WorldWideScience

Sample records for birches

  1. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  2. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  3. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  4. [Oral allergy syndrome among patients with birch pollinosis in Sapporo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo; Ogasawara, Hideki; Narita, Shin-Ichirou; Kataura, Akikatsu

    2004-04-01

    We evaluated the relationships between oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables (oral allergy syndrome) and birch pollinosis in 2003 in Sapporo. 1. Of 153 patients with birch pollinosis (seasonal nasal or ocular symptom and CAP positive [birch pollen CAP score 2 or more]), 65 patients (42%) have episode of oral allergy syndrome (OAS). And that rate in 2003 was higher than in 1992 and was equal to in 1998. 2. Among birch pollinosis patients, the higher the CAP score of birch pollen, the higher the prevalences of OAS were found to be. 3. Among birch pollinosis patients, female have OAS much more than male. 4. Among birch pollinosis patients in 1998, patients who visited to ENT clinic for medical consultation of birch pollinosis in March and April have OAS much more than patients who visited in May and June.

  5. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  6. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  7. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Germann, Isabell; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich; Després, Viviane R

    2015-01-01

    Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm) and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8) and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS). The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm), the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  8. The Banyan and the Birch Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Taeube, Florian A.

    Theoretical and empirical research on entrepreneurial networks is largely outcome-oriented and little integrated with family firm research. In this paper, we draw on social network and entrepreneurship literatures in order to investigate how family businesses build and make use of a variety...... is higher than predictions in the theoretical literature and empirical findings in cross-country studies suggest. Moreover, we show that the ‘Indian' family is an institution that dominates embedded ties. The Banyan tree symbolizes this interconnectedness of the different branches of an Indian family...... compared to the plain structure of a birch tree describing Hollywood, where embedded ties can be different from familial ties....

  9. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  10. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  11. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions... (transferors) and Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for..., Birch Power Company, Sorenson Engineering, and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East,...

  12. Inter- and intra-specific variation in stem phloem phenolics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and European white birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, V L; Phelan, P L; Bonello, P; Herms, D A

    2011-11-01

    Outbreaks of bronze birch borer (BBB) (Agrilus anxius), a wood-boring beetle endemic to North America, have been associated with widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.). There is substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in birch resistance to BBB. Species endemic to North America, such as paper birch (B. papyrifera), have coevolved with BBB and are more resistant than European and Asian birch species, such as European white birch (B. pendula), which lack an evolutionary history with BBB. Borer larvae feed on stem phloem tissue. Therefore, in search of potential resistance mechanisms against BBB, we compared the constitutive phenolic profile of stem phloem tissue of paper birch with that of European white birch. We also analyzed intraspecific variation in phenolic composition among clones and/or half-siblings of both species. Three phenolics (coumaroylquinic acid, betuloside pentoside A, and a diarylheptanoid hexoside) were detected only in paper birch, and concentrations of six other phenolics were significantly higher in paper birch. These differences may contribute to the high resistance of paper birch to BBB relative to European white birch. There was significant intraspecific variation in four of 17 phenolics found in paper birch and in five of 14 found in European white birch, but clones and half-siblings within each species could not be distinguished by phenolic composition using multivariate analysis.

  13. Molecular Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Häusler, Thomas; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a major part in ecosystem and climate. Due to the triggering of ice cloud formation it influences the radiation balance of the earth, but also on the ground it can be found to be important in many processes of nature. So far the process of heterogeneous ice nucleation is not fully understood and many questions remain to be answered. Biological ice nucleation is hereby from great interest, because it shows the highest freezing temperatures. Several bacteria and fungi act as ice nuclei. A famous example is Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium in commercial use (Snomax®), which increases the freezing from homogeneous freezing temperatures of approx. -40° C (for small volumes as in cloud droplets) to temperatures up to -2° C. In 2001 it was found that birch pollen can trigger ice nucleation (Diehl et al. 2001; Diehl et al. 2002). For a long time it was believed that this is due to macroscopic features of the pollen surface. Recent findings of Bernhard Pummer (2012) show a different picture. The ice nuclei are not attached on the pollen surface directly, but on surface material which can be easily washed off. This shows that not only the surface morphology, but also specific molecules or molecular structures are responsible for the ice nucleation activity of birch pollen. With various analytic methods we work on elucidating the structure of these molecules as well as the mechanism with which they trigger ice nucleation. To solve this we use various instrumental analytic techniques like Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis (GEMMA). Also standard techniques like various chromatographic separation techniques and solvent extraction are in use. We state here that this feature might be due to the aggregation of small molecules, with agglomerates showing a specific surface structure. Our results

  14. The influence of hybridization on epidermal properties of birch species and the consequences for palaeoclimatic interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Kürschner, W.M.; Neuvonen, S.; Visscher, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Fennoscandian birch population primarily consists of Betula nana, B. pendula and B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, the Mountain birch. Frequent hybridization between the Mountain birch and B. nana generates a wide range of genotypic and phenotypic plasticity in the subarctic birch zone of Fennosca

  15. Methods for estimating production and utilization of paper birch saplings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of technique to estimate browse production and utilization. Developed a set of methods for estimating annual production and utilization of paper birch...

  16. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open....... Therefore, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple should not be considered as a main criterion for selecting patients for birch pollen immunotherapy at present....

  17. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  18. Birch Creek, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Upper Birch Creek, Alaska possessed values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The upper Birch Creek and its immediate...

  19. The growth process of natural poplar-birch forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Shibo; LUO Xu; LUO Yuliang

    2006-01-01

    With a combination of permanent and temporary sample plots,we investigated the growth conditions of natural poplar-birch forests.The forests were divided into four site classes,using statistical and analytical techniques in a quantitative model,in descending order where site class I was the best.On this basis,the growth of natural poplar-birch forests in the different site classes was studied.The growth processes of height and diameter at breast height were divided into three stages:a fast growing period,a stable growing period and a slow growing period.Results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the directive cultivation of natural poplar-birch forests.

  20. A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides.

  1. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  2. Evaluation of sewage sludge impact on pine and birch development

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitkutė, Dovilė

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge could be used in forestry as enrichment of soil properties. It is also expected that sewage sludge which is rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material can enhance the growth of tree seedlings in poor soils. Our study was performed in Taruskos experimental forest site in Panevezys region. The experimental site amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. The aim of our thesis is to evaluate the influence of sewage ...

  3. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  4. Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur C Ouwehand; Merja Nermes; Maria Carmen Collado; Nina Rautonen; Seppo Salminen; Erika Isolauri

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether birch pollen allergy symptoms are linked with gut microbiota changes and whether probiotics have an effect on these. METHODS: Forty seven children with confirmed birch pollen allergy were randomized to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus ( L. acidophi lus) NCFMTM (ATCC 700396) and Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219) or placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 mo, starting prior to onset of the birch pollen season. Symptoms were recorded in a diary. Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and eosinophils. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiota components, calprotectin and IgA. Nasal swabs were taken for analysis of eosinophils.RESULTS: The pollen season induced a reduction in Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides which could not be prevented by the probiotic intervention. During the intervention, significantly higher numbers 106 bacteria/g feces ( P < 0.0001) were observed in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. During May, there was a tendency for fewer subjects,(76.2% vs 95.2%, P = 0.078) to report runny nose,while during June, fewer subjects, 11.1% vs 33.3%,reported nasal blocking in the probiotics group ( P = 0.101). Concomitantly, fewer subjects in the probiotic group had infiltration of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa compared to the placebo group, 57.1%vs 95% ( P = 0.013). Eye symptoms tended to be slightly more frequent in the probiotic group, 12.5 d [interquartile range (IQR) 6-18] vs 7.5 d (IQR 0-11.5)( P = 0.066) during May. Fecal IgA was increased in the placebo group during the pollen season; this increase was prevented by the probiotics ( P = 0.028).CONCLUSION: Birch pollen allergy was shown to be associated with changes in fecal microbiota composition. The specific combination of probiotics used was shown to prevent the pollen-induced infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, and indicated a trend for reduced nasal symptoms.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  6. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost... statement. SUMMARY: The Birch, Willow, Lost Project proposes to treat vegetation communities in the four sub.... FR 7476 (Lower Willow Creek) would have 1.7 miles Spot Reconstructed. FR 8200 (Willow Creek)...

  7. Field performance of chitinase transgenic silver birches (Betula pendula): resistance to fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasonen, H-L; Seppänen, S-K; Degefu, Y; Rytkönen, A; von Weissenberg, K; Pappinen, A

    2004-08-01

    A field trial of 15 transgenic birch lines expressing a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and the corresponding controls was established in southern Finland to study the effects of the level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression on birch resistance to fungal diseases. The symptoms caused by natural infections of two fungal pathogens, Pyrenopeziza betulicola (leaf spot disease) and Melampsoridium betulinum (birch rust), were analysed in the field during a period of 3 years. The lines that had shown a high level of sugar beet chitinase IV mRNA accumulation in the greenhouse also showed high sugar beet chitinase IV expression after 3 years in the field. The level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression did not significantly improve the resistance of transgenic birches to leaf spot disease. Instead, some transgenic lines were significantly more susceptible to leaf spot than the controls. The level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression did have an improving effect on most parameters of birch rust; the groups of lines showing high or intermediate transgene expression were more resistant to birch rust than those showing low expression. This result indicates that the tested transformation may provide a tool for increasing the resistance of silver birch to birch rust.

  8. Impact of urbanization of the proteome of birch pollen and its chemotactic activity on human granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryce, M.; Drews, O.; Schenk, M.F.; Menzel, A.; Estrella, N.; Weichenmeier, I.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Buters, J.; Ring, J.; Gorg, A.; Behrendt, H.; Traidl-Hoffmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was invest

  9. [A relationship between birch pollen counts and meteorological factors in Sapporo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saikawa, Etsuko; Seki, Nobuhiko; Asakura, Kohji; Kataura, Akikatsu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence of airborne pollen in Sapporo has been studied for 19 years during the period between 1995 and 2013. There are wide year-to-year variations in the quantities of birch pollens. A simple linear regression with the least squares method was used for studying correlations between the annual quantities of birch pollens and the meteorological factors. A significant positive correlation was found between the hours of sunlight in June of the preceding year and the annual birch pollen concentrations with the correlation coefficient, R = 0.667. Also, we found the significant positive correlation between the hours of sunlight in March and the annual birch pollen concentrations with the correlation coefficient, R = 0.684. These results suggest that the atmospheric birch pollen counts can be predicted from meteorological factors.

  10. A method to derive vegetation distribution maps for pollen dispersion models using birch as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, A; Rotach, M W; Gehrig, R; Clot, B

    2012-09-01

    Detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution of sources is a crucial prerequisite for the application of pollen dispersion models such as, for example, COSMO-ART (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling-Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases). However, this input is not available for the allergy-relevant species such as hazel, alder, birch, grass or ragweed. Hence, plant distribution datasets need to be derived from suitable sources. We present an approach to produce such a dataset from existing sources using birch as an example. The basic idea is to construct a birch dataset using a region with good data coverage for calibration and then to extrapolate this relationship to a larger area by using land use classes. We use the Swiss forest inventory (1 km resolution) in combination with a 74-category land use dataset that covers the non-forested areas of Switzerland as well (resolution 100 m). Then we assign birch density categories of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 2.5% to each of the 74 land use categories. The combination of this derived dataset with the birch distribution from the forest inventory yields a fairly accurate birch distribution encompassing entire Switzerland. The land use categories of the Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000; Global Land Cover 2000 database, 2003, European Commission, Joint Research Centre; resolution 1 km) are then calibrated with the Swiss dataset in order to derive a Europe-wide birch distribution dataset and aggregated onto the 7 km COSMO-ART grid. This procedure thus assumes that a certain GLC2000 land use category has the same birch density wherever it may occur in Europe. In order to reduce the strict application of this crucial assumption, the birch density distribution as obtained from the previous steps is weighted using the mean Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI; yearly sums of daily pollen concentrations). For future improvement, region-specific birch densities for the GLC2000 categories could be integrated into the mapping procedure.

  11. Geochemistry of the Birch Creek Drainage Basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Shawn A.; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) system at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the effects of these recharge waters on the geochemistry of the ESRPA system. Each of these recharge waters has a hydrochemical character related to geochemical processes, especially water-rock interactions, that occur during migration to the ESRPA. Results of these studies will benefit ongoing and planned geochemical modeling of the ESRPA at the INEEL by providing model input on the hydrochemical character of water from each drainage basin. During 2000, water samples were collected from five wells and one surface-water site in the Birch Creek drainage basin and analyzed for selected inorganic constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, measurements of gross alpha and beta radioactivity, and stable isotopes. Four duplicate samples also were collected for quality assurance. Results, which include analyses of samples previously collected from four other sites, in the basin, show that most water from the Birch Creek drainage basin has a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate character. The Birch Creek Valley can be divided roughly into three hydrologic areas. In the northern part, ground water is forced to the surface by a basalt barrier and the sampling sites were either surface water or shallow wells. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple evaporation models, simple calcite-carbon dioxide models, or complex models involving carbonate and silicate minerals. The central part of the valley is filled by sedimentary material and the sampling sites were wells that are deeper than those in the northern part. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple calcite-dolomite-carbon dioxide

  12. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  13. The human eosinophil proteome. Changes induced by birch pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woschnagg, Charlotte; Forsberg, Jens; Engström, Ake; Odreman, Federico; Venge, Per; Garcia, Rodolfo C

    2009-06-01

    Proteins from human eosinophils were separated bidimensionally and identified by mass spectrometry (336 spots/bands, 98 different proteins). Of these, 24.7% belonged to the cytoskeleton/migration group. Highly basic proteins (11.3%) were concentrated in the granule-containing cell fraction. We detected novel hyperacidic forms of cofilin-1, profilin-1 and adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, and hyperbasic forms of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin/eosinophil protein X and major basic protein homologue. We also found evidence of the triglycosylation of the heavy chain of eosinophil peroxidase. In addition, through comparative 2D image analysis, spot quantification and MS, it was found that hsc70, actin-capping protein and hyperacidic forms of eosinophil peroxidase heavy chain are overexpressed in cells from birch pollen allergic subjects, at the peak of a season. The link between these findings and an increased cellular antigen-presenting capacity and motility are discussed.

