WorldWideScience

Sample records for bird migration related

  1. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...

  2. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  3. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  4. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-07-01

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.

  5. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  6. Light pollution is greatest within migration passage areas for nocturnally-migrating birds around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-19

    Excessive or misdirected artificial light at night (ALAN) produces light pollution that influences several aspects of the biology and ecology of birds, including disruption of circadian rhythms and disorientation during flight. Many migrating birds traverse large expanses of land twice every year at night when ALAN illuminates the sky. Considering the extensive and increasing encroachment of light pollution around the world, we evaluated the association of the annual mean ALAN intensity over land within the geographic ranges of 298 nocturnally migrating bird species with five factors: phase of annual cycle, mean distance between breeding and non-breeding ranges, range size, global hemisphere of range, and IUCN category of conservation concern. Light pollution within geographic ranges was relatively greater during the migration season, for shorter-distance migrants, for species with smaller ranges, and for species in the western hemisphere. Our results suggest that migratory birds may be subject to the effects of light pollution particularly during migration, the most critical stage in their annual cycle. We hope these results will spur further research on how light pollution affects not only migrating birds, but also other highly mobile animals throughout their annual cycle.

  7. Avian Alert - a bird migration early warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in

  8. Avian Alert - a bird migration early warning system

    OpenAIRE

    van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.

    2008-01-01

    Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in information on bird movements. Collecting and disseminating useful information about such mobile creatures exhibiting diverse behaviour is no simple task. However, ESA’s Integrated Application Promo...

  9. Bird migration patterns in the arid southwest-Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Felix, Rodney K.; Dieh, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    habitat types at all sites in at least one season. Upland forest habitat in parts of Arizona and New Mexico supported high migrant densities, especially in fall. Developed habitats in areas with little upland forest habitat also supported high migrant densities. Scrub/shrub and grassland habitats supported low to intermediate migrant densities, but because these habitat types dominate the region, they may support large numbers of migratory birds. This may be especially true for species that do not use forested habitats during migration. Target identity remains a challenge for radar-based studies. Presence of bats in the data complicates interpretation of some observations, particularly from central Texas. Based on our results it is simplistic to: (1) consider the arid west as a largely inhospitable landscape in which there are only relatively small oases of habitat that provide the resources needed by all migrants; (2) think of western riparian and upland forest habitat as supporting the majority of migrants in all cases; or (3) consider a particular habitat type unimportant migrant stopover habitat based solely on migrant densities.

  10. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  12. Modeling Bird Migration under Climate Change: A Mechanistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2009-01-01

    How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this

  13. Extracting bird migration information from C-band Doppler weather radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.

    2008-01-01

    Although radar has been used in studies of bird migration for 60 years, there is still no network in Europe for comprehensive monitoring of bird migration. Europe has a dense network of military air surveillance radars but most systems are not directly suitable for reliable bird monitoring. Since

  14. Emergence of long distance bird migrations: a new model integrating global climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine

    2008-12-01

    During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the ‘shifting home’ model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not ‘northern’ or ‘southern’ but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.

  15. Understanding soaring bird migration through interactions and decisions at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Davis, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Many soaring bird species migrate southwards in autumn from their breeding grounds in Europe and Central Asia towards their wintering grounds. Our knowledge about interactions between migrating birds, thermal selection during migration and mechanisms that lead to flocking or convergent travel

  16. Circadian flight schedules in night-migrating birds caught on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppack, Timothy; Becker, Simon F; Becker, Philipp J J

    2008-12-23

    Many species of migratory birds migrate in a series of solitary nocturnal flights. Between flights, they stop to rest and refuel for the next segment of their journey. The mechanism controlling this behaviour has long remained elusive. Here, we show that wild-caught migratory redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) are consistent in their flight scheduling. An advanced videographic system enabled us to determine the precise timing of flight activity in redstarts caught at a northern European stopover site during their return trip from Africa. Birds were held captive for three days in the absence of photoperiodic cues (constant dim light) and under permanent food availability. Despite the absence of external temporal cues, birds showed clear bimodal activity patterns: intense nocturnal activity alternating with diurnal foraging and resting periods. The onset of their migratory activity coincided with the time of local sunset and was individually consistent on consecutive nights. The data demonstrate that night-migrating birds are driven by autonomous circadian clocks entrained by sunset cues. This timekeeping system is probably the key factor in the overall control of nocturnal songbird migration.

  17. Altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness and density in relation to climate, habitat heterogeneity, and migration influence in a temperate montane forest (South Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Lee, Sanghun; Shin, Man-Seok; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Seo, Changwan; Eo, Soo Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns in the population ecology of mountain bird species are useful for predicting species occurrence and behavior. Numerous hypotheses about the complex interactions among environmental factors have been proposed; however, these still remain controversial. This study aimed to identify the altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness or density and to test the hypotheses that climate, habitat heterogeneity (horizontal and vertical), and heterospecific attraction in a temperate forest, South Korea. We conducted a field survey of 142 plots at altitudes between 200 and 1,400 m a.s.l in the breeding season. A total of 2,771 individuals from 53 breeding bird species were recorded. Altitudinal patterns of species richness and density showed a hump-shaped pattern, indicating that the highest richness and density could be observed at moderate altitudes. Models constructed with 13 combinations of six variables demonstrated that species richness was positively correlated with vertical and horizontal habitat heterogeneity. Density was positively correlated with vertical, but not horizontal habitat heterogeneity, and negatively correlated with migratory bird ratio. No significant relationships were found between spring temperature and species richness or density. Therefore, the observed patterns in species richness support the hypothesis that habitat heterogeneity, rather than climate, is the main driver of species richness. Also, neither habitat heterogeneity nor climate hypotheses fully explains the observed patterns in density. However, vertical habitat heterogeneity does likely help explain observed patterns in density. The heterospecific attraction hypothesis did not apply to the distribution of birds along the altitudinal gradient. Appropriate management of vertical habitat heterogeneity, such as vegetation cover, should be maintained for the conservation of bird diversity in this area.

  18. Arthropods and associated arthropod-borne diseases transmitted by migrating birds. The case of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva

    2015-09-30

    Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is there a connection between weather at departure sites, onset of migration and timing of soaring-bird autumn migration in Israel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.; Alon, D.; Alpert, P.; Yom-Tov, Y.; Leshem, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Aims Different aspects of soaring-bird migration are influenced by weather. However, the relationship between weather and the onset of soaring-bird migration, particularly in autumn, is not clear. Although long-term migration counts are often unavailable near the breeding areas of many soaring birds

  20. Analysis of genomic data as an approach to understanding migration in song birds

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, John

    2015-01-01

    Many species of birds migrate every year thousands of kilometers, relying on sight, memory, magnetic sensors and instincts to find their way across continents. Many juvenile birds travel complicated migration routes without the guidance of more experienced adults. To successfully accomplish this they need instincts that utilizes multiple navigational senses together with a time dependent schedule. Little is known of the genetics behind migration behavior and which cellular processes are invol...

  1. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...

  2. The natural link between Europe and Africa - 2.1 billion birds on migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Bauer, S.; Liechti, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Palaearctic–African migration system comprises enormous numbers of birds travelling between Europe and Africa twice each year. Migratory birds may form strong links between the two continents given they can act as both transport vehicles for parasites and diseases as well as temporary consumers

  3. How birds weather the weather: avian migration in the mid-latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, M.U.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of many bird species involves the twice-annual movement between a breeding ground and a wintering ground that we refer to as `migration'. To complete these journeys, birds must successfully navigate many obstacles including a dynamic atmosphere. To make optimal use of this

  4. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, J.D.; Buler, J.J.; Schreckengost, T.; Smolinsky, J.A.; Boone, M.; van Loon, E.E.; Dawson, D.K.; Walters, E.L.

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne

  5. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Perdeck, A.C.; van Balen, J.H.; Both, C.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  6. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  7. The role of the antioxidant system during intense endurance exercise: lessons from migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Mullin, Clara; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration. Here, we use bird migration as an example to discuss how RS are produced during endurance exercise and how the complex antioxidant system can protect against cellular damage caused by RS. Understanding how a bird's antioxidant system responds during migration can lend insights into how antioxidants protect birds during other life-history stages when metabolic rate may be high, and how antioxidants protect other vertebrates from oxidative damage during endurance exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Why do some, but not all, tropical birds migrate? A comparative study of diet breadth and fruit preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, W.A.; Conway, C.J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    Annual migrations of birds profoundly influence terrestrial communities. However, few empirical studies examine why birds migrate, in part due to the difficulty of testing causal hypotheses in long-distance migration systems. Short-distance altitudinal migrations provide relatively tractable systems in which to test explanations for migration. Many past studies explain tropical altitudinal migration as a response to spatial and temporal variation in fruit availability. Yet this hypothesis fails to explain why some coexisting, closely-related frugivorous birds remain resident year-round. We take a mechanistic approach by proposing and evaluating two hypotheses (one based on competitive exclusion and the other based on differences in dietary specialization) to explain why some, but not all, tropical frugivores migrate. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing diets, fruit preferences, and the relationships between diet and preference in closely-related pairs of migrant and resident species. Fecal samples and experimental choice trials revealed that sympatric migrants and residents differed in both their diets and fruit preferences. Migrants consumed a greater diversity of fruits and fewer arthropods than did their resident counterparts. Migrants also tended to have slightly stronger fruit preferences than residents. Most critically, diets of migrants more closely matched their preferences than did the diets of residents. These results suggest that migrants may be competitively superior foragers for fruit compared to residents (rather than vice versa), implying that current competitive interactions are unlikely to explain variation in migratory behavior among coexisting frugivores. We found some support for the dietary specialization hypothesis, propose refinements to the mechanism underlying this hypothesis, and discuss how dietary specialization might ultimately reflect past interspecific competition. We recommend that future studies quantify variation

  9. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.

  10. Co-fluctuation among bird species in their migration timing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-164 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migratory birds * phenology * spring arrival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/159-164.pdf

  11. Can variation in risk of nest predation explain altitudinal migration in tropical birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, W Alice

    2008-03-01

    Migration is among the best studied of animal behaviors, yet few empirical studies have tested hypotheses explaining the ultimate causes of these cyclical annual movements. Fretwell's (1980) hypothesis predicts that if nest predation explains why many tropical birds migrate uphill to breed, then predation risk must be negatively associated with elevation. Data from 385 artificial nests spanning 2,740 m of elevation on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica show an overall decline in predation with increasing elevation. However, nest predation risk was highest at intermediate elevations (500-650 m), not at lowest elevations. The proportion of nests depredated by different types of predators differed among elevations. These results imply that over half of the altitudinal migrant bird species in this region migrate to safer breeding areas than their non-breeding areas, suggesting that variation in nest predation risk could be an important benefit of uphill migrations of many species.

  12. Stop early to travel fast: modelling risk-averse scheduling among nocturnally migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, J.D.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.

    2013-01-01

    Many migrating birds divide their journeys into nocturnal flights interspersed by stopovers where they build up energy reserves (fuel) for subsequent flights. Given the difficulty in monitoring fuel loads of individual migrants over long distances, theoretical models are often used to interpret

  13. The paradox of Spoonbill migration : Most birds travel to where survival rates are lowest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-01

    Migrant birds face a choice where to spend the winter. Presumably there is a trade-off between migration distance (costs) and the quality of the wintering site (benefits). Wintering site fidelity is often high and increases with age. Hypotheses to explain such a pattern assume that wintering site

  14. Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.

  15. Local temperature fine-tunes the timing of spring migration in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P.; Rainio, Kalle; Coppack, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory birds. In order to better understand migration phenology and adaptation in environmental changes, we here assess the scale at which weather affects timing of spring migration in passerine birds. We use three commonly used proxies of spring......-time climatic conditions: (1) vegetation "greenness" (NDVI) in Europe, (2) local spring temperatures in northern Europe, and (3) the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) as predictors of the phenology of avian migration as well as the strength of their effect on different subsets of populations...... breeding area. Local temperature was the best single predictor of phenology with the highest explanatory power achieved in combination with NAO. Furthermore, early individuals are more affected by climatic variation compared to individuals on later passage, indicating that climatic change affects subsets...

  16. Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Si

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.

  17. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  19. Spring Flyways of Migrating Soaring Birds in Akkar/Northern Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan Jaradi, Gh.; Ramadan Jaradi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Beale and Ramadan Jaradi initiated in 2001 the first large scale survey in Lebanon to trace the main routes of migrating raptors and other soaring birds, aiming at contributing to the conservation of flyways and stopover sites through the identification of areas where protection is most needed. Nowadays, the study of the flyways and stopover sites at micro level becomes necessary following the development of the national wind atlas map that will assist among others in locating potential wind farms which on their turn may influence the migratory birds flyways, especially that the wind farms use winds for their function and the soaring birds use wind for their transportation. The present work starts from where the work of Beale and Ramadan-Jaradi ended but in an attempt toprovide policy makers, scientists and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with wind farms impacts and to prevent collisions of birds with blades of wind urbines. The study is meant to be conducted during spring and autumn passage ofbirds. This paper concerns the spring migration as at the time of writing it the autumn migration didn't start yet. The present spring season study revealed among others that the migratory soaring birds that may use the wind ridge lifts for their soaring travel in windy areas are more influenced by two other main factors:1) presence of depressions perpendicular to mountains ridgesand 2) abundance of the thermals in these depressions, a matter that naturally reduce the impact of wind turbines by attracting the birds away from their blade. (author)

  20. Habitat associations of migrating and overwintering grassland birds in Southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Bart M.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the habitat associations of 21 species of grassland birds overwintering in or migrating through southern Texas, during 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Ninety percent of our grassland bird observations were made during winter and spring, and only 10% occurred during fall. Grassland species made up a high proportion of the total bird densities in grassland and shrub-grassland habitats, but much lower proportions in the habitats with more woody vegetation. Fewer grassland species were observed in grassland and woodland than in brushland, parkland, and shrub-grassland habitats. Grassland birds generally were found in higher densities in habitats that had woody canopy coverage of < 30%; densities of grassland birds were highest in shrub-grassland habitat and lowest in woodland habitat. Species that are grassland specialists on their breeding grounds tended to be more habitat specific during the nonbreeding season compared to shrub-grassland specialists, which were more general in their nonbreeding-habitat usage. Nonetheless, our data demonstrate that grassland birds occur in a variety of habitats during the nonbreeding season and seem to occupy a broader range of habitats than previously described.

  1. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong......A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...

  2. Influenza a virus migration and persistence in North American wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Bahl

    Full Text Available Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  3. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  4. Migration in Asia-Europe Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2010-01-01

    There is a remarkable difference between viewing migration as a 'social integration' issue, on the one hand, and migration as a 'social relation'. The idea of ‘social integration’ has unrealistic assumptions that see migration as a one-way process, that societies and human relations are static......, and that migrants are mechanical. Policies that are founded on unrealistic assumptions are most likely to generate tensions, conflicts, and contradictions. For a migration process to succeed in forging social harmony and development, it is therefore of decisive and crucial importance to regard migration...... as a ‘social relation’. This is simply because successful migration has to be a harmonious synergy between the migrants (and also the sending countries where they come from) and the receiving society (and its people). As indicated, migrants enter into the receiving society not merely as a passive commodity...

  5. Impact of climate change effecting Decline on Migration Birds of Bhadalwadi Lake Indapur Taluka M.S India

    OpenAIRE

    U.S .Gantaloo; Sangeeta B Dongare

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes are now a day’s happening regularly day to day increase in temperature ,Scarcity of rainfall ,Drying of lakes have strong implication on Biodiversity .) .Global warming has set in motion and is affecting the timing of migration of birds .Birds are reliable indicator of environment change for centuries and their arrival indicate start of winter and departure summer in study area .There are many example of the effect of climate change on birds from all around t...

  6. Avian influenza H5N1 viral and bird migration networks in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaivu; Zhou, Sen; Dong, Lu; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Cui, Yujun; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiao, Xiangming; Wu, Yarong; Cazelles, Bernard; Huang, Shanqian; Yang, Ruifu; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The spatial spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and its long-term persistence in Asia have resulted in avian influenza panzootics and enormous economic losses in the poultry sector. However, an understanding of the regional long-distance transmission and seasonal patterns of the virus is still lacking. In this study, we present a phylogeographic approach to reconstruct the viral migration network. We show that within each wild fowl migratory flyway, the timing of H5N1 outbreaks and viral migrations are closely associated, but little viral transmission was observed between the flyways. The bird migration network is shown to better reflect the observed viral gene sequence data than other networks and contributes to seasonal H5N1 epidemics in local regions and its large-scale transmission along flyways. These findings have potentially far-reaching consequences, improving our understanding of how bird migration drives the periodic reemergence of H5N1 in Asia.

  7. Obese super athletes: fat-fueled migration in birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2018-03-07

    Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified. Migratory bats have high aerobic capacity and fatty acid oxidation potential; however, endurance flight fueled by adipose-stored fat has not been demonstrated. Patterns of fattening and expression of muscle fatty acid transporters are inconsistent, and bats may partially fuel migratory flight with ingested nutrients. Changes in energy intake, digestive capacity, liver lipid metabolism and body temperature regulation may contribute to migratory fattening. Although control of appetite is similar in birds and mammals, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal changes in fuel store set-points in migrants remain poorly understood. Triacylglycerol of birds and bats contains mostly 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids with variable amounts of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 depending on diet. Unsaturation of fat converges near 70% during migration, and unsaturated fatty acids are preferentially mobilized and oxidized, making them good fuel. Twenty and 22 carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may affect membrane function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. However, evidence for dietary PUFA as doping agents in migratory birds is equivocal and requires further study. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Thermal impact of migrating birds' wing color on their flight performance: Possibility of new generation of biologically inspired drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Abdelmoula, H; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2017-05-01

    The thermal impact of the birds' color on their flight performance are investigated. In most of the large migrating birds, the top of their wings is black. Considering this natural phenomenon in the migrating birds, such as albatross, a thermal analysis of the boundary layer of their wings is performed during the year depending on the solar insulation. It is shown that the temperature difference between the bright and dark colored top wing surface is around 10°C. The dark color on the top of the wing increases the temperature of the boundary layer over the wing which consequently reduces the skin drag force over the wing. This reduction in the drag force can be considered as one of the effective factors for long endurance of these migrating birds. This research should lead to improved designs of the drones by applying the inspired colors which can help drones increase their endurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual and radar observations of birds in relation to collision risk at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. In 2003 the studies focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging species. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be important for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  10. Bird Migration Under Climate Change - A Mechanistic Approach Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Blattner, Tim; Messmer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The broad-scale reductions and shifts that may be expected under climate change in the availability and quality of stopover habitat for long-distance migrants is an area of increasing concern for conservation biologists. Researchers generally have taken two broad approaches to the modeling of migration behaviour to understand the impact of these changes on migratory bird populations. These include models based on causal processes and their response to environmental stimulation, "mechanistic models", or models that primarily are based on observed animal distribution patterns and the correlation of these patterns with environmental variables, i.e. "data driven" models. Investigators have applied the latter technique to forecast changes in migration patterns with changes in the environment, for example, as might be expected under climate change, by forecasting how the underlying environmental data layers upon which the relationships are built will change over time. The learned geostatstical correlations are then applied to the modified data layers.. However, this is problematic. Even if the projections of how the underlying data layers will change are correct, it is not evident that the statistical relationships will remain the same, i.e. that the animal organism may not adapt its' behaviour to the changing conditions. Mechanistic models that explicitly take into account the physical, biological, and behaviour responses of an organism as well as the underlying changes in the landscape offer an alternative to address these shortcomings. The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies enable the application of the mechanistic models to predict how continental bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier work, we simulated the impact of effects of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of

  11. Migrating birds and carnivores introduce ticks and tick borne pathogens to Denmark – but are they also a public health risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Vrbová, Erika; Højgaard, Jesper

    Since the end of the ice age, spring migrating birds from Africa and Europe and autumn migrating birds from Northern Scandinavia have entered Denmark, and recently a small wave of long migrating carnivores have started arriving in Denmark from Central Europe. Theoretically, migrating birds could...... introduce new tick species as well as tick-associated pathogens to Denmark. These migrating animals may also carry ticks and pathogens which already exist in native tick populations in Denmark. The potential supplement of native ticks and existing pathogens to the established high density tick populations...... in Danish forest and nature areas can be expected to be of little practical importance. However, some of the infected ticks, introduced by migrating birds, may be deposited in private gardens and public parks that are otherwise not able to sustain a viable tick population. Migrating birds may therefore...

  12. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  13. Prediction and Migration of Surface-related Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.; Huang, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related resonant multiples can be migrated to achieve better resolution than migrating primary reflections. We now derive the formula for migrating surface-related resonant multiples, and show its super-resolution characteristics. Moreover

  14. Challenging a 15-year-old claim: The North Atlantic Oscillation index as a predictor of spring migration phenology of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haest, Birgen; Hüppop, Ommo; Bairlein, Franz

    2018-04-01

    Many migrant bird species that breed in the Northern Hemisphere show advancement in spring arrival dates. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is one of the climatic variables that have been most often investigated and shown to be correlated with these changes in spring arrival. Although the NAO is often claimed to be a good predictor or even to have a marked effect on interannual changes in spring migration phenology of Northern Hemisphere breeding birds, the results on relations between spring migration phenology and NAO show a large variety, ranging from no, over weak, to a strong association. Several factors, such as geographic location, migration phase, and the NAO index time window, have been suggested to partly explain these observed differences in association. A combination of a literature meta-analysis, and a meta-analysis and sliding time window analysis of a dataset of 23 short- and long-distance migrants from the constant-effort trapping garden at Helgoland, Germany, however, paints a completely different picture. We found a statistically significant overall effect size of the NAO on spring migration phenology (coefficient = -0.14, SE = 0.054), but this on average only explains 0%-6% of the variance in spring migration phenology across all species. As such, the value and biological meaning of the NAO as a general predictor or explanatory variable for climate change effects on migration phenology of birds, seems highly questionable. We found little to no definite support for previously suggested factors, such as geographic location, migration phenology phase, or the NAO time window, to explain the heterogeneity in correlation differences. We, however, did find compelling evidence that the lack of accounting for trends in both time series has led to strongly inflated (spurious) correlations in many studies (coefficient = -0.13, SE = 0.019). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Data Migration between Document-Oriented and Relational Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Walek; Cyril Klimes

    2012-01-01

    Current tools for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases have several disadvantages. We propose a new approach for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases. During data migration the relational schema of the target (relational database) is automatically created from collection of XML documents. Proposed approach is verified on data migration between document-oriented database IBM Lotus/ Notes Domino and relational database...

  16. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  17. Emerging practices of wind farm planning in a dense bird migration area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present part of The Wind Atlas for Egypt project aiming at developing a firm basis for planning and utilization of the vast wind energy resources available in Egypt. The project should recommend a common planning framework for wind farm development in Egypt...... is briefly introduced. As a case study to illustrate the planning process a 60 MW wind farm located at the Gulf of El-Zayt at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt will be analysed. This area is chosen for its very high wind energy potential and the high concentration of migrating birds during spring and autumn. During...... the site selection and layout of a wind farm the balancing of interests and land use will be described....

  18. New software methods in radar ornithology using WSR-88D weather data and potential application to monitoring effects of climate change on bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Reginald; Paxton, John; Sojda, Richard S.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Radar ornithology has provided tools for studying the movement of birds, especially related to migration. Researchers have presented qualitative evidence suggesting that birds, or at least migration events, can be identified using large broad scale radars such as the WSR-88D used in the NEXRAD weather surveillance system. This is potentially a boon for ornithologists because such data cover a large portion of the United States, are constantly being produced, are freely available, and have been archived since the early 1990s. A major obstacle to this research, however, has been that identifying birds in NEXRAD data has required a trained technician to manually inspect a graphically rendered radar sweep. A single site completes one volume scan every five to ten minutes, producing over 52,000 volume scans in one year. This is an immense amount of data, and manual classification is infeasible. We have developed a system that identifies biological echoes using machine learning techniques. This approach begins with training data using scans that have been classified by experts, or uses bird data collected in the field. The data are preprocessed to ensure quality and to emphasize relevant features. A classifier is then trained using this data and cross validation is used to measure performance. We compared neural networks, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Empirical evidence is provided showing that this system can achieve classification accuracies in the 80th to 90th percentile. We propose to apply these methods to studying bird migration phenology and how it is affected by climate variability and change over multiple temporal scales.

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, C.lari and C.coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldenstrom, J.; Broman, T.; Carlsson, I.; Hasselquist, D.; Achterberg, R.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Olsen, B.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based

  20. Bird migration and avian influenza: a comparison of hydrogen stable isotopes and satellite tracking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Yamage, Mat; Haque, Enam Ul; Islam, Mohammad Anwarul; Mundkur, Taej; Yavuz, Kiraz Erciyas; Leader, Paul; Leung, Connie Y.H.; Smith, Bena; Spragens, Kyle A.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Saif, Samia; Mohsanin, Samiul; Mikolon, Andrea; Islam, Ausrafal; George, Acty; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based tracking of migratory waterfowl is an important tool for understanding the potential role of wild birds in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However, employing this technique on a continental scale is prohibitively expensive. This study explores the utility of stable isotope ratios in feathers in examining both the distances traveled by migratory birds and variation in migration behavior. We compared the satellite-derived movement data of 22 ducks from 8 species captured at wintering areas in Bangladesh, Turkey, and Hong Kong with deuterium ratios (δD) in the feathers of these and other individuals captured at the same locations. We derived likely molting locations from the satellite tracking data and generated expected isotope ratios based on an interpolated map of δD in rainwater. Although δD was correlated with the distance between wintering and molting locations, surprisingly, measured δD values were not correlated with either expected values or latitudes of molting sites. However, population-level parameters derived from the satellite-tracking data, such as mean distance between wintering and molting locations and variation in migration distance, were reflected by means and variation of the stable isotope values. Our findings call into question the relevance of the rainfall isotope map for Asia for linking feather isotopes to molting locations, and underscore the need for extensive ground truthing in the form of feather-based isoscapes. Nevertheless, stable isotopes from feathers could inform disease models by characterizing the degree to which regional breeding populations interact at common wintering locations. Feather isotopes also could aid in surveying wintering locations to determine where high-resolution tracking techniques (e.g. satellite tracking) could most effectively be employed. Moreover, intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes offer the only means of inferring movement information from

  1. Birds of Two Oceans? Trans-Andean and Divergent Migration of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) from the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa C; Goodenough, Katharine S; Haugaasen, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal flooding compels some birds that breed in aquatic habitats in Amazonia to undertake annual migrations, yet we know little about how the complex landscape of the Amazon region is used seasonally by these species. The possibility of trans-Andes migration for Amazonian breeding birds has largely been discounted given the high geographic barrier posed by the Andean Cordillera and the desert habitat along much of the Pacific Coast. Here we demonstrate a trans-Andes route for Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) breeding on the Manu River (in the lowlands of Manu National Park, Perú), as well as divergent movement patterns both regionally and across the continent. Of eight skimmers tracked with satellite telemetry, three provided data on their outbound migrations, with two crossing the high Peruvian Andes to the Pacific. A third traveled over 1800 km to the southeast before transmissions ended in eastern Paraguay. One of the two trans-Andean migrants demonstrated a full round-trip migration back to its tagging location after traveling down the Pacific Coast from latitude 9° South to latitude 37° S, spending the austral summer in the Gulf of Arauco, Chile. This is the first documentation of a trans-Andes migration observed for any bird breeding in lowland Amazonia. To our knowledge, this research also documents the first example of a tropical-breeding waterbird migrating out of the tropics to spend the non-breeding season in the temperate summer, this being the reverse pattern with respect to seasonality for austral migrants in general.

  2. Do birds of like feather flock together? The use of a novel 13C+D combustion isotope analyzer to track bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, N.

    2011-12-01

    Information on spring migration routes, geographic linkages among winter, spring, and breeding locations, and potential geographic effects on arrival body condition of a variety of avian species is so far little known. Stable isotope ratios are exquisitely sensitive to the biochemistry of living organisms and the nutrients available to them. Isotope ratios provide detailed knowledge useful in a variety of fields, including birds migration, through a combination of stable-isotope measurements of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) isotopes of flight feathers and breast feathers of tissues representing different periods of dietary integration and body composition analyses. Associations among specific geographic areas, habitat use, and arrival condition can be elucidated through the measurement of these dual isotopes. We report here on the development of a novel laser spectroscopy based system for the simultaneous analysis of the stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) that is robust, easy-to-use, and is the first stable isotope ratio analysis system to combine the measurement of 13C/12C and D/H in one simple analysis from a bulk organic sample with an application to bird migration. The system comprises a combustion module to convert the organic sample into CO2 and H2O and a Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS) that analyzes the combustion species inside an optical cavity based on the molecular absorption of individual isotopomers. This CRDS uses dual lasers to target the four isotpomers of interest: 12CO2, 13CO2, H2O and HDO. The system delivers a typical precision of 0.1 permil for δ13C and 1.5 permil for δD that parallels that achieved by IRMS, but with an unprecedented simplicity that allows ecologists to leverage the science and elucidate the avian migration patterns.

  3. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  4. Influence of Riparian Tree Phenology on Lower Colorado River Spring-Migrating Birds: Implications of Flower Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Neotropical migrant birds make choices about which habitats are most likely to provide successful foraging locations during migration, but little is known about how these birds recognize and process environmental clues that indicate the presence of prey species. Aspects of tree phenology, notably flowering of trees along the lower Colorado River corridor, coincide with the migratory stopovers of leaf-gleaning insectivorous songbirds and may be an important indicator of arthropod prey species availability. Shifting tree flowering and leaf flush during the spring migration period presents avian insectivores with an assortment of foraging opportunities. During two field seasons at Cibola National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Arizona, we examined riparian tree species to test whether leaf-gleaning insectivorous birds are attracted to the flowering condition of trees in choosing foraging sites. We predicted that flowering trees would host more insect prey resources, would thus show increased visit rates, length of stays and attack ratios of migrant avian insectivores, and that those arthropods would be found in the stomach contents of the birds. Paired trees of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), displaying heavy and light degrees of flowering were observed to test these predictions. To test whether birds are tracking arthropods directly or are using flowers as a proximate cue, we removed flowers from selected trees and paired these treated trees with neighboring high flowering trees, which served as controls. Avian foraging behavior, avian diets, arthropods, and phenology data were collected at the same time to control for temporal differences in insect availability, plant phenology, and differences in stopover arrivals of birds. We documented five patterns from this study: 1) Higher abundance and richness of arthropods were found on honey mesquite trees with greater numbers of flowers. 2) Arthropod abundance and richness increased as flowering

  5. Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996--July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, P.

