (a.k.a. SESAR) initiatives. These overhauls of the airspace system will be accomplished by accommodating the functional capabilities, benefits, and limitations of technology and automation together with the unique and sometimes overlapping functional capabilities, benefits, and limitations of humans. This paper will discuss how a safe and effective migration of any flight function must consider several interrelated issues, including, for example, shared situation awareness, and automation addiction, or over-reliance on automation. A long-term philosophical perspective is presented that considers all of these issues by primarily asking the following questions: How does one find an acceptable level of risk tolerance when allocating functions to automation versus humans? How does one measure or predict with confidence what the risks will be? These two questions and others will be considered from the two most-discussed paradigms involving the use of increasingly complex systems in the future: humans as operators and humans as monitors.

  14. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple “pathways,” or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  15. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Joe, Jeffrey Clark

    2016-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple ''pathways,'' or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  17. The Significance of Mating System and Nonbreeding Behavior to Population and Forest Patch Use by Migrant Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Morton; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds are birds of two worlds, breeding in the temperate zone then living as tropical birds for most of the year. We show two aspects of this unique biology that are important considerations for their conservation. First, habitat selection for breeding must include their need for extra-pair mating opportunities. Second, non-breeding distributions in tropical...

  18. Assessing collision risk for birds and bats : radar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R. [Genivar SEC, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described some of the inventories and instrumentation available for monitoring winged fauna in and around wind farms. In addition to visual observations, bird calls and songs can be recorded to determine the amount and different types of birds located at wind farm sites. Radio-telemetry devices are also used to evaluate bird activities, and nest searches are conducted to determine the amount of eggs or young birds that will soon add to the bird population. Between 90 and 100 percent of birds and bats migrate at night. Acoustic radar, Doppler radar, and maritime surveillance radar instruments are used to monitor night-time activities in wind farm locations. Doppler radar is also used to detect bird and bat migration corridors. Screen-shots of various radar interfaces were presented. tabs., figs.

  19. Concealed by darkness: interactions between predatory bats and nocturnally migrating songbirds illuminated by DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Juste, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreov...

  20. Comparative analyses of amplicon migration behavior in differing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. J.; Kemp, D. W.; Sampayo, E. M.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2010-03-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is commonly utilized to identify and quantify microbial diversity, but the conditions required for different electrophoretic systems to yield equivalent results and optimal resolution have not been assessed. Herein, the influence of different DGGE system configuration parameters on microbial diversity estimates was tested using Symbiodinium, a group of marine eukaryotic microbes that are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems. To accomplish this, bacterial clone libraries were constructed and sequenced from cultured isolates of Symbiodinium for the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. From these, 15 clones were subjected to PCR with a GC clamped primer set for DGGE analyses. Migration behaviors of the resulting amplicons were analyzed using a range of conditions, including variation in the composition of the denaturing gradient, electrophoresis time, and applied voltage. All tests were conducted in parallel on two commercial DGGE systems, a C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001, and the Bio-Rad DCode system. In this context, identical nucleotide fragments exhibited differing migration behaviors depending on the model of apparatus utilized, with fragments denaturing at a lower gradient concentration and applied voltage on the Bio-Rad DCode system than on the C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001 system. Although equivalent PCR-DGGE profiles could be achieved with both brands of DGGE system, the composition of the denaturing gradient and application of electrophoresis time × voltage must be appropriately optimized to achieve congruent results across platforms.

  1. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  2. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  3. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  4. SSDL personel dosimetry system: migration from a client - server system into a web-based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizura Ibrahim; Rosnah Shariff; Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir; John Konsoh Sangau; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh; Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2007-01-01

    Personnel Dosimetry System has been used by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), Nuclear Malaysia since ten years ago. The system is a computerized database system with a client-server concept. This system has been used by Film Badge Laboratory, SSDL to record details of clients, calculation of Film Badge dosage, management of radiation workers data's, generating of dosage report, retrieval of statistical reports regarding film badge usage for the purpose of reporting to monitoring bodies such as Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), Ministry of Health and others. But, due to technical problems that frequently occurs, the system is going to be replaced by a newly developed web- based system called e-SSDL. This paper describe the problems that regularly occurs in the previous system, explains how the process of replacing the client-server system with a web-based system is done and the differences between the previous and current system. This paper will also present details architecture of the new system and the new process introduced in processing film badges. (Author)

  5. The design of visible system of two-dimensional numerical simulation of radon-222 migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiongjie; Zhang Ye; Zhang Junkui; Tang Bin

    2008-01-01

    On the grounds of the radon transport equation in the even overburden layer, the value simulation equation using the two-dimensional finite difference method had been inferred, and the visible system of value simulation was proposed by programming with VB and Matlab. The mixed programming and the method of using repetitive process to solve difference equation were narrated in detail. Through this paper, a practical tool was offered to the researcher studying on the radon migration in the even overburden layer, and a more convenient developing way was explored for the researchers developing the relative system. (authors)

  6. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pile-mounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all human-use of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see https://doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  7. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  8. A column experiment for the study of colloidal radionuclide migration in Gorleben aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Delakowitz, B.; Zeh, P.; Klotz, D.; Lazik, D.

    1994-01-01

    A column experiment is performed for the assessment of the migration behaviour of trivalent 152 Eu, 241 Am and tetra- and pentavalent 237 Np, 233 Pa in the presence of humic colloids. Groundwater of an organic rich aquifer from the geological site at Gorleben is chosen for the experiment, as this has been well characterized during the earlier work and contains a substantial amount of humic colloids. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the pleistocene quartz-sand used in the column experiment is characterized by various analytical and mineralogical methods. Prior to the actinide migration experiment, the hydraulic properties (flow velocity, effective porosity, longitudinal dispersion coefficient) are determined in order to ascertain stable conditions for the experiment. In addition, the microstructure parameters (sediment surface, pore size distribution) of the groundwater-sand system in the column are determined. Radiotracers used for the determination of the hydraulic properties are 3 HHO and 82 Br - . Results obtained to date indicate a relatively high mobility of the lanthanide and actinide ions loaded on aquatic humic colloids. The recovery of injected radiotracer ions in eluates is found to depend on the flow velocity of groundwater through the column. The results help to elucidate the actinide migration behaviour in the presence of natural humic colloids. (orig.)

  9. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  10. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  11. Process and research method of radionuclide migration in high level radioactive waste geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Zhang Zhanshi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides released from waste can migrate from the repository to the rock and soil outside. On the other hand, nuclides also are retarded by the backfill material. Radionuclide migration is the main geochemical process of the waste disposal. This paper introduces various methods for radionuclide migration research, and give a brief analysis of the geochemical process of radionuclide migration. Finally, two of the most important processes of the radionuclide migration have been instanced. (authors)

  12. Singapore Indian Eye Study-2: methodology and impact of migration on systemic and eye outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Yip, Wanfen; Gupta, Preeti; Mohd Abdul, Riswana Bb; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Kumari, Neelam; Cheung, Gemmy Cm; Cheung, Carol Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-11-01

    Asian Indians are the fastest growing migration groups in the world. Studies evaluating the impact of migration on disease outcomes in this population are rare. We describe the methodology of the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (SINDI-2) aimed to evaluate the impact of migration status on diabetic retinopathy and other major age-related eye diseases in Asian Indians living in an urban environment. Population-based cohort study. A total of 2200 adults had participated in baseline SINDI (2007-2009, mean age [range] = 57.8 [42.7-84.1] years) and SINDI-2 (2013-2015, 56.5 [48.4-90.2] years). Participants were classified as 'first generation' if they were Indian residents born outside of Singapore and as 'second-generation' immigrants (59.7% in SINDI vs. 63.6% in SINDI-2) if they were born in Singapore. Response rate, participant characteristics and prevalence of systemic diseases were stratified by migration status. Of the 2914 eligible SINDI participants invited to participate, 2200 participated in SINDI-2 (response rate of 75.2%). In both SINDI and SINDI-2, compared with first-generation immigrants, second-generation immigrants were younger, less likely to have income <1000 SGD, had lower levels of pulse pressure, higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, had lower prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease and had higher prevalence of current smoking and obesity (all P < 0.05). In both SINDI and SINDI-2, second-generation immigrants had lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors except smoking and obesity compared with first-generation immigrants. The final report will confirm if these differences between generations are evident with regard to eye diseases. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Migrating the facility profile information management system into the world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kero, R.E.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy - Office of Special Projects and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), along with the Department of Energy - office of Scientific and Technical Information have previously designed and implemented the Environment, Safety and Health Facility Profile Information Management System (FPIMS) to facilitate greater efficiency in searching, analyzing and disseminating information found within environment, safety and health oversight documents. This information retrieval based system serves as a central repository for full-text electronic oversight documents, as well as a management planning and decision making tool that can assist in trend and root cause analyses. Continuous improvement of environment, safety and health programs are currently aided through this personal computer-based system by providing a means for the open communication of lessons learned across the department. Overall benefits have included reductions in costs and improvements in past information management capabilities. Access to the FPIMS has been possible historically through a headquarters-based local area network equipped with modems. Continued demand for greater accessibility of the system by remote DOE field offices and sites, in conjunction with the Secretary of Energy` s call for greater public accessibility to Department of Energy (DOE) information resources, has been the impetus to expand access through the use of Internet technologies. Therefore, the following paper will discuss reasons for migrating the FPIMS system into the World Wide Web (Web), various lessons learned from the FPIMS migration effort, as well as future plans for enhancing the Web-based FPIMS.

  15. Motorized Migrations: the Future or Mere Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In 15 experiments from 1993-2002, we led cranes, geese, or swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can now be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species where juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.

  16. DIFMIG - A computer program for calculation of diffusive migration through multi-barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo, P.; Carlsen, L.

    1981-11-01

    The FORTRAN IV program DIFMIG calculates one-dimensionally (i.e. column) the diffusive migration of single substances through arbitrary multibarrier systems. Time dependent changes in concentration other than dispersion/diffusion (e.g. slow dissolution of a compound from a repository, radioactive decay, and/or build up of daughter products), and possible time dependent variations in the effective dispersion into account. The diffusion equation is solved by a finite difference implicite method, the resulting trigonal matrix equation being solved by standard methods. (author)

  17. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Christian; Benfield, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) plays an essential pathophysiological role in septic shock; however, its role in central nervous system infection (CNS) remains to be defined. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF......-22725) vs. 3240ng/L (1563-9302), respectively, P=0.003), and in patients with impaired consciousness (8614 ng/L (3344-20935) vs. 2625 ng/L (1561-7530), respectively, P=0.02). CSF MIF levels correlated significantly to the meningeal inflammation (Psystemic inflammatory response (P>0...

  18. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  19. A model for radionuclide Migration in Urban Environment and Drainage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Model for Radionuclide Migration in Urban Environment and Drainage Systems aims to estimate the discharge of radioactivity removed by natural or forced decontamination into the receiving waters from the drainage system, as well as the radioactivity joined with the sludge produced in treatments plants, whose various applications can mean a potential hazard. This model, built in Powersim, is included in the MOIRA system, a project whose main aim is the evaluation of the situation after a radioactive contamination of the aquatic ecosystems and the estimation of optimal remedial strategies to restore the contaminated waters. Powersim is an easy-to-use software package which simulates dynamic processes. Two sub-models compose the global model: one, simulating the evolution of Cs-137 in urban areas, and the other, the behaviour of this radionuclide, once it ha entered the drainage systems, with the various existing alternatives of waste water treatment in Europe. (Author) 8 refs

  20. Implementation and validation of an implant-based coordinate system for RSA migration calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laende, Elise K; Deluzio, Kevin J; Hennigar, Allan W; Dunbar, Michael J

    2009-10-16

    An in vitro radiostereometric analysis (RSA) phantom study of a total knee replacement was carried out to evaluate the effect of implementing two new modifications to the conventional RSA procedure: (i) adding a landmark of the tibial component as an implant marker and (ii) defining an implant-based coordinate system constructed from implant landmarks for the calculation of migration results. The motivation for these two modifications were (i) to improve the representation of the implant by the markers by including the stem tip marker which increases the marker distribution (ii) to recover clinical RSA study cases with insufficient numbers of markers visible in the implant polyethylene and (iii) to eliminate errors in migration calculations due to misalignment of the anatomical axes with the RSA global coordinate system. The translational and rotational phantom studies showed no loss of accuracy with the two new measurement methods. The RSA system employing these methods has a precision of better than 0.05 mm for translations and 0.03 degrees for rotations, and an accuracy of 0.05 mm for translations and 0.15 degrees for rotations. These results indicate that the new methods to improve the interpretability, relevance, and standardization of the results do not compromise precision and accuracy, and are suitable for application to clinical data.

  1. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Cost effective system for monitoring of fish migration with a camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sečnik, Matej; Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    Within the European LIFE project Ljubljanica connects (LIFE10 NAT/SI/000142) we have developed a cost-effective solution for the monitoring of fish migration through the fish passes with the underwater camera. In the fish pass at Ambrožev trg and in the fish pass near the Fužine castle we installed a video camera called "Fishcam" to be able to monitor the migration of fish through the fish passes and success of its reconstruction. Live stream from fishcams installed in the fishpassesis available on our project website (http://ksh.fgg.uni-lj.si/ljubljanicaconnects/ang/12_camera). The system for the fish monitoring is made from two parts. First is the waterproof box for the computer with charger and the second part is the camera itself. We used a high sensitive Sony analogue camera. The advantage of this camera is that it has very good sensitivity in low light conditions, so it can take good quality pictures even at night with a minimum additional lighting. For the night recording we use additional IR reflector to illuminate passing fishes. The camera is connected to an 8-inch tablet PC. We decided to use a tablet PC because it is quite small, cheap, it is relatively fast and has a low power consumption. On the computer we use software which has advanced motion detection capabilities, so we can also detect the small fishes. When the fish is detected by a software, its photograph is automatically saved to local hard drive and for backup also on Google drive. The system for monitoring of fish migration has turned out to work very well. From the beginning of monitoring in June 2015 to end of the year there were more than 100.000 photographs produced. The first analysis of them was already prepared estimating fish species and their frequency in passing the fish pass.

  3. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  4. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  5. Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacteria: Detection, Distribution and Migration of the Toxin in Aquatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Yu. Magarlamov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX, a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Data on TTX microdistribution in toxic organs of TTX-bearing animals indicate toxin migration from the digestive system to target organs through the transport system of the organism. The role of symbiotic microflora in animal toxicity is also discussed: despite low toxin production by bacterial strains in laboratory conditions, even minimal amounts of TTX produced by intestinal microflora of an animal can contribute to its toxicity. Special attention is paid to methods of TTX detection applicable to bacteria. Due to the complexity of toxin detection in TTX-producing bacteria, it is necessary to use several methods based on different methodological approaches. Issues crucial for further progress in detecting natural sources of TTX investigation are also considered.

  6. REDLetr: Workflow and tools to support the migration of legacy clinical data capture systems to REDCap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William D; Cobb, Jake; Levey, Allan I; Gutman, David A

    2016-09-01

    A memory clinic at an academic medical center has relied on several ad hoc data capture systems including Microsoft Access and Excel for cognitive assessments over the last several years. However these solutions are challenging to maintain and limit the potential of hypothesis-driven or longitudinal research. REDCap, a secure web application based on PHP and MySQL, is a practical solution for improving data capture and organization. Here, we present a workflow and toolset to facilitate legacy data migration and real-time clinical research data collection into REDCap as well as challenges encountered. Legacy data consisted of neuropsychological tests stored in over 4000 Excel workbooks. Functions for data extraction, norm scoring, converting to REDCap-compatible formats, accessing the REDCap API, and clinical report generation were developed and executed in Python. Over 400 unique data points for each workbook were migrated and integrated into our REDCap database. Moving forward, our REDCap-based system replaces the Excel-based data collection method as well as eases the integration into the standard clinical research workflow and Electronic Health Record. In the age of growing data, efficient organization and storage of clinical and research data is critical for advancing research and providing efficient patient care. We believe that the workflow and tools described in this work to promote legacy data integration as well as real time data collection into REDCap ultimately facilitate these goals. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  8. Article Review: Lessepsian migration of zooplankton through Suez Canal and its impact on ecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida Y. Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment of the East Mediterranean has been considerably impacted in modern times by two man-made changes: the creation of a waterway between the Indo-Pacific and the Mediterranean basins and the control of the Nile fresh-water outflow. The opening of the Suez Canal caused a migration generally from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, and rarely in the opposite direction as the Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly Red Sea species invaded the Mediterranean ecosystem and not vice versa; this phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration or erythrean invasion. The composition of zooplankton in the eastern Mediterranean has been shown to include a large proportion of Indo-Pacific and other circumtropical species which have successfully settled and proliferated in this environment. During the present study, an overview is provided on zooplankton migration through Suez Canal and its impact on the ecological system based on published literature. It is also meant with the hydrographic and zooplankton characteristics of the adjacent seas. It is clear that, except jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica, the negative impact of zooplankton Lessepsian migratory species in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters is not evident. Finally, it would be concluded that, a continuous monitoring programme will be needed to record the recent erythrean zooplankton species and follow up the distribution and abundance of those previously recorded as aliens to assess their impacts on the native biodiversity of the Mediterranean.

  9. Southward migration and fuel deposition of Red Knots Calidris canutus

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Stervander, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We compared the differences between spring and autumn in migration speed, fuelling rates and fuel loads of migrating Red Knots Calidris canutus. As a basis we used ringing data from Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeastern Sweden, collected 1948–2003, with morphometrical data from 1990–2003. Numbers ringed varied between 0 and 301 per year (average 56). Morphometrics, recoveries and recaptures of ringed birds indicated that most birds belonged to the Afro-Siberian subspecies C. c. canutus, poss...

  10. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The study concerns 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. The flight behavior of birds approaching the wind park system during daylight is also dealt with. For at least a fifth of the observations it was noted whether the birds passing within 100 meters distance of a turbine showed a reaction or not. The proportion of the reactions was related to the wind park in operation or not in operation, and to the distance between the wind turbines, species, flight height, the passing distance, wind direction and wind force. Secondly the flight path of birds approaching the wind park from eastern directions during daylight (real autumn migration) and from southern directions during late afternoon (flights of gulls to night roosts) was studied in detail. Significantly more reactions (11-18%) were recorded with the wind park fully operational compared to the wind park not operational (2%). In total 2203 flight paths of birds approaching the wind park were recorded during 151 hours of observation. The test results showed that a passing distance of less or more than 100 meters of the nearest wind turbine did not affect the proportion of reactions. Several reaction types and combinations were noted, varying from gradual and calm reactions (circa 75%), and panic reactions, occurring just before or while passing the wind turbines. The reactions are shift in the flight path in the horizontal plane (30%), shift in the flight path in the vertical plane (14%), one passing attempt (87%), an accelerated wing beat (14%), an alteration of the angle of the body (21%)

  11. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  12. a comparative study of species diversity of migrant birds between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S RINGIM

    ABSTRACT. Among the most complex and fascinating behaviour in birds is their long, non-stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory ...