  14. Direct Emission of Methyvinylketone from Birch (\\textit{betula pendula})

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, A.; Koppmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2002-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of central importance for the chemistry of the troposphere. They have a significant impact on photochemical processes that lead to the formation of ozone and other photooxidants in the planetary boundary layer. With estimated global emission rates of 520 Tg yr {-1} [Guenther \\textit{et al.} 1995], biogenic emissions of short chained oxygenated VOCs (SOVOCs) like methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone cannot be neglected for atmospheric chemistry. In addition to the direct emission by plants SOVOCs are produced by chemical reactions of VOCs in the atmosphere. For some SOVOCs such as methanol, acetone, or leaf alcohols it is known that they have a large biogenic source strength. Other SOVOCs are believed to be only produced by atmospheric processes. For example methacrolein, and methylvinylketone (MVK) are believed to be exclusively produced during atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Thus, up to now the only known source of MVK in the atmosphere is the oxidation of VOCs like isoprene. We analysed SOVOC emissions from different plant species under well defined conditions in our plant chambers and determined the temperature- and light intensity dependence of their emission rates. During these measurements we also observed a direct MVK emission from birch. The emission rates exhibit a temperature and light intensity dependence. Artificial MVK formation was excluded by a series of experiments. Due to the direct emission of MVK probably also from other plant species than birch, measurements of ambient concentrations of this compound have to be carefully investigated. The fact that there may be a primary source for MVK has to be considered in model calculations concerning the photochemistry and the concentrations of OH radicals in the lower troposphere. \\begin{thebibliography}{} \\bibitem[Guenther \\textit{et al.} 1995]{Guenther1995} Guenther, A., Hewitt, C. N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T., Harley, P., Klinger, L

  15. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  16. Daily home measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children during natural birch pollen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten;

    2006-01-01

    the feasibility, repeatability, accuracy, sensitivity, and biologic plausibility of new handheld equipment for FENO measurements. We studied day-to-day home measurements of FENO during the birch pollen season in children with allergy to birch pollen and a history of mild asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during......BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Available methods have restricted measurements to the clinic, giving only a snapshot of the disease, which by nature is highly variable. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate...... this season, as well as in nonatopic children. METHODS: Eleven children with mild asthma and allergy to birch pollen, performed daily home measurements of FENO for 6 weeks before and during the birch pollen season by using a handheld FENO monitor (NIOX MINO). Additionally, FENO (chemiluminescence equipment...

  17. Bayesian analysis of climate change effects on observed and projected airborne levels of birch pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2013-04-01

    A Bayesian framework is presented for modeling effects of climate change on pollen indices such as annual birch pollen count, maximum daily birch pollen count, start date of birch pollen season and the date of maximum daily birch pollen count. Annual mean CO2 concentration, mean spring temperature and the corresponding pollen index of prior year were found to be statistically significant accounting for effects of climate change on four pollen indices. Results suggest that annual productions and peak values from 2020 to 2100 under different scenarios will be 1.3-8.0 and 1.1-7.3 times higher respectively than the mean values for 2000, and start and peak dates will occur around two to four weeks earlier. These results have been partly confirmed by the available historical data. As a demonstration, the emission profiles in future years were generated by incorporating the predicted pollen indices into an existing emission model.

  18. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens) fo...

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF CATIONIZED BIRCH XYLAN ON WET AND DRY STRENGTH OF FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Kataja-aho,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cationized birch xylan was prepared and its use as a papermaking chemical was evaluated. The focus was on studying the effects of cationized birch xylan on the wet and dry strength of fine paper. The results of the laboratory experiments show that the addition of 3 percent of cationized birch xylan to birch kraft pulp improved the initial wet strength of the web by 30 percent compared to base stock at a solids content of 55%. Furthermore, the tensile stiffness of the wet web increased by approximately a third and the dry tensile strength improved by 26%, while the dry elastic modulus was not changed. The improvements in the strength properties were clear when compared to the base stock, but not as high as achieved with conventionally used cationized starch. The difference between the xylan and starch is most likely due to the shorter polymer chain length of the cationized xylan.

  20. Local variation in mountain birch spring phenology along an altitudinal gradient in northern coastal Fennoscandia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöskog, Maja Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of spring phenology studies covering small-scale altitudinal gradients of mountain birch in coastal northern Fennoscandia, a region characterized by exceptionally high precipitation of snow, which gives reason to investigate the influence of snow cover on birch budburst in this area. Furthermore, ground phenology studies are today increasingly replaced by satellite data studies, but only too rarely is the latter approach properly validated. In order to provide a bett...

  1. METAL ION SORPTION TO BIRCH AND SPRUCE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Su,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions to birch wood and spruce heartwood and sapwood has been studied. Functional groups in wood were determined by acid-base titrations. The sorption of metal ions to wood of the different tree species was investigated by a column chromatographic technique. The mechanism of sorption is mainly ion exchange by complexation of metal ions to the functional groups, e.g. carboxyl groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups, in the wood phase. By combination of the sorption experiments with four different metal ion mixtures, the following affinity order was established for spruce sapwood particles: Fe3+>>Pb2+>>Cu2+>>Fe2+>Cd2+>Zn2+>Ni2+>Mn2+≥Ca2+≥Sr2+≥Ba2+>>Mg2+>>K+>Na+≈Li+. For all three types of stemwood studied, the affinity orders were almost the same. The ion exchange properties of wood were comparable to those of a weakly acid cation exchanger. The affinity order obtained for the synthetic resin was quite similar to the order given above for wood. The metal sorption properties of wood materials imply that they could be a potential material for removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  2. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  3. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  4. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xianai [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Duygu, E-mail: dkocaefe@uqac.ca [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Yasar [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Boluk, Yaman [University of Alberta, 3-142 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2W2 (Canada); Krause, Cornelia [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  5. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T., E-mail: darbah@ohio.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Sharkey, Thomas D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO{sub 2} and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO{sub 2} protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO{sub 2} were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO{sub 2} confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  6. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  7. Proteomic profiling of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen extracts from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Anja; Hawranek, Thomas; Krückemeier, Leif; Asam, Claudia; Egger, Matthias; Ferreira, Fátima; Briza, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Pollen of the European white birch is a major source of spring pollinosis in Europe. Pollen-allergy diagnosis and treatment by specific immunotherapy commonly rely on extracts of natural origin. To gain insight into the protein content and its variability, we evaluated the profile of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in extracts of pollen from different origins by MS-based proteomics. Aqueous extracts prepared from commercially available Swedish birch pollen, pollen collected from Austrian trees and a commercial skin prick extract were analyzed by 1-DE, 2-DE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, resulting in a complete inventory of extractable, disease-relevant pollen proteins. A main focus of this study was on the isoform distribution of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. Using a combination of intact mass determination and peptide sequencing, five isoforms (a, b, d, f and j) were unequivocally identified in Swedish and Austrian birch pollen extracts, while the skin prick extract contained only isoforms a, b and d. Using the same methods as for Bet v 1, divergencies in the sequence of birch profilin (Bet v 2), a plant panallergen, were solved. The molecular characterization of pollen extracts is relevant for standardization and development of new reagents for specific immunotherapy.

  8. Effect of different steam explosion conditions on methane potential and enzymatic saccharification of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Olsen, Elisabeth F; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2013-01-01

    Birch (Betula pubescens) was steam exploded at 13 different conditions with temperatures ranging from 170 to 230 °C and residence times ranging from 5 to 15 min. Increasing severity in the pretreatment led to degradation of xylan and formation of pseudo-lignin. The effect of the pretreatments was evaluated by running enzymatic saccharification and anaerobic digestion followed by analysis of sugar and methane yields, respectively. Enzymatically released glucose increased with pretreatment severity up to 220 °C for 10 min and levels of solubilized glucose reached 97% of the theoretical maximum. The highest methane yield (369 mL gVS(-1)) was obtained at a severity factor of 4.5 and this yield was 1.8 times higher than the yield from untreated birch. Enzymatic glucose yields and methane yields were generally correlated. The results indicate that steam-exploded birch can be effectively converted to either glucose or methane.

  9. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  10. Simultaneous determination of betulin and betulinic acid in white birch bark using RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoling; Yan, Weidong; Cao, Dan

    2007-02-19

    A simple procedure is described for the simultaneous extraction and determination of betulin and betulinic acid in white birch bark. The extraction was checked using different solvents: dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, methanol and 95% ethanol (aqueous solution, v/v). It was found 95% ethanol was a good extraction solvent that allowed extraction of triterpenoid with a highest content. Separation was achieved on a reversed phase C(18) column with acetonitrile-water 86:14 (v/v). Detection was accomplished with UV detection at lambda=210 nm. Using this method, the bioactive triterpenoid in white birch bark were simultaneously determined. Significant variations in the content of betulin and betulinic acid in white birch bark growing in different locations of China were also observed.

  11. Lipid transfer protein-linked hazelnut allergy in children from a non-Mediterranean birch-endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, Annebeth E.; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Jager, Constance F. den Hartog; Rigby, Neil M.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.; Knuist, Andr C.; van Ree, Ronald; Pasmans, Suzanne G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut allergy in birch pollen-exposed areas is usually due to cross-reactivity (Cor a 1 and 2) and is usually mild in nature (oral allergy). In areas without birches, severe reactions are more prevalent and linked to sensitization to the lipid transfer protein (LTP) Cor a 8. Objective

  12. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  13. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  14. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nazarenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. Driving factors determining parameters, structure and composition of the aspen-and-birch forest ecosystems are diminishing soil moisture, increasing annual temperatures amplitude and soil acidity.

  15. Carbon and Nitrogen Transformations in Surface Soils Under Ermans Birch and Dark Coniferous Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-Wen; HAN Shi-Jie; HU Yan-Ling; ZHOU Yu-Mei

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were taken from an Ermans birch (Betula ermanii)-dark coniferous forest (Picea jezoensis and Abies nephrolepis) ecotone growing on volcanic ejecta in the northern slopc of Changbai Mountains of Northeast China,to compare soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations in the two forests.The soil type is Umbri-Gelic Cambosols in Chinese Soil Taxonomy.Soil samples were incubated aerobically at 20 ℃ and field capacity of 700 g kg-1 over a period of 27 weeks.The amount of soil microbial biomass and net N mineralization were higher in the Ermans birch than the dark coniferous forest (P<0.05),whereas the cumulative C mineralization (as CO2 emission) in the dark coniferous forest exceeded that in the Ermans birch (P<0.05).Release of the cumulative dissolved organic C and dissolved organic N were greater in the Ermans birch than the dark coniferous forest (P<0.05).The results suggested that differences of forest types could result in considerable change in soil C and N transformations.

  16. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  18. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Sharkey, Thomas D; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F

    2010-04-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO(2) and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO(2) protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO(2) increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 degrees C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO(2) treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO(2) were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO(2). Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms.

  19. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  20. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  1. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  2. Development of SSR Markers and Genetic Diversity in White Birch (Betula platyphylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hao

    Full Text Available In order to study genetic diversity of white birch (Betula platyphylla, 544 primer pairs were designed based on the genome-wide Solexa sequences. Among them, 215 primer pairs showed polymorphism between five genotypes and 111 primer pairs that presented clear visible bands in genotyping 41 white birch plants that were collected from 6 different geographical regions. A total of 717 alleles were obtained at 111 loci with a range of 2 to 12 alleles per locus. The results of statistic analysis showed that polymorphic frequency of the alleles ranged from 17% to 100% with a mean of 55.85%; polymorphism information content (PIC of the loci was from 0.09 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.30; and gene diversity between the tested genotypes was from 0.01 to 0.66 with a mean of 0.36. The results also indicated that major allele frequency ranged from 0.39 to 1.00 with an mean of 0.75; expected heterozygosity from 0.22 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; observed heterozygosity from 0.02 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.26; Nei's index from 0.21 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; and Shannon's Information from 0.26 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.66. The 41 white birch genotypes at the 111 selected SSR loci showed low to moderate similarity (0.025-0.610, indicating complicated genetic diversity among the white birch collections. The UPGMA-based clustering analysis of the allelic constitution of 41 white birch genotypes at 111 SSR loci suggested that the six different geographical regions can be further separated into four clusters at a similarity coefficient of 0.22. Genotypes from Huanren and Liangshui provenances were grouped into Cluster I, genotypes from Xiaobeihu and Qingyuan provenances into Cluster II, genotypes from Finland provenance into Cluster III, and genotypes from Maoershan into Cluster IV. The information provided in this study could help for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation, evaluation and utilization in white birch tree breeding program.

  3. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  5. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  7. Analysis and identification of SCAR molecular markers associated with birch fiber length trait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan; WEI Zhi-gang; YANG Chuan-ping; LIU Guan-jun

    2008-01-01

    The fiber length trait (FLT) of 538 individuals from nature birch population in Maorshan region,Heilongjang,China were measured,of which 100 individuals were selected as representative variety of correlated fragments screening with random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) technique.In total of 20 RAPD primers were tested through multiple regression analysis between amplified strip and the character behaviors,and a correlative segment BFLR-16 was obtained.The correlation coefficient between BFLI-16 and FLT was 0.6144,with the significant level of 1%.BFLI-16 was then cloned,sequenced and transformed into SCAR marker.The percentage of identifying long fiber birches by this SCAR was more than 92.The result indicates that the SCAR markers has high specificity for the long fiber individuals and is highly linked with the gene controlling the character of fiber length,and its existence is significantly correlative with the increase in the fiber length.

  8. Influence of Biomass Pretreatment Process Time on Furfural Extraction from Birch Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdausks, Prans; Puke, Maris; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Kruma, Irena

    2013-12-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis was used for hemicelluloses secession from birch wood. The reaction was investigated at different biomass treatment times (10-90 min, increasing it by 10 min). We found that the greatest amount of furfural 1.4-2.6%, which is 9.7-17.7% from theoretical possible yield, was formed in the first 30 min of the beginning of birch wood pentoses monosaccharide dehydration, but the greatest yield of furfural 10.3%, which is 70.0% from the theoretical yield, can be obtained after 90 min. Given that furfural yield generally does not exceed 50% from the theoretical amount, the result can be considered as very good.

  9. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Bertrand, A.; Casares, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Oviedo University, Julian Claveria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es; Tames, R.S. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction.