    2002-03-01

    A 6-megawatt, 11 turbine wind power development was constructed by Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, southern Vermont, in 1996. To determine whether birds were impacted, a series of modified BA (Before, After) studies was conducted before construction (1993-1996), during (1996), and after (1997) construction on the project site. The studies were designed to monitor changes in breeding bird community (species composition and abundance) on the site, examine the behavior and numbers of songbirds migrating at night over the site and hawks migrating over the site in daylight, and search for carcasses of birds that might have collided with the turbines.

  6. Combining radar systems to get a 3D - picture of the bird migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liechti, F.; Dokter, A.; Shamoun, J.; van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.

    2008-01-01

    For military training flights bird strikes en route are still a severe problem. To reduce collisions an international project has been launched by the European Space agency (ESA), aiming 1) for a compilation of information on current bird movements by various sensors, 2) to combine them in a single

  7. Prediction and Migration of Surface-related Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Surface-related resonant multiples can be migrated to achieve better resolution than migrating primary reflections. We now derive the formula for migrating surface-related resonant multiples, and show its super-resolution characteristics. Moreover, a method is proposed to predict surface-related resonant multiples with zero-offset primary reflections. The prediction can be used to indentify and extract the true resonant multiple from other events. Both synthetic and field data are used to validate this prediction.

  8. The relations between forest fragmentation and bird community body size and biodiversity and bird community body size.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopman, F.

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Future Planet Studies, major biologie ABSTRACT Animal species with a larger body-size tend to have larger home ranges than small-bodied animals. Therefore it is likely that they are more affected by habitat fragmentation than small-bodied species. Body size of birds also seems to have a negative relation with species richness. This research has therefore looked into whether birds with a larger body-size are more sensitive to habitat fragmentation caused by forest...

  9. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  10. The Importance of Corps of Engineers Lands to Migrating and Breeding Birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... Birding is one of the fastest growing recreational activities in the United States. The economic impacts associated with this recreational activity on local communities have only recently been recognized...

  11. Status and distribution of migrating and breeding marine birds in north Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarade, Gh.R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)

  12. The health impacts of climate-related migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtle, Patricia; Bowen, Kathryn; McMichael, Celia

    2017-12-11

    Changes in climate, in conjunction with other drivers of mobility, shape human migration. While there is an increasing focus on the adaptive potential of migration, the health impacts of climate-related migration, including planned relocation and forced displacement, have not been thoroughly examined. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that migration is currently, and will increasingly be, influenced by environmental degradation and climate change, and that it needs to be addressed in a focused and coordinated manner. This paper examines the links between climate change, migration, and health, considering diverse migration responses, including immobility, forced displacement and planned migration, as well as the associated health risks and opportunities in different contexts. Using case studies, the paper illustrates strategies to reduce the health risks associated with climate change-related migration. While there is an increasing body of research examining the climate change-migration nexus, a dual approach is now required. This approach must include debate and further research regarding the health consequences and responses associated with climate migration as well as immediate strengthening of health systems to make them both climate resilient and migrant inclusive.

  13. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The effects of a wind farm on birds in a migration point: the Strait of Gibraltar.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Manuela de; Janss, Guyonne, F.E.; Ferrer, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between birds and wind turbines is an important factor to consider when a wind farm is constructed. A wind farm and two control areas were studied in Tarifa (Andalusia Province, southern Spain, 30STF590000–30STE610950).Variables were studied along linear transects in each area and observations of flight were also recorded from fixed points in the wind farm. The main purpose of our research was to determine the impact and the degree of flight behavioural change in birds flights...

  15. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Cervera, J.; Ferrero, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated

  16. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, S.; Cobben, M.M.P.; Ens, B.J.; Nolet, B.A.

    2017-01-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset

  17. Flying, fasting, and feeding in birds during migration: a nutritional and physiological ecology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McWilliams, S.R.; Guglielmo, C.; Pierce, B.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike exercising mammals, migratory birds fuel very high intensity exercise (e.g., flight) with fatty acids delivered from the adipose tissue to the working muscles by the circulatory system. Given the primary importance of fatty acids for fueling intense exercise, we discuss the likely limiting

  18. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  19. Consistency in long-distance bird migration: contrasting patterns in time and space for two raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    As the evolutionary responses to environmental change depend on selection acting on individual differences, disentangling within- and between-individual variation becomes imperative. In animal migration research, multiyear tracks are thus needed to estimate the individual consistency of phenotypic

  20. Problematising the interplay between employment relations, migration and mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Jenny; Mearns, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue by problematising labour agency, precariousness, and labour fragmentation as defining themes of the interplay between employment relations, migration and mobility. Drawing from discussions about the impact of globalisation on changes in features of work and employment, and bringing together theory and research on employment relations and labour migration, the paper discusses the relational spatial and temporal nature of agency, the d...

  1. Birds of passage no more: migration decision making among Filipino immigrants in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F

    1987-03-01

    Using data primarily from the Honolulu Destination Survey (HDS), which is part of the Philippine Migration Study (a study of a migration system that has its origins in Ilocos Norte, a largely rural province in the Philippines), the author examines migration decision making among Philippine immigrants in Hawaii. The HDS, conducted in 1981, interviewed 1484 residents of Honolulu who immigrated from the Ilocos Region after the US immigration law was liberalized in 1965. Results from the Philippine Migration Study (PMS) survey show that of those who did not have any intentions to move within 2 years in 1980, 88% did not move between 1980 and 1982. Of those who said they were certain to move within 2 years, 54% actually moved, while only 36% who were fairly certain and 31% who were uncertain moved. Virtually all of those who actually moved to Hawaii from 1980-1982 had intended to move to Hawaii in 1980. It thus appears that most migration is planned well in advance. For those who have already migrated, their behavior in the destination is influenced by their expectations about future migration. An estimated 20-38.7% of legal immigrants to the US from the Philippines in 1971 had emigrated as of January 1979. 49% of HDS respondents said that they did not intend to move out of Hawaii any time in the future. Among those who intend to move in the future, 69% want to return to Ilocos and 26% intend to move to the US mainland. 40% want to leave Hawaii for economic reasons and 27% for affiliation purposes. The value expectancy framework used in the PMS measures expectations of achieving one's most important goals in alternative locations. The analysis employs both binomial and multinomial logit analysis to identify significant determinants of future migration intentions. The 7 conceptual categories are: wealth, status, comfort, stimulation, autonomy, affiliation, and morality. 90% consider "having a peaceful life" followed by "getting ahead in the world" the most important

  2. Migration distance is positively associated with sex-linked genetic diversity in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gohli, J.; Lifjeld, J. T.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-52 ISSN 0394-9370 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : autosomes * female promiscuity * introns * seasonal migration * Z chromosome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2016

  3. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  4. The Calabrian Apennines: Important Bird Area (IBA for the Autumn migration of Raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Panuccio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the autumn migration of raptors were carried out on the Calabrian Appennines in the area where the Italian peninsula is only 30 km wide. We used three different watch points at the same time between 24 August and 12 September 2005 and 2006. We observed 4,842 raptors in 2005 and 5,324 in 2006; most of these were Honey Buzzards, Black Kites, Marsh Harriers and Montagu’s Harriers.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of bird bowls and related archaic ceramics from Miletus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerschner, M.; Mommsen, H.; Beier, T.; Heimermann, D.; Hein, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a chemical investigation by neutron activation analysis of sherds of different kinds of bird kotylai, bird bowls and related wares excavated in Kalabaktepe, a hill of the ancient city of Miletus. A new archaeological classification of this well-known group of Archaic ceramics of eastern Greece is presented. A number of kiln wasters of misfired vessels from Kalabaktepe revealed a characteristic local pattern. This pattern helped to clarify the provenance of some of the bird bowls classified archaeologically as of orientalizing type: they have been made in Miletus. But bird kotylai and bird bowls in the ''standard fabric'' as well as other archaeologically related vessels show a different chemical pattern of unknown provenance. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of bird bowls and related archaic ceramics from Miletus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerschner, M.; Mommsen, H.; Beier, T.; Heimermann, D.; Hein, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a chemical investigation by neutron activation analysis of sherds of different kinds of bird kotylai, bird bowls and related wares excavated in Kalabaktepe, a hill of the ancient city of Miletus. A new archaeological classification of this well-known group of Archaic ceramics of eastern Greece is represented. A number of kiln wasters of misfired vessels from Kalabaktepe revealed a characteristic local pattern. This pattern helped to clarify the provenance of some of the bird bowls classified archaeologically as of orientalizing type: they have been made in Miletus. But bird kotylai and bird bowls in the 'standard fabric' as well as other archaeologically related vessels show a different chemical pattern of unknown provenance. (author)

  7. Bird assemblage patterns in relation to anthropogenic habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using habitat stratification, birds were surveyed along transects in tidal and supralittoral sub-habitats using DISTANCE sampling protocol, and along the river by encounter rates to determine abundance and species richness. Indices of human activity as well as habitat structure parameters including ground cover, plant ...

  8. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Gender Patterns in Bird-related Recreation in the USA and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show inter-related trends in both adult and youth populations in developed nations: a shift away from nature-based recreation, an overall decline in physical activity, and increasing obesity. For this study we examined gender patterns in a nature-based activity, observing wild birds, popular in two developed nations, the USA and UK. We collated data from several organizations and categorized data sources as representing activities that involve varying degrees of competitiveness and acting authoritatively. Patterns were consistent with the hypotheses that gender differences in preferred types of bird-related recreation reflected well documented gender-specific differences in preferences for competition and propensity to act authoritatively. Observing birds encompassed both a recreational hobby, "bird watching," that was female biased in the USA, and a competitive sport, "birding," that was heavily male biased among adults, but not youth, in both the USA and UK. Because of differences in gender participation in bird-related activities, fostering both competitive and noncompetitive bird-related activities is necessary to increase the likelihood of bringing larger segments of the population into nature-based recreation.

  10. Density and success of bird nests relative to grazing on western Montana grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Ball, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    Grassland birds are declining at a faster rate than any other group of North American bird species. Livestock grazing is the primary economic use of grasslands in the western United States, but the effects of this use on distribution and productivity of grassland birds are unclear. We examined nest density and success of ground-nesting birds on grazed and ungrazed grasslands in western Montana. In comparison to grazed plots, ungrazed plots had reduced forb cover, increased litter cover, increased litter depth, and increased visual obstruction readings (VOR) of vegetation. Nest density among 10 of 11 common bird species was most strongly correlated with VOR of plots, and greatest nest density for each species occurred where mean VOR of the plot was similar to mean VOR at nests. Additionally, all bird species were relatively consistent in their choice of VOR at nests despite substantial differences in VOR among plots. We suggest that birds selected plots based in part on availability of suitable nest sites and that variation in nest density relative to grazing reflected the effect of grazing on availability of nest sites. Nest success was similar between grazed plots and ungrazed plots for two species but was lower for nests on grazed plots than on ungrazed plots for two other species because of increased rates of predation, trampling, or parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Other species nested almost exclusively on ungrazed plots (six species) or grazed plots (one species), precluding evaluation of the effects of grazing on nest success. We demonstrate that each species in a diverse suite of ground-nesting birds preferentially used certain habitats for nesting and that grazing altered availability of preferred nesting habitats through changes in vegetation structure and plant species composition. We also show that grazing directly or indirectly predisposed some bird species to increased nesting mortality. Management alternatives that avoid

  11. The relation between global migration and trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignoli, Paolo; Metulini, Rodolfo; Schiavo, Stefano; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology to analyze and compare multiple global networks, focusing our analysis on the relation between human migration and trade. First, we identify the subset of products for which the presence of a community of migrants significantly increases trade intensity, where to assure comparability across networks we apply a hypergeometric filter that lets us identify those links which intensity is significantly higher than expected. Next, proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most intense links in the trade network, we use spatial econometrics techniques to measure the effect of migration on international trade, while controlling for network interdependences. Overall, we find that migration significantly boosts trade across countries and we are able to identify product categories for which this effect is particularly strong.

  12. Quantifying the relative irreplaceability of important bird and biodiversity areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Brooks, Thomas; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Rondinini, Carlo; Smith, Robert J; Bennun, Leon; Butchart, Stuart H M; Ferrier, Simon; Foppen, Ruud P B; Joppa, Lucas; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Knight, Andrew T; Lamoreux, John F; Langhammer, Penny F; May, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Visconti, Piero; Watson, James E M; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    World governments have committed to increase the global protected areas coverage by 2020, but the effectiveness of this commitment for protecting biodiversity depends on where new protected areas are located. Threshold- and complementarity-based approaches have been independently used to identify important sites for biodiversity. We brought together these approaches by performing a complementarity-based analysis of irreplaceability in important bird and biodiversity areas (IBAs), which are sites identified using a threshold-based approach. We determined whether irreplaceability values are higher inside than outside IBAs and whether any observed difference depends on known characteristics of the IBAs. We focused on 3 regions with comprehensive IBA inventories and bird distribution atlases: Australia, southern Africa, and Europe. Irreplaceability values were significantly higher inside than outside IBAs, although differences were much smaller in Europe than elsewhere. Higher irreplaceability values in IBAs were associated with the presence and number of restricted-range species; number of criteria under which the site was identified; and mean geographic range size of the species for which the site was identified (trigger species). In addition, IBAs were characterized by higher irreplaceability values when using proportional species representation targets, rather than fixed targets. There were broadly comparable results when measuring irreplaceability for trigger species and when considering all bird species, which indicates a good surrogacy effect of the former. Recently, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has convened a consultation to consolidate global standards for the identification of key biodiversity areas (KBAs), building from existing approaches such as IBAs. Our results informed this consultation, and in particular a proposed irreplaceability criterion that will allow the new KBA standard to draw on the strengths of both threshold- and

  13. Migration from relational to NoSQL database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotiya, Sunita; Mandal, Juhi; Kandasamy, Saravanakumar

    2017-11-01

    Data generated by various real time applications, social networking sites and sensor devices is of very huge amount and unstructured, which makes it difficult for Relational database management systems to handle the data. Data is very precious component of any application and needs to be analysed after arranging it in some structure. Relational databases are only able to deal with structured data, so there is need of NoSQL Database management System which can deal with semi -structured data also. Relational database provides the easiest way to manage the data but as the use of NoSQL is increasing it is becoming necessary to migrate the data from Relational to NoSQL databases. Various frameworks has been proposed previously which provides mechanisms for migration of data stored at warehouses in SQL, middle layer solutions which can provide facility of data to be stored in NoSQL databases to handle data which is not structured. This paper provides a literature review of some of the recent approaches proposed by various researchers to migrate data from relational to NoSQL databases. Some researchers proposed mechanisms for the co-existence of NoSQL and Relational databases together. This paper provides a summary of mechanisms which can be used for mapping data stored in Relational databases to NoSQL databases. Various techniques for data transformation and middle layer solutions are summarised in the paper.

  14. Kurdish men's experiences of migration-related mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Al-Windi, Ahmad; Johansson, Leena Maria; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha

    2011-10-01

    The migration process may impose stress on the mental health of immigrants. To describe the experiences of immigrant men of Kurdish ethnicity during and after migration to Sweden with regard to mental health issues. Using the grounded theory method, we conducted a focus group interview with four Kurdish men and in-depth individual interviews with 10 other Kurdish men. A model with two major themes and interlinked categories was developed. The themes were (1) protective factors for good mental health (sense of belonging, creation and re-creation of Kurdish identity, sense of freedom, satisfaction with oneself) and (2) risk factors for poor mental health (worry about current political situation in the home country, yearning, lack of sense of freedom, dissatisfaction with Swedish society). The study provides insights into the psychological and emotional experiences of immigrant men of Kurdish ethnicity during and after migration to Sweden. It is important for primary health care providers to be aware of the impact that similar migration-related and life experiences have on the health status of immigrants, and also to be aware that groups are comprised of unique individuals with differing experiences and reactions to these experiences. The findings highlight the common themes of the men's experiences and suggest ways to ameliorate mental health issues, including feeling like one is seen as an individual, is a full participant in society, and can contribute to one's own culture.

  15. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km 2 . The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km 2 centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  16. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-04-15

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km{sup 2}. The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km{sup 2} centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  17. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  18. Bird diversity and distribution in relation to urban landscape types in northern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesire, T; Nsabimana, D; Nyiramana, A; Seburanga, J L; Mirville, M O

    2014-01-01

    Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon's diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni), was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus). Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  19. The Identification of Military Installations as Important Migratory Bird Stopover Sites and the Development of Bird Migration Forecast Models: A Radar Ornithology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    civilian and military flights. Since 1985, nearly 38,000 bird-military aircraft collisions have been reported. These collisions have killed 33 pilots...stations in the contiguous United States. Edges of the circles are at 124 nautical mile range (230 km). and 2004, approximately 194 people were killed ... Mockingbird Wilson’s Snipe Pileated Woodpecker American Wigeon Red-bellied Woodpecker American Coot Red-cockaded Woodpecker Black-crowned Night

  20. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  1. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  2. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  3. Candidate genes have sex-specific effects on timing of spring migration and moult speed in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Podofillini, Stefano; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Cecere, Jacopo G; Spina, Fernando; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2017-10-01

    The timing of major life-history events, such as migration and moult, is set by endogenous circadian and circannual clocks, that have been well characterized at the molecular level. Conversely, the genetic sources of variation in phenology and in other behavioral traits have been sparsely addressed. It has been proposed that inter-individual variability in the timing of seasonal events may arise from allelic polymorphism at phenological candidate genes involved in the signaling cascade of the endogenous clocks. In this study of a long-distance migratory passerine bird, the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus , we investigated whether allelic variation at 5 polymorphic loci of 4 candidate genes ( Adcyap1 , Clock , Creb1 , and Npas2 ), predicted 2 major components of the annual schedule, namely timing of spring migration across the central Mediterranean sea and moult speed, the latter gauged from ptilochronological analyses of tail feathers moulted in the African winter quarters. We identified a novel Clock gene locus ( Clock region 3) showing polyQ polymorphism, which was however not significantly associated with any phenotypic trait. Npas2 allele size predicted male (but not female) spring migration date, with males bearing longer alleles migrating significantly earlier than those bearing shorter alleles. Creb1 allele size significantly predicted male (but not female) moult speed, longer alleles being associated with faster moult. All other genotype-phenotype associations were statistically non-significant. These findings provide new evidence for a role of candidate genes in modulating the phenology of different circannual activities in long-distance migratory birds, and for the occurrence of sex-specific candidate gene effects.

  4. Nest site preference depends on the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics in wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M.; Kromhout Van Der Meer, Iris M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social learning allows animals to eavesdrop on ecologically relevant knowledge of competitors in their environment. This is especially important when selecting a habitat if individuals have relatively little personal information on habitat quality. It is known that birds can use both

  5. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  6. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders P; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; da Silva, Luís P; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2014-09-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes.

  7. Bird Density and Distribution Patterns in Relation to Anthropogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the river, human activity and water quality had no clear effect on the avifauna. ... which trophic relations might be altered and community ... from the bridge to sea, dividing the river into four 200 m sections ... made of vegetation cover at ground level, 1,. 2 and 3 m ... analysed using the Shannon diversity index. H′ to obtain ...

  8. Disease dynamics and bird migration--linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza A virus in time and space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Gunnarsson

    Full Text Available The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (δ(2H of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  9. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Ramey

    Full Text Available Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  10. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Ely, Craig R; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Heard, Darryl J

    2012-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  11. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Heard, Darryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  12. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has

  13. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  14. Gender Differences in Stressors Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and Turkish Migration Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Koch, Eckhardt

    2017-06-01

    Migration, acculturation, and psychiatric disorders may cause stress and adaptation processes differently in men and women, but empirical research is scarce. In a retrospective study n = 62 Turkish migrants and n = 62 native German inpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders, matched for age, gender, and diagnoses, were compared using a 10-item instrument for the assessment of migration- and acculturation related stressors (MIGSTR10). Gender differences in the prevalence of stressors and in the total sum of stressors were calculated and compared between migrants and indigenous patients. Results showed a higher global stress level in migrants and in women than in men with migration background. Regarding single stressors, the perceived loss of status was significantly more prevalent and more pronounced in men than in women (P stress should be taken into account in migration and acculturation research.

  15. 76 FR 14271 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya Memorandum for the... States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as... million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting...

  16. Investigation of influenza in migrating birds, the primordial reservoir and transmitters of influenza in Brazil Investigação de influenza em aves migratórias, principal reservatório e transporte de influenza no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are the most important reservoirs of the influenza virus. Its maintenance in its natural hosts, including man, allows the influenza virus to reassorts its strains. The recent report of an avian influenza A (H5N1 virus in humans, was in a child with fatal respiratory illness in China, 1997. The current study was conducted to elucidate the transportation of the influenza by birds that migrate, annually, through the both Northern and Southern hemispheres, with special attention paid to the Vireo olivaceus [Juruviara(BR or Red-eyed vireo(USA] species, which travels from the USA to Brazil, and vice versa, and the Elaenia mesoleuca [Tuque(BR or (USA] species that flies over the entire Southern Hemisphere. There are two species of birds, which breed and migrate in São Paulo State, Brazil, and which were demonstrated to carry Influenza virus, were selected. The viral particles isolated were observed by electron microscopy. The influenza virus was detected by the House Duplex/PCR and Gloria molecular biology tests. The results demonstrated that the Elaenia mesoleuca and Vireo olivaceus bird species are carrying the Influenza virus whilst crossing both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. To understand the role that these migrating birds may play in epidemic influenza, in Brazil, characterization of avian influenza subtypes will be done.Os mais importantes reservatórios do vírus influenza são os pássaros. A manutenção do vírus influenza em hospedeiros naturais, inclusive o homem, permite que esse vírus realize rearranjos entre as suas cepas. O recente relato de uma cepa influenza aviária A(H5N1, em humanos, se deu em uma criança com doença respiratória fatal, na China em 1977. O presente estudo foi conduzido para elucidar o transporte da influenza por pássaros que migram, anualmente, através de ambos hemisférios o do Norte e do Sul, com especial atenção voltada à espécies Vireo olivaceo [Juruviara(BR e Red-eyed vireo(USA] que

  17. International migration and related policies in europe 1950-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a) its particular development in time; b) the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c) the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in

  18. Tracking bird migration at the Baie-des-Sables wind farm site : Innergex II Inc.; Suivi des migrations des oiseaux sur le site d'implantation d'un parc eolien a Baie-des-Sables : Innergex II Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Ouellet, J.F.; Pelletier, N.; Gallant, F.; Lavoie, J. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2004-12-21

    The global production of electricity from wind power has increased significantly in recent years. As part of Hydro-Quebec's plans to increase wind power production, Cartier Wind Power plans to install 61 wind turbines at Baie-des-Sables on Quebec's Gaspe Peninsula where wind energy is abundant. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on birds and their habitat and migration patterns. In particular, it characterized the migratory passage of birds in the area through 900 hours of visual and auditory observation beginning with spring migration, spring nesting to autumnal migration. The behavior of different migratory birds as well as local species was studied and the results of the ornithological inventory were revealed in terms of species abundance and diversity; distribution and use of the territory by birds; migratory activities; period and importance of migration; characterization of displacement; height of flight; direction of migration; and, use of the territory by the avifauna. The inventory identified 121 species of birds including 14 species of raptors which moved mainly along the river and flew very high. The study revealed that although the bird habitats at Baie-des-Sables were already strongly disturbed by agricultural activities, it is unlikely that the turbines will not have any impact on the avifauna. However, most of the wind turbines will be installed in farmers fields, and as such, will not exert additional pressure on the forest medium. The factors that influence the rate of bird collisions with wind turbines were discussed. In order to lessen the impact on birds, it was suggested that installation work should occur outside of the nesting season and that the electrical supply networks should be hidden to limit the harmful effects posed by power lines. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs., 11 maps, 9 appendices.

  19. Interspecific comparison of the performance of soaring migrants in relation to morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Mellone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance of migrating birds can be affected by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors like morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies. We compared travel speeds of four raptor species during their crossing of the Sahara desert. Focusing the analyses on this region allows us to compare different species under equivalent conditions in order to disentangle which factors affect migratory performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We tracked raptors using GPS satellite transmitters from Sweden, Spain and Italy, and evaluated their migratory performance at both an hourly and a daily scale. Hourly data (flight speed and altitude for intervals of two hours were analyzed in relation to time of day, species and season, and daily data (distance between roosting sites in relation to species, season, day length and tailwind support. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite a clear variation in morphology, interspecific differences were generally very small, and did only arise in spring, with long-distance migrants (>5000 km: osprey and Western marsh-harrier being faster than species that migrate shorter distances (Egyptian vulture and short-toed eagle. Our results suggest that the most important factor explaining hourly variation in flight speed is time of day, while at a daily scale, tailwind support is the most important factor explaining variation in daily distance, raising new questions about the consequences of possible future changes in worldwide wind patterns.

  20. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  1. Relative estimation of the mineral ages using uranium migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, A.

    1990-01-01

    Using the uranium fission track micro mapping technique the correlation between the age and uranium migration from inclusions was studied. It is shown that during geological time, as function of the mineral, its age and its uranium migration speed, the pattern of the track, clusters corresponding to the uranium inclusions got a typical feature. Thus for a bulk polished geological sample it is possible to establish an age succession of the constituent minerals as a function of the track cluster patterns. Also, it is shown that knowing the migration speed of the uranium in a mineral it is possible to estimate the age of this mineral by measuring the migration distance on the micro mapping. (Author)

  2. Relative importance of habitat area and isolation for bird occurrence patterns in a naturally patchy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Johnson, E.J.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    There is debate among ecologists about whether total habitat area or patch arrangement contributes most to population and/or community responses to fragmented or patchy landscapes. We tested the relative effects of patch area and isolation for predicting bird occurrence in a naturally patchy landscape in the Bear River Mountains of Northern Utah, USA. We selected focal patches (mountain meadows) ranging in elevation from 1,920 to 2,860 m and in size from 0.6 to 182 ha. Breeding birds were sampled in each focal meadow during the summers of 2003 and 2004 using variable-distance point transects. Logistic regression and likelihood-based model selection were used to determine the relationship between likelihood of occurrence of three bird species (Brewer's sparrow, vesper sparrow, and white-crowned sparrow) and area, isolation, and proximity metrics. We used model weights and model-averaged confidence intervals to assess the importance of each predictor variable. Plots of area versus isolation were used to evaluate complex relationships between the variables. We found that meadow area was the most important variable for explaining occurrence for two species, and that isolation was the most important for the other. We also found that the absolute distance was more appropriate for evaluating isolation responses than was the species-specific proximity metric. Our findings add clarity to the debate between ecologists regarding the relative importance of area and isolation in species responses to patchy landscapes.

  3. Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program and related research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents the results of technical studies conducted under the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. The HRMP was initiated in 1973 as the Radionuclide Migration Program to study and better understand the hydrologic systems of the NTS and potential movement and rates of movement of radionuclides and other contaminants injected into these systems by underground nuclear testing

  4. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ...-12 of August 8, 2011--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa... Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested... Department of State, related to the humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and...

  5. The evolution of immunity in relation to colonization and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Emily A; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Hasselquist, Dennis; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Westerdahl, Helena

    2018-05-01

    Colonization and migration have a crucial effect on patterns of biodiversity, with disease predicted to play an important role in these processes. However, evidence of the effect of pathogens on broad patterns of colonization and migration is limited. Here, using phylogenetic analyses of 1,311 species of Afro-Palaearctic songbirds, we show that colonization events from regions of high (sub-Saharan Africa) to low (the Palaearctic) pathogen diversity were up to 20 times more frequent than the reverse, and that migration has evolved 3 times more frequently from African- as opposed to Palaearctic-resident species. We also found that resident species that colonized the Palaearctic from Africa, as well as African species that evolved long-distance migration to breed in the Palaearctic, have reduced diversity of key immune genes associated with pathogen recognition (major histocompatibility complex class I). These results suggest that changes in the pathogen community that occur during colonization and migration shape the evolution of the immune system, potentially by adjusting the trade-off between the benefits of extensive pathogen recognition and the costs of immunopathology that result from high major histocompatibility complex class I diversity.

  6. Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Social, economic and demographic factors relating to interregional migration in the Philippines: 1970-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasa, R N

    1982-10-01

    The study attempts to identify the different social, economic, and demographic factors relating to interregional migration in the Philippines for the decade 1970-1980. The dependent variable used is the regional net migration rate estimated through the national growth rate method. Using the rank order correlation technique, the relationship between the dependent variable and the different independent variables were determined. It is found that the following variables were positively related to interregional migration: percentage of 20-29 year old population, previous in-migrants, median family income, land area, primacy index, level of urbanization, level of education, and percentage of never married population. However, the first 3 variables mentioned seem to be the most significant determinants of regional net migration rates, which indicates that net migration in the Philippines during the last decade tends to be more dependent upon previous migration patterns and less dependent upon current socioeconomic development.

  8. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  9. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  10. Detection of Anaplasma sp. phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum in a free-living bird in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Claudia Baumel Mongruel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wild animals play an important role in carrying vectors that may potentially transmit pathogens. Several reports highlighted the participation of wild animals on the Anaplasma phagocytophilum cycle, including as hosts of the agent. The aim of this study was to report the molecular detection of an agent phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum isolated from a wild bird in the Midwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Fifteen blood samples were collected from eleven different bird species in the Guarapuava region. One sample collected from a Penelope obscura bird was positive in nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. The phylogenetic tree based on the Maximum Likelihood analysis showed that the sequence obtained was placed in the same clade with A. phagocytophilum isolated from domestic cats in Brazil. The present study reports the first molecular detection of a phylogenetically related A. phagocytophilum bacterium in a bird from Paraná State.

  11. The Use of Migration-Related Competencies in Continuing Education: Individual Strategies, Social and Institutional Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjed, Ariane; Sprung, Annette; Kukovetz, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Focusing especially on biographical competencies that are gained through the experience of migration and socialisation in a certain country or cultural context, this article analyses how professionals define and deploy these "migration-related competencies" when it comes to employment in the field of adult education in Austria. By means…

  12. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  13. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  14. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  15. Effect of relative humidity on migration of BP from paperboard into a food simulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In the scientific literature it is obligatory to control and report the test time and temperature applied when testing migration but it is not current practice to either control or report the relative humidity (RH).......In the scientific literature it is obligatory to control and report the test time and temperature applied when testing migration but it is not current practice to either control or report the relative humidity (RH)....