  13. Aspects of population dynamics and feeding by piscivorous birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breaching events were associated with a change in feeding groups from waders to pursuit feeders, and a decrease in total bird numbers, most likely due to loss of potential littoral zone foraging habitat for waders resulting from reduced water levels. The highest bird numbers were recorded in winter reflecting the migration of ...

  14. Seasonal variation in diversity and abundance of understorey birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...

  15. Windmills and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, N W; Poulsen, E

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this study is an investigation of potential conflicts between windmills and birds. Emphasis is on frightening, collision risk and biotopic changes due to windmill systems. The study is based on the environment of Koldby and Nibe windmills (South Jutland). Biotopic changes were not observed around the existing windmills. Drainage of mill grounds at Nibe had probably no effect on water level in the area around; a longer observation is necessary to draw any decisive conclusions.(EG).

  16. Bird-marking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Since May of this year the Museum of Natural History at Leyden is carrying into execution the inquiry into migration and other movements of birds in the Netherlands by means of aluminium rings. The results will be published in this periodical and at the same time in Dutch in the periodical of the

  17. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu. [Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-03-01

    For 35 years Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) manufactures weapon plutonium in single-pass production reactors cooled with water of the Yenisey River. Water discharge from these reactors is the major source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisey River. We have demonstrated that after putting the reactors out of operation (in late 1992) the contamination level of the Yenisey River with short-lived radionuclides considerably decreased, and now the radioactive contamination is caused essentially by Cs-137, Eu-152, Pu-239,240, Sr-90, and Am-241, whose concentration in the aqueous phase is lower than in bottom sediments and, particularly, flood-land deposits by several orders of magnitude (except for Sr-90). The flood-land deposits are classified with the most contaminated environmental objects in the territories under the impact of MCC: their radioactivity is comparable with that of low-level waste. Taking into account the considerable depth and area of the flood-land deposits, this allows their classification as a great technogenic radiation anomaly. Comparison of the maximal Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 levels in flood-land soils and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River with those in bottom sediments of the Pripyat' River and the Kiev reservoir shows that these values are close each to other. A direct correlation is found between the spatial distribution of Cs-137 on the one hand and Pu-239,240, Eu-152, and Am-241 on the other hand in the aqueous phase and bottom sediments, which is not the case for Sr-90. Data on the distribution coefficients of the indicated radionuclides between the deposits and aqueous phase (obtained with actual and model systems) and also on the radionuclide distribution throughout geochemical mobility forms suggest that the essential part of Cs, Pu, Eu, and Am migrates with fine-disperse suspended material, the transport and distribution of which is controlled by the hydrological regime of the Yenisey River. By contrast, strontium

  18. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V.; Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu.; Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T.

    2001-01-01

    For 35 years Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) manufactures weapon plutonium in single-pass production reactors cooled with water of the Yenisey River. Water discharge from these reactors is the major source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisey River. We have demonstrated that after putting the reactors out of operation (in late 1992) the contamination level of the Yenisey River with short-lived radionuclides considerably decreased, and now the radioactive contamination is caused essentially by Cs-137, Eu-152, Pu-239,240, Sr-90, and Am-241, whose concentration in the aqueous phase is lower than in bottom sediments and, particularly, flood-land deposits by several orders of magnitude (except for Sr-90). The flood-land deposits are classified with the most contaminated environmental objects in the territories under the impact of MCC: their radioactivity is comparable with that of low-level waste. Taking into account the considerable depth and area of the flood-land deposits, this allows their classification as a great technogenic radiation anomaly. Comparison of the maximal Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 levels in flood-land soils and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River with those in bottom sediments of the Pripyat' River and the Kiev reservoir shows that these values are close each to other. A direct correlation is found between the spatial distribution of Cs-137 on the one hand and Pu-239,240, Eu-152, and Am-241 on the other hand in the aqueous phase and bottom sediments, which is not the case for Sr-90. Data on the distribution coefficients of the indicated radionuclides between the deposits and aqueous phase (obtained with actual and model systems) and also on the radionuclide distribution throughout geochemical mobility forms suggest that the essential part of Cs, Pu, Eu, and Am migrates with fine-disperse suspended material, the transport and distribution of which is controlled by the hydrological regime of the Yenisey River. By contrast, strontium

  19. Current status of system development to provide databases of nuclides migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasushi; Isogai, Takeshi; Suyama, Tadahiro; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu; Jintoku, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    JNC has developed databases of nuclides migration for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, and they have been used in the second progress report to present the technical reliability of HLW geological disposal system in Japan. The technical level and applicability of databases have been highly evaluated even overseas. To provide the databases broadly over the world and to promote the use of the databases, we have performed the followings: 1) development of tools to convert the database format from geochemical code PHREEQE to PHREEQC, GWB and EQ3/6 and 2) set up a web site (http://migrationdb.jnc.go.jp) which enables the public to access to the databases. As a result, the number of database users has significantly increased. Additionally, a number of useful comments from the users can be applied to modification and/or update of databases. (author)

  20. Sorption and migration characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr in natural dispersed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishtvan, I.I.; Brovka, G.P.; Dedyulya, I.V.; Rovdan, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    Sorption and migration characteristics of 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been determined in fen peat, Quarts sand, kaolin and bentonite. An electrolyte effect on the radio nuclides sorption and diffusion in the given systems has been studied. Presence of stable isotopes of cesium and strontium in the porous solution has been revealed to affect 137 Cs and 90 Sr distribution and diffusion indices permitting for the effective diffusion index to increase by two orders of magnitude. 137 Cs in the peat technical contamination resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident has been found to be mainly in an exchange form and under steady state conditions up to 75% of 137 Cs can be transformed into water-soluble state for 8-12 months under effect of stable cesium chloride (0.2 (g-eq)/l). (authors). 4 tabs., 4 refs

  1. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  2. SU-F-T-399: Migration of Treatment Planning Systems Without Beam Data Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolakanahalli, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Walker Family Cancer Centre, St. Catharines, ON (Canada); Tewatia, D [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Data acquisition for commissioning is steered by Treatment Planning System (TPS) requirements which can be cumbersome and time consuming involving significant clinic downtime. The purpose of this abstract is to answer if we could circumvent this by extracting data from existing TPS and speed up the process. Methods: Commissioning beam data was obtained from a clinically commissioned TPS (Pinnacle™) using Matlab™ generated Pinnacle™ executable scripts to commission a secondary 3D dose verification TPS (Eclipse™). Profiles and output factors for commissioning as required by Eclipse™ were computed on a 50 cm{sup 3} water phantom at a dose grid resolution of 2mm3. Verification doses were computed and compared to clinical TPS dose profiles as per TG-106 guidelines. Standard patient plans from Pinnacle™ including IMRT and VMAT plans were re-computed keeping the same monitor units (in order to perform true comparison) using Eclipse™. Computed dose was exported back to Pinnacle for comparison to original plans. This methodology enables us to alleviate all ambiguities that arise in such studies. Results: Profile analysis using in-house software for 6x, showed that for all field sizes including small MLC generated fields, 100% of infield and penumbra data points of Eclipse™ match Pinnacle™ generated and measured profiles with 2%/2 mm gamma criteria. Excellent agreement was observed in the penumbra regions, with all data points passing DTA criteria for complex C-shaped and S-shaped profiles. Patient plan dose volume histograms (DVHs) and isodose lines agreed well to within a 1.5% for target coverage. Conclusion: Secondary 3D dose checking is of utmost importance with advanced techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. Migration of TPS is possible without compromising accuracy or enduring the cumbersome measurement of commissioning data. Economizing time for commissioning such a verification system or for migration of TPS can add great QA value and minimize

  3. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus and moose (Alces alces than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, 3 distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4 steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1 elevation decreased, 2 distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3 distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.

  4. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  5. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  6. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  7. Human Factors Considerations in Migration of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Operator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    ..., or both. There are potential advantages to control migration to include mitigating operator vigilance decrements and fatigue, facilitating operator task specialization, and optimizing workload during multi...

  8. Effluent migration from septic tank systems in two different lithologies, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, B.G.; Howie, Barbara; Causaras, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two septic tank test sites, one in sand and one in limestone, in Broward County, Florida, were analyzed for effluent migration. Groundwater from shallow wells, both in background areas and hydraulically down-gradient of the septic tank system, was sampled during a 16-month period from April 1983 through August 1984. Water quality indicators were used to determine the effluent affected zone near the septic tank systems. Specific conductance levels and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate indicated effluent movement primarily in a vertical direction with abrupt dilution as it moved down-gradient. Effluent was detected in the sand to a depth more than 20 ft below the septic tank outlet, but was diluted to near background conditions 50 ft down-gradient from the tank. Effluent in the limestone was detected in all three observation wells to depths exceeding 25 ft below the septic tank outlet and was diluted, but still detectable, 40 ft down-gradient. The primary controls on effluent movement from septic tank systems in Broward County are the lithology and layering of the geologic materials, hydraulic gradients, and the volume and type of use the system receives. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  10. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  11. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report attention is paid to the disturbance of the bird's biotope. The results show that four species of grassland birds, breeding in the park, were hardly disturbed by the wind turbines. For feeding and resting birds, however, disturbance effects were noted, even at a distance of 500 meters from the outside wind turbine array. The present number of bird species reduced 60-95%, dependent on the species, after the wind park was put into operation. Also the behavior of migrating birds was influenced by the wind park, showed in clustering of groups or avoiding the wind park, sometimes up to 67% of the birds did so. It is therefore recommended not to implement new wind parks in important bird migration and bird feeding or bird resting areas. Bird popular areas, however, are mostly windy areas. 15 figs., 25 tabs., 56 app., 128 refs

  12. Bird impact study on the 10 MW wind farm of La Pena (Tarifa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cererols, N.; Martinez, A.; Ferrer, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the conclusions of a 16 month study of the possible impacts on the local and migrating population of birds of a wind farm located in the passageway of migrating birds between Africa and Europe. On the whole, the wind farm did not prove to represent an important impact on the birds present in its surroundings and, on the contrary, created a new habitat for some species not present in adjacent areas. (author)

  13. Ibuprofen slows migration and inhibits bowel colonization by enteric nervous system precursors in zebrafish, chick and mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Ellen Merrick; Lake, Jonathan I.; Tusheva, Olga A.; Nagy, Nandor; Bery, Saya K.; Foster, Lynne; Avetisyan, Marina; Johnson, Stephen L.; Stenson, William F.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR) is a potentially deadly birth defect characterized by the absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in distal bowel. Although HSCR has clear genetic causes, no HSCR-associated mutation is 100% penetrant, suggesting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine HSCR occurrence. To test the hypothesis that certain medicines might alter HSCR risk we treated zebrafish with medications commonly used during early human pregnancy and discovered that ibuprofen caused HSCR-like absence of enteric neurons in distal bowel. Using fetal CF-1 mouse gut slice cultures, we found that ibuprofen treated enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCDC) had reduced migration, fewer lamellipodia and lower levels of active RAC1/CDC42. Additionally, inhibiting ROCK, a RHOA effector and known RAC1 antagonist, reversed ibuprofen effects on migrating mouse ENCDC in culture. Ibuprofen also inhibited colonization of Ret+/− mouse bowel by ENCDC in vivo and dramatically reduced bowel colonization by chick ENCDC in culture. Interestingly, ibuprofen did not affect ENCDC migration until after at least three hours of exposure. Furthermore, mice deficient in Ptgs1 (COX 1) and Ptgs2 (COX 2) had normal bowel colonization by ENCDC and normal ENCDC migration in vitro suggesting COX-independent effects. Consistent with selective and strain specific effects on ENCDC, ibuprofen did not affect migration of gut mesenchymal cells, NIH3T3, or WT C57BL/6 ENCDC, and did not affect dorsal root ganglion cell precursor migration in zebrafish. Thus, ibuprofen inhibits ENCDC migration in vitro and bowel colonization by ENCDC in vivo in zebrafish, mouse and chick, but there are cell type and strain specific responses. These data raise concern that ibuprofen may increase Hirschsprung disease risk in some genetically susceptible children. PMID:26586201

  14. Fleeing through the Globalised Education System: The Role of Violence and Conflict in International Student Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Ane Marie Ørbø; Nat-George, Sisse Mari-Louise Wulff

    2016-01-01

    This article connects directly to the globalisation of both education and conflict, and attends to the intersection between these phenomena, by focusing on conflict-induced student migration, an area, which has until recently been neglected in studies of higher education and migration, and peace and conflict research. The focus is on the very…

  15. How does the architecture of a fault system controls magma upward migration through the crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrieta, P. C.; Cembrano, J. M.; Stanton-Yonge, A.; Hurtado, D.

    2017-12-01

    The orientation and relative disposition of adjacent faults locally disrupt the regional stress field, thus enhancing magma flow through previous or newly created favorable conduits. Moreover, the brittle-plastic transition (BPT), due to its stronger rheology, governs the average state of stress of shallower portions of the fault system. Furthermore, the BPT may coincide with the location of transient magma reservoirs, from which dikes can propagate upwards into the upper crust, shaping the inner structure of the volcanic arc. In this work, we examine the stress distribution in strike-slip duplexes with variable geometry, along with the critical fluid overpressure ratio (CFOP), which is the minimum value required for individual faults to fracture in tension. We also determine the stress state disruption of the fault system when a dike is emplaced, to answer open questions such as: what is the nature of favorable pathways for magma to migrate? what is the architecture influence on the feedback between fault system kinematics and magma injection? To this end, we present a 3D coupled hydro-mechanical finite element model of the continental lithosphere, where faults are represented as continuum volumes with an elastic-plastic rheology. Magma flow upon fracturing is modeled through non-linear Stoke's flow, coupling solid and fluid equilibrium. A non-linear sensitivity analysis is performed in function of tectonic, rheology and geometry inputs, to assess which are the first-order factors that governs the nature of dike emplacement. Results show that the CFOP is heterogeneously distributed in the fault system, and within individual fault segments. Minimum values are displayed near fault intersections, where local kinematics superimpose on regional tectonic loading. Furthermore, when magma is transported through a fault segment, the CFOP is now minimized in faults with non-favorable orientations. This suggests that these faults act as transient pathways for magma to

  16. Actogram analysis of free-flying migratory birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke

    2017-01-01

    The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like...... frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration. We use...... of the life cycle. Accelerometer recording of the annual activity patterns of individual birds will open up a new dimension in bird migration research....

  17. Bird flight characteristics near wind turbines in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R.G.; Dieter, C.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1994-1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82-84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22-55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.

  18. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  19. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica) migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds). These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria) near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs) beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season). Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys) aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold) under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  20. Marriage Migration as a Multifaceted System: The Intersectionality of Intimate Partner Violence in Cross-Border Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tuen Yi

    2016-08-18

    This article addresses the intersectional nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) against female marriage migrants in Mainland China-Hong Kong cross-border marriages. The author analyzes data from 15 battered female marriage migrants who share the same ethnicity as their husbands to illustrate how the immigration of female marriage migrants intricately intersects with gender, class, and culture to form a multifaceted system that traps battered marriage migrants in abusive marriages. It is proposed that marriage migration, as a distinct form of migration, involves certain intrinsic risk factors that make marriage migrants particularly vulnerable to IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Magnetic information affects the stellar orientation of young bird migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindler, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    WHEN young birds leave on their first migration, they are guided by innate information about their direction of migration. It is generally assumed that this direction is represented twice, namely with respect to celestial rotation and with respect to the Earth's magnetic field1,2. The interactions between the two cue systems have been analysed by exposing hand-raised young birds during the premigratory period to cue-conflict situations, in which celestial rotation and the magnetic field provided different information. Celestial rotation altered the course with respect to the magnetic field3-7, whereas conflicting magnetic information did not seem to affect the course with respect to the stars8,9. Celestial information thus seemed to dominate over magnetic information. Here we report that the interaction between the two cue systems is far more complex than this. Celestial rotation alone seems to provide only a tendency to move away from its centre (towards geographical south), which is then modified by information from the magnetic field to establish the distinctive, population-specific migratory direction.

  2. WT Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    A new method for monitoring of bird collisions has been developed using video and audio registrations that are triggered by sound and vibration measurements. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. After the successful proof of principle and evaluation on small land-based turbines the system is now being designed for offshore wind farms. Currently the triggering system and video and audio registration are being tested on large land-based wind turbines using bird dummies. Tests of three complete prototype systems are planned for 2005.

  3. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  4. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  5. Migration of two antibiotics during resuspension under simulated wind-wave disturbances in a water-sediment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yu-Qing; Luo, Ran; Shang, Jing-Ge; Liao, Qian-Jia-Hua

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the migration of antibiotics (norfloxacin, NOR; and sulfamethoxazole, SMX) under simulated resuspension conditions across the sediment-water interface were quantified for two locations in China: point A, located in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, and point B, located in Dapukou of Lake Taihu. The concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the overlying water amounted to 100, 500, and 1000 mg/L during background, moderate, and strong simulated wind-wave disturbances, respectively. At each SS level, the initial concentrations of the two antibiotics were set to 1, 5, and 10 mg/L. The results showed that both resuspended SS and the initial concentration of antibiotics could influence the migration of NOR in the water-sediment system. Specifically, both higher SS and initial antibiotic concentrations were associated with higher rates of migration and accumulation of NOR from water to sediment. In contrast, the migration of SMX in the water-sediment system was not impacted by SS or initial antibiotic concentration. The adsorption capacities of sediments for NOR and SMX were significantly different at both locations, possibly reflecting differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic material (OM) contents. In general, higher CEC and OM values were found in sediments with a higher adsorption capacity for the antibiotics. When CEC and OM values of sediments were higher, the adsorption capacity reached up to 51.73 mg/kg. Large differences in the migration from water to sediment were observed for the two antibiotics, with NOR migration rates higher than those of SMX. The accumulation of NOR in surface sediment during resuspension was about 14 times higher than that of SMX. The main reason for this is that the chemical adsorption of NOR is seldom reversible. Overall, this study demonstrates that resuspension of NOR and SMX attached to sediments under simulated wind-wave disturbances can promote the migration of the antibiotics from water to sediment

  6. Efficiency of fishways and impact of dams on the migration of grayling and brown trout in the Glomma river system, south-eastern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linloekken, A.