  10. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  11. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  12. Icelandic Birch Polyploids—The Case of a Perfect Fit in Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anamthawat-Jónsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two birch species coexist in Iceland, dwarf birch Betula nana and tree birch B. pubescens. Both species are variable morphologically, which has been shown to be due to introgressive hybridization via interspecific hybrids. The aim of this study was to examine if the introgression could be related to genome size. We characterized 42 plants from Bifröst woodland morphologically and cytogenetically. The population consisted of diploid B. nana (38%, tetraploid B. pubescens (55%, and triploid hybrids (7%. Genome size was measured from 12 plants, using Feulgen DNA image densitometry (FDM on spring leaf buds and flow cytometry (FCM with dormant winter twigs. The use of winter twigs for FCM is novel. The average 1C-values for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid plants were 448, 666, and 882 Mbp, respectively. Monoploid genome sizes were found to be statistically constant among ploidy levels. This stability is in contrast to the different taxonomic positions of the di- and tetraploids and also contrasts with the frequent occurrence of genome downsizing in polyploids.

  13. Growth of Scots Pine and Silver Birch Seedlings on Different Nursery Container Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin TILKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peat has been the most common growing medium in tree nurseries, either alone or as a component of growing media mixes. However, as a result of increasing costs and decreasing amount of peat, seedling-growers are seeking more local growing medium components. In this study, container seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth were grown in pure peat and peat mixtures containing perlite and zeolite.  Physical parameters (height, shoot diameter, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, total dry weight were measured along with several morphological parameters (sturdiness quotient, height/diameter, shoot/root ratio. The zeolite additive in peat changed some media properties, and significant relation was established between some morphological attributes of seedlings and some medium properties in both species. On average, the seedlings grew best in pure peat, but zeolite additions to peat did not affect some morphological parameters negatively. The results suggest that zeolite has potential to be used as a component of peat based growing medium mixtures, and addition of zeolite to peat container medium in proportions of 10% by volume in Scots pine and up to 20% in silver birch was shown to be a feasible material for growing Scots pine and silver birch seedlings.

  14. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  15. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  16. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIRCH AND ASPEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature treatment of wood is one of the alternatives to chemical treatment. During this process, the wood is heated to higher temperatures than those of conventional drying. The wood structure changes due to decomposition of hemicelluloses, ramification of lignin, and crystallization of cellulose. The wood becomes less hygroscopic. These changes improve the dimensional stability of wood, increase its resistance to micro-organisms, darken its color, and modify its hardness. However, wood also might loose some of its elasticity. Consequently, the heat treatment conditions have to be optimized. Therefore, it is important to understand the transformation of the chemical structure of wood caused by the treatment. In this study, the modification of the surface composition of the wood was followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and inverse gas chromatography (IGC under different experimental conditions. The effect of maximum treatment temperatures on the chemical composition of Canadian birch and aspen as well as the correlations between their chemical transformation and different mechanical properties are presented. FTIR analysis results showed that the heat treatment affected the chemical composition of birch more compared to that of aspen. The results of IGC tests illustrated that the surfaces of the aspen and birch became more basic with heat treatment. The mechanical properties were affected by degradation of hemicellulose, ramification of lignin and cellulose crystallization.

  17. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haapanala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, area subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of a branch from four individual trees were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission in 2006 was almost 2000 ng gdw−1 h−1 while in 2007 the emission of α-farnesene was negligible. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last several years.

  18. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  19. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  20. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  1. Adaptive Responses of Birch-Leaved Pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Seedlings to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old birch-leaved pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge seedlings were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions for 27 days in order to study the effects of salinity stress on photosynthesis, ion accumulation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the seedlings. The research was performed in a greenhouse using potted trees. Salinity stress reduced photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of leaves of the pear seedlings, but increased transpiration rates and leaf temperature. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical contents increased with increasing NaCl concentrations, a phenomena also observed for malondialdehyde, suggesting that leaves of the pear seedlings suffered from oxidative injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities quickly responded by increasing when the pear seedlings were subjected to salinity stress. Total protein content in leaves of the seedlings was restrained by salinity stress, whereas ascorbate content increased. Salinity stress reduced glutathione content once the birch-leaved pear seedlings were exposed to a low level (50 or 100 mmol/L of NaCl, whereas a high level (150 or 200 mmol/L NaCl of salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of glutathione. Salinity stress increased the accumulation of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Mg2+ in the seedlings, but reduced Ca2+ levels and the ratio of other ions to Na+ except K+/Na+ under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions. This suggests that leaves of birch-leaved pear seedlings possess the capacity for salt exclusion only under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions, and Ca2+ does not play a fundamental role as a secondary messenger under salinity stress conditions.

  2. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, D.; Akkerdaas, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Vogel, L.; Wensing, M.; Becker, W.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Helbling, A.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van; Vieths, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and characterized the Bet v 1

  3. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  4. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale.

  5. Adhesive Through-Reinforcement Improves the Fracture Toughness of a Laminated Birch Wood Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the hypothesis that adhesive through-reinforcement in combination with glass-fibre reinforcement of adhesive bond lines will significantly improve the fracture toughness of a laminated birch wood composite. We test this hypothesis using a model composite consisting of perforated veneer that allowed a polyurethane adhesive to penetrate and reinforce veneers within the composite. Model composite specimens were tested for mode I fracture properties, and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of fracture surfaces. Our results clearly show that through-reinforcement, and also reinforcing adhesive bond lines with glass-fibre, significantly improved fracture toughness of the birch wood composite. Our results also indicate that improvements in fracture toughness depended on the level of reinforcement. Improvements in fracture toughness were related to the ability of the reinforcement to arrest crack development during fracture testing and the fibre bridging effect of glass-fibre in adhesive bond lines. We conclude that through-reinforcement is an effective way of improving the fracture toughness of laminated wood composites, but further research is needed to develop practical ways of creating such reinforcement in composites that more closely resemble commercial products.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Availability on Growth of Two Transgenic Birch Species Carrying the Pine GS1a Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Lebedev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens and silver birch (B. pendula were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM for one growing season. The transfer of the GS1a gene led to a significant increase in the height of only two transgenic lines of nine B. pubescens, but three of five B. pendula transgenic lines were higher than the controls. In general, nitrogen supply reduced the positive effect of the GS gene on the growth of transgenic birch plants. No differences in leaf pigment levels between control and transgenic plants were found. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf chlorophyll content in untransformed plants but its effect on most of the transgenic lines was insignificant. The results suggest that birch plants carrying the GS gene use nitrogen more efficiently, especially when growing in nitrogen deficient soil. Transgenic lines were less responsive to nitrogen supply in comparison to wild-type plants.

  7. Influence of Nitrogen Availability on Growth of Two Transgenic Birch Species Carrying the Pine GS1a Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Vadim G.; Kovalenko, Nina P.; Shestibratov, Konstantin A.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS) gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens) and silver birch (B. pendula) were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM) for one growing season. The transfer of the GS1a gene led to a significant increase in the height of only two transgenic lines of nine B. pubescens, but three of five B. pendula transgenic lines were higher than the controls. In general, nitrogen supply reduced the positive effect of the GS gene on the growth of transgenic birch plants. No differences in leaf pigment levels between control and transgenic plants were found. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf chlorophyll content in untransformed plants but its effect on most of the transgenic lines was insignificant. The results suggest that birch plants carrying the GS gene use nitrogen more efficiently, especially when growing in nitrogen deficient soil. Transgenic lines were less responsive to nitrogen supply in comparison to wild-type plants. PMID:28067821

  8. Academic Success for Students of Color . . . At What Cost? The Importance of School Context at Birch High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Terah T. Venzant; Tabron, Lolita A.

    2013-01-01

    Kiara, an African American rising freshman, has aspirations to become a medical doctor. She enrolls at Birch High School because of the reputation of the principal, Mr. Brown, whose vision for academic excellence permeates every corner of the school. Kiara graduates from high school with top honors, but realizes her success may have come at a…

  9. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial id...

  10. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  11. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Esselink, G.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa) is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a

  12. Birch Bark Dry Extract by Supercritical Fluid Technology: Extract Characterisation and Use for Stabilisation of Semisolid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Armbruster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene compounds like betulin, betulinic acid, erythrodiol, oleanolic acid and lupeol are known for many pharmacological effects. All these substances are found in the outer bark of birch. Apart from its pharmacological effects, birch bark extract can be used to stabilise semisolid systems. Normally, birch bark extract is produced for this purpose by extraction with organic solvents. Employing supercritical fluid technology, our aim was to develop a birch bark dry extract suitable for stabilisation of lipophilic gels with improved properties while avoiding the use of toxic solvents. With supercritical carbon dioxide, three different particle formation methods from supercritical solutions have been tested. First, particle deposition was performed from a supercritical solution in an expansion chamber. Second, the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS method was used for particle generation. Third, a modified RESS-procedure, forming the particles directly into the thereby gelated liquid, was developed. All three methods gave yields from 1% to 5.8%, depending on the techniques employed. The triterpene composition of the three extracts was comparable: all three gave more stable oleogels compared to the use of an extract obtained by organic solvent extraction. Characterizing the rheological behaviour of these gels, a faster gelling effect was seen together with a lower concentration of the extract required for the gel formation with the supercritical fluid (SCF-extracts. This confirms the superiority of the supercritical fluid produced extracts with regard to the oleogel forming properties.

  13. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Garcia, A.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we desc

  14. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HIALINE working Group; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network).Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient.Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration.Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  15. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutela, Suvi; Hahl, Terhi; Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Ylioja, Tiina; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula) Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1) were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins.

  16. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Sutela

    Full Text Available A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1 to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S and guaiacyl (G lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1 were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins.

  17. Glutathione-S-transferase: a minor allergen in birch pollen due to limited release from hydrated pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Deifl

    Full Text Available Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST.bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. The mediator-releasing activity of bGST was analysed with IgE-loaded rat basophil leukaemia cells (RBL expressing human FcεRI. BALB/c mice were immunized with bGST or Bet v 1. Antibody and T cell responses to either protein were assessed. IgE-cross-reactivity between bGST with GST from house dust mite, Der p 8, was studied with murine and human sera in ELISA. The release kinetics of bGST and Bet v 1 from birch pollen were assessed in water, simulated lung fluid, 0.9% NaCl and PBS. Eluted proteins were quantified by ELISA and analysed by immunoblotting.Only 13% of 217 birch pollen-allergic patients showed IgE-reactivity to bGST. In RBL assays bGST induced mediator release. Immunization of mice with bGST induced specific IgE and a Th2-dominated cellular immune response comparably to immunization with Bet v 1. bGST did not cross-react with Der p 8. In contrast to Bet v 1, only low amounts of bGST were released from pollen grains upon incubation in water and the different physiological solutions.Although bGST is abundant in birch pollen, immunogenic in mice and able to induce mediator release from effector cells passively loaded with specific IgE, it is a minor allergen for birch pollen-allergic patients. We refer this discrepancy to its limited release from hydrated pollen. Hence, bGST is an example demonstrating that allergenicity depends mainly on rapid elution from airborne particles.

  18. Analysis of three types of triterpenoids in tetraploid white birches (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and selection of plus trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Wang; Hui Zhao; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Chuanping Yang

    2015-01-01

    Betulin, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids that have significant medicinal value. Considerable amounts of these triterpenoids are available in the outer bark of white birch. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract triterpenoids from birch bark rapidly and with high efficiency. Using high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC), three types of triterpenoids were separated and detected. We examined the differences among triterpenoids extracted from diploid versus tetra-ploid white birch. Then, we used factor analysis to screen out tetraploid white birches with comprehensively excel-lent performance. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction include the use of ethanol as an extraction solvent, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.1 g/10 ml, ultrasonic power set at 100 W, a temperature of 60 ?C and an extraction time of 15 min. A reversed-phase C18 col-umn (4.6 mm 9 250 mm 9 5 lm) with a column tem-perature of 30 ?C and the mobile phase composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min were used, and the detection wavelength was 195 nm. No significant difference was observed between diploid and tetraploid white birch in terms of the content of three types of triterpenoids (at a confidence level of 0.05). As triterpenoid content, height, and DBH (diameter at breast height) are strongly interre-lated, we used factor analysis to evaluate all individuals, and we screened out six plus trees with excellent com-prehensive characters.

  19. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Schua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  20. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  1. 桦木板材的快速干燥%Rapid Drying of Birch Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增超; 邱增处; 杨庆; 雷亚芳

    2001-01-01

    采用阶段连续升温干燥基准,增加热湿处理工艺,用炉气间接加热木材干燥窑对不同厚度桦木锯材进行快速窑干工艺试验,实践证明不但干燥周期缩短30%,且提高了干燥质量,易于操作。%Rapid kiln-drying experiment on birch lumber of kiln in whichphased continuous heating drying schedule and the conditioning technology are adopted.It has been proved in practice that such kiln-drying technology can not only shorten the drying period by 30% but also improve drying quality as well as be operated easily.

  2. Regularizations of the Euler product representation for zeta functions and the Birch--Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    We consider a variant expression to regularize the Euler product representation of the zeta functions, where we mainly apply to that of the Riemann zeta function in this paper. The regularization itself is identical to that of the zeta function of the summation expression, but the non-use of the M\\"oebius function enable us to confirm a finite behavior of residual terms which means an absence of zeros except for the critical line. Same technique can be applied to the $L$-function associated to the elliptic curve, and we can deal with the Taylor expansion at the pole in critical strip which is deeply related to the Birch--Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

  3. Numerical simulation of birch pollen dispersion with an operational weather forecast system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Vogel, Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    We included a parameterisation of the emissions of pollen grains into the comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. In addition, a detailed density distribution of birch trees within Switzerland was derived. Based on these new developments, we carried out numerical simulations of the dispersion of pollen grains for an episode that occurred in April 2006 over Switzerland and the adjacent regions. Since COSMO-ART is based on the operational forecast model of the German Weather Service, we are presenting a feasibility study of daily pollen forecast based on methods which have been developed during the last two decades for the treatment of anthropogenic aerosol. A comparison of the model results and very detailed pollen counts documents the current possibilities and the shortcomings of the method and gives hints for necessary improvements.