  16. Multidirectional abundance shifts among North American birds and the relative influence of multifaceted climate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiongyu; Sauer, John R; Dubayah, Ralph O

    2017-09-01

    Shifts in species distributions are major fingerprint of climate change. Examining changes in species abundance structures at a continental scale enables robust evaluation of climate change influences, but few studies have conducted these evaluations due to limited data and methodological constraints. In this study, we estimate temporal changes in abundance from North American Breeding Bird Survey data at the scale of physiographic strata to examine the relative influence of different components of climatic factors and evaluate the hypothesis that shifting species distributions are multidirectional in resident bird species in North America. We quantify the direction and velocity of the abundance shifts of 57 permanent resident birds over 44 years using a centroid analysis. For species with significant abundance shifts in the centroid analysis, we conduct a more intensive correlative analysis to identify climate components most strongly associated with composite change of abundance within strata. Our analysis focus on two contrasts: the relative importance of climate extremes vs. averages, and of temperature vs. precipitation in strength of association with abundance change. Our study shows that 36 species had significant abundance shifts over the study period. The average velocity of the centroid is 5.89 km·yr -1 . The shifted distance on average covers 259 km, 9% of range extent. Our results strongly suggest that the climate change fingerprint in studied avian distributions is multidirectional. Among 6 directions with significant abundance shifts, the northwestward shift was observed in the largest number of species (n = 13). The temperature/average climate model consistently has greater predictive ability than the precipitation/extreme climate model in explaining strata-level abundance change. Our study shows heterogeneous avian responses to recent environmental changes. It highlights needs for more species-specific approaches to examine contributing

  17. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  18. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, Scott J; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R 2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  19. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  20. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Habitats and Birds Directives: Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting habitats and species under the Habitats and Birds Directives, versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  1. Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at L'Anse-a-Valleau wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de l'Anse-a-Valleau : rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at L'Anse-a-Valleau in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 100.5 MW wind turbine park in L'Anse-a-Valleau was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between April 1 and May 14, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2003. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds over a 12 day period in L'Anse-a-Valleau as well as Lac du Grand Etang. During the 12 day observation period, bird watching took place for about four hours a day, from 10:00 to 15:00, given favourable weather conditions such as absence of rain and good visibility. Overall, 14 birds of prey were observed over a period of 44 hours. With 5 sightings, the red-tailed hawk was the most frequently observed species during this study. Very few signs of migration were noticed in L'Anse-a-Valleau. The results indicate that this region is not on the migratory path of birds of prey during their flight on the south side of the Saint-Lawrence River. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  2. CharacteristicofConsortiveRelations of Birds with the European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Ponomarenko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consortia interactions of birds with the ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. in its ontogeny from v  to g 2 3 age stage. Species composition, daily time budget, daily mass budget of the birds in ash consortia were studied.

  3. Modeling nest survival of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicki Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jay Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2011-01-01

    Salvage logging practices in recently burned forests often have direct effects on species associated with dead trees, particularly cavity-nesting birds. As such, evaluation of postfire management practices on nest survival rates of cavity nesters is necessary for determining conservation strategies. We monitored 1,797 nests of 6 cavity-nesting bird species: Lewis'...

  4. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutner, V.; Becker, P.H.; Liordos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g -1 dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g -1 dw), Σ HCHs (47 ng g -1 dw) and HCB (116 ng g -1 dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas Σ PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g -1 dw). β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and Σ DDTs/ΣPCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g -1 dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g -1 dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: → Mercury, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. → More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. → Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). → Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  5. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  6. Demographic consequences of poison-related mortality in a threatened bird of prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Tenan

    Full Text Available Evidence for decline or threat of wild populations typically comes from multiple sources and methods that allow optimal integration of the available information, representing a major advance in planning management actions. We used integrated population modelling and perturbation analyses to assess the demographic consequences of the illegal use of poison for an insular population of Red Kites, Milvus milvus. We first pooled into a single statistical framework the annual census of breeding pairs, the available individual-based data, the average productivity and the number of birds admitted annually to the local rehabilitation centre. By combining these four types of information we were able to increase estimate precision and to obtain an estimate of the proportion of breeding adults, an important parameter that was not directly measured in the field and that is often difficult to assess. Subsequently, we used perturbation analyses to measure the expected change in the population growth rate due to a change in poison-related mortality. We found that poison accounted for 0.43 to 0.76 of the total mortality, for yearlings and older birds, respectively. Results from the deterministic population model indicated that this mortality suppressed the population growth rate by 20%. Despite this, the population was estimated to increase, albeit slowly. This positive trend was likely maintained by a very high productivity (1.83 fledglings per breeding pair possibly promoted by supplementary feeding, a situation which is likely to be common to many large obligate or facultative European scavengers. Under this hypothetical scenario of double societal costs (poisoning of a threatened species and feeding programs, increasing poison control would help to lower the public cost of maintaining supplementary feeding stations.

  7. Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at the Baie-des-Sables wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de Baie-des-Sables : rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at Baie-des-Sables in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 109.5 MW wind turbine park in Baie-des-Sables was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between March 31 and May 23, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2004. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds during the monitoring period. Nine species of birds of prey were identified. Overall, 448 individual birds were observed over a total period of 92 hours. With 137 sightings of the red-tailed hawk and 95 sightings of the rough-legged hawk, these 2 species were the most frequently indexed species, accounting for 51.8 per cent of the sightings. No evidence of nesting particular to birds of prey was observed at the site. The flight patterns of the birds were also observed with reference to height and direction of flight. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices.

  8. Patterns and Determinants of Off-Farm Migration: Transfer frictions and persistency of relative income gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina; Bertoni, Danilo; Cavicchioli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The inter-sectoral migration of agricultural labour is a complex but fundamental process of economic development largely affected by the growth of agricultural productivity and the evolution of the agricultural relative income gap. Theory and some recent anecdotal evidence suggest that as an effect of large fixed and sunk costs of out-farm migration, the productivity gap between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors should behave non-monotonically or following a U-shaped evolution dur...

  9. Effects of nicotine on the digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds reflect their relative tolerance to this alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Nicolson, S W

    2015-12-01

    The paradox of secondary metabolites, toxic defence compounds produced by plants, in nectar and fruits is well known. Deterrence of feeding by nectarivorous and frugivorous birds is better understood than the effect of these chemicals on the digestive performance of birds. Digestive parameters such as transit time and sugar assimilation are important in assessing nutrient utilization and deterrence may be related to post-ingestive effects involving these parameters. Nectar and many fruits contain mainly sugars and water, and avian consumers compensate for low sugar content in their diet by increasing food intake: this may also increase their intake of secondary metabolites. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences compensatory feeding and digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds. High nicotine concentration negatively affected compensatory feeding and apparent assimilation efficiency of white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens; but nicotine slowed gut transit time only in the latter species. In contrast, food intake and digestive performance of dark-capped bulbuls Pycnonotus tricolor was unaffected by nicotine up to a concentration of 50μM. Bulbuls are primarily frugivorous; hence, they are more exposed to secondary metabolites than sunbirds and possibly white-eyes. Because their diet is richer in toxins, frugivorous birds may have evolved more efficient detoxification strategies than those of specialist nectar-feeding birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  11. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  12. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  13. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Hine, K.; Hegemann, A.; Ndithia, H.K.; Shobrak, M.; Ostrowski, S.; Williams, J.B.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to

  14. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Hine, Kathryn; Hegemann, Arne; Ndithia, Henry K.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Ostrowski, Stephane; Williams, Joseph B.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate

  15. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  16. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Anders P.; Adriaensen Frank; Artemyev Alexandr; Banbura Jerzy; Barba Emilio; Biard Clotilde; Blondel Jacques; Bouslama Zihad; Bouvier Jean-Charles; Camprodon Jordi; Cecere Francesco; Charmantier Anne; Charter Motti; Cichon Mariusz; Cusimano Camillo

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited...

  17. Nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Large wildfire events in coniferous forests of the western United States are often followed by postfire timber harvest. The long-term impacts of postfire timber harvest on fire-associated cavity-nesting bird species are not well documented. We studied nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds over a 10-year period (1994-2003), representing 1-11 years after fire, on...

  18. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  19. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of... amount not to exceed $15 million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund...

  20. Career, Migration and the Life CV: A Relational Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Donna E.; Watts, Jane; Sterland, Ljaja; O'Neill, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    In response to the precarious and disadvantaged position of forced migrants in the United States and the UK, marked by unemployment, under employment and loss of career capital, this paper draws upon a relational cultural paradigm and a life design career model in order to understand migrant work life, shape the career intervention process and…

  1. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaugg, S.; Saporta, G.; van Loon, E.; Schmaljohann, H.; Liechti, F.

    2008-01-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical

  2. Nest site preference depends on the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Kromhout Van Der Meer, Iris M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Social learning allows animals to eavesdrop on ecologically relevant knowledge of competitors in their environment. This is especially important when selecting a habitat if individuals have relatively little personal information on habitat quality. It is known that birds can use both conspecific and heterospecific information for social learning, but little is known about the relative importance of each information type. If provided with the choice between them, we expected that animals should copy the behaviour of conspecifics, as these confer the best information for that species. We tested this hypothesis in the field for Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca arriving at their breeding grounds to select a nest box for breeding. We assigned arbitrary symbols to nest boxes of breeding pied flycatchers (conspecifics) and blue and great tits, Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major (heterospecifics), in 2014 and 2016 in two areas with different densities of tits and flycatchers. After ca 50% of flycatchers had returned and a flycatcher symbol was assigned to their nest box, we gave the later arriving flycatchers the choice between empty nest boxes with either a conspecific (flycatcher) or a heterospecific (tit) symbol. As expected, Pied Flycatchers copied the perceived nest box choice of conspecifics, but only in areas that were dominated by flycatchers. Against our initial expectation, flycatchers copied the perceived choice of heterospecifics in the area heavily dominated by tits, even though conspecific minority information was present. Our results confirm that the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics modulates the propensity to copy or reject novel behavioural traits. By contrasting conspecific and heterospecific ecology in the same study design we were able to draw more general conclusions about the role of fluctuating densities on social information use.

  3. Migration in relation to possible tectonic and regional controls in eastern Australian volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Wellman-McDougall model for southward migration of central volcano activity in eastern Australia is extended to the basaltic lava provinces. Latitude-age plots of volcanic episodes are related to trails initiated from regions of active volcanism at the commencement of northward drift of Australia (53 m.y. B.P.), from Southern Ocean spreading. These trails intersect at least 75%, and possibly up to 95%, of basaltic episodes and suggest a migratory control. The migration of central volcano felsic activity, however, consistently exceeds sea-floor spreading rates with a relative southward motion of 4-10 mm/yr. The trails give a mean migration direction of 24 PM 9 0 W of S before 29-30 m.y., but 8-12 0 W of S after 29 m.y. (orig./ME)

  4. Understanding the stopover of migratory birds: a scale dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Moore; Mark S. Woodrey; Jeffrey J. Buler; Stefan Woltmann; Ted R. Simons

    2005-01-01

    The development of comprehensive conservation strategies and management plans for migratory birds depends on understanding migrant-habitat relations throughout the annual cycle, including the time when migrants stopover en route. Yet, the complexity of migration makes the assessment of habitat requirements and development of a comprehensive...

  5. Bird mortality related to collisions with ski–lift cables: do we estimate just the tip of the iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bech, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collisions with ski–lift cables are an important cause of death for grouse species living close to alpine ski resorts. As several biases may reduce the detection probability of bird carcasses, the mortality rates related to these collisions are generally underestimated. The possibility that injured birds may continue flying for some distance after striking cables represents a major source of error, known as crippling bias. Estimating the crippling losses resulting from birds dying far from the ski–lift corridors is difficult and it is usually assessed by systematic searches of carcasses on both sides of the ski–lifts. Using molecular tracking, we were able to demonstrate that a rock ptarmigan hen flew up to 600 m after striking a ski–lift cable, a distance preventing its detection by traditional carcasses surveys. Given the difficulty in conducting systematic searches over large areas surrounding the ski–lifts, only an experiment using radio–tagged birds would allow us to estimate the real mortality rate associated with cable collision.

  6. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  7. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  8. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    philopatric movement of geese using a classic multi–state design. Previous studies of philopaty often rely upon simple return rates —however, good mark–recapture studies do not need to assume equal detection probabilities in space and time. This is likely the most important contribution of multi–state modelling to the study of movement. As with many of these studies, the most pressing problem in the analysis is the explosion in the number of parameters and the need to choose parsimonious modelss to get good precision. Drake and Alisauska demonstrate that model choice still remains an art with a great deal of biological insight being very helpful in the task. There is still plenty of scope for novel methods to study migration. Traditionally, there has been a clear cut distinction between birds being labelled as “migrant” or “resident” on the basis of field observations and qualitative interpretations of patterns of ring–recoveries. However, there are intermediate species where only part of the population migrates (partial migrants or where different components of the population migrate to different extents (differential migrants. Siriwardena, Wernham and Baillie (Siriwardena et al., 2004 develop a novel method that produces a quantitative index of migratory tendency. The method uses distributions of ringing–to–recovery distances to classify individual species’ patterns of movement relative to those of other species. The areas between species’ cumulative distance distributions are used with multi–dimensional scaling to produce a similarity map among species. This map can be used to investigate the factors that affect the migratory strategies that species adopt, such as body size, territoriality and distribution, and in studies of their consequences for demographic parameters such as annual survival and the timing of breeding. The key assumption of the method is the similar recovery effort of species over space and time. It would be interesting to

  9. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested...

  10. Estrogen-related receptor α decreases RHOA stability to induce orientated cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailland, Juliette; Tribollet, Violaine; Forcet, Christelle; Billon, Cyrielle; Barenton, Bruno; Carnesecchi, Julie; Bachmann, Alice; Gauthier, Karine Cécile; Yu, Shan; Giguère, Vincent; Chan, Franky L; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2014-10-21

    Several physiopathological processes require orientated cellular migration. This phenomenon highly depends on members of the RHO family of GTPases. Both excessive and deficient RHO activity impair directional migration. A tight control is thus exerted on these proteins through the regulation of their activation and of their stability. Here we show that the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) directly activates the expression of TNFAIP1, the product of which [BTB/POZ domain-containing adapter for Cullin3-mediated RhoA degradation 2 (BACURD2)] regulates RHOA protein turnover. Inactivation of the receptor leads to enhanced RHOA stability and activation. This results in cell disorientation, increased actin network, and inability to form a lamellipodium at the migration edge. As a consequence, directional migration, but not cell motility per se, is impaired in the absence of the receptor, under pathological as well as physiological conditions. Altogether, our results show that the control exerted by ERRα on RHOA stability is required for directional migration.

  11. Interleukin-17A and Neutrophils in a Murine Model of Bird-Related Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishizuka

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP is an immune mediated lung disease induced by the repeated inhalation of a wide variety of antigens. Bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (BRHP is one of the most common forms of HP in human and results from the inhalation of avian antigens. The findings of a recent clinical analysis suggest that in addition to Th1 factors, the levels of interleukin(IL-17 and IL-17-associated transcripts are increased in the setting of HP, and that both IL-17A and neutrophils are crucial for the development of pulmonary inflammation in murine models of HP. Our objectives were to investigate the roles of IL-17A and neutrophils in granuloma-forming inflammation in an acute HP model. We developed a mouse model of acute BRHP using pigeon dropping extract. We evaluated the process of granuloma formation and the roles of both IL-17A and neutrophils in a model. We found that the neutralization of IL-17A by the antibody attenuated granuloma formation and the recruitment of neutrophils, and also decreased the expression level of chemokine(C-X-C motif ligand 5 (CXCL5 in the acute HP model. We confirmed that most of the neutrophils in the acute HP model exhibited immunoreactivity to the anti-IL-17 antibody. We have identified the central roles of both IL-17A and neutrophils in the pathogenesis of granuloma formation in acute HP. We have also assumed that neutrophils are an important source of IL-17A in an acute HP model, and that the IL-17A-CXCL5 pathway may be responsible for the recruitment of neutrophils.

  12. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, Anders P.; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N.; Forsman, Jukka T.; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E.; Gosler, Andrew G.; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R.; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A.; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C.; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G.; Norte, Ana C.; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S.; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T.; da Silva, Luís P.; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J.; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of

  13. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  14. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  15. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Eglington

    Full Text Available Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  16. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci from 8 human cases of psittacosis and 4 related birds in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadario, María E; Frutos, María C; Arias, Maite B; Origlia, Javier A; Zelaya, Vanina; Madariaga, María J; Lara, Claudia S; Ré, Viviana; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    In Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci infections are still not sufficiently known. A total of 846 respiratory and 10 ocular samples from patients with suspected human psittacosis were tested for C. psittaci from January 2010 to March 2015. Four samples of birds related to these patients were also studied. Forty-eight samples were positive for C. psittaci by a nested PCR. The molecular characterization of twelve C. psittaci PCR-positive samples received in the National Reference Laboratory INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed. Eight positive samples from humans and four from birds were genotyped by ompA gene sequencing. C. psittaci genotype A was found in all human samples and in the related birds. This report contributes to our increasing knowledge of the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of C. psittaci to conduct effective surveillance of its zoonotic infections. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential timing and latitudinal variation in sex ratio of Aquatic Warblers during the autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.

    2017-12-01

    Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.

  18. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutner, V., E-mail: vgoutner@bio.auth.gr [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Becker, P.H., E-mail: peter.becker@ifv-vogelwarte.de [Institute of Avian Research ' Vogelwarte Helgoland' , An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Liordos, V., E-mail: liordos@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g{sup -1} dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g{sup -1} dw), {Sigma} HCHs (47 ng g{sup -1} dw) and HCB (116 ng g{sup -1} dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas {Sigma} PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g{sup -1} dw). {beta}-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and {Sigma} DDTs/{Sigma}PCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g{sup -1} dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g{sup -1} dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Mercury, p,p'-DDE, {beta}-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. {yields} More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. {yields} Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). {yields} Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  19. Chemically-induced liquid film migration with low lattice diffusivity relative to the migration rate in Mo-Ni-(W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that when a 90Mo-10Ni alloy (by wt) liquid phase sintered at 1400 degrees C is heat-treated at 1400 degrees C after replacing the matrix with a melt of 44Ni-34Mo-22W (by wt), the liquid films between the grains migrate, leaving behind an Mo alloy enriched with W. The ratio of the lattice diffusivity of W in Mo, D, to the initial migration velocity, v. (D/v) is estimated to be between 0.03 and 0.18 angstrom. Hence it appears that there is no lattice diffusion of W ahead of the migrating liquid film, and is such a case the driving force has been suggested to be the chemical free energy. But the observed v is approximately same as that to be expected if the driving force is assumed to be diffusional coherency strain energy. Likewise, a previous study of den Broeder and Nakahara shows that the rate of chemically-induced grain boundary migration in Cu-Ni shows a smooth variation with temperature as D/v decreases from values much larger than the interatomic spacing to values much smaller with decreasing temperature. The coherency strain energy thus appears to be a general driving force for the migration even when the apparent diffusion length indicated by D/v is smaller than the interatomic spacing

  20. Migration-related detention centers: the challenges of an ecological perspective with a focus on justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Ornelas, José; Arcidiacono, Caterina

    2015-06-06

    In recent years, border control and migration-related detention have become increasingly widespread practices affecting the lives of undocumented migrants, their families, and communities at large. In spite of the concern within academia, few studies have directly witnessed the life and experiences of people confined to migration-related detention centers. In the medical and psychological fields, a considerable body of research has demonstrated the pathogenic nature of detention in terms of mental health, showing an association between length of detention and severity of distress. Nevertheless, it was limited to the assessment of individuals' clinical consequences, mainly focusing on asylum seekers. There currently exists a need to adopt an ecological perspective from which to study detained migrants' experiences as context-dependent, and influenced by power inequalities. This paper addresses this gap. Drawing upon advances in community psychology, we illustrate an ecological framework for the study of migration-related detention contexts, and their effects on the lives of detained migrants and all people exposed to them. Making use of existing literature, Kelly's four principles (interdependence, cycling of resources, adaptation, succession) are analyzed at multiple ecological levels (personal, interpersonal, organizational, communal), highlighting implications for future research in this field. A focus on justice, as a key-dimension of analysis, is also discussed. Wellbeing is acknowledged as a multilevel, dynamic, and value-dependent phenomenon. In presenting this alternative framework, the potential for studying migration-related detention through an ecological lens is highlighted, pointing the way for future fields of study. We argue that ecological multilevel analyses, conceptualized in terms of interdependent systems and with a focus on justice, can enhance the comprehension of the dynamics at play in migration-related detention centers, providing an

  1. Joint review of related contracts on bird populations in the Ravenglass Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.; Evans, P.R.; Lowe, V.P.W.

    1987-10-01

    Black-headed Gulls breeding at Ravenglass (and at other coastal sites in Cumbria) fed exclusively inland during the breeding season and so they and their young could not have acquired any radionuclides present in the estuarine muds and invertebrates. Levels in the invertebrates and in gull tissues were low; they were slightly higher in Shelducks, which feed on estuarine invertebrates but have nested successfully at Ravenglass in recent years. Gulls and two other ground-nesting bird species have suffered severe disturbance and predation by foxes in recent springs at Ravenglass; Shelducks nest in burrows and have escaped such effects. Levels of radionuclides in birds, particularly gulls, are too low to have caused breeding failures at Ravenglass. (author)

  2. Cholinesterase (ChE) response and related mortality among birds fed ChE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.; Hill, E.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Patterns of mortality and inhibition of brain and plasma ChE in birds treated with ChE inhibitors were studied in an attempt to determine the validity of using ChE activity as a monitoring and diagnostic technique. Analysis of brain ChE activity proved to be reliable for diagnosing and monitoring effects of selected ChE inhibitors in birds. Brain ChE inhibition exceeding 20% indicated exposure, and inhibition greater than 50% was sufficient for diagnosing cause of death. Individuals that died from dietary exposure to parathion or carbofuran had brain ChE activities below 55% of normal; although individuals could survive with brain ChE activity lower than 50%. Problems associated with collection, storage, and analysis of tissues for ChE activity are discussed.

  3. Bird species turnover is related to changing predation risk along a vegetation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A.; Hemenway, Amy B.; Boccadori, Vanna; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Turnover in animal species along vegetation gradients is often assumed to reflect adaptive habitat preferences that are narrower than the full gradient. Specifically, animals may decline in abundance where their reproductive success is low, and these poor-quality locations differ among species. Yet habitat use does not always appear adaptive. The crucial tests of how abundances and demographic costs of animals vary along experimentally manipulated vegetation gradients are lacking. We examined habitat use and nest predation rates for 16 bird species that exhibited turnover with shifts in deciduous and coniferous vegetation. For most bird species, decreasing abundance was associated with increasing predation rates along both natural and experimentally modified vegetation gradients. This landscape-scale approach strongly supports the idea that vegetation-mediated effects of predation are associated with animal distributions and species turnover.

  4. Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Christina; Hutton, Pierce; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Sepp, Tuul

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis has so far received little exploratory support, since studies of digestive efficiency of wild animals are limited due to methodological difficulties. Recently, a method for quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal samples to measure digestive efficiency has been developed in birds. Here, we use this method to test if the intensity of the carotenoid-based coloration predicts digestive efficiency in a wild bird, the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus). The redness of carotenoid feather coloration (hue) positively predicted digestion efficiency, with redder birds being more efficient at absorbing fats from seeds. We show for the first time in a wild species that digestive efficiency predicts ornamental coloration. Though not conclusive due to the correlative nature of our study, these results strongly suggest that fat extraction might be a crucial but overlooked process behind many ornamental traits.

  5. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  6. Spatial Variation in Bird Community Composition in Relation to Topographic Gradient and Forest Heterogeneity in a Central Amazonian Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of landscape features and forest structure on the avian community at the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke near Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon. We sampled the landscape and forest in 72 50 × 50 m plots systematically distributed in the reserve, covering an area of 6,400 ha. The avifauna was sampled using mist nets and acoustic surveys near the plots. We found no significant relationships between landscape features and forest components in the plots and the number of bird species and individuals sampled. Results of Principal Coordinate Analyses, however, showed that bird species composition changes along a topographic gradient (plateau-slope-valley, and also in relation to leaf litter depth and distance to forest streams. We also found compositional differences in the avian community on the eastern and western water basins that compose the reserve. Our results suggest that although most bird species occur throughout the reserve, many species track differences in the landscape and the forest structure.

  7. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  8. The Spatial Structure of Planform Migration - Curvature Relation of Meandering Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneralp, I.; Rhoads, B. L.

    2005-12-01

    Planform dynamics of meandering rivers have been of fundamental interest to fluvial geomorphologists and engineers because of the intriguing complexity of these dynamics, the role of planform change in floodplain development and landscape evolution, and the economic and social consequences of bank erosion and channel migration. Improved understanding of the complex spatial structure of planform change and capacity to predict these changes are important for effective stream management, engineering and restoration. The planform characteristics of a meandering river channel are integral to its planform dynamics. Active meandering rivers continually change their positions and shapes as a consequence of hydraulic forces exerted on the channel banks and bed, but as the banks and bed change through sediment transport, so do the hydraulic forces. Thus far, this complex feedback between form and process is incompletely understood, despite the fact that the characteristics and the dynamics of meandering rivers have been studied extensively. Current theoretical models aimed at predicting planform dynamics relate rates of meander migration to local and upstream planform curvature where weighting of the influence of curvature on migration rate decays exponentially over distance. This theoretical relation, however, has not been rigorously evaluated empirically. Furthermore, although models based on exponential-weighting of curvature effects yield fairly realistic predictions of meander migration, such models are incapable of reproducing complex forms of bend development, such as double heading or compound looping. This study presents the development of a new methodology based on parametric cubic spline interpolation for the characterization of channel planform and the planform curvature of meandering rivers. The use of continuous mathematical functions overcomes the reliance on bend-averaged values or piece-wise discrete approximations of planform curvature - a major limitation

  9. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  10. Morphological constraints on changing avian migration phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2017-06-01

    Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 European migratory bird species. Species with larger aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, may hinder phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. PVC cling film in contact with cheese: health aspects related to global migration and specific migration of DEHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk; Nielsen, Preben Aagård

    1995-01-01

    experiment samples of cheese of the types most commonly consumed in Denmark were wrapped in this 'low migration' PVC film using a procedure simulating the actual pattern of use in retail shops. After a storage time of 2 h at 5 degrees C the level of DEHA was 45 mg/kg of cheese, which after 10 days increased...... of DEHA close to or above the tolerable daily intake of 0.3 mg/kg body weight as defined by the EEC Scientific Committee for Food. Furthermore, it is stressed that measurements of global migration followed by uncritical use of reduction factors may result in erroneous evaluation of the suitability of DEHA-plasticized......Following exposure to the food simulant olive oil for 10 days at 5, 20 or 40 degrees C a global migration ranging from 20 to 30 mg/dm(2) was detected from a common 'low migration' PVC film plasticized with a mixture of di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and a polymeric plasticizer. In a laboratory...

  12. Shades of green: A bird's eye view of wind energy; L'energie eolienne et son impact sur les oiseaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, B.; Kingsley, A.

    2003-03-31

    The issue of birds being killed by wind turbines is discussed. The substance of the argument is that contrary to beliefs held primarily by those opposed to wind turbine developments, when correctly sited, wind turbines appear to have relatively little impact on birds. Historically, 'bird-kill' was a significant factor in the 1980s when a significant number of raptors were killed by wind turbines and their associated power lines in California, Tennessee, Spain and the Netherlands, where many turbines were located on major bird migration routes. Based on experiences learned from these occurrences, several countries have produced bird-focused guidelines for the siting of wind turbines. In Canada, Bird Studies Canada was recently contracted by Environment Canada to produce guidelines for the environmental assessment of wind turbine projects related to birds. The objective of the guidelines is to help prevent adverse impacts on birds, whether the impact is related to habitat disturbance or collision. Based on American studies, it is estimated that 2.19 birds are killed annually at each wind turbine in California; the estimated fatality rate elsewhere in the United States is 1.83. That works out to 33,000 dead birds (based on 15,000 wind turbines), a large number, but relatively small when compared with the millions of birds that travel over windfarms each year, or when compared to the many millions of birds that die annually due to collisions with transmission lines, vehicles, buildings and communication towers. Nevertheless, there is room for concern. Bird Studies Canada is particularly concerned about the growing offshore wind industry and its potential to disrupt songbird migration, waterfowl staging areas and the prey base of seabirds. In general, Bird Studies Canada advises against siting large wind facilities in areas heavily travelled by birds, and is firmly opposed to placing wind turbines in areas known to provide critical habitat for Species At Risk

  13. Decadal shifts in autumn migration timing by Pacific Arctic beluga whales are related to delayed annual sea ice formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Donna D W; Laidre, Kristin L; Stafford, Kathleen M; Stern, Harry L; Suydam, Robert S; Richard, Pierre R

    2017-06-01

    Migrations are often influenced by seasonal environmental gradients that are increasingly being altered by climate change. The consequences of rapid changes in Arctic sea ice have the potential to affect migrations of a number of marine species whose timing is temporally matched to seasonal sea ice cover. This topic has not been investigated for Pacific Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that follow matrilineally maintained autumn migrations in the waters around Alaska and Russia. For the sympatric Eastern Chukchi Sea ('Chukchi') and Eastern Beaufort Sea ('Beaufort') beluga populations, we examined changes in autumn migration timing as related to delayed regional sea ice freeze-up since the 1990s, using two independent data sources (satellite telemetry data and passive acoustics) for both populations. We compared dates of migration between 'early' (1993-2002) and 'late' (2004-2012) tagging periods. During the late tagging period, Chukchi belugas had significantly delayed migrations (by 2 to >4 weeks, depending on location) from the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Spatial analyses also revealed that departure from Beaufort Sea foraging regions by Chukchi whales was postponed in the late period. Chukchi beluga autumn migration timing occurred significantly later as regional sea ice freeze-up timing became later in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas. In contrast, Beaufort belugas did not shift migration timing between periods, nor was migration timing related to freeze-up timing, other than for southward migration at the Bering Strait. Passive acoustic data from 2008 to 2014 provided independent and supplementary support for delayed migration from the Beaufort Sea (4 day yr -1 ) by Chukchi belugas. Here, we report the first phenological study examining beluga whale migrations within the context of their rapidly transforming Pacific Arctic ecosystem, suggesting flexible responses that may enable their persistence yet also complicate predictions of how

  14. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  15. The Dynamics of Migration-Related Stress and Coping of Female Domestic Workers from the Philippines: An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, A.J.; Ujano-Batangan, M.T.; Ignacio, R.; Wolffers, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in

  16. Intra-European labour migration and deteriorating employment relations in Danish Cleaning and Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    Eastern and Central European labour migration following the EU enlargement has significant impact on the Nordic labour markets. This article demonstrates, through sector-based case studies in Denmark, how labour migration influences working condition and wages in two sectors that have so far only...... been sparsely studied: the agriculture and cleaning industries. The high inflow of labour migrants is used by some employers to bypass and undermine the institutionalized class compromise, by employing EU8/2-workers at lower wages and often without collective agreements coverage frequently combined...... with below average working conditions. This put strains on the Danish agreement-based model of industrial relations, potentially leading to a more segmented labour market as well as replacement of native, mainly low-skilled workers with EU8/2-workers....