    1993-01-01

    During 1971-84 the migratory systems of salmonids in the Glomma river system in Norway were influenced by the construction of several dams in the area. To maintain the migrations, fishways were constructed in all the dams. This study, which began in 1985, was carried out to determine (1) the timing of migration of grayling and brown trout, (2) their migration distance and (3) the efficiency of fishways. The results show that migrations began in May or June. Spawning migration of grayling occurred in May. In late June or early July they migrate upstream to feed. Brown trout migrate during late spring, summer and autumn. The spawning migration takes place more or less during the whole summer, but mostly in late July and August. Immature brown trout also pass through the fishways, with a peak in October in three fishways. The efficiency of these fishways appears low, as the number of fish ascending was less than 2% of the estimated stock within the stretches were 90% of the recaptures occurred. The discharge in the fishway relative to the total discharge seemed to be of great importance, and to achieve efficient fishways they should be constructed for higher discharges, compared with river discharge, than the fishways in this area. The longest migration of grayling was 100 km, whereas the longest migration of brown trout was 122 km. (Author)

  7. National recording systems and the measurement of international migration in Canada: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T J; White, P M; Perreault, J

    1987-01-01

    This article provides a critical assessment of the adequacy of Canada's statistical sources on immigration and emigration for both scientific study and policy needs. These data collection systems are discussed: 1) registration systems, 2) the census, and 3) administrative records and surveys. The authors conclude that Canadian migration data systems have both strengths and weaknesses. The following are some of these strengths. 1) The census is a unique source of consistent, up-to-date information on the immigrant stock. 2) Surveys provide insights on attitudes towards immigrants. 3) Citizenship data tell how many immigrants have acquired Canadian citizenship. 4) When data gaps were noticed, special efforts were made to fill them. The following are some of the data systems' weaknesses. 1) The most significant weakness is the absence of data on the characteristics of emigrants and their destination. 2) Information on returning residents is limited. 3) Undocumented immigrants defy documentation and very little is known on this group. 4) There are only skimpy data on refugee claimants. 5) There are few analyses of the differential fertility, mortality, and nuptiality patterns of the immigrants and the Canadian born. 6) The rate of return of immigrants is unknown. 7) The number of Canadian students abroad and their field of study is unknown. 8) Information on change of status and enforcement is limited. 9) The de facto population of Canada is unknown since Statistics Canada enumerates and estimates only the de jure population. 10) Lack of coordination among the multiple agencies that collect data is a major weakness; data are often unavailable in the form in which, or time when, it is required.

  8. Report: Plans to Migrate Data to the New EPA Acquisition System Need Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0071, February 24, 2010. EPA’s plans for migrating data from ICMS to EAS lack sufficient incorporation of data integrity and quality checks to ensure the complete and accurate transfer of procurement data.

  9. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Celia, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act

  10. Novel migrating mouse neural crest cell assay system utilizing P0-Cre/EGFP fluorescent time-lapse imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami Minoru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural crest cells (NCCs are embryonic, multipotent stem cells. Their long-range and precision-guided migration is one of their most striking characteristics. We previously reported that P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-lacZ double-transgenic mice showed significant lacZ expression in tissues derived from NCCs. Results In this study, by embedding a P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryo at E9.5 in collagen gel inside a culture glass slide, we were able to keep the embryo developing ex vivo for more than 24 hours; this development was with enough NCC fluorescent signal intensity to enable single-cell resolution analysis, with the accompanying NCC migration potential intact and with the appropriate NCC response to the extracellular signal maintained. By implantation of beads with absorbed platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA, we demonstrated that PDGF-AA acts as an NCC-attractant in embryos. We also performed assays with NCCs isolated from P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryos on culture plates. The neuromediator 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT has been known to regulate NCC migration. We newly demonstrated that dopamine, in addition to 5-HT, stimulated NCC migration in vitro. Two NCC populations, with different axial levels of origins, showed unique distribution patterns regarding migration velocity and different dose-response patterns to both 5-HT and dopamine. Conclusions Although avian species predominated over the other species in the NCC study, our novel system should enable us to use mice to assay many different aspects of NCCs in embryos or on culture plates, such as migration, division, differentiation, and apoptosis.

  11. Migration and the formation of systems of hot super-Earths and Neptunes

    OpenAIRE

    Terquem, Caroline; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of extrasolar planets with short orbital periods suggests that planetary migration induced by tidal interaction with the protoplanetary disk is important. Cores and terrestrial planets may undergo migration as they form. In this paper we investigate the evolution of a population of cores with initial masses in the range 0.1-1 earth mass embedded in a disk. Mutual interactions lead to orbit crossing and mergers, so that the cores grow during their evolution. Interaction with the ...

  12. Evaluation of the Migration Capacity of Zn in the Soil–Plant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. S.; Anisimova, L. N.; Frigidova, L. M.; Dikarev, D. V.; Frigidov, R. A.; Korneev, Yu. N.; Sanzharov, A. I.; Arysheva, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    The mobility and migration capacity of Zn in the soil-plant system were studied in a series of pot experiments with barley as a test plant. The parameters of Zn accumulation depending on the metal concentrations in soils and soil solutions were estimated by soil and water culture methods. Experiments with barley in water culture were performed on a nutrient (soil) solution extracted from soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Ochric)) to which Zn2+ was added to reach working concentrations increasing from 0.07 to 430 μM. Different responses of barley plants to changes in the concentration of Zn in the studied soil were identified. Ranges of the corresponding concentrations in the soil and aboveground barley biomass were determined. Parameters of Zn accumulation by test plants were determined depending on the metal content in soddypodzolic soil and the soil solution. A new method was proposed for evaluating the buffer capacity of soils with respect to a heavy metal (Zn) using test plants (BCS(P)Zn). The method was used to evaluate the buffering capacity of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil. The considered methodological approach offers opportunities for using data obtained during the agroecological monitoring of agricultural lands with heavy metals (HMs), including the contents of exchangeable HMs and macroelements (C and Mg) in soils and concentrations of HMs and (Ca + Mg) in plants, in the calculation of the buffering capacity of the surveyed soils for HMs.

  13. A stage-structured, spatially explicit migration model for Myotis bats: mortality location affects system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Russell, Robin E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are ecologically and economically important species because they consume insects, transport nutrients, and pollinate flowers.  Many species of bats, including those in the Myotis genus, are facing population decline and increased extinction risk.  Despite these conservation concerns, few models exist for providing insight into the population dynamics of bats in a spatially explicit context.  We developed a model for bats by considering the stage-structured colonial life history of Myotis bats with their annual migration behavior.  This model provided insight into network dynamics.  We specifically focused on two Myotis species living in the eastern United States: the Indiana bat (M. sodalis), which is a Federally listed endangered species, and the little brown bat (M. lucifugus), which is under consideration for listing as an endangered species.  We found that multiple equilibria exist for the local, migratory subpopulations even though the total population was constant.  These equilibria suggest the location and magnitude of stressors such as White-nose Syndrome, meteorological phenomena, or impacts of wind turbines on survival influence system dynamics and risk of population extirpation in difficult to predict ways.

  14. Dynamic pore network simulator for modelling buoyancy-driven migration during depressurisation of heavy-oil systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeuko, C.C.; McDougall, S.R. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bondino, I. [Total E and P UK Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Hamon, G. [Total S.A., Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of gravitational forces on gas evolution during solution gas drive, a number of vertically-oriented heavy oil depletion experiments have been conducted. Some of the results of these studies suggest the occurrence of gas migration during these tests. However, a major limitation of these experiments is the difficulty in visualizing the process in reservoir rock samples. Experimental observations using transparent glass models have been useful in this context and provide a sound physical basis for modelling gravitational gas migration in gas-oil systems. This paper presented a new pore network simulator that was capable of modelling the time-dependent migration of growing gas structures. Multiple pore filling events were dynamically modelled with interface tracking allowing the full range of migratory behaviours to be reproduced, including braided migration and discontinuous dispersed flow. Simulation results were compared with experiments and were found to be in excellent agreement. The paper presented the model and discussed the implication of evolution regime on recovery from heavy oil systems undergoing depressurization. The simulation results demonstrated the complex interaction of a number of network and fluid parameters. It was concluded that the concomitant effect on the competition between capillarity and buoyancy produced different gas evolution patterns during pressure depletion. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs.

  15. Cellular automaton for migration in ecosystem: Application of traffic model to a predator-prey system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2018-01-01

    In most cases, physicists have studied the migration of biospecies by the use of random walk. In the present article, we apply cellular automaton of traffic model. For simplicity, we deal with an ecosystem contains a prey and predator, and use one-dimensional lattice with two layers. Preys stay on the first layer, but predators uni-directionally move on the second layer. The spatial and temporal evolution is numerically explored. It is shown that the migration has the important effect on populations of both prey and predator. Without migration, the phase transition between a prey-phase and coexisting-phase occurs. In contrast, the phase transition disappears by migration. This is because predator can survive due to migration. We find another phase transition for spatial distribution: in one phase, prey and predator form a stripe pattern of condensation and rarefaction, while in the other phase, they uniformly distribute. The self-organized stripe may be similar to the migration patterns in real ecosystems.

  16. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhito Horita

    Full Text Available Mechanisms for the evolution of convergent behavioral traits are largely unknown. Vocal learning is one such trait that evolved multiple times and is necessary in humans for the acquisition of spoken language. Among birds, vocal learning is evolved in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Each time similar forebrain song nuclei specialized for vocal learning and production have evolved. This finding led to the hypothesis that the behavioral and neuroanatomical convergences for vocal learning could be associated with molecular convergence. We previously found that the neural activity-induced gene dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1 was up-regulated in non-vocal circuits, specifically in sensory-input neurons of the thalamus and telencephalon; however, dusp1 was not up-regulated in higher order sensory neurons or motor circuits. Here we show that song motor nuclei are an exception to this pattern. The song nuclei of species from all known vocal learning avian lineages showed motor-driven up-regulation of dusp1 expression induced by singing. There was no detectable motor-driven dusp1 expression throughout the rest of the forebrain after non-vocal motor performance. This pattern contrasts with expression of the commonly studied activity-induced gene egr1, which shows motor-driven expression in song nuclei induced by singing, but also motor-driven expression in adjacent brain regions after non-vocal motor behaviors. In the vocal non-learning avian species, we found no detectable vocalizing-driven dusp1 expression in the forebrain. These findings suggest that independent evolutions of neural systems for vocal learning were accompanied by selection for specialized motor-driven expression of the dusp1 gene in those circuits. This specialized expression of dusp1 could potentially lead to differential regulation of dusp1-modulated molecular cascades in vocal learning circuits.

  17. Interactions between the visual and the magnetoreception system: different effects of bichromatic light regimes on the directional behavior of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Dehe, Lars; Gehring, Dennis; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When magnetic compass orientation of migratory robins was tested, the birds proved well oriented under low intensity monochromatic light of shorter wavelengths up to 565 nm green; from 583 nm yellow onward, they were disoriented. In the present study, we tested robins under bichromatic lights composed (1) of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green and (2) of 565 nm green and 583 nm yellow at two intensities. Under dim blue-green light with a total quantal flux of ca. 8 × 10(15)quanta/sm(2), the birds were well oriented in their migratory direction by their inclination compass; under blue-green light of twice this intensity, their orientation became axial. In both cases, the magnetic directional information was mediated by the radical pair processes in the eye. When green and yellow light were combined, however, the nature of the behavior changed. Under green-yellow light of the higher intensity, the birds showed a 'fixed direction' response that was polar, no longer controlled by the normal inclination compass; under dim green-yellow light, the response became axial. Under these two light conditions, the respective directional information was mediated by the magnetite-based receptors in the skin of the upper beak. Apparently, yellow light leads to a change from one magnetoreception system to the other. How this change is effected is still unknown; it appears to reflect complex interactions between the visual and the two magnetoreception systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  19. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. 3 2012 .... Aircraft Bird. Strike Avoidance Rader System (ABARS) and.

  20. Simulated Leaching (Migration) Study for a Model Container-Closure System Applicable to Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Egert, Thomas; Hendricker, Alan; Castner, James; Feinberg, Tom; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank; Markovic, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    A simulating leaching (migration) study was performed on a model container-closure system relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. This container-closure system consisted of a linear low-density polyethylene bottle (primary container), a polypropylene cap and an elastomeric cap liner (closure), an adhesive label (labeling), and a foil overpouch (secondary container). The bottles were filled with simulating solvents (aqueous salt/acid mixture at pH 2.5, aqueous buffer at pH 9.5, and 1/1 v/v isopropanol/water), a label was affixed to the filled and capped bottles, the filled bottles were placed into the foil overpouch, and the filled and pouched units were stored either upright or inverted for up to 6 months at 40 °C. After storage, the leaching solutions were tested for leached substances using multiple complementary analytical techniques to address volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile organic and inorganic extractables as potential leachables.The leaching data generated supported several conclusions, including that (1) the extractables (leachables) profile revealed by a simulating leaching study can qualitatively be correlated with compositional information for materials of construction, (2) the chemical nature of both the extracting medium and the individual extractables (leachables) can markedly affect the resulting profile, and (3) while direct contact between a drug product and a system's material of construction may exacerbate the leaching of substances from that material by the drug product, direct contact is not a prerequisite for migration and leaching to occur. LAY ABSTRACT: The migration of container-related extractables from a model pharmaceutical container-closure system and into simulated drug product solutions was studied, focusing on circumstances relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. The model system was constructed specifically to address the migration of extractables from labels applied to the outside of the

  1. Comparison of two different Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) systems with markerless elementary geometrical shape modeling for the measurement of stem migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Röhrl, Stephan M; Bøe, B; Nordsletten, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the gold standard of measurement for in vivo 3D implants migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo precision of 2 RSA marker-based systems compared with that of marker-free, elementary geometrical shape modeling RSA. Stem migration was measured in 50 patients recruited from an on-going Randomized Controlled Trial. We performed marker-based analysis with the Um RSA and RSAcore systems and compared these results with those of the elementary geometrical shape RSA. The precision for subsidence was 0.118 mm for Um RSA, 0.141 mm for RSAcore, and 0.136 mm for elementary geometrical shape RSA. The precision for retroversion was 1.3° for elementary geometrical shape RSA, approximately 2-fold greater than that for the other methods. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the marker-based systems and elementary geometrical shape RSA was approximately 0.5 for retroversion. All 3 methods yielded ICCs for subsidence and varus-valgus rotation above 0.9. We found an excellent correlation between marker-based RSA and elementary geometrical shape RSA for subsidence and varus-valgus rotation, independent of the system used. The precisions for out-of-plane migration were inferior for elementary geometrical shape RSA. Therefore, as a mechanism of failure, retroversion may be more difficult to detect early. This is to our knowledge the first study to compare different RSA systems with or without markers on the implant. Marker-based RSA has high precision in all planes, independent of the system used. Elementary geometrical shape RSA is inferior in out-of-plane migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  3. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  4. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  5. APC and Smad7 link TGFβ type I receptors to the microtubule system to promote cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Maria; Mu, Yabing; Lee, So Young; Edlund, Sofia; Kozakai, Takaharu; Thakur, Noopur; Tran, Hoanh; Qian, Jiang; Groeden, Joanna; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration occurs by activation of complex regulatory pathways that are spatially and temporally integrated in response to extracellular cues. Binding of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to the microtubule plus ends in polarized cells is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). This event is crucial for establishment of cell polarity during directional migration. However, the role of APC for cellular extension in response to extracellular signals is less clear. Smad7 is a direct target gene for transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and is known to inhibit various TGFβ-induced responses. Here we report a new function for Smad7. We show that Smad7 and p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase together regulate the expression of APC and cell migration in prostate cancer cells in response to TGFβ stimulation. In addition, Smad7 forms a complex with APC and acts as an adaptor protein for p38 and GSK-3β kinases to facilitate local TGFβ/p38–dependent inactivation of GSK-3β, accumulation of β-catenin, and recruitment of APC to the microtubule plus end in the leading edge of migrating prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the Smad7–APC complex links the TGFβ type I receptor to the microtubule system to regulate directed cellular extension and migratory responses evoked by TGFβ. PMID:22496417

  6. WT-Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    A new method for registration of bird collisions has been developed using video cameras and microphones combined with event triggering by acoustic vibration measurement. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. Currently a prototype system is being tested on an offshore-scale land-based wind turbine using bird dummies. After these tests we planned to perform endurance tests on other land-based turbines under offshore-like conditions.

  7. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  8. Principle and design of hatch operation system for fish migrating upstream-downstream of the discharge sill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan G.Voicu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve fish migration and restore local lotic ecosystems, it is necessary to consider the various current hydro-construction methods. There have been partial successes in systems that improve fish passage over various obstacles but new approaches that present more efficient solutions and international collaboration among specialists are required. This article deals with European themes of great interest; issues related to interruption of longitudinal connectivity in heavily modified water courses, and improving the ecological status of damaged lotic systems, with the goal of achieving the environmental objectives set forth by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD and the national legislative framework regarding water policy (which reflects the European directives Water Law no. 107, with subsequent amendments, NT No. / 2006 OM 1163/2007, and discusses the obligation to ensure that construction works protect fish migration to maintain ecological balance in the reservoirs. It is possible to use this system in almost any fish-bearing stream, both upstream and downstream of maximum circulation, which makes the system an excellent solution for assisting and improving migration.

  9. Developing a System for Fish Fauna Migration Restoration Above the Spillway Sill Near the City Hall of Oradea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Răzvan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The channel of the river Crișul Repede inside the town affects both the biodiversity and implicit functionality of Crișul Repede River, therefore, this article aims to provide a solution for fish fauna migration in a system designed to restore longitudinal connectivity. The proposed migration system is based on the gravitational fall of water and will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of Crişul Repede River near the weir selected as the study case. It will reconnect approximately three kilometers of habitat that will contribute to ensuring the optimal conditions for the development of migratory fish species present in the area.

  10. Migration of radionuclides in the soil-crop-food product system and assessment of agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Ageyets, V.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on dynamics of redistribution of radionuclides through of profile of the different soils on uncultivated agricultural lands of Belarus during the 1986-1995 period show that vertical migration occurs with low rate. In arable soils the radionuclides are distributed in comparatively uniform way through the whole depth of the 25-30 cm cultivated layer. Investigations on migration of radionuclides with wind erosion on the drained series of wet sandy and peat soils and water erosion on sloping lands show that one should take into consideration the secondary contamination of soils while forecasting a possible accumulation of radionuclides in farm products

  11. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  12. Number of Migration Scenarios Passing through each HUC (future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...