  4. Nickel and Copper Toxicity and Plant Response Mechanisms in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Gabriel; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) are the most prevalent metals found in the soils in the Greater Sudbury Region (Canada) because of smelting emissions. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the toxicity of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) at different doses in Betula papyrifera (white birch), (2) Characterize nickel resistance mechanism, and (3) assess segregating patterns for Ni and Cu resistance in B. papyrifera populations. This study revealed that B. papyrifera is resistant to Ni and Cu concentrations equivalent to the levels reported in metal-contaminated stands in the GSR. Resistant genotypes (RG) accumulate Ni in roots but not in leaves. Moderately susceptible (MSG) and susceptible genotypes (SG) show a high level of Ni translocation to leaves. Gene expression analysis showed differential regulation of genes in RG compared to MSG and SG. Analysis of segregation patterns suggests that resistance to Ni and Cu is controlled by single recessive genes.

  5. Ligand binding modulates the structural dynamics and compactness of the major birch pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Freier, Regina; Kofler, Stefan; Bibi, Marium; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2014-12-16

    Pathogenesis-related plant proteins of class-10 (PR-10) are essential for storage and transport of small molecules. A prominent member of the PR-10 family, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, is the main cause of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the northern hemisphere. Bet v 1 binds various ligand molecules to its internal cavity, and immunologic effects of the presence of ligand have been discussed. However, the mechanism of binding has remained elusive. In this study, we show that in solution Bet v 1.0101 is conformationally heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single structure. NMR relaxation data suggest that structural dynamics are fundamental for ligand access to the protein interior. Complex formation then leads to significant rigidification of the protein along with a compaction of its 3D structure. The data presented herein provide a structural basis for understanding the immunogenic and allergenic potential of ligand binding to Bet v 1 allergens.

  6. Intrinsically microporous polyesters from betulin - toward renewable materials for gas separation made from birch bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromenok, Jekaterina; Böhlmann, Winfried; Antonietti, Markus; Weber, Jens

    2011-11-15

    Betulin, an abundant triterpene, can be extracted from birch bark and can be used as a renewable monomer in the synthesis of microporous polyesters. Cross-linked networks and hyperbranched polymers are accessible by an A(2) + B(3) reaction, with betulin being the A(2) monomer and B(3) being a trifunctional acid chloride. Reaction of betulin with a diacid dichloride results in linear, soluble polyesters. The present communication proves that the polyreaction follows the classic schemes of polycondensation reactions. The resulting polymers are analyzed with regard to their micro-porosity by gas sorption, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray scattering methods. The polymers feature intrinsic microporosity, having ultrasmall pores, which makes them candidates for gas separation membranes, e.g., for the separation of CO(2) from N(2) .

  7. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  8. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the emissions of a large number of chemical compounds emitted from birch wood combustion in a wood stove. Birch wood is widely used as fuel in Swedish household appliances. The fuel load was held constant during six experiments. Particles dust, range 30-330 for the former and 0.8±0.15 for the latter. The source profile of common elements emitted from wood burning differed from that found on particles at a street-level site or in long-distance transported particles. The ratio toluene/benzene in this study was found to be in the range 0.2-0.7, which is much lower than the ratio 3.6±0.5 in traffic exhaust emissions. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant compounds among the volatile ketones and aldehydes. The emission factor varied between 180-710 mg/kg wood for formaldehyde and 5-1300 mg/kg wood for acetone. Of the organic acids analyzed (3,4,5)-trimethoxy benzoic acid was the most abundant compound. Of the PAHs reported, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contribute to more than 70% of the mass of PAH. Of the elements analyzed, K and Si were the most abundant elements, having emission factors of 27 and 9 mg/kg wood, respectively. Although fluoranthene has a toxic equivalence factor of 5% of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), it can be seen that the toxic potency of fluoranthene in wood burning emissions is of the same size as B(a)P. This indicates that the relative carcinogenic potency contribution of fluoranthene in wood smoke would be about 40% of B(a)P.

  9. Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Thomson, Marian; Bodles, William J A; Crawford, Robert M M; Hunt, Harriet V; Featherstone, Alan Watson; Pellicer, Jaume; Buggs, Richard J A

    2013-06-01

    New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridization. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 66× short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) - a diploid that is the keystone woody species of subarctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present 100 bp PstI RAD markers for B. nana and closely related Betula tree species. Assembly of RAD markers in 15 individuals by alignment to the reference B. nana genome yielded 44-86k RAD loci per individual, whereas de novo RAD assembly yielded 64-121k loci per individual. Of the loci assembled by the de novo method, 3k homologous loci were found in all 15 individuals studied, and 35k in 10 or more individuals. Matching of RAD loci to RAD locus catalogues from the B. nana individual used for the reference genome showed similar numbers of matches from both methods of RAD locus assembly but indicated that the de novo RAD assembly method may overassemble some paralogous loci. In 12 individuals hetero-specific to B. nana 37-47k RAD loci matched a catalogue of RAD loci from the B. nana individual used for the reference genome, whereas 44-60k RAD loci aligned to the B. nana reference genome itself. We present a preliminary study of allele sharing among species, demonstrating the utility of the data for introgression studies and for the identification of species-specific alleles.

  10. Prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy by mucosal treatment with multi-allergen-chimers in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery or Dau c 1 (carrot, termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. METHODOLOGY: BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. RESULTS: Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy.

  11. Comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density Corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, A; Nachtergale, L; Staelens, J; Luyssaert, S; De Keersmaeker, L

    2004-09-01

    In Flanders, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication are exceeded in the majority of the forest stands, and many previously nitrogen limited forest ecosystems have become nitrogen saturated. The present study investigates whether a naturally regenerated stand of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) contributes less to the acidification and eutrophication of the forest soil than a high-density plantation of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio Maire). Throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen was about 3.5 times higher in the Corsican pine stand than in the birch stand. Potassium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under birch due to higher canopy leaching. Magnesium throughfall deposition was significantly higher under the pine canopy due to higher dry deposition. The lower nitrogen throughfall deposition in the birch stand was reflected in a 60% lower nitrate percolation at 1m depth compared with pine. Nitrate soil percolation is linked to losses of aluminium and base cations.

  12. Changes in expression of BetV1 allergen of silver birch pollen in urbanized area of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiarovská, Jana; Labajová, Mária; Ražná, Katarína; Bežo, Milan; Štefúnová, Veronika; Shevtsova, Tatiana; Garkava, Kateryna; Brindza, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determinate the level of expression of silver birch allergen Betv1 in pollen samples from different Ukraine areas by RT-qPCR SYBR Green assay. Protocol for quantifying the expression of Betv1 allergen was developed when testing of three housekeeping genes-cyclophylin, alpha-tubulin and transcription factor CBF1. Samples from urbanized area was analysed by real-time PCR when a sample from forest growth conditions was used as a calibrator. Real-time PCR based quantifying of Betv1 provides a useful method for rapid and sensitive analyses of this silver birch allergen. Our results show higher expression levels in samples from central parts of urbanized area as housing estates when compared to the samples from borders of the urbanized area.

  13. Molecular characterisation of birch bark tar by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a new way for identifying archaeological glues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regert, M; Alexandre, V; Thomas, N; Lattuati-Derieux, A

    2006-01-06

    To develop an analytical methodology, as non-destructive as possible, suitable for the identification of natural substances from archaeological origin, we studied the potentiality of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for analysing birch bark tar, an adhesive commonly used during ancient times. First of all, birch bark tars were produced by a controlled heating of birch bark. The two kinds of samples obtained using different processes of fabrication, one at liquid state, the second one at solid state, were then analysed by headspace HS-SPME-GC-MS. Different conditions of sample treatment were tested (two different fibre coatings, various times and temperatures of extraction) in order to suggest optimal conditions for the analysis of birch bark tar. Both samples were shown to be rich in volatile organic components. Two main groups of constituents, namely phenolic compounds issued from lignin or tannin known to be present in bark and sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons, secondary metabolites largely distributed in the plant kingdom, were detected for the first time in birch bark tar. HS-SPME-GC-MS appears thus to be a very efficient method for investigating the volatiles emitted by plant tars and could be further used for the study of birch bark tar samples issued from archaeological context.

  14. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  15. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  16. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen leaching from Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch stands in southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Mats; Hansson, Karna; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Alavi, Ghasem

    2011-01-01

    The effects of three common tree species – Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch – on leaching of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen were studied in an experimental forest with podzolised soils in southern Sweden. We analyzed soil water collected with lysimeters and modeled water fluxes to estimate dissolved C and N fluxes. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) was analyzed to get information about the quality of dissolved organic matter leached from the different stands. Under the ...

  17. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  18. Effects of long-term elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegelberg, R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Joensuu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland); Aphalo, P. J. [Joensuu Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Joensuu (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The effects of long-term ultraviolet-B radiation on the concentrations of secondary metabolites such as phenolics and terpenoids in the bark of silver birch saplings were studied. The effects of ultraviolet-B on the concentrations of the main soluble sugars such as sucrose, raffinose, and glucose in silver birch stem were also investigated, given that they are involved in the transpiration and allocation of assimilated carbon, and UV-B-induced changes may affect tree growth. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were found to be higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term exposure to elevated UV radiation. Saplings in elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and UV-A radiation control treatment had shown significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics compared with saplings in ambient radiation. No effect of radiation treatment was observed on non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids. These observations led to the conclusion that plant parts accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. The accumulation of sugars in the stems of silver birch saplings in response to UV radiation is believed to affect tree growth, possibly because of a reduction of alpha-cellulose content and consequent reduction in cell wall production. 36 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  20. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of betulin from white birch bark using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-he; Fu, Ming-liang; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Hai-feng; He, Guo-qing; Ruan, Hui

    2009-06-01

    Betulin is an abundant naturally occurring triterpene, which makes it a potentially important raw material for a precursor of biologically active compounds. The objective of the current study was to determine the optimum UAE conditions for betulin from B. papyfera bark. The optimum conditions were evaluated with fractional factorial design and optimized using response surface methodology. High yields of betulin were observed from white birch bark by UAE technology. The solvent concentration and the ratio of material to solvent were the most significant parameters on betulin extraction as evaluated through FFD. The extraction conditions were further investigated with central composite design. The fitted second-order model revealed that the optimal conditions consisted of 98% ethonal concentration, 1:42 the ratio of white birch bark to solvent, extraction temperature 50 degrees C, ultrasonic frequency 5kHz and extraction time 3h. Under the optimized condition, the maximum productivity of betulin predicted is 23.17%. The extraction productivity and purity of betulin under the optimized extraction conditions were great higher than that of the non-optimized condition. The present study demonstrates that ultrasound is a great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of betulin from white birch bark.

  1. Prediction of the birch pollen season characteristics in Cracow, Poland using an 18-year data series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorota, Myszkowska

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to construct the model forecasting the birch pollen season characteristics in Cracow on the basis of an 18-year data series. The study was performed using the volumetric method (Lanzoni/Burkard trap). The 98/95 % method was used to calculate the pollen season. The Spearman's correlation test was applied to find the relationship between the meteorological parameters and pollen season characteristics. To construct the predictive model, the backward stepwise multiple regression analysis was used including the multi-collinearity of variables. The predictive models best fitted the pollen season start and end, especially models containing two independent variables. The peak concentration value was predicted with the higher prediction error. Also the accuracy of the models predicting the pollen season characteristics in 2009 was higher in comparison with 2010. Both, the multi-variable model and one-variable model for the beginning of the pollen season included air temperature during the last 10 days of February, while the multi-variable model also included humidity at the beginning of April. The models forecasting the end of the pollen season were based on temperature in March-April, while the peak day was predicted using the temperature during the last 10 days of March.

  2. Detection of Malware and Malicious Executables Using E-Birch Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ashit Kumar Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malware detection is one of the challenges to the modern computing world. Web mining is the subset of data mining used to provide solutions for complex problems. Web intelligence is the new hope for the field of computer science to bring solution for the malware detection. Web mining is the method of web intelligence to make web as an intelligent tool to combat malware and phishing websites. Generally, malware injected through websites into the user system and modifies the executable file and paralyze the whole activity of the system. Antivirus application utilizes the data mining technique to find the malware in the web. There is a need of heuristic approach to solve the malware problem. Dynamic analysis methods yield better result than the static methods. Data mining is the best option for the dynamic analysis of malware or malicious program. The purpose of the research is to apply the enhanced Birch algorithm to find the malware and modified executables of Windows and Android operating system.

  3. Analysis of Individual Tree Competition Effect on Diameter Growth of Silver Birch in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Maleki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present study evaluates a set of competition indices including spatially explicit indices combined with different competitor selection approaches and non-spatially explicit competition indices. The aim was to quantify and describe the neighbouring effects on the tree diameter growth of silver birch trees. Area of study: Region throughout Estonia. Material and methods: Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots was used. After quantifying the selected indices, the best non-spatial indices and spatial indices (combined with neighbour selection methods were separately devised into a growth model as a predictor variable to assess the ability of the diameter growth model before and after adding competition measures. To test the species-specific effect on the competition level, the superior indices were recalculated using Ellenberg’s light indicators and incorporated into the diameter growth model. Main results: Statistical analyses showed that the diameter growth is a function of neighbourhood interactions and spatial indices were better growth predictors than non-spatial indices. In addition, the best selections of competitive neighbours were acquired based on the influence zone and the competition elimination angle concepts, and using Ellenberg’s light values had no significant improvement in quantifying the competition effects. Research highlights: Although the best ranking spatial competition measures were superior to the best non-spatial indices, the differences were negligible.

  4. Artificially decreased vapour pressure deficit in field conditions modifies foliar metabolite profiles in birch and aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Sõber, Anu; Oksanen, Elina

    2016-07-01

    Relative air humidity (RH) is expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change. Increasing RH reduces the difference of water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the atmosphere, and affects the gas exchange of plants. Little is known about the effects of decreased VPD on plant metabolism, especially under field conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of artificially decreased VPD on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) foliar metabolite and nutrient profiles in a unique free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) field experiment during the fourth season of humidity manipulation, in 2011. Long-term exposure to decreased VPD modified nutrient homeostasis in tree leaves, as demonstrated by a lower N concentration and N:P ratio in aspen leaves, and higher Na concentration and lower K:Na ratio in the leaves of both species in decreased VPD than in ambient VPD. Decreased VPD caused a shift in foliar metabolite profiles of both species, affecting primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolic adjustment to decreased VPD included elevated levels of starch and heptulose sugars, sorbitol, hemiterpenoid and phenolic glycosides, and α-tocopherol. High levels of carbon reserves, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants under decreased VPD may modify plant resistance to environmental stresses emerging under changing climate.