  17. A Comparative Study of Species Diversity of Migrant Birds Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory birds in the ...

  18. Innate humoural immunity is related to eggshell bacterial load of European birds: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Juan José; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2011-09-01

    Fitness benefits associated with the development of a costly immune system would include not only self-protection against pathogenic microorganisms but also protection of host offspring if it reduces the probability and the rate of vertical transmission of microorganisms. This possibility predicts a negative relationship between probabilities of vertical transmission of symbionts and level of immune response that we here explore inter-specifically. We estimated eggshell bacterial loads by culturing heterotrophic bacteria, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae on the eggshells of 29 species of birds as a proxy of vertical transmission of bacteria from mother to offspring. For this pool of species, we also estimated innate immune response (natural antibody and complement (lysis)) of adults, which constitute the main defence against bacterial infection. Multivariate general linear models revealed the predicted negative association between natural antibodies and density of bacteria on the eggshell of 19 species of birds for which we sampled the eggs in more than one nest. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations for heterotrophic bacteria and for Enterobacteriaceae, a group of bacteria that includes important pathogens of avian embryos. Therefore, these results suggest a possible trans-generational benefit of developing a strong immune system by reducing vertical transmission of pathogens.

  19. Miniaturised sample preparation method for the multiresidual determination of regulated organohalogenated pollutants and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Ramos, Lourdes; Jiménez, Begoña

    2017-08-01

    A simplified, miniaturised matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-based method allowing the simultaneous extraction and purification of contaminants belonging to selected families of regulated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and penta- to octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and related contaminants of emerging concern, such as deca-BDE and Dechlorane Plus (DP), has been proposed. Wild bird eggs were used as biotic fat-containing model matrices. Once optimised, the procedure allowed sample preparation to be accomplished within 30 min, in a single step, and with minimal sample and reagent consumption and waste generation. These features contributed to speeding up and greening the analytical process as compared to the large-scale multistep procedures for these types of analyses. The method was combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) for PCB and OCP analysis and with GC-negative ion chemical ionisation-quadrupole mass spectrometry (NCI-qMS) for PBDE and DP determination. The complete analytical method provided satisfactory recoveries of the target compounds (above 83% for all analytes, except for PBDE 209, 63%), although as small an amount of sample as 0.300 g was used. The repeatability of the complete procedure was less than 16% (with the only exception for PCB 153, which looked to be affected by an interference). The limits of detection were in all cases lower than 34 pg g -1 dry weight (as calculated for real samples), demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed procedure for accurate determination of the target compounds in biological samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of the target POPs in unhatched eggs of wild bird species. Graphical abstract Scheme of the miniaturised methodology proposed for environmental monitoring of POPs and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

  20. Age-related mercury contamination and relationship with luteinizing hormone in a long-lived Antarctic bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Seabirds, as long-lived top predators, accumulate contaminants such as mercury (Hg, an established endocrine disruptor. In long lived species hormonal secretion varies with age; therefore, Hg-induced endocrine disruption may be exacerbated in some age classes. Here we investigated relationships between blood total Hg and luteinizing hormone (LH, a key pituitary hormone for the onset of breeding, in pre-laying known-age (11-45 years old snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea from Adélie Land, Antarctica. We predicted that 1 blood Hg would increase with advancing age as a consequence of bio-accumulation; and that 2 increasing blood Hg would be related to decreased concentrations of LH in the most Hg-contaminated individuals. Hg concentrations were higher in females than in males (p<0.001, and contrary to our prediction, decreased with advancing age in males (p = 0.009 and tended to do so in females (p = 0.06. The analysis of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N suggested that this unexpected pattern could originate from age and sex-related variations in trophic niche, and hence Hg exposure. Regarding LH, our prediction was only supported in young birds (≤23 years where baseline LH was inversely correlated with Hg concentrations (p = 0.04. Hg burden did not predict baseline LH or GnRH-induced LH in birds that were more than 23 years old. These results show that age and contaminants may interfere with major endocrine mechanisms and, together with other recent studies, support the view that Hg could be connected to LH secretion and could then impair the fitness of long-lived birds.

  1. Disease dynamics and bird migration-linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza a virus in time and space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Gunnarsson (Gunnar); N. Latorre-Margalef (Neus); K.A. Hobson (Keith); S.L. van Wilgenburg (Steven); J. Elmberg (Johan); B. Olsen (Björn); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J. Waldenström (Jonas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and

  2. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  3. The Influence of Migration Crisis in Europe on EU-Turkey Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P. Timofeyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of the migration crisis in the EU on the European Union's relations with Turkey. It is shown that for a number of reasons, including a result of EU actions taken from 2011 to 2015, EU has experienced an influx of migrants on a number of routes from the Western to the Eastern Mediterranean. The largest of them fell on Turkey, which has tried to use this factor to exert pressure on the EU in order to obtain economic and political preferences. The author examines the development of the EU migration policy in the context of the crisis, its trying to bring Turkey to cooperate and difficult negotiations, which took place at the summits of the EU-Turkey at the end of 2015. There have been disagreements among the EU countries, and the time factor, which Turkey took advantage of, advancing conditions for the closure of borders to Europe for migrants. Facing the influx of migrants the EU had to agree with a number of conditions, though not with all. The author shows that the agreement reached by the country in March 2016 is not universal, and a number of issues important to the resolution of the crisis, are waiting to be decided upon. However, according to the author, the development of the current crisis can lead both to the reform of the migration and border policy within the EU, and to restarting relations with Turkey. Though guessing on possibilities on Turkey's entry to the EU in the near future is still premature.

  4. The dynamics of migration-related stress and coping of female domestic workers from the Philippines: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Alida Joanna; Ujano-Batangan, Maria Theresa; Ignacio, Raquel; Wolffers, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in different phases of the migration process; prior to migration, in the country of destination and upon return to the Philippines. Data were collected in 2010 using questionnaires (N = 500). Validation of findings took place in a work shop (23 participants) and two focus groups (13 and 8 participants). Stress levels of women were significantly higher abroad than in the Philippines. Stress and coping in the Philippines was primarily related to financial issues, while stress and coping abroad related more strongly loneliness, working conditions and employers. Findings from this study provide insight in the phase-specific and transnational dimensions of stress and coping.

  5. Mass and performance optimization of an airplane wing leading edge structure against bird strike using Taguchi-based grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Pahange

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between birds and aircraft are one of the most dangerous threats to flight safety. In this study, smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH method is used for simulating the bird strike to an airplane wing leading edge structure. In order to verify the model, first, experiment of bird strike to a flat aluminum plate is simulated, and then bird impact on an airplane wing leading edge structure is investigated. After that, considering dimensions of wing internal structural components like ribs, skin and spar as design variables, we try to minimize structural mass and wing skin deformation simultaneously. To do this, bird strike simulations to 18 different wing structures are made based on Taguchi’s L18 factorial design of experiment. Then grey relational analysis is used to minimize structural mass and wing skin deformation due to the bird strike. The analysis of variance (ANOVA is also applied and it is concluded that the most significant parameter for the performance of wing structure against impact is the skin thickness. Finally, a validation simulation is conducted under the optimal condition to show the improvement of performance of the wing structure.

  6. Spawning migration of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller), in relation to lunal cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Effects of lunar phases and tidal height on the spawning migration of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas, along the northeastern coast of India were studied. Mature pairs of crabs migrate towards the shore and build their nests in sandy beaches...

  7. Evolution of iris colour in relation to cavity nesting and parental care in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Thornton, Alex; Clayton, Nicola S

    2017-01-01

    Strong selection pressures are known to act on animal coloration. Although many animals vary in eye colour, virtually no research has investigated the functional significance of these colour traits. Passeriformes have a range of iris colours, making them an ideal system to investigate how and why iris colour has evolved. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested the hypothesis that conspicuous iris colour in passerine birds evolved in response to (a) coordination of offspring care and (b) cavity nesting, two traits thought to be involved in intra-specific gaze sensitivity. We found that iris colour and cooperative offspring care by two or more individuals evolved independently, suggesting that bright eyes are not important for coordinating parental care through eye gaze. Furthermore, we found that evolution between iris colour and nesting behaviour did occur in a dependent manner, but contrary to predictions, transitions to coloured eyes were not more frequent in cavity nesters than non-cavity nesters. Instead, our results indicate that selection away from having bright eyes was much stronger in non-cavity nesters than cavity nesters, perhaps because conspicuous eye coloration in species not concealed within a cavity would be more visible to predators. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Emotional Testimonies:An Ethnographic Study of Emotional Suffering Related to Migration from Mexico to Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eCrocker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly argued that social and economic inequity poorly affect overall health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This paper examines migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and reports on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Data were drawn from a qualitative, ethnographic study conducted over the course of 14 months during 2013-2014 with first generation Mexican immigrants (N=40 residing in Tucson Arizona and service providers working directly in the immigrant community (N=32. Results indicate that the primary structural vulnerabilities that cause emotional hardship amongst immigrants are pre-migration stressors and adversity, dangerous border crossings, detention and deportation, undocumented citizenship status, family separation, and extreme poverty. Many of these factors have intensified over the past decade due to increased border security and state level anti-immigrant legislation in Arizona. Immigrants connected these hardships to the emotions of trauma (50%, fear (65%, depression (75%, loneliness (75%, sadness (80%, and stress (85%, and most respondents reported suffering from three or more of these emotions. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security had on well-being, this paper argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community. In order to stem the frequency and intensity of emotional stress in the Mexican immigrant community in Tucson, it is imperative to support organizations and policies that promote community building and support networks and also expand access to and availability of mental health services for immigrants regardless of documentation status.

  9. Emotional Testimonies: An Ethnographic Study of Emotional Suffering Related to Migration from Mexico to Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that social and economic inequities poorly affect overall health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This paper examines migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and reports on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Data were drawn from a qualitative, ethnographic study conducted over the course of 14 months during 2013–2014 with first-generation Mexican immigrants (N = 40) residing in Tucson Arizona and service providers working directly in the immigrant community (N = 32). Results indicate that the primary structural vulnerabilities that cause emotional hardship among immigrants are pre-migration stressors and adversity, dangerous border crossings, detention and deportation, undocumented citizenship status, family separation, and extreme poverty. Many of these factors have intensified over the past decade due to increased border security and state level anti-immigrant legislation in Arizona. Immigrants connected these hardships to the emotions of trauma (50%), fear (65%), depression (75%), loneliness (75%), sadness (80%), and stress (85%), and most respondents reported suffering from three or more of these emotions. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security had on well-being, this paper argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community. In order to stem the frequency and intensity of emotional stress in the Mexican immigrant community in Tucson, it is imperative to support organizations and policies that promote community building and support networks and also expand access to and availability of mental health services for immigrants regardless of documentation status. PMID

  10. Brood division in birds in relation to offspring size: sibling rivalry and parental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold

    1997-12-01

    In some altricial birds with biparental care, it is the female, and in others the male, that provides more food to the smallest offspring within the brood. Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for such puzzling patterns of parental care. A parsimonious explanation is that no difference exists between the parents in priority of care but that differences arise simply from sibling rivalry, with dominant chicks trying to position themselves closest to the parent that provides most care (the sibling rivalry hypothesis). A refinement of the idea is that parents use the way they approach the chicks to counter selfish offspring and in this way control allocation of care (the parental approaching hypothesis). A comparison across species suggested that female care of the smallest chick within a brood is the ancestral and most common pattern. However, strong variation exists within single populations. In one species, the American robin, Turdus migratorius the sibling rivalry hypothesis and the parental approaching hypothesis were both supported because in broods where males provided more care than females, the largest chick was predominantly fed by the male whereas the smallest chick was predominantly fed by the female. When the male provided less care than the female, an opposite result was found. The same patterns of allocation of care also seemed to exist when chicks were quite immobile just after having left the nest and when their positions were experimentally controlled, suggesting parental control.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

    2002-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

  12. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    This annual report describes research conducted in FY 1990 by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project. This multi-agency project measures the underground movement of radionuclides related to nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. This project continues the long-term experiment at the site of the Cambric nuclear test. Water pumped from a well adjacent to the explosion cavity continues to show decreasing amounts of tritium and Krypton 85 but no Cesium 139. Analyses of drillback debris shows a distinction between refractory and volatile materials in respect to both their location in the test cavity and their leachability with groundwater. We surveyed materials used during nuclear testing to evaluate any post-test hazard; we concluded that most such materials pose a minimal hazard. The Los Alamos drilling program provided an opportunity for us to sample a collapsed zone above the cavity of a test, which was fired 2 years ago. We continue our research in colloid characterization and in detection of low levels of Technetium 99 in Nevada Test Site water. During FY 1990, we drilled a new hole in the Yucca Flat area to study radionuclide migration. This report also describes Los Alamos management and planning activities in support of this project. 20 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  14. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  15. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drooge, Barend van; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for ΣPCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors

  16. A Physics-Inspired Mechanistic Model of Migratory Movement Patterns in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Christopher; Somveille, Marius

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we introduce a mechanistic model of migratory movement patterns in birds, inspired by ideas and methods from physics. Previous studies have shed light on the factors influencing bird migration but have mainly relied on statistical correlative analysis of tracking data. Our novel method offers a bottom up explanation of population-level migratory movement patterns. It differs from previous mechanistic models of animal migration and enables predictions of pathways and destinations from a given starting location. We define an environmental potential landscape from environmental data and simulate bird movement within this landscape based on simple decision rules drawn from statistical mechanics. We explore the capacity of the model by qualitatively comparing simulation results to the non-breeding migration patterns of a seabird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris). This minimal, two-parameter model was able to capture remarkably well the previously documented migration patterns of the Black-browed Albatross, with the best combination of parameter values conserved across multiple geographically separate populations. Our physics-inspired mechanistic model could be applied to other bird and highly-mobile species, improving our understanding of the relative importance of various factors driving migration and making predictions that could be useful for conservation.

  17. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations

  18. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  19. 78 FR 9569 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population, Refugees, and...

  20. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of Bureau of Population, Refugees, and...

  1. Limitations and mechanisms influencing the migratory performance of soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia A. Miller; Brooks Robert P.; Michael J. Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Junior A. Tremblay; Jay Wilhelm; Adam Duerr; Todd E. Katzner

    2016-01-01

    Migration is costly in terms of time, energy and safety. Optimal migration theory suggests that individual migratory birds will choose between these three costs depending on their motivation and available resources. To test hypotheses about use of migratory strategies by large soaring birds, we used GPS telemetry to track 18 adult, 13 sub-adult and 15 juvenile Golden...

  2. Use of airborne multispectral scanner data to map alteration related to roll-front uranium migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-enhanced airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) images have been used to detect and map red oxidized alteration related to roll-front uranium migration in the southern Powder River basin, Wyoming. Information in the 0.4- to 1.1-μm spectral region was used to produce a color ratio composite image, upon which the red-altered areas can be differentiated. The red-altered and incipiently altered sandstones result from the migration of a roll-front (or geochemical cell) through the sandstone in the direction of the hydrologic gradient. Most uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at the boundary between this oxidized sandstone and reduced sandstone. Therefore, the ability to detect and map this alteration reliably can provide important information about the potential for uranium mineralization down gradient from the altered areas, at the surface in an area of interest. Spectral reflectance studies indicate that a shift in the absorption band edge from 0.52 μm (for goethitic sandstone) to 0.58 μm (for hematitic sandstone) and an intensification of an absorption band at 0.85 μm (for hematitic sandstone) are the bases for identifying the red-altered sandstone as green anomalous areas on the color ratio composite image. Some of the incipiently altered sandstone also appears green, whereas unaltered material and white-altered sandstone appear as blue to cyan colors. Therefore, the composite image is useful in discriminating hematitic sandstone from goethitic sandstone. At high densities (>65%), vegetation masks the sandstones on the color ratio composite image. Artemisia tridentata (sage) and Stipa comata (grass) are the species that have the greatest individual effect on the image

  3. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Invasion Percolation Models To Study the Secondary Migration of Oil and Related Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in porous media and in a single fracture. The simulations are based on the invasion percolation model. New modified versions of the model are presented that simulate migration, fragmentation and coalescence processes of the clusters of non-wetting fluid. The resulting displacement patterns are characterized by scaling laws. In particular, simulations of the secondary migration of oil through porous homogeneous rock are discussed. Fractured rocks are extreme cases of inhomogeneous porous media. Simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a single fracture using the standard invasion model are presented. There is a discussion of a scenario in which a cluster of non-wetting fluid migrates through a porous medium that was saturated with a wetting fluid. The migration is driven by continuously driven buoyancy forces. Both experiments and simulations are described. The same scenario is also studied theoretically and by simulations using a simplified percolation model of fluid migration in one dimension. The migration model in two dimensions, with constant buoyancy forces, is also discussed. Simulations of fluid migration, such as the secondary migration of oil, in two- and three-dimensional media are examined, the media having multi-affine properties rather than being homogeneous. Slow immiscible displacement processes in single fractures are studied using fractal geometries to model single fractures. 167 refs., 123 figs.

  5. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  6. Plumage quality mediates a life-history trade-off in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlaszczuk, Patrycja; Kamiński, Maciej; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Minias, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap. The effect of juvenile plumage quality on the occurrence of moult-migration overlap was studied in a migratory shorebird, the common snipe Gallinago gallinago . Ca. 400 of first-year common snipe were captured during their final stage of autumn migration through Central Europe. The quality of juvenile feathers was assessed as the mass-length residuals of retained juvenile rectrices. Condition of migrating birds was assessed with the mass of accumulated fat reserves and whole-blood hemoglobin concentration. Path analysis was used to disentangle complex interrelationships between plumage quality, moult and body condition. Snipe which grew higher-quality feathers in the pre-fledging period were less likely to initiate moult during migration. Individuals moulting during migration had lower fat loads and hemoglobin concentrations compared to non-moulting birds, suggesting a trade-off in resource allocation, where energetic costs of moult reduced both energy reserves available for migration and resources available for maintenance of high oxygen capacity of blood. The results of this study indicate that a major life-history trade-off in a migratory bird may be mediated by the quality of juvenile plumage. This is consistent with a silver spoon effect, where early-life investment in feather quality affects future performance of birds during

  7. Observation of bird interaction with wind turbines : Canadian applications and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [Vision Quest Windelectric Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, to determine the impact of wind turbines on birds. The wind farm includes a total of 60 turbines. The study consisted of 30 observation days between March and December 2001 during which time nearly 2000 birds were monitored. These included 27 different species, including 181 raptors, 1021 waterfowl, and 821 passerines. The observations focused on spring and fall migration of birds. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. In total, 4 dead birds were found over the 9 month period, which translates to 0.15 birds per turbine per year. This study demonstrates that there are few bird fatalities associated with wind turbines, therefore it was concluded that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. The results of this study are consistent with international studies. 2 figs.

  8. Assessing the relative importance of isolated Ficus trees to insectivorous birds in an Indian human-modified tropical landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bregman, Tom P.

    2017-01-01

    The destruction of forest for agricultural expansion has created a vast estate of human-modified land in tropical regions. One group of organisms that are particularly vulnerable to the loss of forest habitat are insectivorous birds. Despite this, few conservation strategies have been identified...... for this group in human-modified landscapes. We survey the use of 104 isolated trees by insectivorous birds in rural Assam, India. We used an information theoretic model comparison approach to determine the important variables driving insectivorous bird diversity within these isolated trees. Our work...... demonstrates that the conservation of large trees in human-modified landscapes may play an important role in maintaining bird diversity and ecological function beyond the forest edge. More specifically, we found that isolated Ficus trees hold assemblages with particularly high insectivore abundance, richness...

  9. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  10. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  11. Microbial abundance on the eggs of a passerine bird and related fitness consequences between urban and rural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Hyunna; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun; Husby, Magne

    2017-01-01

    Urban environments present novel and challenging habitats to wildlife. In addition to well-known difference in abiotic factors between rural and urban environments, the biotic environment, including microbial fauna, may also differ significantly. In this study, we aimed to compare the change in microbial abundance on eggshells during incubation between urban and rural populations of a passerine bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica), and examine the consequences of any differences in microbial abundances in terms of hatching success and nestling survival. Using real-time PCR, we quantified the abundances of total bacteria, Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., surfactin-producing Bacillus spp. and Candida albicans on the eggshells of magpies. We found that urban magpie eggs harboured greater abundances of E. coli/Shigella spp. and C. albicans before incubation than rural magpie eggs. During incubation, there was an increase in the total bacterial load, but a decrease in C. albicans on urban eggs relative to rural eggs. Rural eggs showed a greater increase in E. coli/Shigella spp. relative to their urban counterpart. Hatching success of the brood was generally lower in urban than rural population. Nestling survival was differentially related with the eggshell microbial abundance between urban and rural populations, which was speculated to be the result of the difference in the strength of the interaction among the microbes. This is the first demonstration that avian clutches in urban and rural populations differ in eggshell microbial abundance, which can be further related to the difference in hatching success and nestling survival in these two types of environments. We suggest that future studies on the eggshell microbes should investigate the interaction among the microbes, because the incubation and/or environmental factors such as urbanization or climate condition can influence the dynamic interactions among the microbes on the eggshells which can further determine the

  12. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  13. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  14. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Nicholas Pc; Hine, Kathryn; Hegemann, Arne; Ndithia, Henry K; Shobrak, Mohammed; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Williams, Joseph B; Matson, Kevin D; Tieleman, B Irene

    2014-01-01

    All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to generally higher microbial abundances and diversity in more humid environments, including on the surface of eggshells, as well as the need for moisture to facilitate microbial penetration of the eggshell. To protect against microbial infection, the albumen of avian eggs contains antimicrobial proteins, including lysozyme and ovotransferrin. We tested whether lysozyme and ovotransferrin activities varied in eggs of larks (Alaudidae) living along an arid-mesic gradient of environmental aridity, which we used as a proxy for risk of trans-shell infection. Contrary to expectations, lysozyme activity was highest in eggs from hotter, more arid locations, where we predicted the risk of trans-shell infection would be lower. Ovotransferrin concentrations did not vary with climatic factors. Temperature was a much better predictor of antimicrobial protein activity than precipitation, a result inconsistent with studies stressing the importance of moisture for trans-shell infection. Our study raises interesting questions about the links between temperature and lysozyme activity in eggs, but we find no support for the hypothesis that antimicrobial protein deposition is higher in eggs laid in wetter environments.

  15. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  16. The evolution of sex roles in birds is related to adult sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Székely, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Sex-role reversal represents a formidable challenge for evolutionary biologists, since it is not clear which ecological, life-history or social factors facilitated conventional sex roles (female care and male-male competition for mates) to be reversed (male care and female-female competition). Classic theories suggested ecological or life-history predictors of role reversal, but most studies failed to support these hypotheses. Recent theory however predicts that sex-role reversal should be driven by male-biased adult sex ratio (ASR). Here we test this prediction for the first time using phylogenetic comparative analyses. Consistent with theory, both mating system and parental care are strongly related to ASR in shorebirds: conventional sex roles are exhibited by species with female-biased ASR, whereas sex-role reversal is associated with male-biased ASR. These results suggest that social environment has a strong influence on breeding systems and therefore revealing the causes of ASR variation in wild populations is essential for understanding sex role evolution.

  17. Migratory bird habitat in relation to tile drainage and poorly drained hydrologic soil groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Brandi; Christensen, Victoria G.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Sanocki, Chris A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is home to more than 50% of the migratory waterfowl in North America. Although the PPR provides an abundance of temporary and permanent wetlands for nesting and feeding, increases in commodity prices and agricultural drainage practices have led to a trend of wetland drainage. The Northern Shoveler is a migratory dabbling duck species that uses wetland habitats and cultivated croplands in the PPR. Richland County in North Dakota and Roberts County in South Dakota have an abundance of wetlands and croplands and were chosen as the study areas for this research to assess the wetland size and cultivated cropland in relation to hydrologic soil groups for the Northern Shoveler habitat. This study used geographic information system data to analyze Northern Shoveler habitats in association with Natural Resource Conservation Service soil data. Habitats, which are spatially associated with certain hydrologic soil groups, may be at risk of artificial drainage installations because of their proximity to cultivated croplands and soil lacking in natural drainage that may become wet or inundated. Findings indicate that most wetlands that are part of Northern Shoveler habitats were within or adjacent to cultivated croplands. The results also revealed soil hydrologic groups with high runoff potential and low water transmission rates account for most of the soil within the Northern Shoveler‘s wetland and cropland habitats. Habitats near agriculture with high runoff potential are likely to be drained and this has the potential of reducing Northern Shoveler habitat.

  18. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.

  19. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2018-05-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Shobrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.

  1. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  2. Optimal swimming speed in head currents and effects on distance movement of winter-migrating fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Brodersen

    Full Text Available Migration is a commonly described phenomenon in nature that is often caused by spatial and temporal differences in habitat quality. However, as migration requires energy, the timing of migration may depend not only on differences in habitat quality, but also on temporal variation in migration costs. Such variation can, for instance, arise from changes in wind or current velocity for migrating birds and fish, respectively. Whereas behavioural responses of birds to such changing environmental conditions have been relatively well described, this is not the case for fish, although fish migrations are both ecologically and economically important. We here use passive and active telemetry to study how winter migrating roach regulate swimming speed and distance travelled per day in response to variations in head current velocity. Furthermore, we provide theoretical predictions on optimal swimming speeds in head currents and relate these to our empirical results. We show that fish migrate farther on days with low current velocity, but travel at a greater ground speed on days with high current velocity. The latter result agrees with our predictions on optimal swimming speed in head currents, but disagrees with previously reported predictions suggesting that fish ground speed should not change with head current velocity. We suggest that this difference is due to different assumptions on fish swimming energetics. We conclude that fish are able to adjust both swimming speed and timing of swimming activity during migration to changes in head current velocity in order to minimize energy use.

  3. Migration-related health inequalities: showing the complex interactions between gender, social class and place of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we briefly review theories and findings on migration and health from the health equity perspective, and then analyse migration-related health inequalities taking into account gender, social class and migration characteristics in the adult population aged 25-64 living in Catalonia, Spain. On the basis of the characterisation of migration types derived from the review, we distinguished between immigrants from other regions of Spain and those from other countries, and within each group, those from richer or poorer areas; foreign immigrants from low-income countries were also distinguished according to duration of residence. Further stratification by sex and social class was applied. Groups were compared in relation to self-assessed health in two cross-sectional population-based surveys, and in relation to indicators of socio-economic conditions (individual income, an index of material and financial assets, and an index of employment precariousness) in one survey. Social class and gender inequalities were evident in both health and socio-economic conditions, and within both the native and immigrant subgroups. Migration-related health inequalities affected both internal and international immigrants, but were mainly limited to those from poor areas, were generally consistent with their socio-economic deprivation, and apparently more pronounced in manual social classes and especially for women. Foreign immigrants from poor countries had the poorest socio-economic situation but relatively better health (especially men with shorter length of residence). Our findings on immigrants from Spain highlight the transitory nature of the 'healthy immigrant effect', and that action on inequality in socio-economic determinants affecting migrant groups should not be deferred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Invasion Percolation Models To Study the Secondary Migration of Oil and Related Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1997-09-01

    In oil reservoir engineering, multi-phase displacement processes are important. This doctoral thesis describes simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a complex, random porous medium and in a single fracture. The study is restricted to two-phase flow in the quasi-static limit in which viscous forces can be neglected. The secondary migration of oil takes place in this regime, however, the discussion is broader in scope. The thesis connects the problem of slow two-phase flow to percolation theory and discusses the mechanisms that control immiscible displacements. A new, modified version of the invasion percolation model is used to simulate an imbibition process in a porous medium and the migration of a cluster of non-wetting fluid through a porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid. The simulations include the secondary migration of oil through porous homogeneous rock. Fluid migration through heterogeneous porous media is simulated qualitatively. Slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a single rock fracture is simulated by using the standard invasion percolation model. Experiments and simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of invasion percolation-like structures of non-wetting fluid in a porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid. A scenario is studied in which a cluster of non-wettable fluid migrates through a porous medium that is saturated with a wetting fluid, the migration being driven by continuously increasing buoyancy forces. There is a simulation of the secondary migration of oil in both two- and three-dimensional media. 361 refs., 115 figs.

  5. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  6. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  7. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  8. Impact of Environmental Changes on Migratory Bird Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stöcker-Segre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves.

  9. Long-term changes in migration timing of Song Thrush Turdus philomelos at the southern Baltic coast in response to temperatures on route and at breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlisiak, Michał; Remisiewicz, Magdalena; Nowakowski, Jarosław K

    2018-05-26

    Climate warming causes the advancement of spring arrival of many migrant birds breeding in Europe, but the effects on their autumn migration are less known. We aimed to determine any changes in the timing of Song Thrush captured during spring and autumn migrations at the Polish Baltic coast from 1975 to 2014, and if these were related to long-term changes of temperature at their breeding grounds and migration routes. The timing of spring migration at Hel ringing station in 1975-2014 did not show long-term advance, but they had responded to environmental conditions on the year-to-year basis. The warmer the temperatures were in April on their migration route, the earlier were the dates of the median and the end of spring migration at Hel. The beginning of autumn migration at the Mierzeja Wiślana ringing station advanced by 5 days between 1975 and 2014. The warmer the April on route, and the July at the Song Thrushes' breeding grounds, the earlier young birds began autumn migration across the Baltic coast. We suggest this was a combined effect of adults' migration and breeding early during warm springs and young birds getting ready faster for autumn migration during warm summers. The average time span of 90% of the autumn migration was extended by 5 days, probably because of early migration of young birds from first broods and late of those from second broods enabled by warm springs and summers. The response of Song Thrushes' migration timing to temperatures on route and at the breeding grounds indicated high plasticity in the species and suggested it might adapt well to climate changes.