  13. Number of Migration Scenarios Passing through each HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...

  14. Hydrogen migration dynamics in hydrated Al clusters: The Al17(−)·H2O system as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Flores, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Al m (−) ·(H 2 O) n systems are known to undergo water splitting processes in the gas phase giving H k Al m (OH) k (−) ·(H 2 O) n−k systems, which can generate H 2 . The migration of H atoms from one Al atom to another on the cluster's surface is of critical importance to the mechanism of the complete H 2 production process. We have applied a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory including tunneling effects to study the gas-phase evolution of HAl 17 (OH) (−) , which can be considered a model system. First, we have performed an extensive search for local minima and the connecting saddle points using a density functional theory method. It is found that in the water-splitting process Al 17 (−) ·(H 2 O) → HAl 17 (OH) (−) , the H atom which bonds to the Al cluster losses rather quickly its excess energy, which is easily “absorbed” by the cluster because of its flexibility. This fact ultimately determines that long-range hydrogen migration is not a very fast process and that, probably, tunneling only plays a secondary role in the migration dynamics, at least for moderate energies. Reduction of the total energy results in the process being very much slowed down. The consequences on the possible mechanisms of H 2 generation from the interaction of Al clusters and water molecules are discussed

  15. Documenting Presence and Movements of Piscivorous Birds along the Illinois River and within the Chicago Area Waterway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    data downloaded for the years 2005 to 2012 from eBird, an online checklist program used by amateur and professional birders. These data document that...and supported by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and National Audubon Society. This program permits recreational and professional birders to upload...Tazewell, Peoria, Woodford, Marshall, Putnam, La Salle, Grundy, Will, Lake and Cook counties. Additionally, these counties were grouped to provide

  16. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties simulation of the migration of radionuclide in the system of geological disposal-CRP-GEORC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming; Zong Zihua; Zhao Honggang

    2008-01-01

    CRP-GEORC concept model is an artificial system of geological disposal for High-Level radioactive waste. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties simulation of the migration of radionuclide Se-79 and I-129 in the far field of this system by using GoldSim Code have been conducted. It can be seen from the simulation results that variables used to describe the geological features and characterization of groundwater flow are sensitive variables of whole geological disposal system. The uncertainties of parameters have remarkable influence on the simulation results. (authors)

  17. The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fujitaka; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Makino, Hitoshi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density, one of the buffer design, on radionuclides migration behavior is important from the viewpoint of performance assessment since they have relation to radionuclides migration retardation. It is also considered to help investigation of buffer design that satisfy both safety and economy to condition of the disposal site, which may be required with development of disposal project in the future. Therefore we have performed a sensitivity analysis used buffer thickness and dry density as parameter and considered their combination in this report. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system. And, we have considered about radionuclides migration retardation quality of the buffer which is based on the design (relationship between thickness and dry density) set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. In results, the maximum release rates from the engineered barrier system for the nuclides which have high distribution coefficients and short half lives are sensitive to changes in buffer thickness and dry density. And, using dose converted from the nuclide release rates from the engineered barrier system as a convenient index, it is almost shown that the maximum of total dose is less than 10 μ Sv/y in the cases which buffer thickness and dry density are based on the buffer design set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. These can be used as an information when design of buffer thickness and dry density is set by synthetically judgement of balance of safety and economy. (author)

  18. Linked migration systems: immigration and internal labor flows in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Walker; M. Ellis; R. Barff

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between immigration and internal labor movements in the US. Wedding the literatures on immigration and internal migration, we develop a mobility model linking these various flows on the basis of occupational status of worker, producction and institutional relations in the economy, and economic restructuring.

  19. Colorectal Cancer Cells Adhere to and Migrate Along the Neurons of the Enteric Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Duchalais

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data show that the enteric neuronal network guides tumor cell migration, partly via L1CAM and N-cadherin. These results open a new avenue of research on the underlying mechanisms and consequences of perineural invasion in colorectal cancer.

  20. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  2. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  3. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  4. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  5. Potential impacts of wind turbines on birds at North Cape, Prince Edward Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, A.; Whitman, B.

    2001-12-13

    As the number of new wind power generating stations in Canada grows, so do concerns regarding the environmental impact of turbines on birds, particularly on raptors and migrating songbirds. These birds are generally at greatest risk of injury or death from turbines, but the impact of these structures on all bird species must be considered on a site-by-site basis. Disturbance to breeding and wintering as a result of turbines must be better researched. This report reviews the literature on the effects of wind turbines on birds, with reference to the North Cape, Prince Edward Island. It recommends ways to reduce potential impacts of turbines on birds in that area, and suggests a program whereby the potential effects of wind turbines on birds can be monitored. The bird groups likely to be seen at North Cape include water birds, raptors, songbirds, and 5 bird species that are considered to be provincially rare. The main causes of bird mortality at wind powered energy facilities are birds flying into rotating turbine blades. Migrating birds are attracted to warning lights on the turbines and collide with the structures and they also collide with the power lines connected to the station. Poor weather conditions, such as fog, increase the occurrence of collisions with towers. Several studies have shown that most migrating and wintering bird species alter their flight paths to avoid turbines. Studies also indicate that bird mortalities at wind energy facilities are not biologically significant and that impacts are not likely to be significant if wind turbines are located in areas of poor habitat and low bird densities. 61 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  6. Cenotic and physiological control of the radionuclides migration into system soil-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    . Investigation into the various aspects of biological control of radionuclide migration in the soil-plant system is proposed as a necessary step in the development of the modern management methods for soil reclamation

  7. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  8. Evaluation of radionuclide migration in the homogeneous system of a geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvakova, S.; Duran, J.; Necas, V.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study radionuclide migration and release from a deep underground repository situated in a clay formation. An insight into the processes influencing the radionuclide transport in the near field and far field will be presented. For the calculation, a set of radionuclides has been chosen, considering the half-life, decay chains, capacity of the sorption, solubility limits and diffusion coefficients. The migration of radionuclides is dependent on transport properties of the particular nuclide. Due to the low hydraulic conductivity of the backfill material and clay geological formation, the transport in the repository occurs mainly by diffusion. The migration rate will be influenced by the water chemistry, solubility, retardation and diffusive properties of the nuclides, and the water flow rate in the clay. The release rates of radionuclides from the geosphere to the biosphere will be converted into the indicative dose rates using dose conversion factors for ingestion. The impact of the critical group is considered via consumption of meat, root vegetables and drinking water from wells. (author)

  9. Zooplankton structure and vertical migration: Using acoustics and biomass to compare stratified and mixed fjord systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Astudillo, Macarena; Cáceres, Mario A.; Landaeta, Mauricio F.

    2017-09-01

    The patterns of abundance, composition, biomass and vertical migration of zooplankton in short-time scales (ADCP device mounted on the hull of a ship were used to obtain vertical profiles of current velocity data and intensity of the backscattered acoustic signal, which was used to study the migratory strategies and to relate the echo intensity with zooplankton biomass. Repeated vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density were obtained with a CTD instrument to describe the density patterns during both experiments. Zooplankton were sampled every 3 h using a Bongo net to determine abundance, composition and biomass. Migrations were diel in the stratified station, semi-diel in the mixed station, and controlled by light in both locations, with large and significant differences in zooplankton abundance and biomass between day and night samples. No migration pattern associated with the effect of tides was found. The depth of maximum backscatter strength showed differences of approximately 30 m between stations and was deeper in the mixed station. The relation between mean volume backscattering strength (dB) computed from echo intensity and log10 of total dry weight (mg m-3) of zooplankton biomass was moderate but significant in both locations. Biomass estimated from biological samples was higher in the mixed station and determined by euphausiids. Copepods were the most abundant group in both stations. Acoustic methods were a useful technique to understand the detailed patterns of migratory strategies of zooplankton and to help estimate zooplankton biomass and abundance in the inner waters of southern Chile.

  10. Using radar to advance migratory bird management: An interagency collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, R.; Ruth, J.M.; Barrow, W.C.; Dawson, D.K.; Diehl, R.H.; Manville, A.; Green, M.T.; Krueper, D.J.; Johnston, S.

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  11. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  12. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  13. Animal movement in the absence of predation: environmental drivers of movement strategies in a partial migration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Fredy; Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Animal movement strategies including migration, dispersal, nomadism, and residency are shaped by broad-scale spatial-temporal structuring of the environment, including factors such as the degrees of spatial variation, seasonality and inter-annual predictability. Animal movement strategies, in turn, interact with the characteristics of individuals and the local distribution of resources to determine local patterns of resource selection with complex and poorly understood implications for animal fitness. Here we present a multi-scale investigation of animal movement strategies and resource selection. We consider the degree to which spatial variation, seasonality, and inter-annual predictability in resources drive migration patterns among different taxa and how movement strategies in turn shape local resource selection patterns. We focus on adult Galapagos giant tortoises Chelonoidis spp. as a model system since they display many movement strategies and evolved in the absence of predators of adults. Specifically, our analysis is based on 63 individuals among four taxa tracked on three islands over six years and almost 106 tortoise re-locations. Tortoises displayed a continuum of movement strategies from migration to sedentarism that were linked to the spatio-temporal scale and predictability of resource distributions. Movement strategies shaped patterns of resource selection. Specifically, migratory individuals displayed stronger selection toward areas where resources were more predictable among years than did non-migratory individuals, which indicates a selective advantage for migrants in seasonally structured, more predictable environments. Our analytical framework combines large-scale predictions for movement strategies, based on environmental structuring, with finer-scale analysis of space-use. Integrating different organizational levels of analysis provides a deeper understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics at play in the emergence and maintenance of

  14. Effect of increasing nitrobenzene loading rates on the performance of anaerobic migrating blanket reactor and sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor/completely stirred tank reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuscu, Ozlem Selcuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) reactor was operated at nitrobenzene (NB) loading rates increasing from 3.33 to 66.67 g NB/m 3 day and at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 days to observe the effects of increasing NB concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD), NB removal efficiencies, bicarbonate alkalinity, volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and methane gas percentage. Moreover, the effect of an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) reactor, following the anaerobic reactor, on treatment efficiencies was also investigated. Approximately 91-94% COD removal efficiencies were observed up to a NB loading rate of 30.00 g/m 3 day in the AMBR reactor. The COD removal efficiencies decreased from 91% to 85% at a NB loading rate of 66.67 g/m 3 day. NB removal efficiencies were approximately 100% at all NB loading rates. The maximum total gas, methane gas productions and methane percentage were found to be 4.1, 2.6 l/day and 59%, respectively, at a NB loading rate of 30.00 g/m 3 day. The optimum pH values were found to be between 7.2 and 8.4 for maximum methanogenesis. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentrations in the effluent were 110 and 70 mg/l in the first and second compartments at NB loading rates as high as 66.67 and 6.67 g/m 3 day, respectively, while they were measured as zero in the effluent of the AMBR reactor. In this study, from 180 mg/l NB 66 mg/l aniline was produced in the anaerobic reactor while aniline was completely removed and transformed to 2 mg/l of cathechol in the aerobic CSTR reactor. Overall COD removal efficiencies were found to be 95% and 99% for NB loading rates of 3.33 and 66.67 g/m 3 day in the sequential anaerobic AMBR/aerobic CSTR reactor system, respectively. The toxicity tests performed with Photobacterium phosphoreum (LCK 480, LUMIStox) and Daphnia magna showed that the toxicity decreased with anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system from the influent, anaerobic and to

  15. Automated in situ monitoring of migratory birds at Germany's first offshore wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in

  16. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  18. Technical Challenges and Lessons from the Migration of the GLOBE Data and Information System to Utilize Cloud Computing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Overoye, D.; Littlefield, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Data and Information System supports an international science and education program with capabilities to accept local environment observations, archive, display and visualize them along with global satellite observations. Since its inception twenty years ago, the Web and database system has been upgraded periodically to accommodate the changes in technology and the steady growth of GLOBE's education community and collection of observations. Recently, near the end-of-life of the system hardware, new commercial computer platform options were explored and a decision made to utilize Cloud services. Now the GLOBE DIS has been fully deployed and maintained using Amazon Cloud services for over two years now. This paper reviews the early risks, actual challenges, and some unexpected findings as a result of the GLOBE DIS migration. We describe the plans, cost drivers and estimates, highlight adjustments that were made and suggest improvements. We present the trade studies for provisioning, for load balancing, networks, processing , storage, as well as production, staging and backup systems. We outline the migration team's skills and required level of effort for transition, and resulting changes in the overall maintenance and operations activities. Examples include incremental adjustments to processing capacity and frequency of backups, and efforts previously expended on hardware maintenance that were refocused onto application-specific enhancements.

  19. Technical Challenges and Lessons from the Migration of the GLOBE Data and Information System to Utilize Cloud Computing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, John F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Overoye, David; Littlefield, Brain

    2017-01-01

    The Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Data and Information System supports an international science and education program with capabilities to accept local environment observations, archive, display and visualize them along with global satellite observations. Since its inception twenty years ago, the Web and database system has been upgraded periodically to accommodate the changes in technology and the steady growth of GLOBEs education community and collection of observations. Recently, near the end-of-life of the system hardware, new commercial computer platform options were explored and a decision made to utilize Cloud services. Now the GLOBE DIS has been fully deployed and maintained using Amazon Cloud services for over two years now. This paper reviews the early risks, actual challenges, and some unexpected findings as a result of the GLOBE DIS migration. We describe the plans, cost drivers and estimates, highlight adjustments that were made and suggest improvements. We present the trade studies for provisioning, for load balancing, networks, processing, storage, as well as production, staging and backup systems. We outline the migration teams skills and required level of effort for transition, and resulting changes in the overall maintenance and operations activities. Examples include incremental adjustments to processing capacity and frequency of backups, and efforts previously expended on hardware maintenance that were refocused onto application-specific enhancements.

  20. Effects of exurban development and temperature on bird species in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M

    2013-10-01

    Land-use dynamics and climatic gradients have large effects on many terrestrial systems. Exurban development, one of the fastest growing forms of land use in the United States, may affect wildlife through habitat fragmentation and building presence may alter habitat quality. We studied the effects of residential development and temperature gradients on bird species occurrence at 140 study sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina, U.S.A.) that varied with respect to building density and elevation. We used occupancy models to determine 36 bird species' associations with building density, forest canopy cover, average daily mean temperature, and an interaction between building density and mean temperature. Responses varied with habitat requirement, breeding range, and migration distance. Building density and mean temperature were both included in the top occupancy models for 19 of 36 species and a building density by temperature interaction was included in models for 8 bird species. As exurban development expands in the southern Appalachians, interior forest species and Neotropical migrants are likely to decline, but shrubland or edge species are not likely to benefit. Overall, effects of building density were greater than those of forest canopy cover. Exurban development had a greater effect on birds at high elevations due to a greater abundance of sensitive forest-interior species and Neotropical migrants. A warming climate may exacerbate these negative effects. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Credit risk migration rates modeling as open systems: A micro-simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, S.; Uberti, M.; Casellina, S.

    2018-05-01

    The last financial crisis of 2008 stimulated the development of new Regulatory Criteria (commonly known as Basel III) that pushed the banking activity to become more prudential, either in the short and the long run. As well known, in 2014 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) promulgated the new International Financial Reporting Standard 9 (IFRS 9) for financial instruments that will become effective in January 2018. Since the delayed recognition of credit losses on loans was identified as a weakness in existing accounting standards, the IASB has introduced an Expected Loss model that requires more timely recognition of credit losses. Specifically, new standards require entities to account both for expected losses from when the impairments are recognized for the first time and for full loan lifetime; moreover, a clear preference toward forward looking models is expressed. In this new framework, it is necessary a re-thinking of the widespread standard theoretical approach on which the well known prudential model is founded. The aim of this paper is then to define an original methodological approach to migration rates modeling for credit risk which is innovative respect to the standard method from the point of view of a bank as well as in a regulatory perspective. Accordingly, the proposed not-standard approach considers a portfolio as an open sample allowing for entries, migrations of stayers and exits as well. While being consistent with the empirical observations, this open-sample approach contrasts with the standard closed-sample method. In particular, this paper offers a methodology to integrate the outcomes of the standard closed-sample method within the open-sample perspective while removing some of the assumptions of the standard method. Three main conclusions can be drawn in terms of economic capital provision: (a) based on the Markovian hypothesis with a-priori absorbing state at default, the standard closed-sample method is to be abandoned

  2. Analysis of tritium migration and deposition in fusion-reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.; Merrill, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc., is developing a safety analysis code, TMAP (Tritium Migration Analysis Program), to determine tritium loss into the environment and tritium buildup in components, coolants, and walls during normal and accident conditions. TMAP determines the thermal response of structures, solves equations for hydrogen movement through surface and in bulk materials, and also includes equations for chemical reactions. TMAP calculations of tritium movement through metal barriers at low tritium pressure agree closely with experimental measurements. The code has been used to predict inventory buildup and loss to the coolant of tritium implanted in the first wall of a fusion device, and concentrations during cleanup of tritium released into an enclosure

  3. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  4. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  5. A translating stage system for µ-PIV measurements surrounding the tip of a migrating semi-infinite bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B J; Yamaguchi, E; Gaver, D P

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and evaluated a novel translating stage system (TSS) that augments a conventional micro particle image velocimetry (µ-PIV) system. The TSS has been used to enhance the ability to measure flow fields surrounding the tip of a migrating semi-infinite bubble in a glass capillary tube under both steady and pulsatile reopening conditions. With conventional µ-PIV systems, observations near the bubble tip are challenging because the forward progress of the bubble rapidly sweeps the air-liquid interface across the microscopic field of view. The translating stage mechanically cancels the mean bubble tip velocity, keeping the interface within the microscope field of view and providing a tenfold increase in data collection efficiency compared to fixed-stage techniques. This dramatic improvement allows nearly continuous observation of the flow field over long propagation distances. A large (136-frame) ensemble-averaged velocity field recorded with the TSS near the tip of a steadily migrating bubble is shown to compare well with fixed-stage results under identical flow conditions. Use of the TSS allows the ensemble-averaged measurement of pulsatile bubble propagation flow fields, which would be practically impossible using conventional fixed-stage techniques. We demonstrate our ability to analyze these time-dependent two-phase flows using the ensemble-averaged flow field at four points in the oscillatory cycle.

  6. Migration stopover ecology of western avian populations: A southwestern migration workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Hazelwood, Rob

    2004-01-01

    The importance of migration stopover sites in ensuring that migratory birds successfully accomplish their journeys between breeding and non-breeding ranges has come to the forefront of avian research. Migratory birds that breed in western United States (US) and Canada and overwinter primarily in western Mexico migrate across the arid region of northern Mexico and southwestern US. Many of these migrants use lowland riparian stopover habitats, which comprise less than 0.1% of the western U.S. landscape. These habitats represent a significant conservation priority.

  7. Flexible navigation response in common cuckoos Cuculus canorus displaced experimentally during migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite...... tracks of 11 experimentally displaced adults revealed an unexpected flexibility in individual navigation responses. The birds compensated for the translocation to unfamiliar areas by travelling toward population-specific staging areas, demonstrating true navigation capabilities. Individual responses...