  5. Methane consumption and soil respiration by a birch forest soil in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoko; Inoue, Gen; Fukuda, Masami

    2004-07-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were measured in a birch forest soil in West Siberia, in August 1999, June 2000 and September 2000. The study site had a very thick organic horizon that was subject to drought during the observation periods. The soils always took up CH4, while CO2 was released from the surface to the atmosphere. CH4 consumption and CO2 emission rates ranged from 0.092 to 0.28 mg C m2 h1 and from 110 to 400 mg C m2 h1 respectively. The CH4 consumption rate and soil temperatures showed significant relationships for individual measurements. The soil respiration rate was weakly correlated with individual soil temperatures. This study examined the effect of current and lagged soil temperatures at a depth of 5 cm on CH4 consumption and soil respiration. The variation in the correlation coefficient between CH4 consumption and lagged soil temperature was greatest at a 4-h lag, whereas that for soil respiration showed a gentle peak at lags from several hours to half a day. This difference in the temperature-related lag effect between CH4 consumption and soil respiration results from differences in the exchange processes. Neither flux showed any correlation with soil moisture. The limited variation in soil moisture during our observation period may account for the lack of correlation. However, the droughty soil conditions resulted in high gas diffusion and, consequently, high CH4 consumption.

  6. Ligand Binding Modulates the Structural Dynamics and Compactness of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E.; Freier, Regina; Kofler, Stefan; Bibi, Marium; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Liedl, Klaus R.; Tollinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related plant proteins of class-10 (PR-10) are essential for storage and transport of small molecules. A prominent member of the PR-10 family, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, is the main cause of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the northern hemisphere. Bet v 1 binds various ligand molecules to its internal cavity, and immunologic effects of the presence of ligand have been discussed. However, the mechanism of binding has remained elusive. In this study, we show that in solution Bet v 1.0101 is conformationally heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single structure. NMR relaxation data suggest that structural dynamics are fundamental for ligand access to the protein interior. Complex formation then leads to significant rigidification of the protein along with a compaction of its 3D structure. The data presented herein provide a structural basis for understanding the immunogenic and allergenic potential of ligand binding to Bet v 1 allergens. PMID:25517162

  7. The influence of recombinant production on the immunologic behavior of birch pollen isoallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions towards the birch major pollen allergen Bet v 1 are among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the Northern hemisphere. Natural Bet v 1 is composed of a complex mixture of different isoforms. Detailed analysis of recombinant Bet v 1 isoforms revealed striking differences in immunologic as well as allergenic properties of the molecules, leading to a classification of Bet v 1 isoforms into high, medium, and low IgE binding proteins. Especially low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms have been described as ideal candidates for desensitizing allergic patients with allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT. Since diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases are highly dependent on recombinant proteins, continuous improvement of protein production is an absolute necessity. METHODOLOGY: Therefore, two different methods for recombinant production of a low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoform were applied; one based on published protocols, the other by implementing latest innovations in protein production. Both batches of Bet v 1.0401 were extensively characterized by an array of physicochemical as well as immunological methods to compare protein primary structure, purity, quantity, folding, aggregation state, thermal stability, and antibody binding capacity. CONCLUSION: The experiments demonstrated that IgE antibody binding properties of recombinant isoallergens can be significantly influenced by the production method directly affecting possible clinical applications of the molecules.

  8. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders; Mölder, Meelis; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Friborg, Thomas; Callaghan, Terry V.; Christensen, Torben R.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9-10 years and occasionally (50-150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake between an insect affected and non-affected year over the 316 km2 area is in the order of 29 × 103 tonnes C equal to a reduction of the sink strength by 89%.

  9. BVOC responses to realistic nitrogen fertilization and ozone exposure in silver birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, G; Brunetti, C; Fares, S; Hayes, F; Hoshika, Y; Mills, G; Tattini, M; Paoletti, E

    2016-06-01

    Emission of BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from plant leaves in response to ozone exposure (O3) and nitrogen (N) fertilization is poorly understood. For the first time, BVOC emissions were explored in a forest tree species (silver birch, Betula pendula) exposed for two years to realistic levels of O3 (35, 48 and 69 ppb as daylight average) and N (10, 30 and 70 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), applied weekly to the soil as ammonium nitrate). The main BVOCs emitted were: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and hexanal. Ozone exposure increased BVOC emission and reduced total leaf area. The effect on emission was stronger when a short-term O3 metric (concentrations at the time of sampling) rather than a long-term one (AOT40) was used. The effect of O3 on total leaf area was not able to compensate for the stimulation of emission, so that responses to O3 at leaf and whole-plant level were similar. Nitrogen fertilization increased total leaf area, decreased α-pinene and β-pinene emission, and increased ocimene, hexanal and DMNT emission. The increase of leaf area changed the significance of the emission response to N fertilization for most compounds. Nitrogen fertilization mitigated the effects of O3 exposure on total leaf area, while the combined effects of O3 exposure and N fertilization on BVOC emission were additive and not synergistic. In conclusion, O3 exposure and N fertilization have the potential to affect global BVOC via direct effects on plant emission rates and changes in leaf area.

  10. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts.

  11. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Hassegawa

    Full Text Available Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.. For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR, an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest.

  12. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  13. Phylogeny of chitinases and its implications for estimating horizontal gene transfer from chitinase-transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohtander, Katileena; Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Aalto, Markku K; Palva, Tapio; Pappinen, Ari; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2008-01-01

    Chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that have been employed in biotechnology in attempts to increase plants' resistance against fungal pathogens. Genetically modified plants have given rise to concerns of the spreading of transgenes into the environment through vertical or horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this study, chitinase-like sequences from silver birch (Betula pendula) EST-libraries were identified and their phylogenetic relationships to other chitinases were studied. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the frequency of historical gene transfer events of chitinase genes between plants and other organisms, and the usefulness of phylogenetic analyses as a source of information for the risk assessment of transgenic silver birch carrying a sugar beet chitinase IV gene was evaluated. Thirteen partial chitinase-like sequences, with an approximate length of 600 bp, were obtained from the EST-libraries. The sequences belonged to five chitinase classes. Some bacterial chitinases from Streptomyces and Burkholderia, as well as a chitinase from an oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, grouped together with the class IV chitinases of plants, supporting the hypothesis that some class IV chitinases in bacteria have evolved from eukaryotic chitinases via horizontal gene transfer. According to our analyses, HGT of a chitinase IV gene from eukaryotes to bacteria has presumably occurred only once. Based on this, the likelihood for the HGT of chitinase IV gene from transgenic birch to other organisms is extremely low. However, as risk is a function of both the likelihood and consequences of an event, the effects of rare HGT event(s) will finally determine the level of the risk.

  14. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilissen Ludovicus JWJ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10 multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a single tree, PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of PR-10 genes was performed on two diploid B. pendula cultivars and one interspecific tetraploid Betula hybrid. Sequences were attributed to putative genes based on sequence identity and intron length. Information on transcription was derived by comparison with homologous cDNA sequences available in GenBank/EMBL/DDJB. PCR-cloning of multigene families is accompanied by a high risk for the occurrence of PCR recombination artifacts. We screened for and excluded these artifacts, and also detected putative artifact sequences among database sequences. Results Forty-four different PR-10 sequences were recovered from B. pendula and assigned to thirteen putative genes. Sequence homology suggests that three genes were transcribed in somatic tissue and seven genes in pollen. The transcription of three other genes remains unknown. In total, fourteen different Bet v 1-type isoforms were identified in the three cultivars, of which nine isoforms were entirely new. Isoforms with high and low IgE-reactivity are encoded by different genes and one birch pollen grain has the genetic background to produce a mixture of isoforms with varying IgE-reactivity. Allergen diversity is even higher in the interspecific tetraploid hybrid, consistent with the presence of two genomes. Conclusion Isoforms of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 are encoded by multiple genes, and we propose to name them accordingly. The present characterization of the Bet v 1 genes provides a framework for the screening of specific Bet v 1 genes among other B. pendula cultivars or Betula species, and for future breeding for trees with a reduced

  15. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Öberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  16. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  17. Quantification of overnight movement of birch (Betula pendula branches and foliage with short interval terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eetu ePuttonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (Petula Bendula branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. The study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in Finland and in Austria. Both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. Experiments consisted of 14 (Finland and 77 (Austria individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. The resulting point clouds were used in creating a time series of branch movements. In the Finnish data, the vertical movement of the whole tree crown was monitored due to low volumetric point density. In the Austrian data, movements of manually selected representative points on branches were monitored. The movements were monitored from dusk until morning hours in order to avoid daytime wind effects. The results indicated that height deciles of the Finnish birch crown had vertical movements between -10.0 and 5.0 cm compared to the situation at sunset. In the Austrian data, the maximum detected representative point movement was 10.0 cm. The temporal development of the movements followed a highly similar pattern in both experiments, with the maximum movements occurring about an hour and a half before (Austria or around (Finland sunrise. The results demonstrate the potential of terrestrial laser scanning measurements in support of chronobiology.

  18. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V Martemyanov

    Full Text Available Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs, particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

  19. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  20. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansuo Zeng

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5 sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374 were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  1. Nutrient supply has greater influence than sink strength on photosynthetic adaptation to CO2 elevation in white birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai; Cao, Bing

    2013-04-01

    To study the effects of source-sink ratio and nutrient supply on photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation, we subjected white birch seedlings to two levels of nutrient supply (high vs. low) and CO(2) concentrations (ambient vs. doubled [CO(2)]) for two months and then shaded the lower canopy on half of the seedlings to reduce source/sink ratio for an additional month. The CO(2) elevation significantly increased P(n) and IWUE at both nutrient levels but the increase was greater in the high than low nutrient treatment. The CO(2) elevation resulted in a down-regulation of V(cmax) in the low nutrient treatment but up-regulation of J(max), TPU, [Formula: see text] and J(c) in the high nutrient after 3 months of treatment. Both the CO(2) elevation and high nutrient supply increased the partition of total electron transport to carboxylation at the expense of oxidation. The seedlings responded to the shading of the lower canopy by reducing biomass allocation to roots rather than making physiological adjustments to unshaded leaves in the upper canopy. Our results suggest that the direction of photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation in white birch was nutrient-dependent and an increase in sink strength could reduce the feedback inhibition of photosynthesis.

  2. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive.

  3. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral alle...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful.......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... allergy syndrome to apple and 10 control subjects were included. All were tested with SPT, SCT, HR and specific IgE [CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden and Magic Lite (ML), ALK-ABELLO, Denmark]. RESULTS: The SPT with apple, acetone extract of apple (A72) and commercial apple extract showed sensitivities of 0.80, 0...

  4. Host species and strain combination determine growth reduction of spruce and birch seedlings colonized by root-associated dark septate endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Grünig, Christoph R; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-04-01

    Interactions of Betula pendula and Picea abies with dark septate endophytes of the Phialocephala fortinii-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) were studied. PAC are ubiquitous fungal root symbionts of many woody plant species but their ecological role is largely unknown. Sterile birch and spruce seedlings in monoculture and mixed culture were exposed to four PAC strains, added either singularly or paired in all possible combinations at 18°C and 23°C. Plant and fungal biomass was determined after 4 months. The most significant factors were strain and host combination. One of the strains significantly reduced biomass gain of spruce but not of birch. Plant biomass was negatively correlated with total endophytic fungal biomass in half of the strain - plant combinations. Endophytic PAC biomass was four times higher in spruce (≈ 40 mg g(-1) drw) than in birch (≈ 10 mg g(-1) drw). Competition between strains was strain-dependent with some strains significantly reducing colonization density of other strains, and, thus, attenuating adverse effects of 'pathogenic' strains on plant growth in some strain - plant combinations. Biomass gain of spruce but not of birch was significantly reduced at higher temperature. In conclusion, host, fungal genotype, colonization density and presence of a competing PAC strain were the main determining factors for plant growth.

  5. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  6. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  7. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed.

  8. Energy resources of low-grade wood, small wood and waste materials. [Scots Pine; Norway Spruce; Birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A.P.; Sviridyuk, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    An account is made of recent Finnish work on the potential of low-grade wood, small-dimension wood and waste material (of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) for power production, in the context of the current world energy crisis. The physical and economic aspects are considered, and the relevance of the Finnish research for the USSR is discussed. In 1978, wood accounted for only 1.4% of the energy balance of the USSR. Taking one t of 'standard fuel' as equal to 7000 kcal for the purposes of calculation, the energy potential of bark alone in the USSR is 13.6 million t/yr. (Refs. 6).

  9. Degradation kinetics of the main carbohydrates in birch wood during hot water extraction in a batch reactor at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Sixta, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Hot water extraction of wood at elevated temperatures may be a suitable method to produce hemicellulose-lean pulps and to recover xylan-derived products from the water extract. In this study, water extractions of birch wood were conducted at temperatures between 180 and 240 °C in a batch reactor. Xylan was extensively removed, whereas cellulose was partly degraded only at temperatures above 180 °C. Under severe extraction conditions, acetic acid content in the water extract was higher than the corresponding amount of acetyl groups in wood. In addition to oligo- and monosaccharides, considerable amounts of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recovered from the extracts. After reaching a maximum, the furfural yield remained constant with increasing extraction time. This maximum slightly decreased with increasing extraction temperature, suggesting the preferential formation of secondary degradation products from xylose. Kinetic models fitting experimental data are proposed to explain degradation and conversion reactions of xylan and glucan.

  10. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  11. Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.