  10. Using the power of comparison to explain habitat use and migration strategies of shorebirds worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Bairlein, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shorebirds, or waders, form an ecologically (but not phylogenetically) homogenous group of birds that, despite this homogeneity, exhibits clear correlated contrasts in habitat use and migration distance between closely related species pairs. In addition, within species there is distinct variation in

  11. Nest densities of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging and time since wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the nest densities and nest survival of seven cavity-nesting bird species, including four open-space foragers (American Kestrel [Falco sparverius], Lewis's Woodpecker [Melanerpes lewis], Western Bluebird [Sialia mexicana], and Mountain Bluebird [S. currucoides]) and three wood...

  12. Assessing collision risk for birds and bats : radar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R. [Genivar SEC, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described some of the inventories and instrumentation available for monitoring winged fauna in and around wind farms. In addition to visual observations, bird calls and songs can be recorded to determine the amount and different types of birds located at wind farm sites. Radio-telemetry devices are also used to evaluate bird activities, and nest searches are conducted to determine the amount of eggs or young birds that will soon add to the bird population. Between 90 and 100 percent of birds and bats migrate at night. Acoustic radar, Doppler radar, and maritime surveillance radar instruments are used to monitor night-time activities in wind farm locations. Doppler radar is also used to detect bird and bat migration corridors. Screen-shots of various radar interfaces were presented. tabs., figs.

  13. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  14. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  15. Concealed by darkness: interactions between predatory bats and nocturnally migrating songbirds illuminated by DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Juste, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreov...

  16. Modeling approach to various time and spatial scale environmental issues in Fukushima. Related to radioactive cesium migration in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamada, Susumu; Machida, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Several numerical models have been prepared to deal with various time- and spatial-scale issues related to radioactive cesium migration in environment in Fukushima area. The SACT (Soil and Cesium Transport) model developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) predicts middle- to long-term evolution of radioactive cesium distribution due to soil erosion, subsequent sediment transport and deposition, and radioactive cesium migration based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The TODAM (Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation and Migration) model, iRIC/Nays2D and the FLESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment, Contaminant Transport) model are one-, two- and three-dimensional river/reservoir/coastal models, respectively. Based on conservation equations of sediment and radioactive cesium, they treat advection and diffusion of suspended sediment and cesium, deposition of sediment to bed, re-suspension from bed and adsorption/desorption of radioactive cesium. These models are suitable for small and short time scale issues such as high discharges of sediment and radioactive cesium from rivers due to heavy rainfall events. This paper describes fragments of the JAEA’s approaches of modeling to deal with the issues corresponding to radioactive cesium migration in environment with some case studies. (author)

  17. Southward autumn migration of waterfowl facilitates cross-continental transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali

    2016-08-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration routes. However, the different roles that the southward autumn and northward spring migration might play in virus transmission have hardly been explored. Using direction analysis, we analyze HPAI H5N1 transmission directions and angular concentration of currently circulating viral clades, and compare these with waterfowl seasonal migration directions along major waterfowl flyways. Out of 22 HPAI H5N1 transmission directions, 18 had both a southward direction and a relatively high concentration. Differences between disease transmission and waterfowl migration directions were significantly smaller for autumn than for spring migration. The four northward transmission directions were found along Asian flyways, where the initial epicenter of the virus was located. We suggest waterfowl first picked up the virus from East Asia, then brought it to the north via spring migration, and then spread it to other parts of world mainly by autumn migration. We emphasize waterfowl autumn migration plays a relatively important role in HPAI H5N1 transmission compared to spring migration.

  18. Payoff-related migration enhances cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hongyan; Dai Qionglin; Li Haihong; Zhu Yun; Yang Junzhong; Zhang Mei

    2011-01-01

    In reality, migration of an individual usually correlates with the individual's financial or social status. Here, we consider the situation where migration of a player depends on the player's payoff to an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game. When the mobility of a player is positively correlated with the player's normalized payoff, P i , where the mobility of player i is defined as μ i =P i α , we found that cooperation could be promoted strongly in the case of a high density of players because of the introduction of this kind of migration. Moreover, the system could reach a state of complete cooperation in a large region on the given parameter space. Interestingly, enhancement of cooperation shows a non-monotonic behavior with an increase in α. We also found that the positive effects of this kind of migration on cooperation are robust in the face of changes to the network structure and the strategy-updating rule. In addition, we consider another situation where the mobility of a player is anti-correlated with the player's normalized payoff, and we observe that cooperation enhancement still exists.

  19. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  20. Portal vein blood flow is related to characteristics of the migrating motor complex of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Niels; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Troensegaard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To measure variation in portal blood flow during the interdigestive state in relation to the migrating motor complex (MMC) in healthy volunteers. Design: Portal blood flow was measured by a duplex and colour Doppler technique with 5-min intervals during an entire MMC cycle. Total....... Conclusion: Blood flow in the portal vein varies with the characteristics of the MMC, a relationship which must be considered in future studies in health and disease....

  1. Radionuclide migration experiments related to an underground nuclear test: II. modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.; Carle, S.F.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Bruton, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of water and radionuclide migration in both saturated and unsaturated geologic media by coupling advanced simulation techniques, available characterization data, and radioanalytical measurements in the context of a remarkable field experiment. Between 1975 and 1991, groundwater was steadily pumped from a well adjacent to a 1965 underground test conducted in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site. The experiment was primarily conducted in order to elicit information on radionuclide migration through the saturated zone between the test and the well. The effluent was monitored. discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to infiltrate into the ground during flow towards a dry lake, about a kilometer away. The 16 years of pumping and infiltration created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the ditch effluent through the 200 meters of unsaturated media, back to the water table, could be studied. Pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with chemical measurements made in groundwater and a series of numerical models to better understand the movement of radionuclides in the system, both between the test and the well, and between the ditch and the water table. The release of radionuclides away from a testing area will be controlled by local groundwater flow rates, by their dissolution from solidified melt glass produced by the test, and by chemical sorption processes that retard their migration rates in chemically reactive geologic media. Only the more mobile and less reactive radionuclides (e.g.. tritium, 14 C, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, and 129 I) were measured in the well effluent. The movement of these radionuclides through the unsaturated media beneath the ditch will be affected additionally by the capillary nature of moisture movement under unsaturated conditions and by their interaction with and potential mass exchange with the gas (air) phase. Results of numerical simulations

  2. Sex-related dietary changes of Portuguese university students after migration to London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, S.; Vilela, S.; Padrão, P.; Caraher, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in eating habits and food choice motives of Portuguese university students after migration to London, according to sex.\\ud \\ud Methods: Fifty-five Portuguese university students (52.7% female) from 12 randomly selected London universities underwent a face-to-face interview. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire comprising questions on socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of consumption of selected food and beverage items, and the m...

  3. The evolution of coloniality in birds in relation to food, habitat, predation, and life-history traits: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, C; Danchin, E; de Fraipont, M

    1998-06-01

    Coloniality in birds has been intensively studied under the cost and benefit approach, but no general conclusion can be given concerning its evolutionary function. Here, we report on a comparative analysis carried out on 320 species of birds using the general method of comparative analysis for discrete variables and the contrast method to analyze the evolution of coloniality. Showing a mean of 23 convergences and 10 reversals, coloniality appears to be a rather labile trait. Colonial breeding appears strongly correlated with the absence of feeding territory, the aquatic habitat, and nest exposure to predators but was not correlated with changes in life-history traits (body mass and clutch size). The correlation of coloniality with the aquatic habitat is in fact explained by a strong correlation with the marine habitat. Unexpectedly, we found that the evolution toward a marine habitat in birds was contingent on coloniality and that coloniality evolved before the passage to a marine life. These results-along with the lack of transitions from the nonmarine to marine habitat in solitary species and the precedence of the loss of feeding territoriality on the passage to a marine life-contradict most of the hypotheses classically accepted to explain coloniality and suggest that we use a different framework to study this evolutionary enigma.

  4. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bird casualties and wind turbines near the Kreekrak sluices of Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musters, C.J.M.; Noordervliet, M.A.W.; Ter Keurs, W.J.

    1995-03-01

    The impact of wind turbines on birds was investigated for an estuary, situated near the North Sea coast in the Dutch province of Zeeland, with large amount of bird migration. Five 250 kW, three-bladed 25m, 40 rpm turbines were installed on the western side of a dike. The distance between the turbines is 125 m. Since 1 April 1990 the turbines have been in action almost continuously. The study on the title subject was set up to investigate the number of bird casualties caused by the five wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak and the number that may be expected to be caused by a total of 20 turbines. The study also focused on the number of casualties among rare birds in relation to those among the common birds as a result of the wind turbines in the Kreekrak area. An area of 125 x 125 m around each wind turbine, consisting partly of land and partly of water, was searched for dead birds every other day during a period of one year (28 April 1990 - 29 April 1991). During this one-year period, the bodies of 26 birds of 17 different species were found; six birds were certainly or almost certainly killed by the turbines. In three other cases, the birds may have died because of the turbines, while in the case of eight birds, it was not possible to determine the cause of death. The remaining nine birds were not killed by the wind turbines. The annual number of bird victims expected following the installation of 20 wind turbines was estimated at a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 142. For each species a correlation was found between the number of victims and the estimated number of visitors to the area. This suggests that the rare species among the birds were not excessively endangered by the turbines. The number of bird casualties per turbine was low in comparison with the results of other Dutch investigations. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that there is no reason to advise against increasing the number of wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak to 20. 3

  6. Motorized Migrations: the Future or Mere Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In 15 experiments from 1993-2002, we led cranes, geese, or swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can now be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species where juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.

  7. Assessment of Perceived Stress Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders (MIGSTR10)-Development, Reliability, and Dimensionality of a Brief Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias J; Zink, Sabrina; Koch, Eckhardt

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of stressors related to migration and acculturation in patients with psychiatric disorder and migration background could help improve culturally sensitive concepts of psychiatry and psychotherapy for diagnosis and treatment. The present overview delineates development and psychometric properties of an instrument (MIGSTR10) for assessment of stressors related to migration and acculturation, particularly for application in patients with psychiatric disorders. Ten migration-related stressors were derived from a qualitative content analysis of case histories of patients with psychiatric disorder and migration background and put into a suitable interview and questionnaire format (MIGSTR10; 10 questions, answer format: categorical yes/no, and dimensional 0-10) for self-assessment and observer ratings in several languages. Reliability (interrater agreement, internal consistency) and dimensionality (multi-dimensional scaling, MDS) were investigated in n = 235 patients with migration background and n = 612 indigenous German patients. Interrater agreement (ICC) for MIGSTR10 single items and sum scores (categorical and dimensional) was sufficiently high (≥.58); internal consistency (Cronbach's α) reached medium to high values (.56-.73). MDS revealed a two-dimensional solution with two item clusters (A: communication, migration history, forced marriage, homesickness, discrimination, other stressors; B: family conflicts, loss of status, feelings of shame, guilt feelings). The MIGSTR10 is a rationally developed, straightforward 10-item screening instrument with satisfactory psychometric properties for the assessment of individual and specific stressors related to migration and acculturation.

  8. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  9. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  11. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  12. A generalizable energetics-based model of avian migration to facilitate continental-scale waterbird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Jacobi, Sarah; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie Y.; Fox, Timothy J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Tim; Kenow, Kevin P.; Lyons, James E.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 days of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% CI = 89.2%, 91.9%) whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 days of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1,036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are

  13. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  14. Characterization of Farmington virus, a novel virus from birds that is distantly related to members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Gustavo; Forrester, Naomi L; Savji, Nazir; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Detoy, Kelly; Popov, Vsevolod L; Walker, Peter J; Lipkin, W Ian; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-07-01

    Farmington virus (FARV) is a rhabdovirus that was isolated from a wild bird during an outbreak of epizootic eastern equine encephalitis on a pheasant farm in Connecticut, USA. Analysis of the nearly complete genome sequence of the prototype CT AN 114 strain indicates that it encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (> 180 nt) in the N and G genes. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of FARV has confirmed that it is a novel rhabdovirus and probably represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. In sum, our analysis indicates that FARV represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae.

  15. Characterization of Farmington virus, a novel virus from birds that is distantly related to members of the family Rhabdoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Farmington virus (FARV) is a rhabdovirus that was isolated from a wild bird during an outbreak of epizootic eastern equine encephalitis on a pheasant farm in Connecticut, USA. Findings Analysis of the nearly complete genome sequence of the prototype CT AN 114 strain indicates that it encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins (N, P, M, G and L) with alternative ORFs (> 180 nt) in the N and G genes. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of FARV has confirmed that it is a novel rhabdovirus and probably represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. Conclusions In sum, our analysis indicates that FARV represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:23816310

  16. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  17. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. This report deals with the results of searches for dead birds killed as a consequence of collisions with obstacles in the wind park in the spring of 1986-1991 and in the autumn of 1986-1988 and 1991. During the six spring periods and four autumn periods searches were made on 642 different days during which 2907 times an obstacle was searched for dead birds. During these days 76 birds were found (25 species), of which 36% were certainly or very probably killed as a result from a collision with a wind turbine, and 22% were possibly so. Of 34% the cause of death was unknown, and 7% died from other causes. Of the 76 birds found 17% were wounded but still alive. There were no nights with large kills. Also attention is paid to the distribution of the bird victims over the wind park area, their individual positions with regard to the obstacles, and the weather conditions in relation to the number of victims at a certain day. On average less than 0.1% of the birds passing the wind park during the night collided with an obstacle in the wind park, and less than 0.01% did so when the diurnal migration is included. When all resting and feeding birds are also added less than 0.008% collided in autumn (in spring less than 0.06%, breeding birds included). When the possible collisions are included these figures are 0.2%, 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.1% respectively. 9 figs., 22 tabs., 19 app., 83 refs

  18. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The study concerns 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. The flight behavior of birds approaching the wind park system during daylight is also dealt with. For at least a fifth of the observations it was noted whether the birds passing within 100 meters distance of a turbine showed a reaction or not. The proportion of the reactions was related to the wind park in operation or not in operation, and to the distance between the wind turbines, species, flight height, the passing distance, wind direction and wind force. Secondly the flight path of birds approaching the wind park from eastern directions during daylight (real autumn migration) and from southern directions during late afternoon (flights of gulls to night roosts) was studied in detail. Significantly more reactions (11-18%) were recorded with the wind park fully operational compared to the wind park not operational (2%). In total 2203 flight paths of birds approaching the wind park were recorded during 151 hours of observation. The test results showed that a passing distance of less or more than 100 meters of the nearest wind turbine did not affect the proportion of reactions. Several reaction types and combinations were noted, varying from gradual and calm reactions (circa 75%), and panic reactions, occurring just before or while passing the wind turbines. The reactions are shift in the flight path in the horizontal plane (30%), shift in the flight path in the vertical plane (14%), one passing attempt (87%), an accelerated wing beat (14%), an alteration of the angle of the body (21%)

  19. Southward migration and fuel deposition of Red Knots Calidris canutus

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Stervander, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We compared the differences between spring and autumn in migration speed, fuelling rates and fuel loads of migrating Red Knots Calidris canutus. As a basis we used ringing data from Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeastern Sweden, collected 1948–2003, with morphometrical data from 1990–2003. Numbers ringed varied between 0 and 301 per year (average 56). Morphometrics, recoveries and recaptures of ringed birds indicated that most birds belonged to the Afro-Siberian subspecies C. c. canutus, poss...

  20. Analysing the Demography and Migration Related Challenges within the Internal Periphery of South-Heves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Bogardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my study is to perform an analysis with the application of regional statistical data, in order to understand the changes within the number of the population at South-Heves in the past period, and to the reveal its special characteristics compared to regional, national trends. The examined area is a classic internal periphery, a region “hit severely by social, economic and environmental crisis” (according to the draft proposal of Heves county’s regional development concept (2014-2020. Considering such regions, besides the examination of the intention to migrate, it is also important to see who will remain in the region. Experiences show that in case of regions with a more disadvantageous situation than average, generally classes of lower social statuses will become dominant, while as it is described by Győri-Nagy (2003, “the escape of competent classes of the population” can be observed. It results in a contra-selected local society which is unable to retain the young and ambitious. The future of the affected regions, settlements is largely determined by the perspectives perceived by young people who live there, and who shall start their families and careers there in the near future. I have conducted an empirical research amongst high-school students living and studying at South-Heves, focusing on issues such as whether the high-school age-group of this classic periphery is considering migration; if so, then what are the reasons, destinations, and as an important question from the aspect of the national strategy as well, how could these young people who are longing to go elsewhere manage their lives here, and how could we make them stay in their homeland (in a narrow sense. By investigating the intention to migrate, we also receive indirect answers for questions such as how could significant regional differences be reduced, and how could we close the gap in case of the most disadvantageous regions.

  1. a comparative study of species diversity of migrant birds between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S RINGIM

    ABSTRACT. Among the most complex and fascinating behaviour in birds is their long, non-stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory ...

  2. Aspects of population dynamics and feeding by piscivorous birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breaching events were associated with a change in feeding groups from waders to pursuit feeders, and a decrease in total bird numbers, most likely due to loss of potential littoral zone foraging habitat for waders resulting from reduced water levels. The highest bird numbers were recorded in winter reflecting the migration of ...

  3. Seasonal variation in diversity and abundance of understorey birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...

  4. Effects of wind turbines on birds. What needs to be taken into account in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.

    1997-01-01

    The author examines the current knowledge on bird fatalities from wind turbines. As the number of turbines around the Finnish coast increases, concern has been voiced by some ornithologists for the safety of birds, particularly during migration. However, studies confirm that few birds collide with wind turbines during the day, with the exception of some large birds of prey that sometimes attempt to use the tower or blades for perching. At night the collision risk is somewhat higher, but average collision rates per kilometre of wind turbines placed in a row (including the space between individual machines) is no higher than that per kilometre of motorway, an acceptable figure in view of the relatively low numbers of machines compared to roads. Wind turbines can potentially do more serious damage to birds if they are erected too near large breeding concentrations, e.g. important coastal wetlands. Many groups of water and wading birds avoid feeding or nesting near turbines up to a range of 500-700 metres. (orig.)

  5. Laboratory and field studies related to the radionuclide migration project. Progress report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.R.; Thompson, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    The FY 1983 laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project are described. Results are presented for radiochemical analyses of water samples collected from the RNM-1 well and the RNM-2S satellite well at the Cambric site. Data are included for tritium, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Preliminary results from water collection at the Cheshire site are reported. Laboratory studies emphasize the sorptive behavior of tuff and its dependence on mineralogy. 18 references, 7 figures, 13 tables

  6. MANAGING MIGRATION: TURKISH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan GÜLAY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conducting migration studies is of vital importance to Turkey, a country which has been experiencing migration throughout history due to its “open doors policy”. The objective of this study is to evaluate the strategic management of migration in Turkey in order to deal with the issue of migration. The main focus of the study is Syrian migrants who sought refuge in Turkey due to the civil war that broke out in their country in April 2011. This study demonstrates the policies and processes followed by Turkey for Syrian migration flow in terms of the social acceptance and harmonisation of the migrants within a democratic environment. The study addresses some statistical facts and issues related to Syrian migration as it has become an integral part of daily life in Turkey. The study also reviews how human rights are protected in the migration process. The study will provide insights for developing sound strategic management policies for the migration issue.

  7. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  8. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  9. Bird-marking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Since May of this year the Museum of Natural History at Leyden is carrying into execution the inquiry into migration and other movements of birds in the Netherlands by means of aluminium rings. The results will be published in this periodical and at the same time in Dutch in the periodical of the

  10. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  11. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  12. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  13. Investigations of the migrating motor complex in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, L R; Duke, G E; Evanson, O A

    1990-09-01

    The motor correlate of the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) was characterized in domestic turkeys, and feeding state, age, sex, and time of day were examined as possible factors influencing the motor activity observed. Strain gauge transducers, and in a few birds Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes, were implanted on the caudoventral thin muscle of the muscular stomach, the duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon. Contractility was recorded for 8-10 h per bird on alternating days for 2-3 wk, except in birds involved in four 24-h recording sessions during a 2-wk period. Intense motor activity characteristic of phase III of the MMC occurred only in the ileum; other phases could not be identified. The duration, propagation velocity, and percent of cyclic motor patterns propagating from one site to another were similar to those reported in other galliform species. The occurrence of cyclic motor activity appeared to be related to food consumption; the number of motor patterns occurring during an intense feeding session was less than the number observed 1.5-2 h after feeding. In addition, more motor patterns were recorded in fasted poults during the light period than in the dark; however, the reverse was observed in juveniles fed ad libitum. Cyclic motor activity recorded in fasted 18-wk-old birds was of longer duration than that in fasted 8-wk-old birds. No statistically significant differences were noted in the cyclic motor patterns of male vs. female poults.

  14. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  15. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  17. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report attention is paid to the disturbance of the bird's biotope. The results show that four species of grassland birds, breeding in the park, were hardly disturbed by the wind turbines. For feeding and resting birds, however, disturbance effects were noted, even at a distance of 500 meters from the outside wind turbine array. The present number of bird species reduced 60-95%, dependent on the species, after the wind park was put into operation. Also the behavior of migrating birds was influenced by the wind park, showed in clustering of groups or avoiding the wind park, sometimes up to 67% of the birds did so. It is therefore recommended not to implement new wind parks in important bird migration and bird feeding or bird resting areas. Bird popular areas, however, are mostly windy areas. 15 figs., 25 tabs., 56 app., 128 refs

  18. Bird impact study on the 10 MW wind farm of La Pena (Tarifa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cererols, N.; Martinez, A.; Ferrer, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the conclusions of a 16 month study of the possible impacts on the local and migrating population of birds of a wind farm located in the passageway of migrating birds between Africa and Europe. On the whole, the wind farm did not prove to represent an important impact on the birds present in its surroundings and, on the contrary, created a new habitat for some species not present in adjacent areas. (author)

  19. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  20. Actogram analysis of free-flying migratory birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke

    2017-01-01

    The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like...... frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration. We use...... of the life cycle. Accelerometer recording of the annual activity patterns of individual birds will open up a new dimension in bird migration research....

  1. Bird flight characteristics near wind turbines in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R.G.; Dieter, C.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1994-1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82-84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22-55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.

  2. Where the Birds Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaKinster, James; Trautmann, Nancy; Burch, Carol; Watkins, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Species richness, migration, habitats, ecological niches, adaptations: Concepts such as these come alive when students explore and analyze landscapes, environmental characteristics, and related biological features represented on digital maps. Most students are familiar with navigation tools integrated into smartphone apps but may be surprised to…

  3. Detailed description of the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csörgő Tibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper acts as an introduction to a series that will describe the exploratory analyses of migration phenology and morphometrics of the most common passerine species at the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station. This station is situated in the Ócsa Landscape Protection Area that belongs to the Duna–Ipoly National Park, Hungary. The area is somewhat cooler and more humid than the surrounding agricultural fields and tree plantations, covered by a mosaic of diverse hygrophilous vegetation patches. Bird trapping is mostly based on Japanese mist-net lines crossing different plant communities. During the period of 1984–2015, a total of 422,862 birds were trapped and ringed here, while 202,739 local, 1,235 within country, and 443 foreign recaptures were also recorded. Each bird is characterized by the following data: location and time of capture, species, age, sex, scores of fat, pectoral muscle, wing tip abrasion, and moult, length of wing, 3rd primary, and tail, and body mass. After subjected to a rigorous quality check, digital data are deposited in the archive of the Hungarian Bird Ringing Centre, and the EURING data base. From time to time, other research projects also utilized the accessibility of wild birds captured here, thus collection of blood samples, ecto- and endoparasites was carried out at the station. The relatively long time span, large number of species and individuals, and the readily available environmental (weather, vegetation, etc. data makes the avian data collected here a suitable base for studies of various disciplines like capture methodology, habitat preferences, breeding, migration, and wintering, effects of weather and climate change, and epidemiology of viruses and parasites.

  4. The impact of migration on deaths and hospital admissions from work-related injuries in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Felipe, Nieves; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    Objective: The shift from an industrial to a service-based economy has seen a decline in work-related injuries (WRIs) and mortality. How this relates to migrant workers, who traditionally held high-risk jobs is unknown. This study examined deaths and hospital admissions from WRI, among foreign and

  5. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  6. Tracking from the tropics reveals behaviour of juvenile songbirds on their first spring migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A McKinnon

    Full Text Available Juvenile songbirds on spring migration travel from tropical wintering sites to temperate breeding destinations thousands of kilometres away with no prior experience to guide them. We provide a first glimpse at the migration timing, routes, and stopover behaviour of juvenile wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina on their inaugural spring migration by using miniaturized archival geolocators to track them from Central America to the U.S. and Canada. We found significant differences between the timing of juvenile migration and that of more experienced adults: juveniles not only departed later from tropical wintering sites relative to adults, they also became progressively later as they moved northward. The increasing delay was driven by more frequent short stops by juveniles along their migration route, particularly in the U.S. as they got closer to breeding sites. Surprisingly, juveniles were just as likely as adults to cross the Gulf of Mexico, an open-water crossing of 800-1000 km, and migration route at the Gulf was not significantly different for juveniles relative to adults. To determine if the later departure of juveniles was related to poor body condition in winter relative to adults, we examined percent lean body mass, fat scores, and pectoral muscle scores of juvenile versus adult birds at a wintering site in Belize. We found no age-related differences in body condition. Later migration timing of juveniles relative to adults could be an adaptive strategy (as opposed to condition-dependent to avoid the high costs of fast migration and competition for breeding territories with experienced and larger adults. We did find significant differences in wing size between adults and juveniles, which could contribute to lower flight efficiency of juveniles and thus slower overall migration speed. We provide the first step toward understanding the "black box" of juvenile songbird migration by documenting their migration timing and en route performance.

  7. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Horton

    Full Text Available To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean.

  8. 75 FR 34617 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Somalia and Food Pipeline Breaks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... unexpected and urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population...

  9. Language-Related Values, Reading Amount, and Reading Comprehension in Students with Migration Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…

  10. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Lilliendahl, K; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.

    1999-01-01

    The adaptive value of size changes in different organ and muscle groups was studied in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica) in relation to their migration. Birds were sampled on five occasions: at arrival in Iceland in May 1994, two times during subsequent refueling, at departure toward, and on

  11. Migration into art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...

  12. The impact of migration on deaths and hospital admissions from work-related injuries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Felipe, Nieves; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    2016-02-01

    The shift from an industrial to a service-based economy has seen a decline in work-related injuries (WRIs) and mortality. How this relates to migrant workers, who traditionally held high-risk jobs is unknown. This study examined deaths and hospital admissions from WRI, among foreign and Australian-born workers. Tabulated population data from the 1991 to 2011 censuses, national deaths 1991-2002 and hospital admission for 2001-10. Direct age standardised mortality and hospital admission rates (DSRs) and rate ratios (RRs) were derived to examine differences in work-related mortality/hospital admissions by gender, country of birth, employment skill level and years of residence in Australia. DSRs and RRs were generally lower or no different between Australian and foreign-born workers. Among men, mortality DSRs were lower for nine of 16 country of birth groups, and hospital admissions DSRs for 14 groups. An exception was New Zealand-born men, with 9% (95%CI 9-13) excess mortality and 24% (95%CI 22-26) excess hospital admissions. Four decades ago, foreign-born workers were generally at higher risk of WRI than Australian-born. This pattern has reversed. The local-born comprise 75% of the population and a pro-active approach to health and safety regulation could achieve large benefits. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Bird Diversity and Composition in Even-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands Relative to Emergence of 13-year Periodical Cicadas and Vegetation Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Hestir; Michael D. Cain

    1999-01-01

    In southern Arkansas, l3-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) were expected to emerge in late April and early May of 1998. Presence of a superabundant food source, such as periodical cicadas, may attract greater numbers of birds and more species of birds than is usually present in a particular area. Three even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus...

  14. The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-10-01

    Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Geographical and temporal flexibility in the response to crosswinds by migrating raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-05-07

    Wind and ocean currents may potentially have important effects on travelling animals, as an animal which does not respond to lateral flow will be drifted from its intended direction of movement. By analysing daily movements of migrating ospreys Pandion haliaetus and marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus, as recorded by satellite telemetry, in relation to global wind data, we showed that these raptors allow on average 47 per cent drift. Furthermore, our analyses revealed significant geographical and temporal variation in the response to crosswinds. During some parts of the migration, the birds drifted and in other parts they compensated or even overcompensated. In some regions, the response of marsh harriers depended on the wind direction. They drifted when the wind came from one side and (over)compensated when the wind came from the opposite side, and this flexible response was different in different geographical regions. These results suggest that migrating raptors modulate their response to crosswinds at different places and times during their travels and show that individual birds use a much more varied repertoire of behavioural responses to wind than hitherto assumed. Our results may also explain why contrasting and variable results have been obtained in previous studies of the effect of wind on bird migration.

  16. 2014-2016 Avian Point Count and Migration Surveys at Site 300 for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The primary goals of the surveys were to: 1) collect minutes of bird activity within Site 300, 2) consider relative abundance of the different bird species occurring within the Site, 3) collect behavioral information, and 4) provide compelling evidence to determine the status of the Site as a migration corridor or migration stopover site. To this end, two survey types were conducted: avian point counts were conducted on a monthly basis from February 2014 through January 2016 and migration surveys were conducted over two three-month periods from September 2014 through November 2014, and September 2015 through November 2015. These two surveys types provided the opportunity to observe avian species in a variety of conditions across a two year period. Whenever possible or relevant, the observations of either survey were used to inform and complement the observations of the other survey in pursuit of the above goals. Both survey types are described below.

  17. Practicing ethnography in migration-related detention centers: A reflexive account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Feminist scholars, as well as community psychologists, have advocated the role of reflexive engagement in the research process in order to challenge power relations. Moreover, the liberating potential of storytelling, especially when working with issues of diversity and marginalization, has been stressed. The purpose of this article is to reflect on an ethnographic work underway in the Identification and Expulsion Center-CIE of Ponte Galeria, Rome. How the researcher's identities, values, and experiences, alongside power and privilege, have influenced her positioning in the research setting and the relationships formed with the different setting members is the subject of discussion. In sharing the story of this work, the final intent is to contribute to the joint effort to foster a reflexive community psychology practice incorporating feminist goals and a dialogue about ethnography in community psychology.