  8. The chronology of Volga Bulgaria antiquities within medieval migrations system of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov Evgeniy P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the author's cultural-chronological stratigraphy of the antiquities of the early and pre-Mongol Volga Bulgars in the 8th through to 13th centuries, the stages of their migration from the north-eastern provinces of the Saltov culture territory to the Middle Volga region have been singled out. It is assumed that in the history of the Middle Volga region, there were two main waves of Turkification: the first was associated with the population of the post-Hunnish circle (the Khazars, the Oghuz, the Bulgars, while the second wave was represented by the Late Turkic (Kipchak? population. However, the interaction of Volga Bulgaria with its ancestral home in the framework of the Saltov culture and the Khazar Khaganate had lasted for several centuries, and during that time, a number of migration waves on a smaller scale, in particular after the defeat of Khazaria, occurred in the Middle Volga region. For about 600 years, the Bulgars had been maintaining contacts with the Ugrians, the Volga-Uralic Finns, and the Slavs.

  9. A new conservation partnership: conserving the migratory birds of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Capp; David Mehlman

    Over five billion birds move each year across the Americas, flying great distances over almost every location and habitat on the continents (Weidensaul 1999). Over 350 of the over 800 bird species in the United States migrate each year to Latin America and the Caribbean (Degraaf and Rappole 1995). Some fly each way over 4000 miles, chasing the seasons across oceans and...

  10. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  11. Tank Information System (tis): a Case Study in Migrating Web Mapping Application from Flex to Dojo for Arcgis Server and then to Open Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsani, B. R.

    2017-11-01

    Tank Information System is a web application which provides comprehensive information about minor irrigation tanks of Telangana State. As part of the program, a web mapping application using Flex and ArcGIS server was developed to make the data available to the public. In course of time as Flex be-came outdated, a migration of the client interface to the latest JavaScript based technologies was carried out. Initially, the Flex based application was migrated to ArcGIS JavaScript API using Dojo Toolkit. Both the client applications used published services from ArcGIS server. To check the migration pattern from proprietary to open source, the JavaScript based ArcGIS application was later migrated to OpenLayers and Dojo Toolkit which used published service from GeoServer. The migration pattern noticed in the study especially emphasizes upon the use of Dojo Toolkit and PostgreSQL database for ArcGIS server so that migration to open source could be performed effortlessly. The current ap-plication provides a case in study which could assist organizations in migrating their proprietary based ArcGIS web applications to open source. Furthermore, the study reveals cost benefits of adopting open source against commercial software's.

  12. TANK INFORMATION SYSTEM (TIS: A CASE STUDY IN MIGRATING WEB MAPPING APPLICATION FROM FLEX TO DOJO FOR ARCGIS SERVER AND THEN TO OPEN SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pulsani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank Information System is a web application which provides comprehensive information about minor irrigation tanks of Telangana State. As part of the program, a web mapping application using Flex and ArcGIS server was developed to make the data available to the public. In course of time as Flex be-came outdated, a migration of the client interface to the latest JavaScript based technologies was carried out. Initially, the Flex based application was migrated to ArcGIS JavaScript API using Dojo Toolkit. Both the client applications used published services from ArcGIS server. To check the migration pattern from proprietary to open source, the JavaScript based ArcGIS application was later migrated to OpenLayers and Dojo Toolkit which used published service from GeoServer. The migration pattern noticed in the study especially emphasizes upon the use of Dojo Toolkit and PostgreSQL database for ArcGIS server so that migration to open source could be performed effortlessly. The current ap-plication provides a case in study which could assist organizations in migrating their proprietary based ArcGIS web applications to open source. Furthermore, the study reveals cost benefits of adopting open source against commercial software's.

  13. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  14. Determinants of spring migration departure decision in a bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, M; Ellis-Soto, D; Safi, K; O'Mara, M Teague

    2017-09-01

    Migratory decisions in birds are closely tied to environmental cues and fat stores, but it remains unknown if the same variables trigger bat migration. To learn more about the rare phenomenon of bat migration, we studied departure decisions of female common noctules ( Nyctalus noctula ) in southern Germany. We did not find the fattening period that modulates departure decisions in birds. Female noctules departed after a regular evening foraging session, uniformly heading northeast. As the day of year increased, migratory decisions were based on the interactions among wind speed, wind direction and air pressure. As the migration season progressed, bats were likely to migrate on nights with higher air pressure and faster tail winds in the direction of travel, and also show high probability of migration on low-pressure nights with slow head winds. Common noctules thus monitor complex environmental conditions to find the optimal migration night. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Morphological constraints on changing avian migration phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2017-06-01

    Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 European migratory bird species. Species with larger aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, may hinder phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityay I.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.

  17. An annotated checklist of pathogenic microorganisms associated with migratory birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2004), s. 639-659 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Arboviruses * birds * migration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2004 http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/40/4/639

  18. Economic impotance of flying visitors: migratory birds | Egwumah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are also capable of producing oil. Nature based tourism and recreation, such as the viewing of wildlife coupled with; management of migratory birds promotes market for other industrial goods such as lead shot, guns and binocular. Keywords: Migration; Recreation and Tourism; Trophies; Ornament; Food; Production of Oil ...

  19. Condition varies with habitat choice in postbreeding forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...

  20. Understanding the stopover of migratory birds: a scale dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Moore; Mark S. Woodrey; Jeffrey J. Buler; Stefan Woltmann; Ted R. Simons

    2005-01-01

    The development of comprehensive conservation strategies and management plans for migratory birds depends on understanding migrant-habitat relations throughout the annual cycle, including the time when migrants stopover en route. Yet, the complexity of migration makes the assessment of habitat requirements and development of a comprehensive...

  1. Radar ornithology and the conservation of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney A. Gauthreaux; Carroll G. Belser

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to study with surveillance radar the movements of migrating birds in the atmosphere at different spatial scales. At a spatial scale within a range of 6 kilometers, high-resolution, 3-centimeter wavelength surveillance radar (e.g. BIRDRAD) can detect the departure of migrants from different types of habitat within a few kilometers of the radar. The radar...

  2. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  3. Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

    2009-02-22

    Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1 degree S, 15 degrees E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10 degrees N, where they changed to south-easterly courses. The maximal spread between routes at 10 degrees N (2134 km) rapidly decreased to a minimum (67 km) close to the equator. We found a striking relationship between the route convergence and the distribution of continuous rainforest, suggesting that hobbies minimize flight distance across the forest, concentrating in a corridor where habitat may be more suitable for travelling and foraging. With rainforest forming a possible ecological barrier, many migrants may cross the equator either at 15 degrees E, similar to the hobbies, or at 30-40 degrees E, east of the rainforest where large-scale migration is well documented. Much remains to be understood about the role of the rainforest for the evolution and future of the trans-equatorial Palaearctic-African bird migration systems.

  4. In-situ calibration: migrating control system IP module calibration from the bench to the storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Jonah M.; Chin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) uses in-house designed IndustryPack(registered trademark) (IP) modules contained in compact PCI (cPCI) crates with 16-bit analog I/O to control instrumentation. To make the IP modules interchangeable, each module is calibrated for gain and offset compensation. We initially developed a method of verifying and calibrating the IP modules in a lab bench test environment using a PC with LabVIEW. The subsequent discovery that the ADCs have significant drift characteristics over periods of days of installed operation prompted development of an ''in-situ'' calibration process--one in which the IP modules can be calibrated without removing them from the cPCI crates in the storage ring. This paper discusses the original LabVIEW PC calibration and the migration to the proposed in-situ EPICS control system calibration

  5. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    because of the complexity of biological systems, the inherently dynamic nature of the environment and the scale at which many migrations occur and associated threats operate, necessitating improved integration of physiological approaches to the conservation of migratory animals. PMID:27293751

  6. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  7. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher

    2005-01-01

    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  8. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  9. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  10. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  11. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  12. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  13. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  14. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  15. Migration rates of volatile organic compounds in an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.E.; Porcelli, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The movement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an aquifer is dictated by its solubility, attenuation characteristics, recharge volume, and ground-water movement (velocity and direction). At Brookhaven National Laboratory, past handling and disposal practices at the Hazardous Waste Management Facility and current landfill have resulted in the release of VOCs and the radioisotope tritium to the underlying upper glacial aquifer which characterized by unconsolidated sands and gravel. The rate of VOC migration from these source areas was examined using the following parameters: (1) distribution of VOCs and tritium; (2) tritium/helium ratios, which provide an estimate of the age of the water, and hence the rate of ground-water movement; (3) ground-water flow velocities within the upper glacial aquifer utilizing conductivity, porosity, and gradient data. Preliminary results indicate that whereas the comparison of the calculated ground-water flow gradient to tritium/helium age determinations are fairly consistent, application to VOC movement is inconclusive, and will require additional monitoring which would also focus on the vertical component as well

  16. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Do estrogenic compounds in drinking water migrating from plastic pipe distribution system pose adverse effects to human? An analysis of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands. Based on estrogen equivalent (EEQ), the migrating levels of the leachable compound 2,4-d-t-BP in most plastic pipes were relative low. However, the EEQ levels in drinking water migrating from four out of 15 pipes may pose significant adverse effects. With the increasingly strict requirements on regulation of drinking water quality, these results indicate that some drinking water transported with plastic pipes may not be safe for human consumption due to the occurrence of 2,4-d-t-BP. Moreover, 2,4-d-t-BP is not the only plastic pipe-migrating estrogenic compound, other compounds such as 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BP), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), and others may also be leachable from plastic pipes.

  18. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by spatial photon migration in CdSe-ZnS quantum dots colloidal systems as a function of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A. F.; Messias, D. N. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Óptica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil)

    2014-11-17

    The study of the spatial photon migration as a function of the concentration brings into attention the problem of the energy transfer in quantum dot embedded systems. By measuring the photon propagation and its spatial dependence, it is possible to understand the whole dynamics in a quantum dot system, and also improve their concentration dependence to maximize energy propagation due to radiative and non-radiative processes. In this work, a confocal microscope was adapted to scan the spatial distribution of photoluminescence from CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots in colloidal solutions. The energy migration between the quantum dots was monitored by the direct measurement of the photon diffusion length, according to the diffusion theory. We observed that the photon migration length decreases by increasing the quantum dot concentration, this kind of behavior has been regarded as a signature of Förster resonance energy transfer in the system.

  19. Five years of monitoring bird strike potential at a mountain-top wind turbine, Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossop, D.H. [Yukon College, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A five-year study was conducted to determine if birds were at risk of collision with an experimental wind turbine on a 1,500 metre mountain near the major Shakwak migration corridor used by many thousands of birds. More than 100 ground searches at the turbine site and about 80 hours of migration watch were conducted. In five years, six birds hit the control tower, none hit the turbine tower. All strikes were in winter and none of the birds killed were in migration. Waterfowl were found to navigate in the valley centre about 1,000 feet below the turbine. Small birds were rarely found at the altitude where the turbine was located. Raptors were the most common birds found near the site, but they were able to avoid the tower. It was concluded that birds using the migration corridor near Whitehorse were not at great risk of collision with towers above 1,200 metre altitude. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Routes and survival of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. post-smolts during early marine migration through a Danish fjord system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Lykke; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Aarestrup, Kim

    2018-01-01

    We examined the survival and progression rates of 101 anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. post-smolts from two Danish river systems, Karup and Simested, with acoustic telemetry as they migrated through a large Danish fjord system (the Limfjord). No fish were documented to residualize permanently...

  1. Flight response of slope-soaring birds to seasonal variation in thermal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam E. Duerr; Tricia A. Miller; Michael Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Kieran O' Malley; Charles Maisonneuve; Junior A. Tremblay; Todd. Katzner

    2014-01-01

    Animals respond to a variety of environmental cues, including weather conditions, when migrating. Understanding the relationship between weather and migration behaviour is vital to assessing time- and energy limitations of soaring birds. Different soaring modes have different efficiencies, are dependent upon different types of subsidized lift and are weather dependent...

  2. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny

    2012-01-01

    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  3. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  4. Body fat influences departure from stopover sites in migratory birds: evidence from whole-island telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Spina, Fernando; Ferri, Andrea; Fusani, Leonida

    2010-01-01

    Migration remains one of the great mysteries of animal life. Small migratory birds rely on refuelling stopovers after crossing ecological barriers such as deserts or seas. Previous studies have suggested that fuel reserves may determine stopover duration but this hypothesis could not be tested because of methodological limitations. Here, we provide evidence that subcutaneous fat stores determine stopover duration by measuring the permanence of migratory garden warblers (Sylvia borin) on a small Mediterranean island during spring migration with telemetry methods. Garden warblers with large amounts of fat stores departed the island significantly sooner than lean birds. All except one fat bird left the island on the same evening after capture, with a mean total stopover estimate of 8.8 hours. In contrast, the mean estimated total stopover duration of lean birds was 41.3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures the true minimum stopover duration of a songbird during migration. PMID:20164077

  5. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  6. Dateline Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  7. Birds and wind power. Result report 1977-1982; Faglar och Vindkraft. Resultatrapport 1977-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Johnny

    1983-02-15

    Two large-scaled aerogenerators were erected in Sweden in 1980-82. Questions about how birds react on the generators were raised early. Theoretical calculations about the risk for collisions between migrating birds and the generators, together with data on the bird collision frequencies at radio- and television towers in Sweden were presented in a report in 1978. It was assumed that the collision frequency will normally not exceed five birds per night during nights with normal traffic rate of migrating birds, and with maximum of about 50 birds on special occasions (few cases per season). In 1979-1982 the local breeding bird fauna was censused in the immediate vicinities of the sites (arable land and grazed bushland) where the aerogenerators has been erected. The results obtained so far, do not indicate any effect at all on species diversity or abundance when comparing the situation before and after the erection of the arerogenerators. Some species have successfully colonized the areas, obviously exploiting resources created by the building activities. Two such species are Oenanthe oenanthe and Delichon urbica. Reactions of migrating birds when passing close to the generators will be studied in the nearest future (autumn 1983) when the plants will be in continous work.

  8. Data Mining Approaches for Habitats and Stopovers Discovery of Migratory Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on using data mining technology to efficiently and accurately discover habitats and stopovers of migratory birds. The three methods we used are as follows: 1. a density-based clustering method, detecting stopovers of birds during their migration through density-based clustering of location points; 2. A location histories parser method, detecting areas that have been overstayed by migratory birds during a set time period by setting time and distance thresholds; and 3. A time-parameterized line segment clustering method, clustering directed line segments to analyze shared segments of migratory pathways of different migratory birds and discover the habitats and stopovers of these birds. Finally, we analyzed the migration data of the bar-headed goose in the Qinghai Lake Area through the three above methods and verified the effectiveness of the three methods and, by comparison, identified the scope and context of the use of these three methods respectively.

  9. Assessment of bird populations in a high quality savanna/woodland: a banding approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Sandra L.; Glowacki, Gary A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2004, Save the Dunes Conservation Fund's Miller Woods Bird Banding Program monitored migrating and breeding bird populations within a high quality black oak, dry-mesic sand savanna/woodland with ridge and swale topography. The objectives of this program were to collect consistent and reliable demographic and abundance data on the bird populations, to investigate long-term population trends, and to contribute to improved land management decisions at regional and national scales. The technique employed involved capturing birds in mist nets that were deployed for set periods of time at 17 net sites in two banding areas in Miller Woods.

  10. A System Architecture and Migration Plan for the Student Services Department of the Marine Corps Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers

    1997-01-01

    ... to a client server based, open information system for the Marine Corps Institute (MCI). The primary objective of this thesis is to develop the technology architecture required to support the information systems of the Student Services Department (SSD...

  11. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  12. Collision risks at sea: species composition and altitude distributions of birds in Danish offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blew, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Nehls, G. [BioConsult SH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This study investigates the collision risks of birds in operating offshore wind farms, focussing on all bird species present in the direct vicinity of the wind farms, their altitude distribution and reactions. The project was conducted jointly by BioConsult SH and the University of Hamburg in the two Danish offshore wind farms Horns Rev (North Sea) and Nysted (Baltic Sea) in the framework of a Danish-German cooperation and financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2006, using a ship anchored at the edge of the offshore wind farms. In this way, bird species of all sizes could be considered. Daytime observations yielded data on species composition, flight routes and potential reactions of the birds. Radar observations provided altitude distributions inside and outside the wind farm area and also reactions. The results shall help to further describe and assess the collision risk of different species groups. Since data analysis is still running, exemplary results will be presented here. 114 species have been recorded in Nysted and 99 in Horns Rev, approximately 65% of which have been observed inside the wind farm areas. Migrating birds seem to avoid flying into the wind farms, whereas individuals present in the areas for extended time periods utilize areas within the wind farms. While a barrier effect exists for species on migration, resident species probably have a higher collision risk. Raptors migrating during daylight frequently enter the wind farm area on their flight routes, correcting their flight paths in order to avoid collisions. Radar results show that during times of intensive migration, the proportion of birds flying at high altitudes and thus above windmill height is higher than in times of low migration intensity. Consequently, there is a lower proportion of migrating birds flying within the risk area. Data will be further analysed to

  13. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mityay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics

  14. Concealed by darkness: interactions between predatory bats and nocturnally migrating songbirds illuminated by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L; Juste, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreover, species using tree hollows or nest boxes in the study area during migration periods were not present in the bats' diet, indicating that birds are solely captured on the wing during night-time passage. Additional to a generalist feeding strategy, we found that bats selected medium-sized bird species, thereby assumingly optimizing their energetic cost-benefit balance and injury risk. Surprisingly, bats preyed upon birds half their own body mass. This shows that the 5% prey to predator body mass ratio traditionally assumed for aerial hunting bats does not apply to this hunting strategy or even underestimates these animals' behavioural and mechanical abilities. Considering the bats' generalist feeding strategy and their large prey size range, we suggest that nocturnal bat predation may have influenced the evolution of bird migration strategies and behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Robert HS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Results Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (FST = 0.51. Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero. Conclusions Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing

  16. Moisture Migration in an Oil-Paper Insulation System in Relation to Online Partial Discharge Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sikorski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most power transformers operating in a power system possess oil-paper insulation. A serious defect of this type of insulation, which is associated with long operation time, is an increase in the moisture content. Moisture introduces a number of threats to proper operation of the transformer, e.g., ignition of partial discharges (PDs. Due to the varying temperature of the insulation system during the unit’s normal operation, a dynamic change (migration of water takes place, precipitating the oil-paper system from a state of hydrodynamic equilibrium. This causes the PDs to be variable in time, and they may intensify or extinguish. Studies on model objects have been conducted to determine the conditions (temperature, humidity, time that will have an impact on the ignition and intensity of the observed phenomenon of PDs. The conclusions of this study will have a practical application in the evaluation of measurements conducted in the field, especially in relation to the registration of an online PD monitoring system.

  17. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Detect to Avoid: Supporting Aviation Safety with Bird Movement Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Kügler, D.