    1980-06-01

    This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

  12. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  13. Genetic engineering of trimers of hypoallergenic fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, for allergy vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, Susanne; Fohr, Monika; Campana, Raffaela; Baumgartner, Christian; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-03-01

    An immunotherapy trial performed in allergic patients with hypoallergenic recombinant fragments, comprising aa 1-74 and 75-160 of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, has indicated that the induction of allergen-specific IgG responses may be an important mechanism of this treatment. To investigate whether the immunogenicity of the rBet v 1 fragments can be increased, recombinant trimers of the fragments were produced. For this purpose, DNA trimers of rBet v 1 aa 1-74 as well as of rBet v 1 aa 75-160 were subcloned into expression plasmid pET 17b, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The fragments as well as the fragment trimers showed a reduced IgE-binding capacity and allergenic activity compared to rBet v 1 wildtype when tested in allergic patients. Both rBet v 1 aa 75-160 monomer and trimer induced high titers of allergen-specific IgG1 Abs in mice. Interestingly, rBet v 1 aa 1-74 trimer induced a much higher IgG(1) response to rBet v 1 than rBet v 1 aa 1-74 monomer. Consequently, IgG Abs induced with the rBet v 1 aa 1-74 trimer inhibited birch pollen allergic patients' IgE-binding 10-fold more efficiently than IgG Abs induced with the monomer. Our data show that the immunogenicity of allergy vaccines can be increased by oligomerization.

  14. A non-allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from birch pollen as a tool to design hypoallergenic vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazuela, Eva G; Hajek, Roswitha; Villalba, Mayte; Barber, Domingo; Breiteneder, Heimo; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Recombinant DNA technology offers several approaches to convert allergens into hypoallergenic derivatives that can represent the basis of novel, safer and more effective forms of allergy vaccines. In this context, we used a new strategy for the design of a hypoallergenic derivative of Ole e 1, the main allergen of olive pollen. By screening a cDNA library from birch pollen, the clone BB18, encoding the birch counterpart of Ole e 1, was identified. In this study, BB18 has been produce in Pichia pastoris as a recombinant protein and immunologically characterized. The well-established non-allergenic properties of BB18 were used to generate a genetic variant of Ole e 1, named OB(55-58), by site-direct mutagenesis of four residues (E(55)V(56)G(57)Y(58)) in an IgE/IgG epitope of Ole e 1 by the corresponding ones in BB18 (SDSE). OB(55-58) was expressed in P. pastoris, purified to homogeneity and analyzed for IgE-reactivity by means of ELISA using sera from olive pollen allergic patients and rat basophil activation assay. T cell reactivity was assayed in a mouse model of Ole e 1 sensitization. The mutant OB(55-58) exhibited an impaired IgE reactivity, but not affected T cell reactivity, compared to wild type rOle e 1. This study emphasizes the usefulness of BB18 as a tool for epitope mapping and for engineering hypoallergenic derivatives of Ole e 1 as vaccine candidates for allergy prevention and treatment.

  15. Effects of sugar beet chitinase IV on root-associated fungal community of transgenic silver birch in a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lu, Jinrong; Niskanen, Anna-Maija; Seppänen, Sanna-Kaisa; Rytkönen, Anna; Raunio, Janne; Pappinen, Ari; Kasanen, Risto; Timonen, Sari

    2009-10-01

    Heterogenous chitinases have been introduced in many plant species with the aim to increase the resistance of plants to fungal diseases. We studied the effects of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on the intensity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and the structure of fungal communities in the field trial of 15 transgenic and 8 wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes. Fungal sequences were separated in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and identified by sequencing the ITS1 region to reveal the operational taxonomic units. ECM colonization was less intense in 7 out of 15 transgenic lines than in the corresponding non-transgenic control plants, but the slight decrease in overall ECM colonization in transgenic lines could not be related to sugar beet chitinase IV expression or total endochitinase activity. One transgenic line showing fairly weak sugar beet chitinase IV expression without significantly increased total endochitinase activity differed significantly from the non-transgenic controls in the structure of fungal community. Five sequences belonging to three different fungal genera (Hebeloma, Inocybe, Laccaria) were indicative of wild-type genotypes, and one sequence (Lactarius) indicated one transgenic line. In cluster analysis, the non-transgenic control grouped together with the transgenic lines indicating that genotype was a more important factor determining the structure of fungal communities than the transgenic status of the plants. With the tested birch lines, no clear evidence for the effect of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on ECM colonization or the structure of fungal community was found.

  16. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackaert, Chloé; Kofler, Stefan; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Zulehner, Nora; Asam, Claudia; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Fuchs, Julian E; Briza, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R; Bohle, Barbara; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Oostingh, Gertie J; Duschl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air) or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue). We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs) upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and primary DCs (primDCs) stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  17. Degradation effects in the extraction of antioxidants from birch bark using water at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Zettersten, Camilla; Nyholm, Leif; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-02-24

    Experiments with birch bark samples have been carried to enable a distinction between extraction and degradation effects during pressurised hot water extraction. Two samples, E80 and E180, contained birch bark extracts obtained after extraction at 80 and 180°C for up to 45 min, respectively. Two other samples, P80 and P180, were only extracted for 5 min at the two temperatures and were thereafter filtered and hydrothermally treated at 80 and 180°C, respectively. During the latter treatment, samples were collected at different times to assess the stability of the extracted compounds. An offline DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, as well as a high performance liquid chromatographic separation coupled to an electrochemical detector, were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the processed samples. The results obtained with the different techniques were compared to assess the yield of the extraction and degradation processes. In addition, an online hyphenated system comprising high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array; electrochemical; and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ECD-MS/MS) was used to study the compositions of the extracts in more detail. The results for the samples processed at 80°C showed that the extraction reached a steady-state already after 5 min, and that the extracted compounds were stable throughout the entire extraction process. Processing at 180°C, on the other hand, gave rise to partly degraded extracts with a multitude of peaks in both the diode array and electrochemical detectors, and a higher antioxidant capacity compared to for the extracts obtained at 80°C. It is concluded that HPLC-DAD-ECD is a more appropriate technique for the determination of antioxidants than the DPPH assay. The mass spectrometric results indicate that one of the extracted antioxidants, catechin, was isomerised to its diastereoisomers; (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin.

  18. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  20. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  1. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  2. Birch's law for high-pressure metals and ionic solids: Sound velocity data comparison between shock wave experiments and recent diamond anvil cell experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boness, David A.; Ware, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Sound velocity-density systematics has long been a fruitful way to take shock wave measurements on elements, alloys, oxides, rocks, and other materials, and allow reasonable extrapolation to densities found deep in the Earth. Recent detection of super-Earths has expanded interest in terrestrial planetary interiors to an even greater range of materials and pressures. Recent published diamond anvil cell (DAC) experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron and iron alloys, relevant to planetary cores, are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law, a linear relation between sound velocity and density. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several shocked metallic elements, including iron, and shocked ionic solids and make comparisons to the recent DAC data.

  3. Implications of Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Tropospheric Ozone for Water Use in Stands of Trembling Aspen and Paper Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Lee Kirk

    Projected increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and tropospheric O3 over the next 50 years are of concern due in part to their potential to affect forest water budgets. I conducted a series of studies at the Aspen Free Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, WI to determine the effect of projected concentrations of these gases for the year 2050 on the water budget in stands of trembling aspen and paper birch. In order to determine the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO 2) and O3 (eO3) on rainfall partitioning between interception, through fall, and stem flow I performed a computerized analysis of photographed canopy branches and compared the results to hydrologic measurements. Elevated O3 significantly decreased total aspen and birch branch length, resulting in net decreases for 2002 whorls of -18 % and 2006 whorls of -16 %. Some of these changes had measurable effects on rainfall partitioning. The biomass of fine roots has been observed to change in response to eCO2 and eO3 at shallow depths, but little work has been done to assess deeper roots. I characterized fine root responses to eCO 2 and eO3 to a depth of one meter. Fumigation with O 3 increased small root biomass in shallow soil 30 % in all aspen plots and decreased root biomass in shallow soil 46 % in aspen-birch plots. Increases in root length up to 131 % and specific root length up to 77 % occurred under eO3 in middle and deep soil layers, indicating more extensive soil exploration at depth. Small root biomass in shallow soils increased 20 % to 24 % under eCO2, indicative of more intensive soil exploration near the surface. Previous studies of sapwood from Aspen-FACE indicated that anatomical structures related to hydraulic conductance (K) differed between aspen clones and that they responded to the treatments differently. I constructed embolism curves for stem wood samples collected below the base of the live crowns. There were no significant treatment effects on K at full water

  4. Age-dependent sensitization to the 7S-vicilin-like protein Cor a 11 from hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in a birch-endemic region

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, MM; Hagendorens, MM; Trashin, Stanislav; Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart; Bridts, CH; De Clerck, LS; Ebo, DG

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) allergy exhibits age and geographically distinct sensitization patterns that have not yet been fully resolved. Objective: To study sensitization to Cor a 11 in different age groups of hazelnut-allergic patients and infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) sensitized to hazelnut in a birch-endemic region. Methods: Sera from 80 hazelnut-allergic patients, 33 infants under 1 year of age with AD (24 sensitized and 9 not sensitized to hazelnut), 32 healthy ...

  5. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L. [Lakehead University, Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2005-05-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Kubiske, Mark E; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2008-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure and hence forest water use, which has implications for climate feedbacks. We investigated how a 40% increase above ambient values in [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, affect tree water use of pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests in the free air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). Measurements of sap flux and canopy leaf area index (L) were made during two growing seasons, when steady-state L had been reached after more than 6 years of exposure to elevated [CO2] and [O3]. Maximum stand-level sap flux was not significantly affected by elevated [O3], but was increased by 18% by elevated [CO2] averaged across years, communities and O(3) regimes. Treatment effects were similar in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. Increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] was related to positive CO2 treatment effects on tree size and L (+40%). Tree water use was not reduced by elevated [O3] despite strong negative O3 treatment effects on tree size and L (-22%). Elevated [O3] predisposed pure aspen stands to drought-induced sap flux reductions, whereas increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] did not result in lower soil water content in the upper soil or decreasing sap flux relative to control values during dry periods. Maintenance of soil water content in the upper soil in the elevated [CO2] treatment was at least partly a function of enhanced soil water-holding capacity, probably a result of increased organic matter content from increased litter inputs. Our findings that larger trees growing in elevated [CO2] used more water and that tree size, but not maximal water use, was negatively affected by elevated [O3] suggest that the long-term cumulative effects on stand structure may be more important than the expected primary stomatal closure responses to

  7. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  8. Karyotype reorganisation in the subtilis group of birch mice (Rodentia, Dipodidae, Sicista): unexpected taxonomic diversity within a limited distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskaya, Y M; Aniskin, V M; Bogomolov, P L; Surov, A V; Tikhonov, I A; Tikhonova, G N; Robinson, T J; Volobouev, V T

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cytogenetic studies of Sicista subtilis and S. severtzovi (Dipodidae, Sicistinae), both attributable to the subtilis group of birch mice, revealed extensive karyotype diversity with 2n = 16-26 and NFa values of 26-46 indicating the overwhelming non-Robertsonian nature of chromosomal reorganization in these species. The numerical and structural chromosome variability was principally found in specimens located within a confined region of the East European (Russian) Plain. The approximately 135,000-km(2) area occurs in the vicinity of the Don River bend between 49°13'N/43°46'E and 51°32'N/36°16'E. The detection of cytotypes sharing similar 2n and NF values, but having morphologically distinct chromosomes, suggests that these may result from polymorphisms present both within recognized species and in cryptic taxa not hitherto described. We conducted a comprehensive, comparative chromosome banding analysis of 52 birch mice (21 localities) referable to the subtilis group and report the presence of 5 distinct karyotypes, each characterized by a combination of stable, variable, and partly overlapping 2n/NFa values. These karyotypes differed from each other by 10-29 structural chromosomal rearrangements (18.1 ± 6.3) that comprised Rb fusions/fissions (42.2%), pericentric inversions (31.1%), and tandem translocations (22.2%). The composition, and the high numbers of these chromosomal changes, is likely to provide an effective means of post-mating isolation, suggesting that taxonomic diversity within the subtilis group is larger than currently accepted. Additionally, we report the frequent fixation of tandem translocations in sample populations, one of which was found in a polymorphic state representing, as far as we are aware, the first case of an in statu nascendi tandem fusion in wild populations. Moreover, our data revealed that bi-armed chromosomes were involved in fusions detected in some of the subtilis taxa. In each instance, however, fusions were

  9. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  10. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris and birch (Betula pubescens leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Collen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1 and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1. Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams. Keywords: leaf processing, pine needles, shredders, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Scotland.

  11. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens) leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, P.; Keay, E. J.; Morrison, B. R. S.

    Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1) and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1). Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams.

  12. The partial reduction of electron-deficient pyrroles: procedures describing both Birch (Li/NH3) and ammonia-free (Li/DBB) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Timothy J; Thomas, Rhian E

    2007-01-01

    The partial reduction of electron-deficient pyrroles using either Birch (Li/NH(3)) or ammonia-free (Li/di-tert-butyl biphenyl) conditions allows formation of pyrroline compounds in good yield and, when combined with a reductive alkylation or similar approach, leads to highly functionalized, synthetically useful compounds. This methodology has been proven in the syntheses of several complex natural products, all of which show interesting biological activity. This protocol describes in detail the following stages of the partial reduction procedure: formation of the reducing solution, partial reduction of the pyrrole compound and finally quench of the resulting anion/dianion using either protonating agents or an aldehyde. The ammonia-free conditions described herein are particularly useful for reactions requiring the use of reactive electrophiles, such as acid chlorides or enolizable aldehydes, which are incompatible with the standard Birch reduction conditions. The reaction procedure for the ammonia Birch reduction (procedure A) takes about 9.5 h to complete. Those described for the ammonia-free reductions, procedure B and procedure C, can be expected to take approximately 33 and 8 h, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  14. Assessment of UV biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Titta; Venäläinen, Tuulia; Tegelberg, Riitta; Lindfors, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sutinen, Sirkka; O'Hara, Robert B; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum. We monitored effects of UV radiation on the concentration of individual UV absorbing metabolites and chlorophyll concentrations in leaves and growth responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. Experiments were conducted outdoors using plastic films attenuating different parts of the UV spectrum. Chlorophyll concentrations and growth were not affected by the UV treatments. The response to UV radiation varied between and within groups of phenolics. In general, the observed responses of phenolic groups and individual flavonoids were best predicted by action spectra extending into the UV-A region with moderate effectiveness.

  15. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure.