  18. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  19. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  20. Tracking the Autumn Migration of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus with Satellite Telemetry and Relationship to Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaonan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The autumn migration routes of bar-headed geese captured before the 2008 breeding season at Qinghai Lake, China, were documented using satellite tracking data. To assess how the migration strategies of bar-headed geese are influenced by environmental conditions, the relationship between migratory routes, temperatures, and vegetation coverage at stopovers sites estimated with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were analyzed. Our results showed that there were four typical migration routes in autumn with variation in timing among individuals in start and end times and in total migration and stopover duration. The observed variation may be related to habitat type and other environmental conditions along the routes. On average, these birds traveled about 1300 to 1500 km, refueled at three to six stopover sites and migrated for 73 to 83 days. The majority of the habitat types at stopover sites were lake, marsh, and shoal wetlands, with use of some mountainous regions, and farmland areas.

  1. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Zhu, Chaoyang; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China. Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design. 16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants. Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  2. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45 from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ, an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only, 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only. Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation. Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05. Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  3. Migration ecology and stopover population size of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa at Mingan Archipelago after exiting the breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Baker, Allan J.; González, Patricia M.; Aubry, Yves; Buidin, Christophe; Rochepault, Yann

    2018-01-01

    Populations of migratory birds present unique conservation challenges given the often vast distances separating critical resources throughout the annual cycle. Migration areas close to the breeding grounds represent a link between two key stages of the annual cycle, and understanding migration ecology as birds exit the breeding grounds may be particularly informative for successful conservation. We studied migration phenology and stopover ecology of an endangered subspecies of the Red Knot Calidris canutus rufa at a migration area relatively close to its breeding range. Using mark-recapture/resight data and a Jolly-Seber model for open populations, we described the arrival and departure schedules, stopover duration, and passage population size at the Mingan Archipelago, Quebec, Canada. Red Knots arrived at the study area in two distinct waves of birds separated by approximately 22 days. Nearly 30% of the passage population arrived in the first wave of arrivals during 15–18 July, and approximately 22% arrived in a second wave during 8–11 August. The sex-ratio in the stopover population at the time of the first wave was slightly skewed toward females, whereas the second wave was heavily skewed toward males. Because males remain on the breeding grounds to care for young, this may reflect successfulbreeding in the year of our study. The estimated stopover duration (population mean) was 11 days (95% credible interval: 10.3–11.7 days), but stopover persistence was variable throughout the season. We estimated a passage population size of 9,450 birds (8,355–10,710), a minimum estimate for reasons related to the duration of our sampling. Mingan Archipelago is thus an important migration area for this endangered subspecies and could be a priority in conservation planning. Our results also emphasize the advantages of mark-recapture/resight approaches for estimating migration phenology and stopover persistence.

  4. The Popularity of Birding is Still Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Nancy G. Herbert

    2002-01-01

    What are the "field marks" of the entry-level birder of the past few years? She is probably between 40 and 59 years old and is white. She puts in about 10 birding days or fewer per year, trying to squeeze birding into a busy life, although she also finds herself engaged in related activities: walking for pleasure, attending family outdoor gatherings...

  5. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  6. Number of Migration Scenarios Passing through each HUC (future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...

  7. Number of Migration Scenarios Passing through each HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...

  8. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  9. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  10. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS

    CERN Document Server

    Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

  11. Moisture Migration in an Oil-Paper Insulation System in Relation to Online Partial Discharge Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sikorski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most power transformers operating in a power system possess oil-paper insulation. A serious defect of this type of insulation, which is associated with long operation time, is an increase in the moisture content. Moisture introduces a number of threats to proper operation of the transformer, e.g., ignition of partial discharges (PDs. Due to the varying temperature of the insulation system during the unit’s normal operation, a dynamic change (migration of water takes place, precipitating the oil-paper system from a state of hydrodynamic equilibrium. This causes the PDs to be variable in time, and they may intensify or extinguish. Studies on model objects have been conducted to determine the conditions (temperature, humidity, time that will have an impact on the ignition and intensity of the observed phenomenon of PDs. The conclusions of this study will have a practical application in the evaluation of measurements conducted in the field, especially in relation to the registration of an online PD monitoring system.

  12. Integration and health-related quality of life of undergraduate medical students with migration backgrounds ? Results of a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kurr?, Jennifer; Scholl, Johanna; Bullinger, Monika; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most medical faculties in Germany are still lacking differentiated counseling programmes for specific target groups. The purpose of the present study was to determine the quality of life and integration of students with migration backgrounds and their interests in counseling programmes.Methods: Data was collected at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. Participants were students of the undergraduate medical course; n=890 (89.3%) students without migration b...

  13. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  15. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  16. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  17. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  18. Migration and Remittances : Recent Developments and Outlook - Transit Migration

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    This Migration and Development Brief reports global trends in migration and remittance flows, as well as developments related to the Global Compact on Migration (GCM), and the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for volume of remittances as percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (SDG indicator 17.3.2), reducing remittance costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1) and recruitment costs (SD...

  19. Potential impacts of wind turbines on birds at North Cape, Prince Edward Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, A.; Whitman, B.

    2001-12-13

    As the number of new wind power generating stations in Canada grows, so do concerns regarding the environmental impact of turbines on birds, particularly on raptors and migrating songbirds. These birds are generally at greatest risk of injury or death from turbines, but the impact of these structures on all bird species must be considered on a site-by-site basis. Disturbance to breeding and wintering as a result of turbines must be better researched. This report reviews the literature on the effects of wind turbines on birds, with reference to the North Cape, Prince Edward Island. It recommends ways to reduce potential impacts of turbines on birds in that area, and suggests a program whereby the potential effects of wind turbines on birds can be monitored. The bird groups likely to be seen at North Cape include water birds, raptors, songbirds, and 5 bird species that are considered to be provincially rare. The main causes of bird mortality at wind powered energy facilities are birds flying into rotating turbine blades. Migrating birds are attracted to warning lights on the turbines and collide with the structures and they also collide with the power lines connected to the station. Poor weather conditions, such as fog, increase the occurrence of collisions with towers. Several studies have shown that most migrating and wintering bird species alter their flight paths to avoid turbines. Studies also indicate that bird mortalities at wind energy facilities are not biologically significant and that impacts are not likely to be significant if wind turbines are located in areas of poor habitat and low bird densities. 61 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  20. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Possenti, Cristina D; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude. Consistently with previous evidence showing latitudinal clines in 'circadian clock' genotype frequencies, Clock allele size increased with breeding latitude across species. However, early- and late-migrating species had similar Clock allele size. Species migrating over longer distances, showing delayed spring migration and smaller phenotypic variance in spring migration timing, had significantly reduced Clock (but not Adcyap1) gene diversity. Phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis suggested that migration date and distance were the most important variables directly affecting Clock gene diversity. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that Clock allele size increases poleward as a consequence of adaptation to the photoperiodic regime of the breeding areas. Moreover, we show that long-distance migration is associated with lower Clock diversity, coherently with strong stabilizing selection acting on timing of life cycle events in long-distance migratory species, likely resulting from the time constraints imposed by late spring migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hemispheric-scale wind selection facilitates bar-tailed godwit circum-migration of the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Hufford, Gary; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    The annual 29 000 km long migration of the bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri, around the Pacific Ocean traverses what is arguably the most complex and seasonally structured atmospheric setting on Earth. Faced with marked variation in wind regimes and storm conditions across oceanic migration corridors, individuals must make critical decisions about when and where to fly during nonstop flights of a week's duration or longer. At a minimum, their decisions will affect wind profitability and thus reduce energetic costs of migration; in the extreme, poor decisions or unpredictable weather events will risk survival. We used satellite telemetry to track the annual migration of 24 bar-tailed godwits and analysed their flight performance relative to wind conditions during three major migration legs between nonbreeding grounds in New Zealand and breeding grounds in Alaska. Because flight altitudes of birds en route were unknown, we modelled flight efficiency at six geopotential heights across each migratory segment. Birds selected departure dates when atmospheric conditions conferred the greatest wind assistance both at departure and throughout their flights. This behaviour suggests that there exists a cognitive mechanism, heretofore unknown among migratory birds, that allows godwits to assess changes in weather conditions that are linked (i.e. teleconnected) across widely separated atmospheric regions. Godwits also showed adaptive flexibility in their response not only to cues related to seasonal changes in macrometeorology, such as spatial shifting of storm tracks and temporal periods of cyclogenesis, but also to cues associated with stochastic events, especially at departure sites. Godwits showed limits to their response behaviours, however, especially relative to rapidly developing stochastic events while en route. We found that flight efficiency depended significantly upon altitude and hypothesize that godwits exhibit further adaptive flexibility by varying

  2. Pre- and post-displacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in Southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Nassar-McMillanb, Sylvia; Lambert, Richard; Wangd, Yun; Ager, Joel; Arnetz, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived health status of Iraqi immigrants and refugees residing in the United States was related to pre-migration environmental stress, current unemployment, and if they had emigrated before or after the 1991 Gulf War. A random sample of Iraqis residing in Southeast Michigan, US, was interviewed using an Arab language structured survey. The main outcome measure was self-rated health (SRH). Major predictors included socioeconomics, employment status, pre-migration environmental stress, and health disorders. Path analysis was used to look at mediating effects between predictors and SRH. We found that SRH was significantly worse among participants that had left Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War. Unemployment and environmental stress exposure were inversely related to SRH. There was a direct path between Gulf War exposure and poor health. In addition, there were indirect paths mediated through psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders to SRH. Another path went from Gulf War exposure, via environmental stress and somatic health to poor health. Unemployment had a direct path, as well as indirect paths mediated through psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, to poor self-rated health. In conclusion, these results suggest that pre- as well as post-migration factors, and period of migration, affect health.

  3. The Origin and Diversification of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-10-05

    Birds are one of the most recognizable and diverse groups of modern vertebrates. Over the past two decades, a wealth of new fossil discoveries and phylogenetic and macroevolutionary studies has transformed our understanding of how birds originated and became so successful. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic (around 165-150 million years ago) and their classic small, lightweight, feathered, and winged body plan was pieced together gradually over tens of millions of years of evolution rather than in one burst of innovation. Early birds diversified throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous, becoming capable fliers with supercharged growth rates, but were decimated at the end-Cretaceous extinction alongside their close dinosaurian relatives. After the mass extinction, modern birds (members of the avian crown group) explosively diversified, culminating in more than 10,000 species distributed worldwide today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AMP kinase-related kinase NUAK2 affects tumor growth, migration, and clinical outcome of human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Takeshi; Tanemura, Atsushi; Valencia, Julio C; Coelho, Sergio G; Passeron, Thierry; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Vieira, Wilfred D; Ishikawa, Masashi; Nishijima, Wataru; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Yin, Lanlan; Polley, Eric C; Liu, Hongfang; Kawakami, Yutaka; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Eishi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Hearing, Vincent J

    2011-04-19

    The identification of genes that participate in melanomagenesis should suggest strategies for developing therapeutic modalities. We used a public array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) database and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to identify the AMP kinase (AMPK)-related kinase NUAK2 as a candidate gene for melanomagenesis, and we analyzed its functions in melanoma cells. Our analyses had identified a locus at 1q32 where genomic gain is strongly associated with tumor thickness, and we used real-time qPCR analyses and regression analyses to identify NUAK2 as a candidate gene at that locus. Associations of relapse-free survival and overall survival of 92 primary melanoma patients with NUAK2 expression measured using immunohistochemistry were investigated using Kaplan-Meier curves, log rank tests, and Cox regression models. Knockdown of NUAK2 induces senescence and reduces S-phase, decreases migration, and down-regulates expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In vivo analysis demonstrated that knockdown of NUAK2 suppresses melanoma tumor growth in mice. Survival analysis showed that the risk of relapse is greater in acral melanoma patients with high levels of NUAK2 expression than in acral melanoma patients with low levels of NUAK2 expression (hazard ratio = 3.88; 95% confidence interval = 1.44-10.50; P = 0.0075). These data demonstrate that NUAK2 expression is significantly associated with the oncogenic features of melanoma cells and with the survival of acral melanoma patients. NUAK2 may provide a drug target to suppress melanoma progression. This study further supports the importance of NUAK2 in cancer development and tumor progression, while AMPK has antioncogenic properties.

  5. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  6. Using radar to advance migratory bird management: An interagency collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, R.; Ruth, J.M.; Barrow, W.C.; Dawson, D.K.; Diehl, R.H.; Manville, A.; Green, M.T.; Krueper, D.J.; Johnston, S.

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  7. Migrating birds’ use of stopover habitat in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Diehl, R.H.; Felix, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the arid Southwest, migratory birds are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Using radar data and satellite land-cover data, we determined the habitats with which birds are associated during migration stopover. Bird densities differed significantly by habitat type at all sites in at least one season. In parts of Arizona and New Mexico upland forest supported high densities of migrants, especially in fall. Developed habitat, in areas with little upland forest, also supported high densities of migrants. Scrub/shrub and grassland habitats supported low to intermediate densities, but because these habitat types dominate the Southwestern landscape, they may provide stopover habitat for larger numbers of migratory birds than previously recognized. These results are complicated by continuing challenges related to target identity (i.e., distinguishing among birds, arthropods and bats). Our results suggest that it is too simplistic to (1) consider the arid West as a largely inhospitable landscape in which there are only relatively small oases of habitat that provide the resources needed by all migrants, (2) think of western riparian and upland forests as supporting the majority of migrants in all cases, and (3) consider a particular habitat unimportant for stopover solely on the basis of low densities of migrants.

  8. Automated in situ monitoring of migratory birds at Germany's first offshore wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in

  9. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  10. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  11. The effect of labor migration on relations of exchange and subordination among the Rashaayda Bedouin of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W C

    1987-01-01

    This study is based on qualitative data gathered during 3 years of fieldwork among the Rashaayda, Arabic-speaking pastoralists in Sudan. Prior to 1956, every Rashiidy household was linked to other households by 3 types of social relations: 1) patrilineal descent, 2) co-residence, and 3) incorporation by purchase. After 1956, "slaves" retained membership in the tribe, but were not economically dependent on "free owners" and lived apart from "free" Rashaayda. Yet most Rashaayda sought aid from 1) patrilineal kin, 2) neighbors, and 3) former "owners" or "slaves." If the household were short of workers it could recruit extra help from neighboring households and from households that were not co-resident but were related to it agnatically. Due to rising oil prices, in 1974 opportunities for Rashiidy men in oil-exporting countries became available. The 1st Rashaayda to go to the Gulf (in 1975) were men from impoverished households who had lost most of their animals and had abandoned pastoral nomadism. There were jobs in the Gulf for expert camel racers, herders, livestock brokers, and clerks. To buy plane tickets to Mecca, the migrants sold their few remaining animals. Once these 1st migrants had found jobs, they were allowed to remain in the country as legal workers. When their terms of employment were over, most migrants returned to Sudan and transformed their wages into durable wealth. The success of this 1st group encouraged a 2nd group of less impoverished men to consider migration (1977-1980). Like the 1st group, the 2nd group had to obtain capital, contract, extra labor (at home), and investment opportunities to be able to leave. For the 2nd group, obtaining these things was more difficult: 1) they had to sell more milk and camels than they would normally, 2) they either had to travel to Saudi Arabia as pilgrims and contact employers then or purchase contracts from Rashaayda who had returned to Sudan, 3) they had to hire outsiders to work for them while they were

  12. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to explain a phenomenon of total depletion of Ni next to the electrolyte in Ni-YSZ cermet electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells during electrolysis at high current density/overpotential. Intuitively, we would think that Ni would always migrate down the steam partial...

  13. Patterns of cyprinid migration through a fishway in relation to light, water temperature and fish circling behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Slavík, O.; Bartoš, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2006), s. 213-218 ISSN 1571-5124. [International symposium on Ecohydraulics /5./. Madrid, 12.09.2004-17.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : migration * Cyprinidae * fishway * fish counter * water temperature * weather Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. (Im)migrations, Relations, and Identities of African Peoples: Toward an Endarkened Transnational Feminist Praxis in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpalaoka, Chinwe L.; Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the sense of what an "African" (American) identity could mean when viewed through the processes of migrations and fluid identities of contemporary African immigrant children as they interact with their African (Americans) peers in schools. The purpose of this article is to use data from a study of West African…

  15. In vivo relative quantitative proteomics reveals HMGB1 as a downstream mediator of oestrogen-stimulated keratinocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung U; Noh, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Won Jai; Yoo, Jong Shin; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hyeran; Jung, Inhee; Jin, Shan; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2015-06-01

    It is known that oestrogen influences skin wound healing by modulating the inflammatory response, cytokine expression and extracellular matrix deposition; accelerating re-epithelialization; and stimulating angiogenesis. To identify novel proteins associated with effects of oestrogen on keratinocyte, stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry was performed. Using SILAC, quantification of 1085 proteins was achieved. Among these proteins, 60 proteins were upregulated and 32 proteins were downregulated. Among significantly upregulated proteins, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has been further evaluated for its role in the effect of oestrogen on keratinocytes. HMGB1 expression was strongly induced in oestrogen-treated keratinocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner. Further, HMGB1 was able to significantly accelerate the rate of HaCaT cell migration. To determine whether HMGB1 is involved in E2-induced HaCaT cell migration, cells were transfected with HMGB1 siRNA. Knockdown of HMGB1 blocked oestrogen-induced keratinocyte migration. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that HMGB1 is a novel downstream mediator of oestrogen-stimulated keratinocyte migration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hydrology of the solid waste burial ground, as related to the potential migration of radionuclides, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, J.T.; Robertson, J.B.; Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.

    1976-08-01

    This report describes a study conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey with the following objectives: to evaluate the hydrologic, radiologic and geochemical variables that control the potential for subsurface migration of waste radionuclides from the burial trenches to the Snake River Plain aquifer; to determine the extent of radionuclide migration, if any; and, to construct monitoring wells into the aquifer. Statistically significant trace amounts of radioactivity were found in about one-half of the 44 sedimentary samples from the six holes core drilled inside the burial ground and from all water samples from one hole tapping a perched water table. These very low levels of radioactivity are detectable only with the most sensitive of analytical equipment and techniques. The levels of radioactivity detected were, in most cases, less than the amounts found in surface soils in this region resulting from world-wide fallout. This radioactivity found in the cores could have been introduced naturally by migration by infiltrating water which had made contact with buried waste or could have been introduced artificially during drilling and sampling. The available data from the four peripheral monitoring wells do not indicate that radionuclide constituents from the burial ground have migrated into the underlying Snake River Plain aquifer. The low concentrations of radionuclides detected in samples taken from the sedimentary layers are not expected to migrate to the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples from the peripheral wells and one core hole inside the burial ground will continue to be collected and analyzed for radioactivity semi-annually

  17. Silencing of OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) modifies the macrophage transcriptome, nucleoporin p62 distribution, and migration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béaslas, Olivier; Vihervaara, Terhi; Li, Jiwei; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Yan, Daoguang; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2012-01-01

    ORP8 is an oxysterol/cholesterol binding protein anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope, and is abundantly expressed in the macrophage. We created and characterized mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with ORP8 stably silenced using shRNA lentiviruses. A microarray transcriptome and gene ontology pathway analysis revealed significant alterations in several nuclear pathways and ones associated with centrosome and microtubule organization. ORP8 knockdown resulted in increased expression and altered subcellular distribution of an interaction partner of ORP8, nucleoporin NUP62, with an intranuclear localization aspect and association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures and lamellipodial edges of the cells. Moreover, ORP8 silenced cells displayed enhanced migration, and a more pronounced microtubule cytoskeleton than controls expressing a non-targeting shRNA. ORP8 was shown to compete with Exo70 for interaction with NUP62, and NUP62 knockdown abolished the migration enhancement of ORP8-silenced cells, suggesting that the endogenous ORP8 suppresses migration via binding to NUP62. As a conclusion, the present study reveals new, unexpected aspects of ORP8 function in macrophages not directly involving lipid metabolism, but rather associated with nuclear functions, microtubule organization, and migration capacity. -- Highlights: ► The phenotype of Raw264.7 macrophage with ORP8 silenced is characterized. ► ORP8 silencing alters mRNA levels of nuclear and microtubule/centrosome pathways. ► ORP8 silencing results in increased expression and altered distribution of NUP62. ► ORP8 silenced macrophages show enhanced migration and altered microtubule cytoskeleton. ► ORP8 competes in vitro with Exo70 for binding to NUP62.

  18. Silencing of OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) modifies the macrophage transcriptome, nucleoporin p62 distribution, and migration capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaslas, Olivier; Vihervaara, Terhi [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Li, Jiwei [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka [FIMM, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M., E-mail: vesa.olkkonen@helsinki.fi [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2012-09-10

    ORP8 is an oxysterol/cholesterol binding protein anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope, and is abundantly expressed in the macrophage. We created and characterized mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with ORP8 stably silenced using shRNA lentiviruses. A microarray transcriptome and gene ontology pathway analysis revealed significant alterations in several nuclear pathways and ones associated with centrosome and microtubule organization. ORP8 knockdown resulted in increased expression and altered subcellular distribution of an interaction partner of ORP8, nucleoporin NUP62, with an intranuclear localization aspect and association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures and lamellipodial edges of the cells. Moreover, ORP8 silenced cells displayed enhanced migration, and a more pronounced microtubule cytoskeleton than controls expressing a non-targeting shRNA. ORP8 was shown to compete with Exo70 for interaction with NUP62, and NUP62 knockdown abolished the migration enhancement of ORP8-silenced cells, suggesting that the endogenous ORP8 suppresses migration via binding to NUP62. As a conclusion, the present study reveals new, unexpected aspects of ORP8 function in macrophages not directly involving lipid metabolism, but rather associated with nuclear functions, microtubule organization, and migration capacity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phenotype of Raw264.7 macrophage with ORP8 silenced is characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silencing alters mRNA levels of nuclear and microtubule/centrosome pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silencing results in increased expression and altered distribution of NUP62. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silenced macrophages show enhanced migration and altered microtubule cytoskeleton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 competes in vitro with Exo70 for binding to NUP62.

  19. Effect of Mst1 on Endometriosis Apoptosis and Migration: Role of Drp1-Related Mitochondrial Fission and Parkin-Required Mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingdong; Ye, Mingxia; Yang, Wen; Wang, Min; Li, Mingxia; Gu, Chenglei; Zhao, Luyang; Zhang, Zhe; Han, Weidong; Fan, Wensheng; Meng, Yuanguang

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is implicated in the development and progression of endometriosis through poorly defined mechanisms. Mst1 is the major growth suppressor related to cancer migration, apoptosis and proliferation. However, whether Mst1 is involved in endometriosis apoptosis and migration via regulating the mitochondrial function remains to be elucidated. Expression of Mst1 in endometriosis was examined via western blots. Cellular apoptosis was detected via MTT and TUNEL assay. Gain of function assay about Mst1 was conducted via adenovirus over-expression. Mitochondrial functions were evaluated via mitochondrial membrane potential JC-1 staining, ROS flow cytometry analysis, mPTP opening assessment and immunofluorescence of HtrA2/Omi. The mitophagy activity were examined via western blots and immunofluorescence. First, we found that Mst1 was significantly downregulated in the ectopic endometrium of endometriosis compared to the normal endometrium. However, the recovery of Mst1 function was closely associated with the inability of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) to migrate and survive. A functional study indicated that regaining Mst1 enhanced Drp1 post-transcriptional phosphorylation at Ser616 and repressed Parkin transcription activity via p53, leading to mitochondrial fission activation and mitophagy inhibition. Excessive Drp1-related fission forced the mitochondria to liberate HtrA2/Omi into the cytoplasm. Moreover, Mst1-induced defective mitophagy evoked cellular oxidative stress, energy metabolism and calcium overload. Through excessive mitochondrial fission and aberrant mitophagy, Mst1 launched caspase 9-related mitochondrial apoptosis and abrogated F-actin/lamellipodium-dependent cellular migration. Notably, we also defined NR4A/miR181c as the upstream signal for Mst1 dysfunction in endometriosis. Collectively, our results comprehensively described the important role of the NR4A-miR181c-Mst1 pathway in endometriosis, which handled mitochondrial

  20. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H

    2014-05-22

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration.

  1. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi

    2006-01-01

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the α v -containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism

  2. Landscape associations of birds during migratory stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert Howard

    The challenge for migratory bird conservation is habitat preservation that sustains breeding, migration, and non-breeding biological processes. In choosing an appropriately scaled conservation arena for habitat preservation, a conservative and thorough examination of stopover habitat use patterns by migrants works back from the larger scales at which such relationships may occur. Because the use of stopover habitats by migrating birds occurs at spatial scales larger than traditional field techniques can easily accommodate, I quantify these relationship using the United States system of weather surveillance radars (popularly known as NEXRAD). To provide perspective on use of this system for biologists, I first describe the technical challenges as well as some of the biological potential of these radars for ornithological research. Using data from these radars, I then examined the influence of Lake Michigan and the distribution of woodland habitat on migrant concentrations in northeastern Illinois habitats during stopover. Lake Michigan exerted less influence on migrant abundance and density than the distribution and availability of habitat for stopover. There was evidence of post-migratory movement resulting in habitats within suburban landscapes experiencing higher migrant abundance but lower migrant density than habitats within nearby urban and agricultural landscapes. Finally, in the context of hierarchy theory, I examined the influence of landscape ecological and behavioral processes on bird density during migratory stopover. Migrant abundance did not vary across landscapes that differed considerably in the amount of habitat available for stopover. As a result, smaller, more isolated patches held higher densities of birds. Spatial models of migrant habitat selection based on migrant proximity to a patch explained nearly as much variance in the number of migrants occupying patches (R2 = 0.88) as selection models based on migrant interception of patches during

  3. Conceptual ecological model for management of breeding shrubland birds in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2006-01-01

    While grassland birds have become the focus of increased conservation activities, the status of birds occupying shrubland habitats has received relatively little attention (Hunter et al. 2001). Yet, in eastern North America, shrubland birds exhibited consistent population declines during the past 40 years, based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (Pardieck and Sauer 2001). These population declines primarily reflect large-scale changes in land use patterns during the previous century (Lorimer 2001). Large areas of marginal farmland were abandoned and underwent secondary succession during the first half of the twentieth century, producing abundant successional habitats favored by shrubland birds. As these habitats matured, combined with strict fire-suppression policies (Hunter et al. 2001), shrublands succeeded into mature forests, and shrubland bird communities were replaced by woodland birds (Irland 1982; Askins 1993). For example, while nearly 29% of New England forests were classified as sapling stage in 1950, only 8% remained at that stage in the 1980s (Askins 1993). The trend towards forest maturation and loss of shrubland habitats continues, yet concerted conservation activities have not been directed to benefit declining shrubland bird populations. The National Park Service (NPS) could contribute to shrubland bird conservation in the Mid- Atlantic Region. The NPS maintains a number of historic sites and former battlefields managed for their cultural significance but also support wildlife populations. Many of these “cultural parks” maintain open landscapes, recreating land use patterns existing at the times of the historical events. While these open landscapes are frequently managed grasslands, some parks also support successional habitats that could be managed to benefit shrubland birds. In 2005, the NPS initiated a project exploring the potential of “cultural parks” to support significant breeding grassland and shrubland bird

  4. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  5. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  6. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  7. Activated α2 -Macroglobulin Induces Mesenchymal Cellular Migration Of Raw264.7 Cells Through Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Darío G; Dato, Virginia Actis; Fincati, Javier R Jaldín; Lorenc, Valeria E; Sánchez, María C; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2017-07-01

    Distinct modes of cell migration contribute to diverse types of cell movements. The mesenchymal mode is characterized by a multistep cycle of membrane protrusion, the formation of focal adhesion, and the stabilization at the leading edge associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and with regulated extracellular proteolysis. Both α 2 -Macroglobulin (α 2 M) and its receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), play important roles in inflammatory processes, by controlling the extracellular activity of several proteases. The binding of the active form of α 2 M (α 2 M*) to LRP1 can also activate different signaling pathways in macrophages, thus inducing extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and cellular proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether the α 2 M*/LRP1 interaction induces cellular migration of the macrophage-derived cell line, Raw264.7. By using the wound-scratch migration assay and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that α 2 M* induces LRP1-mediated mesenchymal cellular migration. This migration exhibits the production of enlarged cellular protrusions, MT1-MMP distribution to these leading edge protrusions, actin polymerization, focal adhesion formation, and increased intracellular LRP1/β1-integrin colocalization. Moreover, the presence of calphostin-C blocked the α 2 M*-stimulated cellular protrusions, suggesting that the PKC activation is involved in the cellular motility of Raw264.7 cells. These findings could constitute a therapeutic target for inflammatory processes with deleterious consequences for human health, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1810-1818, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Migration stopover ecology of western avian populations: A southwestern migration workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Hazelwood, Rob

    2004-01-01

    The importance of migration stopover sites in ensuring that migratory birds successfully accomplish their journeys between breeding and non-breeding ranges has come to the forefront of avian research. Migratory birds that breed in western United States (US) and Canada and overwinter primarily in western Mexico migrate across the arid region of northern Mexico and southwestern US. Many of these migrants use lowland riparian stopover habitats, which comprise less than 0.1% of the western U.S. landscape. These habitats represent a significant conservation priority.

  9. Flexible navigation response in common cuckoos Cuculus canorus displaced experimentally during migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite...... tracks of 11 experimentally displaced adults revealed an unexpected flexibility in individual navigation responses. The birds compensated for the translocation to unfamiliar areas by travelling toward population-specific staging areas, demonstrating true navigation capabilities. Individual responses...