    2017-01-01

    The presented research evaluates the concept of providing an airport’s Air Traffic Control with a bird strike advisory system. Such a system informs the controller about current and predicted bird movements in the arrival and departure corridors. Based on this information, the controller can decide

  19. The Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts : A powerful system to study cell migration at single-cell resolution in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rella, Lorenzo; Fernandes Póvoa, Euclides E.; Korswagen, Hendrik C.

    2016-01-01

    During development, cell migration plays a central role in the formation of tissues and organs. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive and control these migrations is a key challenge in developmental biology that will provide important insights into disease processes, including cancer

  20. The Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts : A powerful system to study cell migration at single-cell resolution in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rella, Lorenzo; Fernandes Póvoa, Euclides E; Korswagen, Hendrik C

    During development, cell migration plays a central role in the formation of tissues and organs. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive and control these migrations is a key challenge in developmental biology that will provide important insights into disease processes, including cancer

  1. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perides, George; Zhuge, Yuzheng; Lin, Tina; Stins, Monique F; Bronson, Roderick T; Wu, Julian K

    2006-01-01

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg -/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg -/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  2. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  3. SPECIES RICHNESS AND UNIFORMITY CONTRIBUTIONS TO BIRD DIVERSITY IN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS IN THE SOUTHEAST OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Altamirano González Ortega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of the richness and uniformity in the diversity of birds, and their relationship with covariates of vegetation in a coffee landscape in southern Mexico. Species richness and abundance was recorded in 2010 and 2011 in evergreen forests and three different types of coffee production systems. Changes in the values of species richness and uniformity were detected by a SHE analysis (S = species richness, H = diversity and E = evenness. True diversity (the actual number of species actually represent the diversity of species in the samples was also estimated. The tree cover, shrub cover and tree height were covariates of vegetation that explained the variation in species richness and abundance. SHE analysis indicated that cumulative values of bird diversity increased in all plots with species richness, while the values of uniformity of species decreased. This condition changed with management activities of coffee and / or the arrival of migratory birds. The true diversity, when all species had a weight proportional to its abundance (q = 1, was higher in all plots when they were given greater weight to the dominant species (q = 2. Management practices of tree cover and shrubs and bird migration could explain changes in species richness and uniformity during the agricultural cycle.

  4. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  5. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  6. Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.

    2009-03-01

    The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.

  7. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  8. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  9. High level of reactive oxygen species impaired mesenchymal stem cell migration via overpolymerization of F-actin cytoskeleton in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, D; Li, X; Chen, H; Che, N; Zhou, S; Lu, Z; Shi, S; Sun, L

    2014-12-01

    Some lines of evidence have demonstrated abnormalities of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, characterized by defective phenotype of MSCs and slower growth with enhanced apoptosis and senescence. However, whether SLE MSCs demonstrate aberrant migration capacity or abnormalities in cytoskeleton are issues that remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that MSCs from SLE patients did show impairment in migration capacity as well as abnormalities in F-actin cytoskeleton, accompanied by a high level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). When normal MSCs were treated in vitro with H2O2, which increases intracellular ROS level as an oxidant, both reorganization of F-actin cytoskeleton and impairment of migration capability were observed. On the other hand, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as an exogenous antioxidant, made F-actin more orderly and increased migration ratio in SLE MSCs. In addition, oral administration of NAC markedly reduced serum autoantibody levels and ameliorated lupus nephritis (LN) in MRL/lpr mice, partially reversing the abnormalities of MSCs. These results indicate that overpolymerization of F-actin cytoskeleton, which may be associated with high levels of ROS, causes impairment in the migration capacity of SLE MSCs and that oral administration of NAC may have potential therapeutic effects on MRL/lpr mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  11. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  12. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  13. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bird Nesting Colonies Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nests_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  14. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  15. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds. De invloed van de Sep-proefwindcentrale te Oosterbierum (Friesland) op vogels; Deel 3: Aanvlieggedrag overdag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, J E

    1992-01-01

    The study concerns 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. The flight behavior of birds approaching the wind park system during daylight is also dealt with. For at least a fifth of the observations it was noted whether the birds passing within 100 meters distance of a turbine showed a reaction or not. The proportion of the reactions was related to the wind park in operation or not in operation, and to the distance between the wind turbines, species, flight height, the passing distance, wind direction and wind force. Secondly the flight path of birds approaching the wind park from eastern directions during daylight (real autumn migration) and from southern directions during late afternoon (flights of gulls to night roosts) was studied in detail. Significantly more reactions (11-18%) were recorded with the wind park fully operational compared to the wind park not operational (2%). In total 2203 flight paths of birds approaching the wind park were recorded during 151 hours of observation. The test results showed that a passing distance of less or more than 100 meters of the nearest wind turbine did not affect the proportion of reactions. Several reaction types and combinations were noted, varying from gradual and calm reactions (circa 75%), and panic reactions, occurring just before or while passing the wind turbines. The reactions are shift in the flight path in the horizontal plane (30%), shift in the flight path in the vertical plane (14%), one passing attempt (87%), an accelerated wing beat (14%), an alteration of the angle of the body (21%).

  16. Performance evaluation of ICN/CCN based service migration approach in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satria, Triadimas; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in using mobile devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, etc.) has increased the complexity in provisioning cellular network resources. Applying the cloud computing model in LTE (Long Term Evolution) systems could be a good solution to increase LTE’s performance by building a

  17. Utilizing ICN/CCN for service and VM migration support in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Satria, Triadimas; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important concepts used in mobile networks, like LTE (Long Term Evolution) is service continuity. A mobile user moving from one network to another network should not lose an on-going service. In cloud-based (virtualized) LTE systems, services are hosted on Virtual Machines (VMs) that

  18. Monitoring system of depressurization valves of migrated gas in annular space of flexible risers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Luiz A.; Santos, Joilson M.; Carvalho, Antonio L.; Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS Research and Development Center - CENPES developed an automatic system for monitoring pressure of annular space due to permeation of gas in flexible risers to inspect continuously integrity of such lines. To help maintaining physical integrity of flexible risers, two PSV's are installed to end fittings on top of riser, so that operation of any valve grants the maximum admissible gas pressure within the riser annular space, as overpressure might cause damages to external polymeric layer of flexible riser. Due to the fact that there is no mechanism allowing operation to verify correct PSV performance and frequency of valve's closings and openings, we felt to be necessary the development and implement an automatic instrumented system, integrated to platform's automation and control infrastructure. The objective of this instrumentation is to monitor and register pressure of annular space in flexible riser, as well as XV's depressurization frequency. Having such information registered and monitored, can infer some riser structural conditions, anticipating repairs and preventive maintenance. In this paper we present developed system details including instruments required, application, operation of associated screens that are used in the ECOS, with events, alarms and industrial automation services required (Application development and system integration). (author)

  19. Migration to the ICD-10 coding system: A primer for spine surgeons (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Deen, H Gordon; Dokken, Judith A; Pirris, Stephen M; Pichelmann, Mark A; Nottmeier, Eric W; Reimer, Ronald; Wharen, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    On 1 October 2015, a new federally mandated system goes into effect requiring the replacement of the International Classification of Disease-version 9-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) with ICD-10-CM. These codes are required to be used for reimbursement and to substantiate medical necessity. ICD-10 is composite with as many as 141,000 codes, an increase of 712% when compared to ICD-9. Execution of the ICD-10 system will require significant changes in the clinical administrative and hospital-based practices. Through the transition, diminished productivity and practice revenue can be anticipated, the impacts of which the spine surgeon can minimizeby appropriate education and planning. The advantages of the new system include increased clarity and more accurate definitions reflecting patient condition, information relevant to ambulatory and managed care encounters, expanded injury codes, laterality, specificity, precise data for safety and compliance reporting, data mining for research, and finally, enabling pay-for-performance programs. The disadvantages include the cost per physician, training administrative staff, revenue loss during the learning curve, confusion, the need to upgrade hardware along with software, and overall expense to the healthcare system. With the deadline rapidly approaching, gaps in implementation result in delayed billing, delayed or diminished reimbursements, and absence of quality and outcomes data. It is thereby essential for spine surgeons to understand their role in transitioning to this new environment. Part I of this article discusses the background, coding changes, and costs as well as reviews the salient features of ICD-10 in spine surgery.

  20. Checkpoints to the Brain: Directing Myeloid Cell Migration to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Harrison-Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are a unique subset of leukocytes with a diverse array of functions within the central nervous system during health and disease. Advances in understanding of the unique properties of these cells have inspired interest in their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes, proteins, and drugs, or as “assistants” in the clean-up of aggregated proteins and other molecules when existing drainage systems are no longer adequate. The trafficking of myeloid cells from the periphery to the central nervous system is subject to complex cellular and molecular controls with several ‘checkpoints’ from the blood to their destination in the brain parenchyma. As important components of the neurovascular unit, the functional state changes associated with lineage heterogeneity of myeloid cells are increasingly recognized as important for disease progression. In this review, we discuss some of the cellular elements associated with formation and function of the neurovascular unit, and present an update on the impact of myeloid cells on central nervous system (CNS diseases in the laboratory and the clinic. We then discuss emerging strategies for harnessing the potential of site-directed myeloid cell homing to the CNS, and identify promising avenues for future research, with particular emphasis on the importance of untangling the functional heterogeneity within existing myeloid subsets.

  1. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydroxide ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Urbánek, Marek; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2005), s. 1869-1873 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : background electrolyte * capillary electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  2. Asymptotic behaviour for a system describing epidemics with migration and spatial spread of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirane, M.; Kouachi, S.

    1991-08-01

    A parabolic system with linear interactions is considered with specific applications to the spread of infectious diseases. Using a Payne-type functional we prove the global existence of a unique solution and analyze its large time behaviour. (author). 14 refs

  3. How to Throw a Bird?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Anne Lassen; Bruun, Charlotte

    been left behind in global economic development, it is important to recognise that interventions, such as within tourism, cannot start on a tabula rasa. Hence, in this paper we argue that geographical locations are living systems where different stakeholders, formal and informal institutions......, environment with its wildlife, etc., all interact and influence interventions and outcomes. In metaphorical terms developing locations through tourism is like attempting to make a bird fly in a desired direction: One can never predict completely the direction in which it will fly. On the contrary throwing...

  4. Birds and wind power. Technical report 1977-1982; Faglar och vindkraft. Teknisk rapport 1977-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Johnny

    1983-02-15

    The impact of wind power plants on birds has been studied. The risk of migrating birds colliding with high buildings has been investigated. Different hazards and accidents are described and reported in 12 appendices. Preliminary data from the sites of wind power plants are presented.

  5. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  6. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydrogen ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 446-452 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031401; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  7. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  8. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  9. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  10. Fish, birds and flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The article in your animal physics special issue on the use of magnetic field sensing in bird navigation (November 2012 pp38-42) reminded me of a comment made regarding a paper that I presented in the US many years ago.

  11. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  12. Eating Like a Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Chris; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on the adaptations of shorebird beaks for a variety of habitats and food sources, and the effect of toxic chemicals in the food chain on the birds. In activity A, students discover how shorebirds are…

  13. Temperature-influenced energetics model for migrating waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kevin; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lonsdorg, Eric V.

    2018-01-01

    Climate and weather affect avian migration by influencing when and where birds fly, the energy costs and risks of flight, and the ability to sense cues necessary for proper navigation. We review the literature of the physiology of avian migration and the influence of climate, specifically temperature, on avian migration dynamics. We use waterfowl as a model guild because of the ready availability of empirical physiological data and their enormous economic value, but our discussion and expectations are broadly generalizable to migratory birds in general. We detail potential consequences of an increasingly warm climate on avian migration, including the possibility of the cessation of migration by some populations and species. Our intent is to lay the groundwork for including temperature effects on energetic gains and losses of migratory birds with the expected consequences of increasing temperatures into a predictive modeling framework. To this end, we provide a simulation of migration progression exclusively focused on the influence of temperature on the physiological determinants of migration. This simulation produced comparable results to empirically derived and observed values for different migratory factors (e.g., body fat content, flight range, departure date). By merging knowledge from the arenas of avian physiology and migratory theory we have identified a clear need for research and have developed hypotheses for a path forward.

  14. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or drive the birds away. However, the droppings of the birds provide a rich source of fertilizer and this ... birds of India are under severe threat and require urgent protection. he~ries'(Box 1), can ... there will be no fish and then suddenly a school.

  16. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  17. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations

  18. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  19. A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-10-01

    The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

  20. Stem Migration and Fretting Corrosion of the Antirotation Pin in the K2/Apex Hip System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Edmondson, Mark; Ebert, Jay; Nivbrant, Nils; Kop, Alan; Wood, David; De Steiger, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many exchangeable neck hip systems have been withdrawn because of fretting corrosion at the neck/stem coupling. Our prospective randomized study evaluating stem stability (Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and clinical outcomes between the K2/Apex hip systems was ceased early because of a withdrawal of the stems which had an unfavorably high early revision rate reported in the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Registry (9.3% at 3 years). At 2 years, there are no clinical differences between the stems. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis has identified a high proportion of potentially concerning subsidence and retroversion in both groups, more marked in the K2 stem, although mostly in asymptomatic patients. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry has shown similar bone density around the stems. Retrieval analysis of 3 study patients showed fretting corrosion of the antirotation pin and aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion, with no relationship to bearing type or size. Analysis of 7 further nonstudy K2/Apex stems confirmed similar corrosion. This study shows potentially concerning subsidence of both stems and is the first to describe corrosion at the neck-stem interface and a relationship to metal-related pathology. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection of passerine birds as bio-sentinel of persistent organic pollutants in terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiaobo; Sun, Yuxin; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiangrong; Qin, Xiaoquan; Gao, Yongli; Mai, Bixian

    2018-08-15

    A broad suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, were analyzed in pectoral muscle of eight terrestrial passerine bird species from an extensive e-waste recycling site in South China. Concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs in bird samples ranged from 1260-279,000, 121-14,200, and 31-7910ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Insectivorous birds had significantly higher levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs than those in granivorous birds. Concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds were significantly greater than those in migrant insectivorous birds. PCBs were the predominant pollutants in all bird species from the e-waste site, followed by PBDEs and DDTs, indicating that PCBs were mainly derived from e-wastes. The granivorous birds had higher proportions of hepta-CBs in total PCBs and higher proportions of octa- to deca-BDEs in total PBDEs compared with the insectivorous birds. The various dietary sources, migration behavior, and possible biotransformation were suspected as reasons of the distinct profiles of POPs in different bird species. The δ 15 N values were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds, but not in other passerine bird species, suggesting the influence of trophic levels on bioaccumulation of POPs in resident insectivorous birds. The resident insectivorous birds seem to be promising bio-sentinel of POPs in terrestrial environment around the e-waste sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. What's driving migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  3. Nationality, Migration and Post-Marriage in Legal Systems of Different Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Barzegarkouchaksaraei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inside the eighteenth century a school known as "Unity System of Nationality" specified the hypothesis that ladies should discover the nationality with their spouses after marriage. Also, the nationality of men ought to be authorized on ladies. In any case, in the twentieth century, a development distinguished as women's liberation surfaced which brought about the framing of a school called known as "Arrangement of Nationality Independence". This school upheld the separating of marriage and nationality and accepted that ladies' nationality ought not change following marriage. These legitimate schools experienced distinctive signs in the positive laws and directions of various nations and it is some of the time hard to characterize them into an individual lawful school. The legitimate frameworks of nations can be classified into two groups: lawful frameworks pushing the burden of spouses' nationality on wives; lawful frameworks restricting the inconvenience of husbands' nationality on wives. This paper tries to involve distinctive frameworks of connection amongst marriage and nationality.

  4. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  5. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  6. Southward autumn migration of waterfowl facilitates cross-continental transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration

  7. Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm−2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were Ct = 0.0227e0.0566t (R2 = 0.9154 and Ct = 0.0298e−0.0306t (R2 = 0.7156, and were Ct = 3.8435e0.055t (R2 = 0.9698 and Ct = 1.5627e−0.048t (R2 = 0.9634 for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.

  8. Distribution and migration of 95Zr in a tea plant/soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Guo Jiangfeng

    2006-01-01

    95 Zr is a primary radionuclide in the radioactive liquid efflux from a pressurized water reactor and one of the main radionuclides released after nuclear accidents. The fission yield of 95 Zr is as high as 6.2%, however, its environmental behavior has not been well documented. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the accumulation and distribution of 95 Zr in a tea plant/soil system. 95 Zr was accumulated primarily in the trunk of tea plants after being taken up from the soil. The radioactivity concentration of 95 Zr in the trunk increased slowly with time, then it reached a dynamic equilibrium 14 days after application. The radioactivity concentration of 95 Zr in the other parts of the tea plant was very low; only slighter greater than the detection limit. The results indicated that 95 Zr was not readily translocated in the tea plant. About 98.9% of applied 95 Zr was found to concentrate in the upper 5 cm layer after being sprayed onto the soil surface. The results indicated that 95 Zr could not readily move downwards with percolating water due to strong adsorption to surface soil

  9. Migration from Gasoline to Gaseous Fuel for Small-scale Electricity Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukandar Sukandar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that gives a consideration to change fuel source for electricity generator from gasoline to combustible gas. A gaseous fuel conversion technology is presented and its performance is compared with gasoline. In the experiment, two types of load were tested, resistive and resistive-inductive. By using both fuels mostly the power factor (Cos ? of resistive-inductive load variations were greater than 0.8, and they had slight difference on operational voltage. The drawback of using gaseous fuel is the frequency of the electricity might be up to 10 Hz deviated from the standard frequency (i.e. 50 Hz. In the lab scale experiment, the gasoline consumption increased proportionally with the load increase, while using gaseous fuel the consumption of gas equal for two different load value in the range of 50% maximum load, which is 100 gram per 15 minutes operation. Therefore, the use of gaseous generation system should have average power twice than the required load. The main advantage using gaseous fuel (liquefied petroleum gas or biogas compared to gasoline is a cleaner emitted gas after combustion.

  10. The natural lifespan of a safety policy: violations and system migration in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Maurice, Guillaume; Auroy, Yves; Vincent, Charles; Amalberti, René

    2010-08-01

    Safety rules continue growing rapidly, as if constraining human behaviour was the unique avenue for reaching ultimate safety. Safety rules are essential for a safe system, but their multiplication can have counterproductive effects. To monitor, in an anaesthesia ward, compliance with a process-oriented safety rule, and understand barriers and facilitators which help and hinder physicians from following guidelines. The rule stipulated that the day before surgery anaesthetists had to record in the patient's file the drugs to be used for the anaesthesia (induction, maintenance, airway control). Compliance was assessed before introduction of the rule, immediately after, at 6 months and at 12 months. All medical staff were blinded to the protocol. 717 patient records were included. The results showed an initial compliance with policy, reaching 86% for some items (never 100%). Reduction began within 6 months and returned almost to initial levels within a year. One individual showed poor compliance throughout the study but even initially compliant doctors experienced a reduction. Compliance was higher for complex surgery but lower for unscheduled surgery and when job pressure was greater. Compliance eroded over time. A major trigger of erosion seemed to be lack of continued compliance by a senior member of staff. Rules and procedures constitute fragile safety barriers, and it may be better to forego introducing a new safety rule if it is not considered as a priority by staff and is therefore vulnerable to sacrifice in case of conflict with competitive demands.