  16. The Effects of Surface Roughness on Adhesion Strength of Coated Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Birch (Betula L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina VITOSYTĖ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of surface roughness impact on adhesion properties, the samples of dried ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and birch (Betula L. wood were used. Before wood finishing, the surfaces of the samples were sanded. In order to get different surface roughness the abrasive material of P80, P120, P150, P180, P220 and P240 grit was used. The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax were measured in three directions: along the wood grain, across the grain and in the angle of 45º. Comparison of the results showed the non-linear dependency of roughness parameters. Afterwards the wood surface was coated with three different acrylic-polyurethane coating systems (1 layer of varnish without primer, 1 layer of primer and 1 layer of varnish, and 1 layer of primer and 2 layers of varnish. The adhesion strength was assessed using the pull-off method. Also the nature of the fracture was evaluated. It was determined that the peculiarities of surface roughness, coating system type and wood species signally results the values of the adhesion strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3094

  17. Searching for magnetism in hydrogenated graphene: using highly hydrogenated graphene prepared via Birch reduction of graphite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Poh, Hwee Ling; Šaněk, Filip; Maryško, Miroslav; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-07-23

    Fully hydrogenated graphene (graphane) and partially hydrogenated graphene materials are expected to possess various fundamentally different properties from graphene. We have prepared highly hydrogenated graphene containing 5% wt of hydrogen via Birch reduction of graphite oxide using elemental sodium in liquid NH3 as electron donor and methanol as proton donor in the reduction. We also investigate the influence of preparation method of graphite oxide, such as the Staudenmaier, Hofmann or Hummers methods on the hydrogenation rate. A control experiment involving NaNH2 instead of elemental Na was also performed. The materials were characterized in detail by electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy both at room and low temperatures, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis and electrical resistivity measurements. Magnetic measurements are provided of bulk quantities of highly hydrogenated graphene. In the whole temperature range up to room temperature, the hydrogenated graphene exhibits a weak ferromagnetism in addition to a contribution proportional to field that is caused not only by diamagnetism but also likely by an antiferromagnetic influence. The origin of the magnetism is also determined to arise from the hydrogenated graphene itself, and not as a result of any metallic impurities.

  18. [Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Chen; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuo-Qiang; Xing, Ding-Liang; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Xu-gao

    2013-02-01

    Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBHDBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.

  19. Stomatal regulation, structural acclimation and metabolic shift towards defensive compounds reduce O3 load in birch under chronic O3 stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.; Riikonen, J.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Maenpaa, M.; Rousi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Northern forests are encountering new threats due to continuously increasing load of oxidative stress, e.g. due to rising tropospheric O3 levels, and simultaneous climate warming, which is more intense in northern latitudes as compared to global means. The proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula) in Finnish forests is expected to increase with climate warming. Unfortunately, we have growing evidence that the vitality and the carbon sink strength of birch trees are weakened under chronic O3 stress. In this study we investigated the effects of slightly elevated O3 concentration (1.3 x the ambient), temperature (T) and their combination on the antioxidant defense, gas exchange and leaf growth of Betula pendula saplings (clone 12) growing in open-field conditions over two growing seasons. The plants were measured for SLA (specific leaf area), total leaf area, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc,max), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), relative stomatal limitation to photosynthesis (ls), dark respiration (Rd), apoplastic concentrations of AA (ascorbic acid), DHA (dehydroascobate) and total ascorbate, the redox state of apoplastic ascorbate, and total antioxidant capacity. Elevated O3 enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast in the first year of the experiment at the ambient T. However, during the second year of the experiment, the saplings responded to elevated O3 level by closing the stomata and by developing leaves with a lower leaf area per mass, rather than by accumulating ascorbate in the apoplast. O3 did not affect the total leaf area, whereas Pn was slightly and gs significantly reduced in the second year. Elevated T enhanced the total leaf area, Pn and Vc,max, redox state of ascorbate and total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast. The effects of T and O3 on total leaf area and net photosynthesis were counteractive. We were not able to detect significant differences in Rd between the

  20. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  1. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  2. Phenology and abundance in relation to climatic variation in a sub-arctic insect herbivore-mountain birch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaaseth, Ragnhild R; Hagen, Snorre B; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Ims, Rolf A

    2005-08-01

    The two forest-defoliating geometrid moth species Operophtera brumata and Epirrita autumnata are known to exhibit different altitudinal distribution patterns in northern birch forests. One possible explanation for this is that altitudinal climatic variation differentially affects the performance of two species through mismatching larval and host plant phenology. We explored this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between larval phenology and leaf phenology of Betula pubescens, which is the main host plant of both moth species, along ten replicate altitudinal transects during two springs with contrasting climate in northern Norway. There was a distinct monotonous cline in host plant phenology with increasing altitude in both years of the study, but the development of the leaves were generally 14 days later in the first of the 2 years due to cold spring weather. We found that larval development of both species closely tracked host plant leaf phenology independent of altitude and year. However, at the time of sampling, E. autumnata was approximately one instar ahead of O. brumata at all altitudes, probably reflecting that E. autumnata has faster early instar growth than O. brumata. The abundance of O. brumata was lowest at the altitudinal forest-line, while E. autumnata was lowest near sea level. Our results do not indicate that the altitudinal distribution patterns of the two moth species is due to any phenological mismatch between larval and host plant phenology. We suggest rather that natural enemies at low altitudes limit larval survival and thus abundance of E. autumnata, while an early onset of winter at the forest limit reduces survival of late eclosing adults of O. brumata.

  3. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed.

  4. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  5. Oocyst-Derived Extract of Toxoplasma Gondii Serves as Potent Immunomodulator in a Mouse Model of Birch Pollen Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wagner

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract.First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells.Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses.Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis.

  6. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106-a R2R3-MYB transcription factor-upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis.

  7. Physico-chemical comparison of betulinic acid, betulin and birch bark extract and in vitro investigation of their cytotoxic effects towards skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431), breast carcinoma (MCF7) and cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soica, Codruta M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Peev, Camelia; Aluas, Mihaela; Zupkó, I; Kása, P; Alexa, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenes present in the bark of the birch tree and other vegetal sources. Quantitatively, in birch bark betulin is more significant than betulinic acid; therefore, birch can be a large and feasible source of raw material for betulin extraction. Betulin can be used as extracted or, after chemical modification, as a starting compound for its acid, betulinic acid, with both substances possessing various interesting pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study is to analyse the betulin and betulinic acid content of a birch tree bark extract, as well as its cytotoxic activity. The extraction was done using a Soxhlet extractor and chloroform/dichlormethane/methanol (1 : 1 : 1) as solvent. The betulin and betulinic acid content of the extract was estimated using standards of pure betulin and betulinic acid, by thermal analysis as opposed to pure substance (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis). The extract and the main compounds were also analysed by NMR. The results indicated a high amount of betulin in the final extract (up to 50%), and an important quantity of betulinic acid: over 3%. The cytotoxic activity indicated a high proliferation inhibition for the birch tree extract but was still comparable with betulinic acid and betulin.

  8. Leaf and canopy conductance in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air enrichment of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2009-11-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure, and hence forest feedbacks on climate. Here, we investigated how elevated concentrations of CO2 (+45%) and O3 (+35%), alone and in combination, affected conductance for mass transfer at the leaf and canopy levels in pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and in mixed aspen and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) forests in the free-air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). The study was conducted during two growing seasons, when steady-state leaf area index (L) had been reached after > 6 years of exposure to CO2- and O3-enrichment treatments. Canopy conductance (g(c)) was estimated from stand sap flux, while leaf-level conductance of sun leaves in the upper canopy was derived by three different and independent methods: sap flux and L in combination with vertical canopy modelling, leaf 13C discrimination methodology in combination with photosynthesis modelling and leaf-level gas exchange. Regardless of the method used, the mean values of leaf-level conductance were higher in trees growing under elevated CO2 and/or O3 than in trees growing in control plots, causing a CO2 x O3 interaction that was statistically significant (P aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. These results demonstrate that short-term primary stomatal closure responses to elevated CO2 and O3 were completely offset by long-term cumulative effects of these trace gases on tree and stand structure in determining canopy- and leaf-level conductance in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests. Our results, together with the findings from other long-term FACE experiments with trees, suggest that model assumptions of large reductions in stomatal conductance under rising atmospheric CO2 are very uncertain for forests.

  9. Density and composition of an insect population in a field trial of chitinase transgenic and wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula) clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihervuori, Liisa; Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi

    2008-12-01

    Fifteen silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines carrying a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and eight wild-type birch clones were grown in a field trial. The composition and density of the insect population and the leaf damage caused by insects were monitored and compared between transgenic and wild-type trees. The most abundant insect group in all trees was aphids, and the variation in total insect densities was mainly explained by the variation in aphid densities. Insect densities were generally higher in the transgenic than in the control trees, indicating that the expression of the sugar beet chitinase IV gene had an influence on the suitability of birch leaves to aphids. The level of leaf damage was higher among transgenic than among control trees. Chewing damage was the most common type of leaf damage in all trees. The number of different damage types was higher among the wild-type clones than among the transgenic lines or their controls. The results indicate that the chitinase transgenic trees are more susceptible to aphids and suffer higher levels of leaf damage than the control trees. In the composition of the damage types, the control trees were more similar to the transgenic than to other wild-type trees, indicating that the composition was mostly linked to the genotype of the tree and not to the expression of the transgene. This study provides important information on the ecological interactions of chitinase transgenic trees in the field trial. No clear harmful effects of transgenic chitinase on the biodiversity of insect population were detected.

  10. 白桦树皮提取物的降血脂作用研究%On Hypolipidemic Effects of White Birch Bark Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左红香; 郑光浩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study hypolipidemic effects of white birch bark extract. Method The white birch bark extract (BH) at the dose of 300 mg/kg was given to mice in high-dose group,200 mg/kg in middle-dose group and 100 mg/kg in low-dose group, and Zhinbitieose at the dose of 300 mg/kg in the positive control group orally for 7 days for the prophylaxis of lipidemic disorders. At 2h after the final administration,75% egg yolk emulsion was intraperitoneally given to the mice in all groups except for the normal group to establish the mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Effects of BH at the different doses on lipid levels in blood in mice were measured at 12h after the modeling. Results The white birch bark extract could significantly reduce serum TC, TG and LDL-C contents, and significantly elevate HDL-C level. Conclusion The white birch bark extract can produce significantly hypolipidemic effect on mice.%目的研究白桦树皮提取物(BH)的降血脂作用.方法分正常组、模型组、BH给药组:高(300mg/kg)、中(200mg/kg)、低(100mg/kg)剂量和阳性对照组:脂必妥(300mg/kg).预防给药7d,末次给药2h后,腹腔注射75%蛋黄乳液制作小鼠高脂血症模型,造模12h后测定不同剂量的BH对小鼠血脂水平的影响.结果白桦树皮提取物能够显著降低小鼠血清中TC,TG,LDL-C浓度,显著升高HDL-C.结论白桦树皮提取物具有明显的降血脂作用.

  11. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This d...

  12. Allergic asthmatics show divergent lipid mediator profiles from healthy controls both at baseline and following birch pollen provocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2 mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators. OBJECTIVES: Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics. METHODS: Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers. RESULTS: Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS-plot modeling showed a correlation (R(2 = 0.7 between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q(2[cum] = 0.51 and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q(2[cum] = 0.73, with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB(4 and 6-trans-LTB(4, CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols, and IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic

  13. Protein-lipid composition of silver birch (Betula verrucosa pollen and its antioxidant activity depending on habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shevtsova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen has various effects on the human body. In order to study and compare the biological activity of the mature pollen grains of Betula verrucosa Ehrh. we investigated the protein-lipid composition and total antioxidant activity (TAA of 10 samples from different habitats in the territory of Ukraine and the Slovak Republic. The collection sites are near highways and apartment blocks, as well as a nature reserve, forest and botanical garden. The protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. A chromatographic analysis of fatty acids from lipids was performed using a “Cvet 500” gas chromatograph, equipped with a flame-ionization detector in the isothermal mode. The bioactivity of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of pollen grains was evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl by means spectrophotometry in vitro. The protein content of the pollen of B. verrucosa ranged from 17.9% to 25.6%, depending on the habitat. Unsaturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids. The profile of fatty acids indicates a higher content of palmitic (33.9%, oleic (29.5% and linoleic (27.8% acids and a low content of arachidonic (0.4% and pentadecanoic (0.8% acids. We also established that silver birch pollen is characterized by high antioxidant activity. The measured value of TAA for aqueous pollen extracts was within 74.8–85.5%. For the ethanol extracts it was quantified within 60.3–95.0% and for the methanol extracts – 46.1–92.6%. The Tukey test was used to determine the differences between the means at a level of P < 0.05. A strong correlation coefficient (0.70 was defined between the protein content and the TAA of aqueous extracts. In general, the Ukrainian and Slovak samples of pollen differ in the fatty acid composition of lipids and aqueous and ethanol TAA extracts. Pollen of B. verrucosa should be used for diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic purposes as close

  14. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States)], E-mail: jndarbah@mtu.edu; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil [USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Oksanen, Elina [University of Joensuu, Kuopio (Finland); Vapaavuori, Elina [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki (Finland); Karnosky, David F. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States)

    2008-10-15

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O{sub 3} also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO{sub 2} + O{sub 3}) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO{sub 2} may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O{sub 3} will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances and elevated O{sub 3} decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth.

  15. Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to elevated ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation at juvenile age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliura, Alfas [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Department of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu 1, Girionys LT-53101, Kaunas District (Lithuania); Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 13, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas District (Lithuania)], E-mail: genetsk@mi.lt; Baliuckiene, Asta [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Department of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu 1, Girionys LT-53101, Kaunas District (Lithuania); Baliuckas, Virgilijus [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Department of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Liepu 1, Girionys LT-53101, Kaunas District (Lithuania); Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 13, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas District (Lithuania)

    2008-11-15

    Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to separate and combined elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation dozes was studied at juvenile age in the climatic chambers. Significant population and family effects were found for seedling height, lamina width, and leaf damage. The exposure to UV-B radiation decreased genetic variation at the stage of seed germination. Complex exposure to UV-B and O{sub 3} caused an increase of genetic variation at the stage of intensive seedling growth: seedling height genetic variation in separate treatments increased from 23.7-38.6 to 33.7-65.7%, the increase for lamina width was from 10.2-13.9 to 13.6-31.8%. Different populations and families demonstrated differing response to elevated complex UV-B and O{sub 3} exposure. Changes of genetic intra-population variation were population-specific. Such changes in genetic variation under the impact of stressors can alter adaptation, stability, and competitive ability of regenerating populations in a hardly predictive way. - Exposure to elevated UV-B and O{sub 3} alters genetic variation of traits in progenies of silver birch populations.