  10. The distribution of deformation in parallel fault-related folds with migrating axial surfaces: comparison between fault-propagation and fault-bend folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Francesco; Storti, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    In fault-related folds that form by axial surface migration, rocks undergo deformation as they pass through axial surfaces. The distribution and intensity of deformation in these structures has been impacted by the history of axial surface migration. Upon fold initiation, unique dip panels develop, each with a characteristic deformation intensity, depending on their history. During fold growth, rocks that pass through axial surfaces are transported between dip panels and accumulate additional deformation. By tracking the pattern of axial surface migration in model folds, we predict the distribution of relative deformation intensity in simple-step, parallel fault-bend and fault-propagation anticlines. In both cases the deformation is partitioned into unique domains we call deformation panels. For a given rheology of the folded multilayer, deformation intensity will be homogeneously distributed in each deformation panel. Fold limbs are always deformed. The flat crests of fault-propagation anticlines are always undeformed. Two asymmetric deformation panels develop in fault-propagation folds above ramp angles exceeding 29°. For lower ramp angles, an additional, more intensely-deformed panel develops at the transition between the crest and the forelimb. Deformation in the flat crests of fault-bend anticlines occurs when fault displacement exceeds the length of the footwall ramp, but is never found immediately hinterland of the crest to forelimb transition. In environments dominated by brittle deformation, our models may serve as a first-order approximation of the distribution of fractures in fault-related folds.

  11. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  12. A new conservation partnership: conserving the migratory birds of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Capp; David Mehlman

    Over five billion birds move each year across the Americas, flying great distances over almost every location and habitat on the continents (Weidensaul 1999). Over 350 of the over 800 bird species in the United States migrate each year to Latin America and the Caribbean (Degraaf and Rappole 1995). Some fly each way over 4000 miles, chasing the seasons across oceans and...

  13. Spatial distribution of bird communities in small forest fragments in central Europe in relation to distance to the forest edge, fragment size and type of forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Kočvara, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 401, OCT (2017), s. 255-263 ISSN 0378-1127 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Clearing * Dryocopus martius * Forest bird * Forest management * Generalized additive model * Habitat fragmentation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry; BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Forestry; Statistics and probability (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  14. Feather mass and winter moult extent are heritable but not associated with fitness-related traits in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Reed, T.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In birds, the allocation of resources to plumage production may have important fitness consequences. However, we have only a limited understanding of how plumage traits respond to natural selection, making it difficult to predict how variation in plumage traits may contribute to the adaptation of

  15. [Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Wells, Jonathan C K; Smeeth, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru.

  16. Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Bulluck, Lesley P; Carlson, John C; Sabo, Roy T

    2013-03-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

  17. HIV/AIDS-related sexual risk behaviors among rural residents in China: potential role of rural-to-urban migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between rural-to-urban migration and the spread of HIV is well described, although most studies focus on sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants at the urban destination areas. Few studies have examined the sexual risk behaviors of migrants who have returned from urban areas to their rural homes (“return migrants”) in comparison with those of local rural residents who have never migrated to cities (“non-migrants”). This study examines the potential association between rural-to-urban migration and sexual risk behaviors by comparing sexual risk behaviors between 553 return migrants and 441 non-migrants from same rural communities in China. Findings reveal that, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, return migrants in rural areas had higher levels of sexual risk, including unprotected sex, than non-migrants. Among return migrants, sexual risk behaviors were associated with age, gender, marital status, and number of different jobs they had previously held in the cities. These findings underscore the importance for HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts targeting the migrant population in urban destinations as well as the return migrant population in rural areas. PMID:17967110

  18. Laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration Project: Progress report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    In this report we describe the work done at Los Alamos in support of the Radionuclide Migration project during fiscal year 1986. We have continued to monitor the transport of tritium and 85 Kr from the Cambric explosion zone to the satellite well, which is pumped at 600 gal/min. Corresponding movement of cationic radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr has not yet been observed after 12 yr of pumping, nor have we seen evidence that these strongly sorbing ions move in conjunction with colloids. We have analyzed more data from the Cheshire study site but have not resolved the uncertainties regarding the distribution and movement of radioactive materials at this location. Our attempts to improve our analytical capability for 36 Cl and 99 Tc have resulted in some progress. Similarly, we have increased our understanding of radionuclide transport phenomena such as channeling in fracture flow and anion exclusion in zeolites and clays. A sample exchange with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has helped us identify critical steps in our procedures for collecting and analyzing large-volume water samples. We have surveyed potential sites on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site for future radionuclide migration studies and conclude that there are none other than Cheshire presently available, and none are likely to be created in the near future. The Laboratory has engaged recently in radionuclide migration studies sponsored by our weapons program; we reviewed this work in an appendix to the annual report

  19. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  20. Determinants of spring migration departure decision in a bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, M; Ellis-Soto, D; Safi, K; O'Mara, M Teague

    2017-09-01

    Migratory decisions in birds are closely tied to environmental cues and fat stores, but it remains unknown if the same variables trigger bat migration. To learn more about the rare phenomenon of bat migration, we studied departure decisions of female common noctules ( Nyctalus noctula ) in southern Germany. We did not find the fattening period that modulates departure decisions in birds. Female noctules departed after a regular evening foraging session, uniformly heading northeast. As the day of year increased, migratory decisions were based on the interactions among wind speed, wind direction and air pressure. As the migration season progressed, bats were likely to migrate on nights with higher air pressure and faster tail winds in the direction of travel, and also show high probability of migration on low-pressure nights with slow head winds. Common noctules thus monitor complex environmental conditions to find the optimal migration night. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  2. Basal metabolic rate and risk-taking behaviour in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2009-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) constitutes the minimal metabolic rate in the zone of thermo-neutrality, where heat production is not elevated for temperature regulation. BMR thus constitutes the minimum metabolic rate that is required for maintenance. Interspecific variation in BMR in birds is correlated with food habits, climate, habitat, flight activity, torpor, altitude, and migration, although the selective forces involved in the evolution of these presumed adaptations are not always obvious. I suggest that BMR constitutes the minimum level required for maintenance, and that variation in this minimum level reflects the fitness costs and benefits in terms of ability to respond to selective agents like predators, implying that an elevated level of BMR is a cost of wariness towards predators. This hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between BMR and measures of risk taking such as flight initiation distance (FID) of individuals approached by a potential predator. Consistent with this suggestion, I show in a comparative analysis of 76 bird species that species with higher BMR for their body mass have longer FID when approached by a potential predator. This effect was independent of potentially confounding variables and similarity among species due to common phylogenetic descent. These results imply that BMR is positively related to risk-taking behaviour, and that predation constitutes a neglected factor in the evolution of BMR.

  3. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  4. An annotated checklist of pathogenic microorganisms associated with migratory birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2004), s. 639-659 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Arboviruses * birds * migration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2004 http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/40/4/639

  5. Economic impotance of flying visitors: migratory birds | Egwumah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are also capable of producing oil. Nature based tourism and recreation, such as the viewing of wildlife coupled with; management of migratory birds promotes market for other industrial goods such as lead shot, guns and binocular. Keywords: Migration; Recreation and Tourism; Trophies; Ornament; Food; Production of Oil ...

  6. Condition varies with habitat choice in postbreeding forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...

  7. Radar ornithology and the conservation of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney A. Gauthreaux; Carroll G. Belser

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to study with surveillance radar the movements of migrating birds in the atmosphere at different spatial scales. At a spatial scale within a range of 6 kilometers, high-resolution, 3-centimeter wavelength surveillance radar (e.g. BIRDRAD) can detect the departure of migrants from different types of habitat within a few kilometers of the radar. The radar...

  8. Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Henrik; Desholm, Mark; Heinänen, Stefan; Kahlert, Johnny A; Laubek, Bjarke; Jensen, Niels Einar; Žydelis, Ramūnas; Jensen, Bo Præstegaard

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring of bird migration at marine wind farms has a short history, and unsurprisingly most studies have focused on the potential for collisions. Risk for population impacts may exist to soaring migrants such as raptors with K-strategic life-history characteristics. Soaring migrants display strong dependence on thermals and updrafts and an affinity to land areas and islands during their migration, a behaviour that creates corridors where raptors move across narrow straits and sounds and are attracted to islands. Several migration corridors for soaring birds overlap with the development regions for marine wind farms in NW Europe. However, no empirical data have yet been available on avoidance or attraction rates and behavioural reactions of soaring migrants to marine wind farms. Based on a post-construction monitoring study, we show that all raptor species displayed a significant attraction behaviour towards a wind farm. The modified migratory behaviour was also significantly different from the behaviour at nearby reference sites. The attraction was inversely related to distance to the wind farm and was primarily recorded during periods of adverse wind conditions. The attraction behaviour suggests that migrating raptor species are far more at risk of colliding with wind turbines at sea than hitherto assessed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  10. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  11. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    during 2003–2008 in the same transects used for bird surveys and included five measures of ground cover, plus estimates of plant species richness, vegetation density (visual obstruction) at two different heights, and shrub numbers. These data, plus seasonal rainfall, were then used to evaluate components of variation in native and exotic grasslands. Relations between total bird numbers and bird species richness with environmental variation in native and exotic grasslands were compared. To compare diversity of arthropods in native and exotic grasslands, insects and arachnids were collected using three different methodologies (standardized sweep-net, random sweep-net, and pitfall traps) during four seasons, (2005–2006), at Naval Air Station–Corpus Christi, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Waldron, and Naval Air Station–Kingsville. To compare seed abundance and diversity between native and exotic grasslands, seeds were collected for two winters (2004–2006) at Naval Air Station–Corpus Christi and Naval Air Station–Kingsville. To evaluate effects of management on grassland vertebrates, abundance and diversity of birds and small mammals were estimated and compared in exotic grasses subjected to mowing, burning, or no active management (control) for one full year (2008–2009).Observations were made of 1,044 birds of 30 species in grassland transects during five winters. The Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) was the most common bird, which, with 644 detections, accounted for 63 percent of all individuals identified to species. Meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) and Le Conte’s Sparrows (Ammodramus leconteii) were the second (10 percent) and third (7 percent) most abundant bird species, respectively. Six of the seven most abundant species detected in grasslands were grassland species, and their numbers accounted for 87 percent of all birds, but 20 of the 30 species (67 percent) that used grasslands were not grassland species. Seven species observed in grassland

  12. Relation Between Ni Particle Shape Change and Ni Migration in Ni–YSZ Electrodes – a Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with degradation mechanisms of Ni–YSZ electrodes for solid oxide cells, mainly solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs), but also to some extent solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Analysis of literature data reveals that several apparently different and even in one case apparently...... contradicting degradation phenomena are a consequence of interplay between loss of contact between the Ni–YSZ (and Ni–Ni particles) in the active fine-structured composite fuel electrode layer and migration of Ni via weakly oxidized Ni hydroxide species. A hypothesis that unravels the apparent contradiction...

  13. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  14. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher

    2005-01-01

    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  15. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  16. Commonness and ecology, but not bigger brains, predict urban living in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Svein; Lifjeld, Jan T; Rowe, Melissah

    2015-04-11

    Several life history and ecological variables have been reported to affect the likelihood of species becoming urbanized. Recently, studies have also focused on the role of brain size in explaining ability to adapt to urban environments. In contrast, however, little is known about the effect of colonization pressure from surrounding areas, which may confound conclusions about what makes a species urban. We recorded presence/absence data for birds in 93 urban sites in Oslo (Norway) and compared these with species lists generated from 137 forest and 51 farmland sites surrounding Oslo which may represent source populations for colonization. We found that the frequency (proportion of sites where present) of a species within the city was strongly and positively associated with its frequency in sites surrounding the city, as were both species breeding habitat and nest site location. In contrast, there were generally no significant effects of relative brain mass or migration on urban occupancy. Furthermore, analyses of previously published data showed that urban density of birds in six other European cities was also positively and significantly associated with density in areas outside cities, whereas relative brain mass showed no such relationship. These results suggest that urban bird communities are primarily determined by how frequently species occurred in the surrounding landscapes and by features of ecology (i.e. breeding habitat and nest site location), whereas species' relative brain mass had no significant effects.

  17. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  18. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  19. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  20. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  1. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  2. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  3. Hydrology of the solid waste burial ground as related to potential migration of radionuclides, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Jack T.; Robertson, J.B.; Janzer, V.J.; Saindon, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made (1970-1974) to evaluate the geohydrologic and geochemical controls on subsurface migration of radionuclides from pits and trenches in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) solid waste burial ground and to determine the existence and extent of radionuclide migration from the burial ground. A total of about 1,700 sediment, rock, and water samples were collected from 10 observation wells drilled in and near the burial ground of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS). Within the burial ground area, the subsurface rocks are composed principally of basalt. Wind- and water-deposited sediments occur at the surface and in beds between the thicker basalt zones. Two principal sediment beds occur at about 110 feet and 240 feet below the land surface. The average thickness of the surficial sedimentary layer is about 15 feet while that of the two principal subsurface layers is 13 and 14 feet, respectively. The water table in the aquifer beneath the burial ground is at a depth of about 580 feet. Fission, activation, and transuranic elements were detected in some of the samples from the 110- and 240-foot sedimentary layers. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Five years of monitoring bird strike potential at a mountain-top wind turbine, Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossop, D.H. [Yukon College, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A five-year study was conducted to determine if birds were at risk of collision with an experimental wind turbine on a 1,500 metre mountain near the major Shakwak migration corridor used by many thousands of birds. More than 100 ground searches at the turbine site and about 80 hours of migration watch were conducted. In five years, six birds hit the control tower, none hit the turbine tower. All strikes were in winter and none of the birds killed were in migration. Waterfowl were found to navigate in the valley centre about 1,000 feet below the turbine. Small birds were rarely found at the altitude where the turbine was located. Raptors were the most common birds found near the site, but they were able to avoid the tower. It was concluded that birds using the migration corridor near Whitehorse were not at great risk of collision with towers above 1,200 metre altitude. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. The Factors that Affect Indian Migrants' Decision to Stay in or Counter Migrate from the United States: A Study with Special Reference to the Role of Tourism Related Imagery as a Determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu P. GEORGE

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing socio-economic realities of the presenttimes, this paper explores the complex dynamics underlying Indian immigrants' decision to continue to stay in the United States or to counter migrate back to India. In a reversal of fortunes, the specific set of conditions that once triggered a massive inflow of economic migrants from India to the US has been causing a counter migration to India. Based on a review of literature and an exploratory study involving focus groups the paper identifiessome of the major migration / counter migration related factors. Then, employing a survey, the relative importance of each of these factors is gauged for individuals associated with different professions. In addition, the study explores as a special case the role of tourism related images about the US being held by immigrants as determinants of their migration related decisions. Tourism images held by the migrants and the tourism opportunities provided by the US act more as hygiene factors than as motivators. In course of theexploration, a number of hypotheses are emerged that are of interest to future researchers. The study has got significant implications for migration / counter migration policy makers, industry practitioners, and the migrants themselves.

  7. Flight response of slope-soaring birds to seasonal variation in thermal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam E. Duerr; Tricia A. Miller; Michael Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Kieran O' Malley; Charles Maisonneuve; Junior A. Tremblay; Todd. Katzner

    2014-01-01

    Animals respond to a variety of environmental cues, including weather conditions, when migrating. Understanding the relationship between weather and migration behaviour is vital to assessing time- and energy limitations of soaring birds. Different soaring modes have different efficiencies, are dependent upon different types of subsidized lift and are weather dependent...

  8. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  9. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1978): Marine Bird Habitats (F040) (NODC Accession 0014159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Habitats (F040) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1978). Each dataset uses the...

  10. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1983): Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) (NODC Accession 0014155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1983)....

  11. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) (NODC Accession 0014156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Standard Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975...

  12. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979): Marine Bird Surveys (F041) (NODC Accession 0014160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Surveys (F041) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  13. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) (NODC Accession 0014158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses...

  14. Body fat influences departure from stopover sites in migratory birds: evidence from whole-island telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Spina, Fernando; Ferri, Andrea; Fusani, Leonida

    2010-01-01

    Migration remains one of the great mysteries of animal life. Small migratory birds rely on refuelling stopovers after crossing ecological barriers such as deserts or seas. Previous studies have suggested that fuel reserves may determine stopover duration but this hypothesis could not be tested because of methodological limitations. Here, we provide evidence that subcutaneous fat stores determine stopover duration by measuring the permanence of migratory garden warblers (Sylvia borin) on a small Mediterranean island during spring migration with telemetry methods. Garden warblers with large amounts of fat stores departed the island significantly sooner than lean birds. All except one fat bird left the island on the same evening after capture, with a mean total stopover estimate of 8.8 hours. In contrast, the mean estimated total stopover duration of lean birds was 41.3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures the true minimum stopover duration of a songbird during migration. PMID:20164077

  15. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  16. Dateline Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  17. Birds and wind power. Result report 1977-1982; Faglar och Vindkraft. Resultatrapport 1977-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Johnny

    1983-02-15

    Two large-scaled aerogenerators were erected in Sweden in 1980-82. Questions about how birds react on the generators were raised early. Theoretical calculations about the risk for collisions between migrating birds and the generators, together with data on the bird collision frequencies at radio- and television towers in Sweden were presented in a report in 1978. It was assumed that the collision frequency will normally not exceed five birds per night during nights with normal traffic rate of migrating birds, and with maximum of about 50 birds on special occasions (few cases per season). In 1979-1982 the local breeding bird fauna was censused in the immediate vicinities of the sites (arable land and grazed bushland) where the aerogenerators has been erected. The results obtained so far, do not indicate any effect at all on species diversity or abundance when comparing the situation before and after the erection of the arerogenerators. Some species have successfully colonized the areas, obviously exploiting resources created by the building activities. Two such species are Oenanthe oenanthe and Delichon urbica. Reactions of migrating birds when passing close to the generators will be studied in the nearest future (autumn 1983) when the plants will be in continous work.

  18. Data Mining Approaches for Habitats and Stopovers Discovery of Migratory Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on using data mining technology to efficiently and accurately discover habitats and stopovers of migratory birds. The three methods we used are as follows: 1. a density-based clustering method, detecting stopovers of birds during their migration through density-based clustering of location points; 2. A location histories parser method, detecting areas that have been overstayed by migratory birds during a set time period by setting time and distance thresholds; and 3. A time-parameterized line segment clustering method, clustering directed line segments to analyze shared segments of migratory pathways of different migratory birds and discover the habitats and stopovers of these birds. Finally, we analyzed the migration data of the bar-headed goose in the Qinghai Lake Area through the three above methods and verified the effectiveness of the three methods and, by comparison, identified the scope and context of the use of these three methods respectively.

  19. Assessment of bird populations in a high quality savanna/woodland: a banding approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Sandra L.; Glowacki, Gary A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2004, Save the Dunes Conservation Fund's Miller Woods Bird Banding Program monitored migrating and breeding bird populations within a high quality black oak, dry-mesic sand savanna/woodland with ridge and swale topography. The objectives of this program were to collect consistent and reliable demographic and abundance data on the bird populations, to investigate long-term population trends, and to contribute to improved land management decisions at regional and national scales. The technique employed involved capturing birds in mist nets that were deployed for set periods of time at 17 net sites in two banding areas in Miller Woods.

  20. Nordic Migration and Integration Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pyrhönen, Niko; Martikainen, Tuomas; Leinonen, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Migration and integration are currently highly contentious topics in political, public and scientific arenas, and will remain so in the near future. However, many common migration-related prejudices and inefficien¬cies in the integration of the migrant population are due to the lack of sound, tested and accessible scientific research. Therefore, the study of migration – by developing basic research and by properly resourcing novel methodological approaches and interventions ...

  1. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  2. Polar and K/Pg nonavian dinosaurs were low-metabolic rate reptiles vulnerable to cold-induced extinction, rather than more survivable tachyenergetic bird relatives: comment on an obsolete hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gregory

    2017-06-01

    The great majority of researchers concur that the presence of dinosaurs near the poles of their time are part of a large body of evidence that all Cretaceous dinosaurs had elevated metabolic rates more like their avian subbranch and mammals than low-energy reptiles. Yet a few still propose that nonavian dinosaurs were bradyenergetic ectothermic reptiles, and migrated away from the polar winters. The latter is not biologically possible because land animals cannot and never undertake very long seasonal migrations because the cost of ground locomotion is too high even for long limbed, tachyenergetic mammals to do so, much less low-energy reptiles. Nor was it geographically possible because marine barriers barred some polar dinosaurs from moving towards the winter sun. The presence of external insulation on some dinosaurs both strongly supports their being tachyenergetic endotherms and helps explain their ability to survive polar winters that included extended dark, chilling rains, sharp frosts, and blizzards so antagonistic to reptiles that the latter are absent from some locations that preserve dinosaurs including birds and mammals. The hypothesis that nonavian dinosaurs failed to survive the K/Pg crisis because they had reptilian energetics is illogical not only because they did not have such metabolisms, but because many low-energy reptiles did survive the crisis. The global super chill that apparently plagued K/Pg dinosaurs should have seriously impacted dinosaurs at all latitudes, but does not entirely readily explain their loss because some avian dinosaurs and other land tetrapods did survive. High- as well as low-latitude dinosaurs add to the growing evidence that high-energy endothermy has been a common adaptation in a wide variety of vertebrates and flying insects since the late Paleozoic.

  3. MIGRATION RELATED RESTRICTIONS BY THE EU MEMBER STATES IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE 2015 REFUGEE “CRISIS” IN EUROPE: WHAT DID WE LEARN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyra Jakulevičienė

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the actual and potential negative effects of selected restrictive measures undertaken by the European Union Member States on the protection of asylum seekers and refugees in Europe and its near vicinity, and the lessons learned from the post-2015 migration and refugee ‘crisis’ in the EU. The article aims to provide a legal assessment of these measures and their consequences from the perspective of international and EU law. The selected restrictive measures employed by the Member States in relation to or post-2015 refugee ‘crisis’ that are analysed in the article, relate to restrictions in the area of border controls: reintroduction of Schengen control at EU internal borders; physical barriers built along the borders of EU Member States and closure of external borders; other restrictions through legislative changes related to fast-track procedures and the increased use of detention. The research demonstrates that the restrictive measures analysed have already caused and will raise concerns resulting in legal actions at national, as well as European courts, the latter being far less favourable to accepting the arguments of “unexpected migration flow”, protection of national security or public order as justification for such measures. The article suggests that the lessons learned from the post-2015 refugee ‘crisis’ have been limited, and restrictive tendencies continue, including new trends in the upcoming revision of EU asylum legislation.

  4. Population specific migration patterns of an European-Afrotropical songbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Thorup, Kasper

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between the European and African continent. The fascinating behaviour of migration that we are witnessing today is assumed to have evolved through a series of dispersal events from Africa into Europe since the last glaciation period....... Recent technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our...... understanding of entire species migration systems is thus still limited. In this project we analyse the spatio-temporal migration schedule of Red-backed Shrikes, Lanius collurio, using tracking data from individuals originating from geographically distinct breeding populations (Scandinavia, the Netherlands...

  5. Collision risks at sea: species composition and altitude distributions of birds in Danish offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blew, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Nehls, G. [BioConsult SH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This study investigates the collision risks of birds in operating offshore wind farms, focussing on all bird species present in the direct vicinity of the wind farms, their altitude distribution and reactions. The project was conducted jointly by BioConsult SH and the University of Hamburg in the two Danish offshore wind farms Horns Rev (North Sea) and Nysted (Baltic Sea) in the framework of a Danish-German cooperation and financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2006, using a ship anchored at the edge of the offshore wind farms. In this way, bird species of all sizes could be considered. Daytime observations yielded data on species composition, flight routes and potential reactions of the birds. Radar observations provided altitude distributions inside and outside the wind farm area and also reactions. The results shall help to further describe and assess the collision risk of different species groups. Since data analysis is still running, exemplary results will be presented here. 114 species have been recorded in Nysted and 99 in Horns Rev, approximately 65% of which have been observed inside the wind farm areas. Migrating birds seem to avoid flying into the wind farms, whereas individuals present in the areas for extended time periods utilize areas within the wind farms. While a barrier effect exists for species on migration, resident species probably have a higher collision risk. Raptors migrating during daylight frequently enter the wind farm area on their flight routes, correcting their flight paths in order to avoid collisions. Radar results show that during times of intensive migration, the proportion of birds flying at high altitudes and thus above windmill height is higher than in times of low migration intensity. Consequently, there is a lower proportion of migrating birds flying within the risk area. Data will be further analysed to

  6. Eimeria tenella: host specificity in gallinaceous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterling, J M

    1976-02-01

    Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.

  7. Concealed by darkness: interactions between predatory bats and nocturnally migrating songbirds illuminated by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L; Juste, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreover, species using tree hollows or nest boxes in the study area during migration periods were not present in the bats' diet, indicating that birds are solely captured on the wing during night-time passage. Additional to a generalist feeding strategy, we found that bats selected medium-sized bird species, thereby assumingly optimizing their energetic cost-benefit balance and injury risk. Surprisingly, bats preyed upon birds half their own body mass. This shows that the 5% prey to predator body mass ratio traditionally assumed for aerial hunting bats does not apply to this hunting strategy or even underestimates these animals' behavioural and mechanical abilities. Considering the bats' generalist feeding strategy and their large prey size range, we suggest that nocturnal bat predation may have influenced the evolution of bird migration strategies and behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  9. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Babesia genotypes in Haemaphysalis concinna collected from birds in Hungary reflect phylogeographic connections with Siberia and the Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisz, Barbara; Sulyok, Kinga M; Kováts, Dávid; Kontschán, Jenő; Csörgő, Tibor; Csipak, Ármin; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Hornok, Sándor

    2017-06-01

    Haemaphysalis concinna is the second most common tick species attaching to birds in Hungary. Recently, Babesia genotypes, found in Siberia and the Far East, have been detected in this tick species collected from the vegetation in Hungary and Slovakia. The aim of this study was to molecularly investigate if these piroplasms also occur in H. concinna carried by migratory birds, which might explain their occurrence in the western Palaearctic. During a 2-year period, 321 H. concinna larvae and nymphs were collected from 121 passerine birds (of 19 species) in Hungary. These were molecularly investigated for the presence of piroplasm DNA with PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of PCR positive ticks was 15.9% (51 out of 321). Piroplasm PCR positivity of H. concinna ticks was significantly more frequent during the summer and autumn compared to spring, suggesting that migratory birds arriving in Hungary from the north or north east are the most important in the dispersal of H. concinna-associated piroplasms. Three genotypes, i.e. Babesia sp. "Irk-Hc133", "Irk-Hc130" (originally found in Irkutsk, Siberia) and "Kh-Hc222" (originally found in Khabarovsk, Far East) were detected. Phylogenetically all these belonged to the group formed by Babesia spp. of ruminants. Four bird species, which had 14-60% prevalence of PCR positive ticks, are known to be associated with northeast to southwest autumn migration. In conclusion, the presence of Central and East Asian Babesia genotypes in Central Europe are most likely related to bird species with known eastern migratory habit and/or phylogenetically substantiated connections between their eastern and western Eurasian populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Steadman, David W; Witt, Christopher C

    2016-04-26

    Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The "island rule" predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its general applicability to birds is questionable. However, convergent evolution has clearly occurred in the island bird lineages that have undergone transitions to secondary flightlessness, a process involving drastic reduction of the flight muscles and enlargement of the hindlimbs. Here, we investigated whether volant island bird populations tend to change shape in a way that converges subtly on the flightless form. We found that island bird species have evolved smaller flight muscles than their continental relatives. Furthermore, in 366 populations of Caribbean and Pacific birds, smaller flight muscles and longer legs evolved in response to increasing insularity and, strikingly, the scarcity of avian and mammalian predators. On smaller islands with fewer predators, birds exhibited shifts in investment from forelimbs to hindlimbs that were qualitatively similar to anatomical rearrangements observed in flightless birds. These findings suggest that island bird populations tend to evolve on a trajectory toward flightlessness, even if most remain volant. This pattern was consistent across nine families and four orders that vary in lifestyle, foraging behavior, flight style, and body size. These predictable shifts in avian morphology may reduce the physical capacity for escape via flight and diminish the potential for small-island taxa to diversify via dispersal.

  12. Wind effects on the migration routes of trans-Saharan soaring raptors: geographical, seasonal, and interspecific variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Mateo, Javier; Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; La Puente, Javier De; García-Ripollés, Clara; Bermejo, Ana; Urios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wind is among the most important environmental factors shaping birds’ migration patterns. Birds must deal with the displacement caused by crosswinds and their behavior can vary according to different factors such as flight mode, migratory season, experience, and distance to goal areas. Here we analyze the relationship between wind and migratory movements of three raptor species which migrate by soaring–gliding flight: Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, booted eagle Aquila pennata, and short-toed snake eagle Circaetus gallicus. We analyzed daily migratory segments (i.e., the path joining consecutive roosting locations) using data recorded by GPS satellite telemetry. Daily movements of Egyptian vultures and booted eagles were significantly affected by tailwinds during both autumn and spring migrations. In contrast, daily movements of short-toed eagles were only significantly affected by tailwinds during autumn migration. The effect of crosswinds was significant in all cases. Interestingly, Egyptian vultures and booted eagles showed latitudinal differences in their behavior: both species compensated more frequently at the onset of autumn migration and, at the end of the season when reaching their wintering areas, the proportion of drift segments was higher. In contrast, there was a higher drift at the onset of spring migration and a higher compensation at the end. Our results highlight the effect of wind patterns on the migratory routes of soaring raptors, with different outcomes in relation to species, season, and latitude, ultimately shaping the loop migration patterns that current tracking techniques are showing to be widespread in many long distance migrants. PMID:29491895

  13. ESTIMATES OF CURRENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF LABOUR FORCE AND MIGRATION RELATIONS OF RUSSIAN ARCTIC’S REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Korovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of balance of labour resources and population and labour resources movements balance for the assessment of the current and future state of regional labor markets and migration linkages in the regions of the Russian Arctic. The purpose of this article is to obtain projections of the dynamics of the main indicators of balance of labour resources, structure and dynamics of population and labor resources of the Russian Arctic regions. The study was performed in the methodology of balance of labour resources and population and labour resources movements balance. The model of population and labor resources movement, taking into account the repeated displacement of people is used. With account of the historical period we forecast the main parameters of population movements structure. The results of calculations on the example for the regions of the Asian and European parts of the Russian Arctic is given. The main problems of the Arctic regions labor resources are identifi ed. The resulting estimates of prospective changes in the structure of balance of labour resources, the most signifi cant sources of additional labor resources, changes to the importance of these sources. The article considers the trends of inter-regional movement of population and labor resources. The analysis of the main areas of origin and regions of arrival is made. The main donor regions and the recipient regions for regions of the Russian Arctic are named. The analysis of structural imbalances on the regional labour markets is made. The contribution the Arctic regions in the magnitude of structural unemployment is measured. Its shown, which regions can be conventionally considered labor-surplus and-defi cient. The results of the study can be used in the development of regional employment programmes, the development and implementation of migration policy, the development of the forecast of labour resources balance sheet, and especially

  14. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  15. The characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Le, Mai Q; Phuong, Lien S; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Otsuki, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Demographic outcomes of diverse migration strategies assessed in a metapopulation of tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Meixell, Brandt W

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a prominent aspect of the life history of many avian species, but the demographic consequences of variable migration strategies have only infrequently been investigated, and rarely when using modern technological and analytical methods for assessing survival, movement patterns, and long-term productivity in the context of life history theory. We monitored the fates of 50 satellite-implanted tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) over 4 years from five disparate breeding areas in Alaska, and used known-fate analyses to estimate monthly survival probability relative to migration distance, breeding area, migratory flyway, breeding status, and age. We specifically tested whether migratory birds face a trade-off, whereby long-distance migrants realize higher survival rates at the cost of lower productivity because of reduced time on breeding areas relative to birds that migrate shorter distances and spend more time on breeding areas. Annual migration distances varied significantly among breeding areas (1020 to 12720 km), and were strongly negatively correlated with time spent on breeding areas (r = -0.986). Estimates of annual survival probability varied by wintering area (Pacific coast, Alaska Peninsula, and Eastern seaboard) and ranged from 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.88) to 1.0, depending on criteria used to discern mortalities from radio failures. We did not find evidence for a linear relationship between migration distance and survival as swans from the breeding areas with the shortest and longest migration distances had the highest survival probabilities. Survival was lower in the first year post-marking than in subsequent years, but there was not support for seasonal differences in survival. Productivity varied among breeding populations and was generally inversely correlated to survival, but not migration distance or time spent on breeding areas. Tundra swans conformed to a major tenet of life history theory, as populations with the highest survival

  17. Relation Between Ni Particle Shape Change and Ni Migration in Ni–YSZ Electrodes – a Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with degradation mechanisms of Ni–YSZ electrodes for solid oxide cells, mainly solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs), but also to some extent solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Analysis of literature data reveals that several apparently different and even in one case apparently con...... and explains qualitatively the phenomena is presented, and as a side effect, light has been shed on a degradation phenomenon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that has been observed during a decade.......This paper deals with degradation mechanisms of Ni–YSZ electrodes for solid oxide cells, mainly solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs), but also to some extent solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Analysis of literature data reveals that several apparently different and even in one case apparently...... contradicting degradation phenomena are a consequence of interplay between loss of contact between the Ni–YSZ (and Ni–Ni particles) in the active fine-structured composite fuel electrode layer and migration of Ni via weakly oxidized Ni hydroxide species. A hypothesis that unravels the apparent contradiction...