  11. Click your way to the right bottle of wine : Birds of a feather ? A new interactive search system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, P.J.; Pasman, G.; De Boo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Dozens of television programmes to choose from,hundreds of colours in the paint shop, hundreds of different kinds of red wine at wine merchants or supermarkets. Were simply spoilt for choice. Making the right choice will become easier with the interactive search system developed by researchers at

  12. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  13. Visual and radar observations of birds in relation to collision risk at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. In 2003 the studies focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging species. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be important for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  14. Differential timing and latitudinal variation in sex ratio of Aquatic Warblers during the autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.

    2017-12-01

    Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.

  15. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  16. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  17. A gene delivery system with a human artificial chromosome vector based on migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards human glioblastoma HTB14 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yusuke; Kamitani, Hideki; Mamun, Mahabub Hasan; Wasita, Brian; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been expected to become useful gene delivery vehicles against human malignant gliomas when coupled with an appropriate vector system, because they migrate towards the lesion. Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are non-integrating vectors with several advantages for gene therapy, namely, no limitations on the size and number of genes that can be inserted. We investigated the migration of human immortalized MSCs bearing a HAC vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HAC-tk-hiMSCs) towards malignant gliomas in vivo. Red fluorescence protein-labeled human glioblastoma HTB14 cells were implanted into a subcortical region in nude mice. Four days later, green fluorescence protein-labeled HAC-tk-hiMSCs were injected into a contralateral subcortical region (the HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injection model). Tropism to the glioma mass and the route of migration were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. HAC-tk-hiMSCs began to migrate toward the HTB14 glioma area via the corpus callosum on day 4, and gathered around the HTB14 glioma mass on day 7. To test whether the delivered gene could effectively treat glioblastoma in vivo, HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injected mice were treated with ganciclovir (GCV) or PBS. The HTB14 glioma mass was significantly reduced by GCV treatment in mice injected with HAC-tk-hiMSCs. It was confirmed that gene delivery by our HAC-hiMSC system was effective after migration of MSCs to the glioma mass in vivo. Therefore, MSCs containing HACs carrying an anticancer gene or genes may provide a new tool for the treatment of malignant gliomas and possibly of other tumor types.

  18. Integration of Sensor and Actuator Networks and the SCADA System to Promote the Migration of the Legacy Flexible Manufacturing System towards the Industry 4.0 Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Calderón Godoy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks of sensors and actuators in automated manufacturing processes are implemented using industrial fieldbuses, where automation units and supervisory systems are also connected to exchange operational information. In the context of the incoming fourth industrial revolution, called Industry 4.0, the management of legacy facilities is a paramount issue to deal with. This paper presents a solution to enhance the connectivity of a legacy Flexible Manufacturing System, which constitutes the first step in the adoption of the Industry 4.0 concept. Such a system includes the fieldbus PROcess FIeld BUS (PROFIBUS around which sensors, actuators, and controllers are interconnected. In order to establish effective communication between the sensors and actuators network and a supervisory system, a hardware and software approach including Ethernet connectivity is implemented. This work is envisioned to contribute to the migration of legacy systems towards the challenging Industry 4.0 framework. The experimental results prove the proper operation of the FMS and the feasibility of the proposal.

  19. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  20. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds. De invloed van de Sep-proefwindcentrale te Oosterbierum (Friesland) op vogels; Deel 4: Verstoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, J E

    1992-01-01

    The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report attention is paid to the disturbance of the bird's biotope. The results show that four species of grassland birds, breeding in the park, were hardly disturbed by the wind turbines. For feeding and resting birds, however, disturbance effects were noted, even at a distance of 500 meters from the outside wind turbine array. The present number of bird species reduced 60-95%, dependent on the species, after the wind park was put into operation. Also the behavior of migrating birds was influenced by the wind park, showed in clustering of groups or avoiding the wind park, sometimes up to 67% of the birds did so. It is therefore recommended not to implement new wind parks in important bird migration and bird feeding or bird resting areas. Bird popular areas, however, are mostly windy areas. 15 figs., 25 tabs., 56 app., 128 refs.

  1. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may...... abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern...... Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring...

  2. Energetic and biomechanical constraints on animal migration distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew M; Hou, Chen; Gillooly, James F

    2012-02-01

    Animal migration is one of the great wonders of nature, but the factors that determine how far migrants travel remain poorly understood. We present a new quantitative model of animal migration and use it to describe the maximum migration distance of walking, swimming and flying migrants. The model combines biomechanics and metabolic scaling to show how maximum migration distance is constrained by body size for each mode of travel. The model also indicates that the number of body lengths travelled by walking and swimming migrants should be approximately invariant of body size. Data from over 200 species of migratory birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates support the central conclusion of the model - that body size drives variation in maximum migration distance among species through its effects on metabolism and the cost of locomotion. The model provides a new tool to enhance general understanding of the ecology and evolution of migration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Conserving migratory land birds in the new world: do we know enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faaborg, John; Holmes, Richard T; Anders, Angela D; Bildstein, Keith L; Dugger, Katie M; Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Heglund, Patricia; Hobson, Keith A; Jahn, Alex E; Johnson, Douglas H; Latta, Steven C; Levey, Douglas J; Marra, Peter P; Merkord, Christopher L; Nol, Erica; Rothstein, Stephen I; Sherry, Thomas W; Sillett, T Scott; Thompson, Frank R; Warnock, Nils

    2010-03-01

    Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across a range of areas, Information deficiencies are even greater during the wintering season, when birds require sites that provide security and food resources needed for survival and developing nutrient reserves for spring migration and, possibly, reproduction. Research is needed on many species simply to identify geographic distributions, wintering sites, habitat use, and basic ecology. Studies are complicated, however, by the mobility of birds and by sexual segregation during winter. Stable-isotope methodology has offered an opportunity to identify linkages between breeding and wintering sites, which facilitates understanding the complete annual cycle of birds. The twice-annual migrations are the poorest-understood events in a bird's life. Migration has always been a risky undertaking, with such anthropogenic features as tall buildings, towers, and wind generators adding to the risk. Species such as woodland specialists migrating through eastern North America have numerous options for pausing during migration to replenish nutrients, but some species depend on limited stopover locations. Research needs for migration include identifying pathways and timetables of migration, quality and distribution of habitats, threats posed by towers and other tall structures, and any bottlenecks for migration. Issues such as human

  4. Active migration is associated with specific and consistent changes to gut microbiota in Calidris shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risely, Alice; Waite, David W; Ujvari, Beata; Hoye, Bethany J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Gut microbes are increasingly recognised for their role in regulating an animal's metabolism and immunity. However, identifying repeatable associations between host physiological processes and their gut microbiota has proved challenging, in part because microbial communities often respond stochastically to host physiological stress (e.g. fasting, forced exercise or infection). Migratory birds provide a valuable system in which to test host-microbe interactions under physiological extremes because these hosts are adapted to predictable metabolic and immunological challenges as they undergo seasonal migrations, including temporary gut atrophy during long-distance flights. These physiological challenges may either temporarily disrupt gut microbial ecosystems, or, alternatively, promote predictable host-microbe associations during migration. To determine the relationship between migration and gut microbiota, we compared gut microbiota composition between migrating and non-migrating ("resident") conspecific shorebirds sharing a flock. We performed this across two sandpiper species, Calidris ferruginea and Calidris ruficollis, in north-western Australia, and an additional C. ruficollis population 3,000 km away in southern Australia. We found that migrants consistently had higher abundances of the bacterial genus Corynebacterium (average 28% abundance) compared to conspecific residents (average gut community variation when excluding Corynebacterium. Our findings suggest a consistent relationship between Corynebacterium and Calidris shorebirds during migration, with further research required to identify causal mechanisms behind the association, and to elucidate functionality to the host. However, outside this specific association, migrating shorebirds broadly maintained gut community structure, which may allow them to quickly recover gut function after a migratory flight. This study provides a rare example of a repeatable and specific response of the gut microbiota to a

  5. Effect of central nervous system radiotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on lymphocyte subpopulations and indicators of leucocyte migration inhibition in the peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarz-Kruz, E.; Lukas, A; Sroczynska, M.; Lukas, W; Sonta-Jakimczyk, D.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigations of changes in lymphocyte subpopulations and indicators of leycocyte migration inhibition in the peripheral blood were carried out in 17 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia subjected to prophylactic irradiation of the central nervous system. It was found that the depressive effect of radioprophylaxis affected mostly lymphocytes B. The usefulness of immunomodulation application in children with this leukaemia immediately after completion of radiotherapy is considered. (author)

  6. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mityay I.S.; Matsyura A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similar...

  7. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Mityay; A. V. Matsyura

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa,...

  8. The Globalisation of migration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...

  9. Advancing migratory bird conservation and management by using radar: An interagency collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Manville, Albert; Green, Michael T.; Krueper, David J.; Johnston, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected or proposed across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  10. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  11. Technology on the Move: Recent and Forthcoming Innovations for Tracking Migratory Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Thorup, Kasper; Bowlin, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    networks, solar geolocation, radar, and information technology are improving our understanding of when and where birds go during their annual cycles and informing numerous scientific disciplines, including evolutionary biology, population ecology, and global change. The recent developments described......Basic questions about the life histories of migratory birds have confounded scientists for generations, yet we are nearing an era of historic discovery as new tracking technologies make it possible to determine the timing and routes of an increasing number of bird migrations. Tracking small flying...

  12. Where the Birds Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaKinster, James; Trautmann, Nancy; Burch, Carol; Watkins, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Species richness, migration, habitats, ecological niches, adaptations: Concepts such as these come alive when students explore and analyze landscapes, environmental characteristics, and related biological features represented on digital maps. Most students are familiar with navigation tools integrated into smartphone apps but may be surprised to…

  13. Flow column experiments on the 152Eu migration in systems of loose sediments and water containing humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Wolf, M.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid transport of 152 in non-binding loose sediments of different grain sizes was investigated using a groundwater of the tertiary lignite of Northern Germany with a high humic acid concentration. The migration experiments were carried out in flow columns at natural filter flow rates and natural flow lengths [de

  14. Confirmation of association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene with systemic sclerosis in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Simeon, C.P.; Beretta, L.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Camps, M.T.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rodriguez-Carballeira, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Hernandez-Hernandez, V.; Saez-Comet, L.; Egurbide, M.V.; Hesselstrand, R.; Nordin, A.; Hoffmann-Vold, A.M.; Vanthuyne, M.; Smith, V.; Langhe, E. De; Kreuter, A.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Hunzelmann, N.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Lunardi, C.; Airo, P.; Scorza, R.; Shiels, P.; Laar, J.M. van; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Rueda, B.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to confirm the implication of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene in SSc susceptibility or clinical phenotypes in a large European population. Methods. A total of 3800 SSc patients and 4282 healthy controls of white Caucasian ancestry from eight

  15. Modeling approach to various time and spatial scale environmental issues in Fukushima. Related to radioactive cesium migration in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamada, Susumu; Machida, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Several numerical models have been prepared to deal with various time- and spatial-scale issues related to radioactive cesium migration in environment in Fukushima area. The SACT (Soil and Cesium Transport) model developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) predicts middle- to long-term evolution of radioactive cesium distribution due to soil erosion, subsequent sediment transport and deposition, and radioactive cesium migration based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The TODAM (Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation and Migration) model, iRIC/Nays2D and the FLESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment, Contaminant Transport) model are one-, two- and three-dimensional river/reservoir/coastal models, respectively. Based on conservation equations of sediment and radioactive cesium, they treat advection and diffusion of suspended sediment and cesium, deposition of sediment to bed, re-suspension from bed and adsorption/desorption of radioactive cesium. These models are suitable for small and short time scale issues such as high discharges of sediment and radioactive cesium from rivers due to heavy rainfall events. This paper describes fragments of the JAEA’s approaches of modeling to deal with the issues corresponding to radioactive cesium migration in environment with some case studies. (author)

  16. Timing of pre-nuptial migration and leap-frog patterns in Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nuptial migration period, in parts of the wintering grounds most distant from the breeding area. Birds breeding at the highest latitudes are the latest to depart on prenuptial migration, and so can take advantage of this surge by extending their ...

  17. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  18. Migration routes and staging areas of Abdim's Storks Ciconia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a satellite tracking study of seven adult Abdim's Storks Ciconia abdimii that were followed from the nesting areas in southern Niger across the equator to the non-breeding range and back. Post-breeding migration started between early November and early December when all birds ...

  19. Migration patterns of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed migration strategies of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the poorly studied Eastern European– East African flyway. Four adult birds were equipped with GPS-based satellite-transmitters or data-loggers in their breeding sites in Estonia (north-eastern Europe) and tracked to their wintering grounds in Africa and ...

  20. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: → Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  1. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe Street, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Van Verst, Scott [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: > Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  2. Nepal’s National Red List of Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Inskipp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the Nepal National Bird Red Data Book were to provide comprehensive and up-to-date accounts of all the bird species found in Nepal, assess their status applying the IUCN Guidelines at Regional Levels, identify threats to all bird species and recommend the most practical measures for their conservation.  It is hoped that the Bird RDB will help Nepal achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity target of preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status.  As population changes of Nepal’s birds have been studied for only a few species, assessments of species’ national status were mainly made by assessing changes in distribution.  Species distribution maps were produced for all of Nepal’s bird species except vagrants and compared to maps that were produced in 1991 using the same mapping system.  Of the 878 bird species recorded, 168 species (19% were assessed as nationally threatened. These comprise 68 (40% Critically Endangered species, 38 (23% Endangered species and 62 (37% Vulnerable species.  A total of 62 species was considered Near Threatened and 22 species Data Deficient.  Over 55% of the threatened birds are lowland grassland specialists, 25% are wetland birds and 24% tropical and sub-tropical broadleaved forest birds.  Larger birds appear to be more threatened than smaller birds with 98 (25% non-passerine species threatened and 67 (14% passerine species.  Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are the most important threats.  Other threats include chemical poisoning, over-exploitation, climate change, hydropower, invasive species, intensification of agriculture, disturbance, and limited conservation measures and research.  Measures to address these threats are described.  It was also concluded that re-assessments of the status of certain bird groups carried out every five years and the setting up of a national online system for storing and reporting

  3. Long-Term Phenological Shifts in Raptor Migration and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffré, Mikaël; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Éric; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellén, Nils; Troost, Gerard; Dubois, Philippe J.; Leprêtre, Alain; Luczak, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010) of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency. PMID:24223888

  4. Long-term phenological shifts in raptor migration and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Jaffré

    Full Text Available Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010 of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

  5. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  9. Anatomical and histological profile of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and localization of melatonin receptor types (Mel 1a and Mel 1b) in the lung-associated immune system of a tropical bird, Perdicula asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Kharwar, Rajesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2011-05-01

    The histological distribution of the lung-associated immune system (LAIS) and the expressional pattern of melatonin receptors are still unknown in birds. The aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT nodule) in a tropical bird, the Indian jungle bush quail, Perdicula asiatica. We also demonstrate the expression of melatonin receptor types (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) in order to propose an immunomodulatory role of melatonin in LAIS. Localization of melatonin receptors in the lung of the Indian jungle bush quail, P. asiatica was supported immunohistochemically and by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies for those receptors. Immunolocalization for Mel(1b) receptor was noted in the bronchial region of the lungs, in finger-like projections of mucosal foldings, in lymphocytes in the BALT nodule as well as in free form. In contrast, immunolocalization for Mel(1a) receptor was noted in various areas of the lung instead of in the bronchial region. Western blot analysis showed a single band at 37 and 39kDa for Mel(1a) and Mel(1b) receptors, respectively, with the latter showing higher expression. The results demonstrate a well-developed LAIS and region-specific distribution of melatonin receptors in the lung and provide evidence for a possible functional role for melatonin in the LAIS of birds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional and Anatomic Correlates of Neural Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Avian species show variation in longevity, habitat, physiologic characteristics, and lifetime endocrine patterns. Lifetime reproductive and metabolic function vary. Much is known about the neurobiology of the song system in many altricial birds. Little is known about aging in neural systems in birds. Captive birds often survive beyond the age they would in the wild, providing an opportunity to gain an understanding of the physiologic and neural changes. This paper reviews the available information with the goal of capturing areas of potential investigation into gaps in our understanding of neural aging as reflected in physiologic, endocrine, and cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Physics-Inspired Mechanistic Model of Migratory Movement Patterns in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Christopher; Somveille, Marius

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we introduce a mechanistic model of migratory movement patterns in birds, inspired by ideas and methods from physics. Previous studies have shed light on the factors influencing bird migration but have mainly relied on statistical correlative analysis of tracking data. Our novel method offers a bottom up explanation of population-level migratory movement patterns. It differs from previous mechanistic models of animal migration and enables predictions of pathways and destinations from a given starting location. We define an environmental potential landscape from environmental data and simulate bird movement within this landscape based on simple decision rules drawn from statistical mechanics. We explore the capacity of the model by qualitatively comparing simulation results to the non-breeding migration patterns of a seabird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris). This minimal, two-parameter model was able to capture remarkably well the previously documented migration patterns of the Black-browed Albatross, with the best combination of parameter values conserved across multiple geographically separate populations. Our physics-inspired mechanistic model could be applied to other bird and highly-mobile species, improving our understanding of the relative importance of various factors driving migration and making predictions that could be useful for conservation.