  18. Laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project: Progress report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1988-02-01

    In this report we describe the research done by personnel of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the Radionuclide Migration project during FY 1987. We are engaged in collecting data concerning the movement of radionuclides at three locations on the Nevada Test Site. We continue to monitor the elution of tritium and krypton from the RNM-2S well at the Cambric site and have described in detail the elution of 36 Cl from the same well. The data from this field study provide us with the opportunity to test the validity of several models of solute transport through geologic media. We have detected tritium and fission products in a water sample from the hole UE20n number1, which was drilled this year at the Cheshire site on Pahute Mesa. We are also continuing our efforts to learn how radionuclides have moved in test areas 3 and 4 near the Aleman site. Our laboratory work this year includes (1) a characterization of the size and density of two stable plutonium(IV) colloid suspensions prepared by different techniques and (2) a study of the transmission of colloidal-size polystyrene beads through crushed-rock columns. 18 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Adiposity and height of adult Hmong refugees: relationship with war-related early malnutrition and later migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether historical proxies for poor nutrition early in life were associated with differences in body composition and height among adult Hmong refugees. Life history and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of 279 Hmong aged 18-51 years who were born in Laos or Thailand and resettled in French Guiana or the United States following the Second Indochina War. Overall, 30.5% were born in a war zone in Laos, while 38.8% were displaced as infants; these individuals were presumed to have experienced malnutrition in the perinatal and infant periods, respectively. Resettlement in urban areas in the US was utilized as a proxy for greater exposure to excessive energy balance, compared with Hmong who resettled in rural areas in French Guiana. In multiple linear regression models, being displaced in infancy was negatively associated with height after controlling for confounders, while being born in a war zone was associated with higher adiposity and centralized body fat distribution. Resettlement in the US was associated with a higher centralization of subcutaneous fat, but not overall adiposity. These findings may be of interest to the study of the developmental origins of obesity, in a population that has undergone early malnutrition followed by migration and rapid nutritional transition.

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  1. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds. De invloed van de Sep-proefwindcentrale te Oosterbierum (Friesland) op vogels; Deel 1: Aanvaringsslachtoffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, J E

    1992-01-01

    The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. This report deals with the results of searches for dead birds killed as a consequence of collisions with obstacles in the wind park in the spring of 1986-1991 and in the autumn of 1986-1988 and 1991. During the six spring periods and four autumn periods searches were made on 642 different days during which 2907 times an obstacle was searched for dead birds. During these days 76 birds were found (25 species), of which 36% were certainly or very probably killed as a result from a collision with a wind turbine, and 22% were possibly so. Of 34% the cause of death was unknown, and 7% died from other causes. Of the 76 birds found 17% were wounded but still alive. There were no nights with large kills. Also attention is paid to the distribution of the bird victims over the wind park area, their individual positions with regard to the obstacles, and the weather conditions in relation to the number of victims at a certain day. On average less than 0.1% of the birds passing the wind park during the night collided with an obstacle in the wind park, and less than 0.01% did so when the diurnal migration is included. When all resting and feeding birds are also added less than 0.008% collided in autumn (in spring less than 0.06%, breeding birds included). When the possible collisions are included these figures are 0.2%, 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.1% respectively. 9 figs., 22 tabs., 19 app., 83 refs.

  2. Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.

    2009-03-01

    The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.

  3. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  4. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  5. Migrating for a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2015-01-01

    a strong sense of agency and self-empowerment. In the post-WWII period, numerous Caribbean women trained in nursing at British hospitals that have been described as marred by race and gender related inequality and associated forms of exploitation. Yet, the nurses interviewed about this training emphasised......Youths from the Global South migrating for further education often face various forms of discrimination. This Caribbean case study discusses how conditions in the home country can provide a foundation for educational migration that helps the migrants overcome such obstacles and even develop...... in which it enabled these Caribbean women to stake out a new life for themselves....

  6. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds. De invloed van de Sep-proefwindcentrale te Oosterbierum (Friesland) op vogels; Deel 3: Aanvlieggedrag overdag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, J E

    1992-01-01

    The study concerns 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. The flight behavior of birds approaching the wind park system during daylight is also dealt with. For at least a fifth of the observations it was noted whether the birds passing within 100 meters distance of a turbine showed a reaction or not. The proportion of the reactions was related to the wind park in operation or not in operation, and to the distance between the wind turbines, species, flight height, the passing distance, wind direction and wind force. Secondly the flight path of birds approaching the wind park from eastern directions during daylight (real autumn migration) and from southern directions during late afternoon (flights of gulls to night roosts) was studied in detail. Significantly more reactions (11-18%) were recorded with the wind park fully operational compared to the wind park not operational (2%). In total 2203 flight paths of birds approaching the wind park were recorded during 151 hours of observation. The test results showed that a passing distance of less or more than 100 meters of the nearest wind turbine did not affect the proportion of reactions. Several reaction types and combinations were noted, varying from gradual and calm reactions (circa 75%), and panic reactions, occurring just before or while passing the wind turbines. The reactions are shift in the flight path in the horizontal plane (30%), shift in the flight path in the vertical plane (14%), one passing attempt (87%), an accelerated wing beat (14%), an alteration of the angle of the body (21%).

  7. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  8. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  9. Birds and wind power. Technical report 1977-1982; Faglar och vindkraft. Teknisk rapport 1977-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Johnny

    1983-02-15

    The impact of wind power plants on birds has been studied. The risk of migrating birds colliding with high buildings has been investigated. Different hazards and accidents are described and reported in 12 appendices. Preliminary data from the sites of wind power plants are presented.

  10. Distribution and migration of aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Ogasawara Islands intraplate normal-faulting earthquake related to a fracture zone in the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; No, Tetsuo; Kaiho, Yuka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yamashita, Mikiya; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    describe the aftershocks of a Mw 7.4 intraplate normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 150 km east Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, on 21 December 2010. It occurred beneath the outer trench slope of the Izu-Ogasawara trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Aftershock observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) began soon after the earthquake and multichannel seismic reflection surveys were conducted across the aftershock area. Aftershocks were distributed in a NW-SE belt 140 km long, oblique to the N-S trench axis. They formed three subparallel lineations along a fracture zone in the Pacific plate. The OBS observations combined with data from stations on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands revealed a migration of the aftershock activity. The first hour, which likely outlines the main shock rupture, was limited to an 80 km long area in the central part of the subsequent aftershock area. The first hour activity occurred mainly around, and appears to have been influenced by, nearby large seamounts and oceanic plateau, such as the Ogasawara Plateau and the Uyeda Ridge. Over the following days, the aftershocks expanded beyond or into these seamounts and plateau. The aftershock distribution and migration suggest that crustal heterogeneities related to a fracture zone and large seamounts and oceanic plateau in the incoming Pacific plate affected the rupture of the main shock. Such preexisting structures may influence intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes in other regions of plate flexure prior to subduction.

  11. The effects of climate change on terrestrial birds of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David King; Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of avian responses to climate change is of interest for a number of reasons. First, because birds are relatively easy to identify and measure and their responses to environmental perturbation are relatively well known, they are useful as indicators of ecological change (1). Furthermore, birds are of conservation interest in their own right. Bird...

  12. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  13. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  14. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  15. Fish, birds and flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The article in your animal physics special issue on the use of magnetic field sensing in bird navigation (November 2012 pp38-42) reminded me of a comment made regarding a paper that I presented in the US many years ago.

  16. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  17. Eating Like a Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Chris; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on the adaptations of shorebird beaks for a variety of habitats and food sources, and the effect of toxic chemicals in the food chain on the birds. In activity A, students discover how shorebirds are…

  18. Temperature-influenced energetics model for migrating waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kevin; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lonsdorg, Eric V.

    2018-01-01

    Climate and weather affect avian migration by influencing when and where birds fly, the energy costs and risks of flight, and the ability to sense cues necessary for proper navigation. We review the literature of the physiology of avian migration and the influence of climate, specifically temperature, on avian migration dynamics. We use waterfowl as a model guild because of the ready availability of empirical physiological data and their enormous economic value, but our discussion and expectations are broadly generalizable to migratory birds in general. We detail potential consequences of an increasingly warm climate on avian migration, including the possibility of the cessation of migration by some populations and species. Our intent is to lay the groundwork for including temperature effects on energetic gains and losses of migratory birds with the expected consequences of increasing temperatures into a predictive modeling framework. To this end, we provide a simulation of migration progression exclusively focused on the influence of temperature on the physiological determinants of migration. This simulation produced comparable results to empirically derived and observed values for different migratory factors (e.g., body fat content, flight range, departure date). By merging knowledge from the arenas of avian physiology and migratory theory we have identified a clear need for research and have developed hypotheses for a path forward.

  19. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or drive the birds away. However, the droppings of the birds provide a rich source of fertilizer and this ... birds of India are under severe threat and require urgent protection. he~ries'(Box 1), can ... there will be no fish and then suddenly a school.

  20. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  1. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  2. A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-10-01

    The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

  3. Estuarine and marine diets of out-migrating Chinook Salmon smolts in relation to local zooplankton populations, including harmful blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, C. M.; Sweeting, R.; Neville, C. M.; Young, K.; Galbraith, M.; Carmack, E.; Vagle, S.; Dempsey, M.; Eert, J.; Beamish, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in food availability during the early marine phase of wild Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) are being investigated as a cause of their recent declines in the Salish Sea. The marine survival of hatchery smolts, in particular, has been poor. This part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project examined the diet of young out-migrating Chinook Salmon for four consecutive years in the Cowichan River estuary and in Cowichan Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Local zooplankton communities were monitored during the final year of the study in the Cowichan River estuary, Cowichan Bay, and eastward to the Salish Sea to better understand the bottom-up processes that may be affecting Chinook Salmon survival. Rearing environment affected body size, diet, and distribution in the study area. Clipped smolts (hatchery-reared) were larger than the unclipped smolts (primarily naturally-reared), ate larger prey, spent very little time in the estuary, and disappeared from the bay earlier, likely due to emigration or mortality. Their larger body size may be a disadvantage for hatchery smolts if it necessitates their leaving the estuary prematurely to meet energy needs; the onset of piscivory began at a forklength of approximately 74 mm, which was less than the average forklength of the clipped fish in this study. The primary zooplankton bloom occurred during the last week of April/first week of May 2013, whereas the main release of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon smolts occurs each year in mid-May-this timing mismatch may reduce their survival. Gut fullness was correlated with zooplankton biomass; however, both the clipped and unclipped smolts were not observed in the bay until the bloom of harmful Noctiluca was finished-20 days after the maximum recorded zooplankton abundance. Jellyfish medusa flourished in nearshore areas, becoming less prevalent towards the deeper waters of the Salish Sea. The sizable presence of Noctiluca and jellyfish in the zooplankton blooms may be repelling

  4. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  5. Is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Kate E; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Conway, Greg J; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P

    2015-12-01

    Human activities are causing rapid environmental change at a global scale. Urbanization is responsible for some of the most extreme human-altered habitats and is a known driver of evolutionary change, but evidence and understanding of these processes is limited. Here, we investigate the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to the contemporary evolution of migration behaviour in the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Blackcaps from central Europe have been wintering in urban areas of Britain with increasing frequency over the past 60 years, rather than migrating south to the Mediterranean. It has been hypothesized that the popularization of providing supplementary foods for wild birds within Britain may have influenced this marked migratory change, but quantifying the selective forces shaping evolutionary changes remains challenging. Using a long-term national scale data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and interannual variation in blackcap wintering behaviour in Britain in relation to supplementary food availability and local climate. Over a 12-year period, we show that blackcaps are becoming increasingly associated with the provision of supplementary foods in British gardens, and that the reliability of bird food supplies is influencing their winter distribution at a national scale. In addition, local climatic temperatures and broader scale weather variation are also important determinants of blackcap wintering patterns once they arrive in Britain. Based on our findings, we conclude that a synergistic effect of increased availability of feeding resources, in the form of garden bird food, coupled with climatic amelioration, has enabled a successful new wintering population to become established in Britain. As global biodiversity is threatened by human-induced environmental change, this study presents new and timely evidence of the role human activities can play in shaping evolutionary trajectories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Selection of passerine birds as bio-sentinel of persistent organic pollutants in terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiaobo; Sun, Yuxin; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiangrong; Qin, Xiaoquan; Gao, Yongli; Mai, Bixian

    2018-08-15

    A broad suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, were analyzed in pectoral muscle of eight terrestrial passerine bird species from an extensive e-waste recycling site in South China. Concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs in bird samples ranged from 1260-279,000, 121-14,200, and 31-7910ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Insectivorous birds had significantly higher levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs than those in granivorous birds. Concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds were significantly greater than those in migrant insectivorous birds. PCBs were the predominant pollutants in all bird species from the e-waste site, followed by PBDEs and DDTs, indicating that PCBs were mainly derived from e-wastes. The granivorous birds had higher proportions of hepta-CBs in total PCBs and higher proportions of octa- to deca-BDEs in total PBDEs compared with the insectivorous birds. The various dietary sources, migration behavior, and possible biotransformation were suspected as reasons of the distinct profiles of POPs in different bird species. The δ 15 N values were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds, but not in other passerine bird species, suggesting the influence of trophic levels on bioaccumulation of POPs in resident insectivorous birds. The resident insectivorous birds seem to be promising bio-sentinel of POPs in terrestrial environment around the e-waste sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Habitat Requirements For Birds in Suburban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Richard M. DeGraaf; Joseph C. Mawson

    1977-01-01

    Songbird populations can be related to habitat components by a method that allows the simultaneous determination of habitat requirements for a variety of species . Through correlation and multiple-regression analyses, 10 bird species were studied in a suburban habitat, which was stratified according to human density. Variables used to account for bird distribution...

  8. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  9. Southward autumn migration of waterfowl facilitates cross-continental transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration

  10. No fly zones : oilsands mines use wide variety of bird deterrents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed the bird deterrent practices that several Canadian operators have in place at their tailings ponds. Regulations require that oilsands operators prevent birds from coming into contact with toxic tailings. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has a 2-man team constantly monitoring bird landings at its Horizon tailings pond. The team fires flares at birds or harasses them in boats to stop them from landing on the pond. Remote sensing technologies are used, including long-range acoustic devices, propane cannons, human effigies, balloons, and pyrotechnics. The vegetation around the pond is controlled to make the area inhospitable to birds, and highly desirable bird habitat was created as an alternative bird landing site. Following a high-mortality incident in 2008, Syncrude now deploys 190 shore-based sound canons at all tailings settling basins and open-water areas and uses scarecrows and effigies fitted with reflectors to deter waterfowl from landing. A radar-based migration monitoring system helps the company to optimize its deterrent system. At its Muskeg River Mine, Shell Canada Limited uses an on-demand radar-activated bird-deterrent program, which is what major airports use to deter birds. In the presence of a bird, the system launches a radio signal that sets off strobe lights, propane cannons, scarecrows, and mechanical models of falcons. 1 fig.

  11. Apparent dissociation of photoperiodic time measurement between vernal migration and breeding under dim green light conditions in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang WANG, Marilyn RAMENOFSKY, John C. WINGFIELD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In seasonally breeding birds, the annual cycle of photoperiod is a principal environmental cue for temporal arrangement of different life-history stages, such as migration and breeding. In the past, most research has focused on the mechanisms of photoperiodic control of breeding with less attention paid to migration. In Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (GWCS, photoreceptors for induction of breeding are known to reside in the basal hypothalamus. However, it is unknown whether the sites of photoperiodic reception for vernal migration are the same as those for breeding. Therefore, we hypothesized that they may be controlled separately. In this study, we exposed photosensitive GWCSs to low-penetration green light (wavelength at 510 nm under a regime of 1 lux during the day and <0.1 lux at night, and switched the photoperiodic conditions from short day (10 h daytime to long day (18 h daytime. The results showed that the experimental birds developed traits associated with vernal migration including mass increase, fat deposition and migratory restlessness behavior when transferred from short day to long day green light cycles, while control birds maintained continuously on short day green light conditions did not express any migration related characteristics. Neither experimental nor control groups showed gonadal recrudescence under either green light cycles. In support of our hypothesis, we were able to apparently dissociate the photoperiodic responses regulating vernal migration and breeding, which suggests separate mechanisms of photoperiodic time measurement. Such distinct photoperiodic mechanisms may drive the fine-tuned temporal arrangement of the two life history stages [Current Zoology 59 (3: 349–359, 2013].

  12. Small scale distribution patterns and vertical migration of North Sea herring larvae (Clupea harengus, Teleostei: Clupeidea in relation to abiotic and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Haslob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of herring larvae in relation to environmental conditions and the occurrence of possible prey and predator organisms was studied during a 4-day period on a permanent station in the northern North Sea in September 1999. The vertical distribution of herring larvae was sampled in 20-m intervals by means of a multiple-closing net. To resolve the small-scale patchiness of herring larvae and planktonic prey and predator organisms, a towed in-situ video system was used, the Ichthyoplankton Recorder. A diel vertical migration of herring larvae was observed with different intensities depending on their body length. Small larvae ( 16 mm showed the highest abundances in the upper water layers during the day and were concentrated in deeper water layers during the night. The presented results appear to be relevant for individual-based modelling of the fate of larval herring populations.

  13. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  14. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  15. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  16. Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Koed, Anders

    2002-01-01

    tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream migration of the different groups of fish was monitored by manual tracking and by three automatic listening stations. The downstream migration of radio tagged smolts of both species occurred concurrently with their untagged counterparts....... The diel migration pattern of the radio tagged smolts was predominantly nocturnal in both species. Wild sea trout smolt migrated significantly faster than both the F1 trout and the introduced salmon. There was no correlation between net ground speed, gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity or fish length in any...

  17. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  18. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  19. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  20. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological

  1. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  2. Windmills and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, N W; Poulsen, E

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this study is an investigation of potential conflicts between windmills and birds. Emphasis is on frightening, collision risk and biotopic changes due to windmill systems. The study is based on the environment of Koldby and Nibe windmills (South Jutland). Biotopic changes were not observed around the existing windmills. Drainage of mill grounds at Nibe had probably no effect on water level in the area around; a longer observation is necessary to draw any decisive conclusions.(EG).

  3. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012–0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018–0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. Conclusions We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. PMID:24516686

  4. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  5. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  6. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially Protected...

  7. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  8. The effect of the Sep wind park near Oosterbierum, Friesland, The Netherlands, on birds. De invloed van de Sep-proefwindcentrale te Oosterbierum (Friesland) op vogels; Deel 4: Verstoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, J E

    1992-01-01

    The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report attention is paid to the disturbance of the bird's biotope. The results show that four species of grassland birds, breeding in the park, were hardly disturbed by the wind turbines. For feeding and resting birds, however, disturbance effects were noted, even at a distance of 500 meters from the outside wind turbine array. The present number of bird species reduced 60-95%, dependent on the species, after the wind park was put into operation. Also the behavior of migrating birds was influenced by the wind park, showed in clustering of groups or avoiding the wind park, sometimes up to 67% of the birds did so. It is therefore recommended not to implement new wind parks in important bird migration and bird feeding or bird resting areas. Bird popular areas, however, are mostly windy areas. 15 figs., 25 tabs., 56 app., 128 refs.

  9. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may...... abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern...... Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring...

  10. Energetic and biomechanical constraints on animal migration distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew M; Hou, Chen; Gillooly, James F

    2012-02-01

    Animal migration is one of the great wonders of nature, but the factors that determine how far migrants travel remain poorly understood. We present a new quantitative model of animal migration and use it to describe the maximum migration distance of walking, swimming and flying migrants. The model combines biomechanics and metabolic scaling to show how maximum migration distance is constrained by body size for each mode of travel. The model also indicates that the number of body lengths travelled by walking and swimming migrants should be approximately invariant of body size. Data from over 200 species of migratory birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates support the central conclusion of the model - that body size drives variation in maximum migration distance among species through its effects on metabolism and the cost of locomotion. The model provides a new tool to enhance general understanding of the ecology and evolution of migration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Conserving migratory land birds in the new world: do we know enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faaborg, John; Holmes, Richard T; Anders, Angela D; Bildstein, Keith L; Dugger, Katie M; Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Heglund, Patricia; Hobson, Keith A; Jahn, Alex E; Johnson, Douglas H; Latta, Steven C; Levey, Douglas J; Marra, Peter P; Merkord, Christopher L; Nol, Erica; Rothstein, Stephen I; Sherry, Thomas W; Sillett, T Scott; Thompson, Frank R; Warnock, Nils

    2010-03-01

    Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across a range of areas, Information deficiencies are even greater during the wintering season, when birds require sites that provide security and food resources needed for survival and developing nutrient reserves for spring migration and, possibly, reproduction. Research is needed on many species simply to identify geographic distributions, wintering sites, habitat use, and basic ecology. Studies are complicated, however, by the mobility of birds and by sexual segregation during winter. Stable-isotope methodology has offered an opportunity to identify linkages between breeding and wintering sites, which facilitates understanding the complete annual cycle of birds. The twice-annual migrations are the poorest-understood events in a bird's life. Migration has always been a risky undertaking, with such anthropogenic features as tall buildings, towers, and wind generators adding to the risk. Species such as woodland specialists migrating through eastern North America have numerous options for pausing during migration to replenish nutrients, but some species depend on limited stopover locations. Research needs for migration include identifying pathways and timetables of migration, quality and distribution of habitats, threats posed by towers and other tall structures, and any bottlenecks for migration. Issues such as human

  12. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  13. Freedom of Movement and Work-Related Migration in the EU: A Study of Problem Construction in Finnish Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Karwowska, Joanna Wiktoria

    2013-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of Finnish regulations related to the free movement of workers. The matter is assessed in the case of a country which takes advantage of the EU’s freedom of movement in various ways. Finland is struggling with the problem of a rapidly ageing society, so the need for a foreign workforce has been declared even to the point of it becoming part of the Government’s Programme. The thesis subject is a popular area of research in the world. Nevertheless, previous s...

  14. Management-Related Traffic as a Stressor Eliciting Parental Care in a Roadside-Nesting Bird: The European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Julio; Abaurrea, Teresa; D'Amico, Marcello; Barcellona, Francesca; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto; Carrete, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care. Comparisons were established within Doñana National Park (Spain), between birds exposed to either negligible traffic (ca. 0-10 vehicles per day) or low traffic intensity (ca. 10-90 vehicles per day) associated to management and research activities. The frequencies of alarm calls and flock flushes were greater in areas of higher traffic intensity, which resulted in direct mortality at moderate vehicle speeds (≤ 40 km/h). Parental feeding rates paralleled changes in traffic intensity, but contrary to our predictions. Indeed, feeding rates were highest in traffic-exposed nests, during working days and traffic rush-hours. Traffic-avoidance responses were systematic and likely involved costs (energy expenditure and mortality), but vehicle transit positively influenced the reproductive performance of bee-eaters through an increase of nestling feeding rates. Because the expected outcome of traffic on individual performance can be opposed when responses are monitored during mating (i.e. negative effect by increase of alarm calls and flock flushes) or nestling-feeding period (i.e. at least short-term positive effect by increase of nestling feeding rates), caution should be taken before inferring fitness consequences only from isolated behaviors or specific life history stages.

  15. Smooth particle hydrodynamic modeling and validation for impact bird substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Arun; Prasad, Ganesh

    2018-04-01

    Bird strike events incidentally occur and can at times be fatal for air frame structures. Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) and such other ones mandates aircrafts to be modeled to withstand various levels of bird hit damages. The subject matter of this paper is numerical modeling of a soft body geometry for realistically substituting an actual bird for carrying out simulations of bird hit on target structures. Evolution of such a numerical code to effect an actual bird behavior through impact is much desired for making use of the state of the art computational facilities in simulating bird strike events. Validity, of simulations depicting bird hits, is largely dependent on the correctness of the bird model. In an impact, a set of complex and coupled dynamic interaction exists between the target and the impactor. To simplify this problem, impactor response needs to be decoupled from that of the target. This can be done by assuming and modeling the target as noncompliant. Bird is assumed as fluidic in a impact. Generated stresses in the bird body are significant than its yield stresses. Hydrodynamic theory is most ideal for describing this problem. Impactor literally flows steadily over the target for most part of this problem. The impact starts with an initial shock and falls into a radial release shock regime. Subsequently a steady flow is established in the bird body and this phase continues till the whole length of the bird body is turned around. Initial shock pressure and steady state pressure are ideal variables for comparing and validating the bird model. Spatial discretization of the bird is done using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) approach. This Discrete Element Model (DEM) offers significant advantages over other contemporary approaches. Thermodynamic state variable relations are established using Polynomial Equation of State (EOS). ANSYS AUTODYN is used to perform the explicit dynamic simulation of the impact event. Validation of the shock and steady

  16. Theory and practical understanding of the migration behavior of proteins and peptides in CE and related techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth; Hilbrig, Frank

    2007-07-01

    CEC is defined as an analytical method, where the analytes are separated on a chromatographic column in the presence of an applied voltage. The separation of charged analytes in CEC is complex, since chromatographic interaction, electroosmosis and electrophoresis contribute to the experimentally observed behavior. The putative contribution of effects such as surface electrodiffusion has been suggested. A sound theoretical treatment incorporating all effects is currently not available. The question of whether the different effects contribute in an independent or an interdependent manner is still under discussion. In this contribution, the state-of-the-art in the theoretical description of the individual contributions as well as models for the retention behavior and in particular possible dimensionless 'retention factors' is discussed, together with the experimental database for the separation of charged analytes, in particular proteins and peptides, by CEC and related techniques.

  17. Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxter, Chris B; Buchanan, Graeme M; Carr, Jamie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Newbold, Tim; Green, Rhys E; Tobias, Joseph A; Foden, Wendy B; O'Brien, Sue; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2017-09-13

    Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewable energy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significant collision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk between species and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrialized countries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remain unclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines within developed countries. We related collision rate to species-level traits and turbine characteristics to quantify the potential vulnerability of 9538 bird and 888 bat species globally. Avian collision rate was affected by migratory strategy, dispersal distance and habitat associations, and bat collision rates were influenced by dispersal distance. For birds and bats, larger turbine capacity (megawatts) increased collision rates; however, deploying a smaller number of large turbines with greater energy output reduced total collision risk per unit energy output, although bat mortality increased again with the largest turbines. Areas with high concentrations of vulnerable species were also identified, including migration corridors. Our results can therefore guide wind farm design and location to reduce the risk of large-scale animal mortality. This is the first quantitative global assessment of the relative collision vulnerability of species groups with wind turbines, providing valuable guidance for minimizing potentially serious negative impacts on biodiversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. The Globalisation of migration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...

  19. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  20. Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the U.S. Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemuth, Neil D.; Ryba, Adam J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Kvas, Susan M.; Brandt, David; Wangler, Brian; Austin, Jane; Carlisle, Martha J.

    2018-01-01

    The Whooping Crane (Grus americana) is a federally endangered species in the United States and Canada that relies on wetland, grassland, and cropland habitat during its long migration between wintering grounds in coastal Texas, USA, and breeding sites in Alberta and Northwest Territories, Canada. We combined opportunistic Whooping Crane sightings with landscape data to identify correlates of Whooping Crane occurrence along the migration corridor in North Dakota and South Dakota, USA. Whooping Cranes selected landscapes characterized by diverse wetland communities and upland foraging opportunities. Model performance substantially improved when variables related to detection were included, emphasizing the importance of accounting for biases associated with detection and reporting of birds in opportunistic datasets. We created a predictive map showing relative probability of occurrence across the study region by applying our model to GIS data layers; validation using independent, unbiased locations from birds equipped with platform transmitting terminals indicated that our final model adequately predicted habitat use by migrant Whooping Cranes. The probability map demonstrated that existing conservation efforts have protected much top-tier Whooping Crane habitat, especially in the portions of North Dakota and South Dakota that lie east of the Missouri River. Our results can support species recovery by informing prioritization for acquisition and restoration of landscapes that provide safe roosting and foraging habitats. Our results can also guide the siting of structures such as wind towers and electrical transmission and distribution lines, which pose a strike and mortality risk to migrating Whooping Cranes.