  12. Youth migration, livelihood prospects and demographic dividend: A comparison of the Census 2011 and Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the rural northeast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A.; White, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Carren; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The 2011 South African national census shows a cohort of young adults comprising an increasing share of the population. This finding is borne out in longitudinal data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). This primarily descriptive paper uses the Agincourt HDSS to examine the migration, employment and unemployment patterns in young adults. The study reveals high levels of temporary labour migration linking rural areas to metropolitan areas and secondary urban places. The type of work conducted by young adults in the Agincourt population is predominantly unskilled labour for both sexes. However, there is some evidence of female employment increasing in more educated sectors. Across all working ages there is pronounced unemployment, but the main pressure is felt by the younger adult population. Education and skills development for both sexes should be strengthened to support the country’s efforts to vastly improve labour force participation amongst the youth. PMID:28663669

  13. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system.Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs. The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species.PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes, one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes. Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen, one Strigiform (barn owl, one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown, one Falconiform (chimango caracara, one Columbiform (pigeon and one Galliform (chick.Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The

  14. Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Susan Savitt (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    Most conservation groups support the development of wind energy in the US as an alternative to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. However, concerns have surfaced over the potential threat to birds, bats, and other wildlife from the construction and operation of wind turbine facilities. Co-sponsored by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop was convened to examine current research on the impacts of wind energy development on avian and bat species and to discuss the most effective ways to mitigate such impacts. On 18-19 May 2004, 82 representatives from government, non-government organizations, private business, and academia met to (1) review the status of the wind industry and current project development practices, including pre-development risk assessment and post-construction monitoring; (2) learn what is known about direct, indirect (habitat), and cumulative impacts on birds and bats from existing wind projects; about relevant aspects of bat and bird migration ecology; about offshore wind development experience in Europe; and about preventing, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts; (3) review wind development guidelines developed by the USFWS and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife; and (4) identify topics needing further research and to discuss what can be done to ensure that research is both credible and accessible. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  15. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  16. Water and contaminant movement: migration barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1984-11-01

    Migration barriers are used in shallow land burial facilities to slow or stop the movement of water and contaminants and are discussed here as a single component embedded in a complex environmental system. Analytical solutions to solute transport equations are used to approximate the behavior of migration barriers and to derive design criteria for control of subsurface water and contaminant migration. Various types of migration barriers are compared and design recommendations are made for shallow land burial trench caps and liners. Needed improvements and suggested field experiments for future designs of migration barriers are then discussed relative to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  17. Impact of Environmental Changes on Migratory Bird Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stöcker-Segre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves.

  18. Investigation on nuclide migration behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Minhoon; Park, Chungkyun; Kim, Seungsoo

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the properties of geochemical reactions and sorption of high-level radionuclides and highly-mobile radionuclides in deep geological disposal environments. We also analyzed the dissolution properties of pyro wastes and constructed databases for the geochemical reactions and sorption for the safety assessment of HLW disposal. Technologies for measuring diffusion depths of radionuclides through fracture surfaces and rock matrix were developed in KURT conditions and their diffusion properties were analyzed and evaluated. The combined reactions of radionuclide/mineral/microbe in deep disposal environments were investigated and the effects of microbe on the radionuclide migration and disposal system behaviors were evaluated. In-situ solute migration system and on-line monitoring system were installed in KURT and the migration and retardation behaviors of various solutes and their interaction with fracture-filling materials were investigated. Basic properties of KURT groundwater colloids were analyzed using various methods. In addition, in-situ colloid migration experiments through a rock fracture were carried out and the developed migration model was verified. We have participated in Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) international joint project in GTS and obtained reliability for our research results by comparing research results each other

  19. Plumage quality mediates a life-history trade-off in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlaszczuk, Patrycja; Kamiński, Maciej; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Minias, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap. The effect of juvenile plumage quality on the occurrence of moult-migration overlap was studied in a migratory shorebird, the common snipe Gallinago gallinago . Ca. 400 of first-year common snipe were captured during their final stage of autumn migration through Central Europe. The quality of juvenile feathers was assessed as the mass-length residuals of retained juvenile rectrices. Condition of migrating birds was assessed with the mass of accumulated fat reserves and whole-blood hemoglobin concentration. Path analysis was used to disentangle complex interrelationships between plumage quality, moult and body condition. Snipe which grew higher-quality feathers in the pre-fledging period were less likely to initiate moult during migration. Individuals moulting during migration had lower fat loads and hemoglobin concentrations compared to non-moulting birds, suggesting a trade-off in resource allocation, where energetic costs of moult reduced both energy reserves available for migration and resources available for maintenance of high oxygen capacity of blood. The results of this study indicate that a major life-history trade-off in a migratory bird may be mediated by the quality of juvenile plumage. This is consistent with a silver spoon effect, where early-life investment in feather quality affects future performance of birds during

  20. An evaluation of regression methods to estimate nutritional condition of canvasbacks and other water birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Barzen, J.A.; Lovvorn, J.R.; Serie, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Regression equations that use mensural data to estimate body condition have been developed for several water birds. These equations often have been based on data that represent different sexes, age classes, or seasons, without being adequately tested for intergroup differences. We used proximate carcass analysis of 538 adult and juvenile canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria ) collected during fall migration, winter, and spring migrations in 1975-76 and 1982-85 to test regression methods for estimating body condition.

  1. FROM KERALA TO THE UAE : EMERGING TRENDS IN A MATURE LABOUR MIGRATION SYSTEM : The development of entrepreneurial initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Venier , Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Kerala had a long tradition of several centuries of international emigration. Nonetheless, since the 70's, the flows have tremendously increased, and West Asia had appeared to be the main destination. Among the Gulf countries, the UAE have become the first host country for the Keralite migrants. Until the end of the 90's, the migration was based on the principle of a temporary expatriation for an expected wealthy return. In other words, migrants used expatriation, with renewable employment co...

  2. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  3. An assessment of gas impact on geological repository. Methodology and material property of gas migration analysis in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Gas production in a geological repository has potential hazard, as overpressurisation and enhanced release of radionuclides. Amongst data needed for assessment of gas impact, gas migration properties of engineered barriers, focused on clayey and cementitious material, was evaluated in this report. Gas injection experiments of saturated bentonite sand mixture, mortar and cement paste were carried out. In the experiments, gas entry phenomenon and gas outflow rate were observed for these materials. Based on the experimental results, two-phase flow parameters were evaluated quantitatively. A conventional continuum two-phase flow model, which is only practically used multidimensional multi-phase flow model, was applied to fit the experimental results. The simulation results have been in good agreement with the gas entry time and the outflow flux of gas and water observed in the experiments. It was confirmed that application of the continuum two-phase flow model to gas migration in cementitious materials provides sufficient degree of accuracy for assessment of repository performance. But, for sand bentonite mixture, further extension of basic two-phase flow model is needed especially for effect of stress field. Furthermore, gas migration property of other barrier materials, including rocks, but long-term gas injection test, clarification of influence of chemicals environment and large-scale gas injection test is needed for multi-barrier assessment tool development and their verification. (author)

  4. The Ethics of Medical Practitioner Migration From Low-Resourced Countries to the Developed World: A Call for Action by Health Systems and Individual Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Charles; Gupta, Tarun Sen; Hays, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Medical migration appears to be an increasing global phenomenon, with complex contributing factors. Although it is acknowledged that such movements are inevitable, given the current globalized economy, the movement of health professionals from their country of training raises questions about equity of access and quality of care. Concerns arise if migration occurs from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to high-income countries (HICs). The actions of HICs receiving medical practitioners from LMICs are examined through the global justice theories of John Rawls and Immanuel Kant. These theories were initially proposed by Pogge (1988) and Tan (1997) and, in this work, are extended to the issue of medical migration. Global justice theories propose that instead of looking at health needs and workforce issues within their national boundaries, HICs should be guided by principles of justice relevant to the needs of health systems on a global scale. Issues of individual justice are also considered within the framework of rights and social responsibilities of individual medical practitioners. Local and international policy changes are suggested based on both global justice theories and the ideals of individual justice.

  5. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  6. Ancient wild reindeer pitfall trapping systems as indicators for former migration patterns and habitat use in the Dovre region, southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Jordhøy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ancient reindeer pitfall trap systems suggests an extensive regional migration of reindeer between seasonal pastures in parts of southern Norway. The migration routes were funnelled by natural barriers across a high, rolling mountain plateau. In the Dovre area, two pitfall trapping systems, totalling at least 1547 individual pitfalls, were identified and measured using a standard procedure and GPS to record location. Migrating reindeer typically cross over valleys between areas of higher ground and reindeer pitfall trap lines are therefore aligned along the valley, individually placed so that their long axis is perpendicular to the direction of the valleys. Pitfall trap systems for moose are also evident in the landscape. In contrast to reindeer, migrating moose mainly follow the line of the valley. Pitfall rows built for moose trapping are therefore placed mainly across the main direction of the valleys, and the individual pitfalls are also larger than those intended for reindeer. Migration and lichen utilization are important factors in reindeer adaption to limited food resources and existence in marginal mountain habitats. The trap systems and their ecological context support the hypothesis of ancient large-scale reindeer migration over the west-east Dovre axis between summer pastures and winter grazing land. This migration has ceased entirely because of increasing traffic on the north-south railway and highway and probably also because of reduced reindeer populations. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Gamle fangstgropsystemer for rein som indikatorer for tidligere trekkmønster og habitatbruk i Dovreregionen, Sør-NorgeUtbredelse av fangstgropsystemer for rein tyder på at det har vært et regionalt trekkmønster mellom ulike sesongbeiter innen deler av Sør-Norge. Trekket har vært styrt av naturlige barrierer over et variert, bølgende fjellandskap. I dovreområdet er to store fangstgropsystemer på totalt minst 1547

  7. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P Puller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 40-year-old female presented to our ED with left upper abdominal pain and flank pain. The pain had begun suddenly 2 hours prior when she was reaching into a freezer to get a bag of frozen vegetables. She described the pain as sharp, constant, severe, and worse with movements and breathing. The pain radiated to the left shoulder. On review of systems, the patient had mild dyspnea and nausea. She denied fever, chills, headache, vision changes, vomiting, or urinary symptoms. Her medical history was notable for obstructive sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease, arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression, obesity, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. For the latter, she had a VP (ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed 14 years prior to this visit. She had a history of 2 shunt revisions, the most recent 30 days before this ED visit. Significant findings: An immediate post-op abdominal x-ray performed after the patient’s VP shunt revision 30 days prior to this ED visit reveals the VP shunt tip in the mid abdomen. A CT of the abdomen performed on the day of the ED visit reveals the VP shunt tip interposed between the spleen and the diaphragm. Discussion: VP shunts have been reported to migrate to varied locations in the thorax and abdomen. Incidence of abdominal complications of VP shunt placement ranges from 10%-30%, and can include pseudocyst formation, migration, peritonitis, CSF ascites, infection, and viscus perforation. Incidence of distal shunt migration is reported as 10%, and most previously reported cases occurred in pediatric patients.1 A recent retrospective review cited BMI greater than thirty and previous shunt procedure as risk factors for distal shunt migration.2 The patient in the case presented had a BMI of 59 and 3 previous shunt procedures.

  8. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  9. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 4 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Ixodes minor * bird migration * bird reservoir host * multilocus sequence analysis * multilocus sequence typing * recombinant genotypes * Southeastern United States Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  10. Bats on a Budget: Torpor-Assisted Migration Saves Time and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P.; Jonasson, Kristin A.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Bats and birds must balance time and energy budgets during migration. Migrating bats face similar physiological challenges to birds, but nocturnality creates special challenges for bats, such as a conflict between travelling and refueling, which many birds avoid by feeding in daylight and flying at night. As endothermic animals, bats and birds alike must expend substantial amounts of energy to maintain high body temperatures. For migratory birds refueling at stopovers, remaining euthermic during inactive periods reduces the net refuelling rate, thereby prolonging stopover duration and delaying subsequent movement. We hypothesized that bats could mitigate similar ambient-temperature dependent costs by using a torpor-assisted migration strategy. We studied silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans during autumn migration using a combination of respirometry and temperature-sensitive radiotelemetry to estimate energy costs incurred under ambient temperature conditions, and the energy that bats saved by using torpor during daytime roosting periods. All bats, regardless of sex, age, or body condition used torpor at stopover and saved up to 91% of the energy they would have expended to remain euthermic. Furthermore, bats modulated use of torpor depending on ambient temperature. By adjusting the time spent torpid, bats achieved a rate of energy expenditure independent of the ambient temperature encountered at stopover. By lowering body temperature during inactive periods, fuel stores are spared, reducing the need for refuelling. Optimal migration models consider trade-offs between time and energy. Heterothermy provides a physiological strategy that allows bats to conserve energy without paying a time penalty as they migrate. Although uncommon, some avian lineages are known to use heterothermy, and current theoretical models of migration may not be appropriate for these groups. We propose that thermoregulatory strategies should be an important consideration of future

  11. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  12. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  13. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  14. Observation of bird interaction with wind turbines : Canadian applications and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [Vision Quest Windelectric Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, to determine the impact of wind turbines on birds. The wind farm includes a total of 60 turbines. The study consisted of 30 observation days between March and December 2001 during which time nearly 2000 birds were monitored. These included 27 different species, including 181 raptors, 1021 waterfowl, and 821 passerines. The observations focused on spring and fall migration of birds. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. In total, 4 dead birds were found over the 9 month period, which translates to 0.15 birds per turbine per year. This study demonstrates that there are few bird fatalities associated with wind turbines, therefore it was concluded that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. The results of this study are consistent with international studies. 2 figs.

  15. Shades of green: A bird's eye view of wind energy; L'energie eolienne et son impact sur les oiseaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, B.; Kingsley, A.

    2003-03-31

    The issue of birds being killed by wind turbines is discussed. The substance of the argument is that contrary to beliefs held primarily by those opposed to wind turbine developments, when correctly sited, wind turbines appear to have relatively little impact on birds. Historically, 'bird-kill' was a significant factor in the 1980s when a significant number of raptors were killed by wind turbines and their associated power lines in California, Tennessee, Spain and the Netherlands, where many turbines were located on major bird migration routes. Based on experiences learned from these occurrences, several countries have produced bird-focused guidelines for the siting of wind turbines. In Canada, Bird Studies Canada was recently contracted by Environment Canada to produce guidelines for the environmental assessment of wind turbine projects related to birds. The objective of the guidelines is to help prevent adverse impacts on birds, whether the impact is related to habitat disturbance or collision. Based on American studies, it is estimated that 2.19 birds are killed annually at each wind turbine in California; the estimated fatality rate elsewhere in the United States is 1.83. That works out to 33,000 dead birds (based on 15,000 wind turbines), a large number, but relatively small when compared with the millions of birds that travel over windfarms each year, or when compared to the many millions of birds that die annually due to collisions with transmission lines, vehicles, buildings and communication towers. Nevertheless, there is room for concern. Bird Studies Canada is particularly concerned about the growing offshore wind industry and its potential to disrupt songbird migration, waterfowl staging areas and the prey base of seabirds. In general, Bird Studies Canada advises against siting large wind facilities in areas heavily travelled by birds, and is firmly opposed to placing wind turbines in areas known to provide critical habitat for Species At Risk

  16. A REVIEW OF HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN ISSUES OBSERVED DURING ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL AND DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL MIGRATIONS IN U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.

    2017-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is developing a scientific basis through targeted research and development (R&D) to support the U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet in extending their existing licensing period and ensuring their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. Over the last several years, human factors engineering (HFE) professionals at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have supported the LWRS Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway across several U.S. commercial NPPs in analog-to-digital migrations (i.e., turbine control systems) and digital-to-digital migrations (i.e., Safety Parameter Display System). These efforts have included in-depth human factors evaluation of proposed human-system interface (HSI) design concepts against established U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) design guidelines from NUREG-0700, Rev 2 to inform subsequent HSI design prior to transitioning into Verification and Validation. This paper discusses some of the overarching design issues observed from these past HFE evaluations. In addition, this work presents some observed challenges such as common tradeoffs utilities are likely to face when introducing new HSI technologies into NPP hybrid control rooms. The primary purpose of this work is to distill these observed design issues into general HSI design guidance that industry can use in early stages of HSI design.

  17. From migration to settlement: the pathways, migration modes and dynamics of neurons in the developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    HATANAKA, Yumiko; ZHU, Yan; TORIGOE, Makio; KITA, Yoshiaki; MURAKAMI, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal migration is crucial for the construction of the nervous system. To reach their correct destination, migrating neurons choose pathways using physical substrates and chemical cues of either diffusible or non-diffusible nature. Migrating neurons extend a leading and a trailing process. The leading process, which extends in the direction of migration, determines navigation, in particular when a neuron changes its direction of migration. While most neurons simply migrate radially, certain neurons switch their mode of migration between radial and tangential, with the latter allowing migration to destinations far from the neurons’ site of generation. Consequently, neurons with distinct origins are intermingled, which results in intricate neuronal architectures and connectivities and provides an important basis for higher brain function. The trailing process, in contrast, contributes to the late stage of development by turning into the axon, thus contributing to the formation of neuronal circuits. PMID:26755396

  18. Hydrogen migration dynamics in hydrated Al clusters: The Al{sub 17}{sup (−)}·H{sub 2}O system as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Flores, J. R., E-mail: flores@uvigo.es [Facultad de Química, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310-Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2014-02-28

    The Al{sub m}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n} systems are known to undergo water splitting processes in the gas phase giving H{sub k}Al{sub m}(OH){sub k}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O){sub n−k} systems, which can generate H{sub 2}. The migration of H atoms from one Al atom to another on the cluster's surface is of critical importance to the mechanism of the complete H{sub 2} production process. We have applied a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory including tunneling effects to study the gas-phase evolution of HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, which can be considered a model system. First, we have performed an extensive search for local minima and the connecting saddle points using a density functional theory method. It is found that in the water-splitting process Al{sub 17}{sup (−)}·(H{sub 2}O) → HAl{sub 17}(OH){sup (−)}, the H atom which bonds to the Al cluster losses rather quickly its excess energy, which is easily “absorbed” by the cluster because of its flexibility. This fact ultimately determines that long-range hydrogen migration is not a very fast process and that, probably, tunneling only plays a secondary role in the migration dynamics, at least for moderate energies. Reduction of the total energy results in the process being very much slowed down. The consequences on the possible mechanisms of H{sub 2} generation from the interaction of Al clusters and water molecules are discussed.

  19. Water requirements and drinking rates of homing pigeons: A consideration for exposure risk of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-09-01

    Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to know not only the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from the present study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated, and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:870-876. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. How specialised is bird pollination in the Cactaceae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiague, P; Ortega-Baes, P

    2016-01-01

    Many cactus species produce 'bird' flowers; however, the reproductive biology of the majority of these species has not been studied. Here, we report on a study of the pollination of two species from the Cleistocactus genus, cited as an ornithophilous genus, in the context of the different ways in which they are specialised to bird pollination. In addition, we re-evaluate the level of specialisation of previous studies of cacti with bird pollination and evaluate how common phenotypic specialisation to birds is in this family. Both Cleistocactus species exhibited ornithophilous floral traits. Cleistocactus baumannii was pollinated by hummingbirds, whereas Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus was pollinated by hummingbirds and bees. Pollination by birds has been recorded in 27 cactus species, many of which exhibit ornithophilous traits; however, they show generalised pollination systems with bees, bats or moths in addition to birds being their floral visitors. Of all cactus species, 27% have reddish flowers. This trait is associated with diurnal anthesis and a tubular shape. Phenotypic specialisation to bird pollination is recognised in many cactus species; however, it is not predictive of functional and ecological specialisation in this family. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.