  16. Stomatal uptake of O3 in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Hogg, Alan J; Teclaw, Ronald M; Carroll, Mary Anne; Ellsworth, David S

    2010-06-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may alleviate the toxicological impacts of concurrently rising tropospheric ozone (O3) during the present century if higher CO2 is accompanied by lower stomatal conductance (gs), as assumed by many models. We investigated how elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3, alone and in combination, affected the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 (AFst) by canopies and sun leaves in closed aspen and aspen-birch forests in the free-air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Stomatal conductance for O3 was derived from sap flux data and AFst was estimated either neglecting or accounting for the potential influence of non-stomatal leaf surface O3 deposition. Leaf-level AFst (AFst(l)) was not reduced by elevated CO2. Instead, there was a significant CO2 x O(3) interaction on AFst(l), as a consequence of lower values of gs in control plots and the combination treatment than in the two single-gas treatments. In addition, aspen leaves had higher AFst(l) than birch leaves, and estimates of AFst(l) were not very sensitive to non-stomatal leaf surface O3 deposition. Our results suggest that model projections of large CO2-induced reductions in gs alleviating the adverse effect of rising tropospheric O3 may not be reasonable for northern hardwood forests.

  17. Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} during leaf maturation and senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontunen-Soppela, Sari, E-mail: sari.kontunen-soppela@joensuu.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Parviainen, Juha [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Ruhanen, Hanna [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); Brosche, Mikael [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Keinaenen, Markku [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Thakur, Ramesh C. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kolehmainen, Mikko [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kangasjaervi, Jaakko [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Oksanen, Elina [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Vapaavuori, Elina [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Gene expression responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaves to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} were studied with microarray analyses from three time points during the summer of 2004 at Aspen FACE. Microarray data were analyzed with clustering techniques, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and Sammon's mappings, to detect similar gene expression patterns within sampling times and treatments. Most of the alterations in gene expression were caused by O{sub 3}, alone or in combination with CO{sub 2}. O{sub 3} induced defensive reactions to oxidative stress and earlier leaf senescence, seen as decreased expression of photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes, and increased expression of senescence-associated genes. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} reflected surplus of carbon that was directed to synthesis of secondary compounds. The combined CO{sub 2} + O{sub 3} treatment resulted in differential gene expression than with individual gas treatments or in changes similar to O{sub 3} treatment, indicating that CO{sub 2} cannot totally alleviate the harmful effects of O{sub 3}. - Clustering analysis of birch leaf gene expression data reveals differential responses to O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  18. Evaluation and differentiation of the Betulaceae birch bark species and their bioactive triterpene content using analytical FT-vibrational spectroscopy and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîntă-Pînzaru Simona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aiming to obtain the highest triterpene content in the extraction products, nine bark samples from the forest abundant flora of Apuseni Mountains, Romania were Raman spectroscopically evaluated. Three different natural extracts from Betula pendula Roth birch bark have been obtained and characterized using Fourier transform vibrational spectra. Results This study shows that principal components of the birch tree extract can be rapidly recognized and differentiated based on their vibrational fingerprint band shape and intensity. The vibrational spectroscopy results are supported by the GC-MS data. Based on IR and Raman analysis, one can conclude that all the extracts, independent on the solvent(s used, revealed dominant betulin species, followed by lupeol. Conclusions Since Raman measurements could also be performed on fresh plant material, we demonstrated the possibility to apply the present results for the prediction of the highest triterpene content in bark species, for the selection of harvesting time or individual genotypes directly in the field, with appropriate portable Raman equipment.

  19. A randomized DBPC trial to determine the optimal effective and safe dose of a SLIT-birch pollen extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis : results of a phase II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaar, O.; van Twuijver, E.; Boot, J. D.; Opstelten, D. J. E.; Klimek, L.; van Ree, R.; Diamant, Z.; Kuna, P.; Panzner, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a potential efficacious and safe treatment option for patients with respiratory, IgE-mediated allergic diseases. A combined tolerability, dose-finding study with a sublingual liquid birch pollen preparation (SB) was conducted. Methods: Two hundred and s

  20. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch...

  1. CO2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula paperifera Mash seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species’ potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26oC and 37oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37oC was higher than that at 26oC under elevated CO2. Stomatal conductance (gs was lower at 37oC than at 26oC, while transpiration rate (E was higher at 37oC than that at 26oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE at both 26oC and 37oC, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37oC under elevated CO2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax, PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax and triose phosphate utilization (TPU varied with CO2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm’, total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc were higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT. The data suggest that the CO2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  2. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch.......001). These results show that high avidity IgG of low inter-individual difference in Bet v 1 binding quality is the dominant binding factor of Bet v 1 in sera of birch pollen-allergic patients, and that SAV-induced inhibition of binding of Bet v 1 to IgE can be explained mainly or solely by increased amounts of IgG....

  3. 天然白桦种苗光合作用日进程%Daily Course of Photosynthesis in Seedlings of Natural Birch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱民; 刘志学; 祖元刚

    2001-01-01

    In this research, the most advanced system for photosynthesis-LI 6400 was used in seedlings of natural birch which is one kind of multi-function species. The diurnal course of photosynthetic rate of birch shows a single peak (10.53 μ molCO2 m-2s-1) which reaches at 14 o'clock. There exist no “midday depression” in the photosynthesis. At 14 o'clock, while the value of stoma limitation (0.3172) and water pressure deficits of leaf (2.46 kPa) reach their peaks, the water utilization efficiency is still high and the highest value (2.97 μ1 molCO2 m-2 s-1 mm H2O m-2s-1) appears at 12 o'clock. And the most value of apparent quantum yield occurs at 8 o'clock. But the climax value of transpiration rate appears at 14 o'clock (4.82 mmH2O m-2s-1). In the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate, high value keeps on during at least 4 hours. This increase the amount of photosynthesis in daily course, furthermore, it makes advantage to the growth of birch.%本研究采用最先进的光合作用测定系统LI-6400测定多功能树种白桦种苗的光合作用.天然白桦种苗光合速率日进程表现为 单峰曲线,在下午14:00时达到最高峰(10.53 μ mol CO2 m-2 s-1),.其光合作用不存在“午休现象”.在14:00时,白桦的气孔限制值 (0.3172)和水分饱和亏缺(2.46 kPa)分别达到最大值,此时其水分利用效率较高,在中午12:00时水分利用率达到最大值(2.97μ molCO2m-2 s-1mmH2Om-2s-1).在早上8:00,白桦获得一天中最大的表观量子效率;其蒸腾速率在下午14:00时最大(4.82mmH2O m-2s-1).在光合速率的日进程中,白桦高光合速率值持续至少4个小时.这使得白桦的光合作用量得以有效累积,进而为其生长创 造了有利条件.

  4. GC-MS Analysis of Aroma Components of Birch Sap Wine with Different Aging Time%不同陈酿时期的桦树液发酵酒香气成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲迪; 连奎

    2016-01-01

    The aroma components in birch sap wine were fermented with different aging time were extracted by solvent extract and analyzed by GC-MS. The results indicated that the identified amount of aroma components of two birch sap wine is as follow:one year aged 56, two years aged 44, and their common aroma components are 22. Among them, the main aroma components are 7. The mainly aromatic substance benzene ethanol, with their unique aroma components, constitutes the unique aroma style of birch sap wine. Sensory olfactory evaluation found that two years aged of birch sap wine aroma is richer and soft.%采用溶剂萃取法提取桦树液发酵酒的香气成分,利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对不同时期的桦树液发酵酒的香气成分进行分析研究。结果表明,陈酿1年的桦树液发酵酒中有56种香气成分;陈酿2年的桦树液发酵酒中有44种香气成分,其中,共同的香气成分22种,有7种是主体香气成分。主要呈香物质是苯乙醇,加上各自独有的香气成分共同构成了桦树液发酵酒的特有香气风格。经感官嗅闻评定,陈酿2年的桦树液发酵酒的香气更为浓郁优雅、协调悦人。

  5. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, C.; Palmé, A. E.; Felber, François

    2008-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flo...

  6. Allocation of carbon to growth and secondary metabolites in birch seedlings under UV-B radiation and CO{sub 2} exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavola, A.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Joensuu, Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland); Rosa, T.M. de la [Univ. of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Joensuu (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    In plants, the allocation of carbon to secondary metabolites has been shown to be determined by both the availability of resources (e.g., CO{sub 2} concentration) and by specific stress factors (e.g., ultraviolet [UV]-radiation). It has been suggested that, in combination, CO{sub 2} and UV-B radiation may differentially affect plant growth and morphogenic parameters, and elevated CO{sub 2} may ameliorate the effects of UV-B radiation, In the present work, the effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and UV-B radiation on growth and the accumulation of different types of secondary metabolites were studied in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). Seedlings were exposed to 350 and 700 {mu} mol mol{sup -1} of CO{sub 2} in a greenhouse. At both CO{sub 2} levels, additional UV-B was either present (8.16 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} of biologically effective UV-B irradiance) or absent. The time course of accumulation of individual secondary compounds and the shifts in allocation of carbon between biomass and the secondary metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, condensed tannins) were studied during a 1-month-long exposure. Additionally, the activities of enzymes (L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [PAL], EC 4.3.1.5; peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7; polyphenol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.1) were determined for leaves. UV-B radiation significantly increased biomass, PAL activity, and the accumulation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in seedlings. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration increased the activities of all the enzymes studied and the accumulation of condensed tannins in leaves, especially with UV-B radiation. Because the observed UV-B induction of flavonoids was smaller under a high CO{sub 2} concentration, it was suggested that the excess of carbon in the atmosphere may moderate the effect of UV-B by increasing the metabolic activity of leaves (high enzyme activities) and by changing the allocation of internal carbon between different primary and secondary metabolites in the

  7. Changes in flowering of birch in the Czech Republic in recent 25 years (1991–2015 in connection with meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hajkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of long-term phenological observations of silver birch (Betula pendula during the years 1991–2015 across the phenological network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI – Český hydrometeorologický ústav. The data assembled over this period were used for identification of timing of generative phenophases associated with pollen release into the air: inflorescence emergence 10%, beginning of flowering 10%, beginning of flowering 50%, beginning of flowering 100%, and end of flowering. The stations are situated at altitudes from 155 m (Doksany to 1102 m (Modrava. The average timing of beginning of flowering 10% was 8th April (Lednice = lowland station and 14th May (Modrava = mountain station; the average timing of beginning of flowering 50% was 12th April (Lednice and 20th May (Modrava; the average timing of beginning of flowering 100% was 18th April (Lednice and 22nd May (Modrava, and the average timing of end of flowering was 26th April (Lednice and 28th May (Modrava. The totals of effective temperatures above 5°C (TS5 and sums of daily precipitation were used as a bio-climatological criterion for assessment of the dependence of phenological phases on meteorological variables. The average sums of TS5 and the average sums of daily precipitation total were as follows: 61.0–80.8°C, 82.8–327.4 mm (inflorescence emergence; 105.2–106.4°C, 85.9–365.2 mm (beginning of flowering 10%; 124.8–130.8°C, 89.8–385.9 mm (beginning of flowering 50%; 144.7–158.6°C, 95.2–390.7 mm (beginning of flowering 100%; and 181.6–223.8°C, 104.7–427.4 mm (end of flowering. Synoptic situations occurring during interphase intervals were obtained – the most often found synoptic situations were B (stationary trough over Central Europe, Bp (east travelling trough, NEa (northeast anticyclonic situation, Sa (south anticyclonic situation and SWc2 (southwest cyclonic situation moving northeast to eastwards. The

  8. Ecosystem nitrogen fixation throughout the snow-free period in subarctic tundra: effects of willow and birch litter addition and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation in moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of available N for N-limited ecosystems such as subarctic tundra. Yet, N2 fixation in mosses is strongly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Thus, temporal scaling up of low-frequency in situ measurements to several weeks, months or even the entire growing season without taking into account changes in abiotic conditions cannot capture the variation in moss-associated N2 fixation. We therefore aimed to estimate moss-associated N2 fixation throughout the snow-free period in subarctic tundra in field experiments simulating climate change: willow (Salix myrsinifolia) and birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa) litter addition, and warming. To achieve this, we established relationships between measured in situ N2 fixation rates and soil moisture and soil temperature and used high-resolution measurements of soil moisture and soil temperature (hourly from May to October) to model N2 fixation. The modelled N2 fixation rates were highest in the warmed (2.8 ± 0.3 kg N ha(-1) ) and birch litter addition plots (2.8 ± 0.2 kg N ha(-1) ), and lowest in the plots receiving willow litter (1.6 ± 0.2 kg N ha(-1) ). The control plots had intermediate rates (2.2 ± 0.2 kg N ha(-1) ). Further, N2 fixation was highest during the summer in the warmed plots, but was lowest in the litter addition plots during the same period. The temperature and moisture dependence of N2 fixation was different between the climate change treatments, indicating a shift in the N2 fixer community. Our findings, using a combined empirical and modelling approach, suggest that a longer snow-free period and increased temperatures in a future climate will likely lead to higher N2 fixation rates in mosses. Yet, the consequences of increased litter fall on moss-associated N2 fixation due to shrub expansion in the Arctic will depend on the shrub species' litter traits.

  9. Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to elevated ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation at juvenile age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliura, Alfas; Baliuckiene, Asta; Baliuckas, Virgilijus

    2008-11-01

    Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to separate and combined elevated ozone (O(3)) concentrations and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation dozes was studied at juvenile age in the climatic chambers. Significant population and family effects were found for seedling height, lamina width, and leaf damage. The exposure to UV-B radiation decreased genetic variation at the stage of seed germination. Complex exposure to UV-B and O(3) caused an increase of genetic variation at the stage of intensive seedling growth: seedling height genetic variation in separate treatments increased from 23.7-38.6 to 33.7-65.7%, the increase for lamina width was from 10.2-13.9 to 13.6-31.8%. Different populations and families demonstrated differing response to elevated complex UV-B and O(3) exposure. Changes of genetic intra-population variation were population-specific. Such changes in genetic variation under the impact of stressors can alter adaptation, stability, and competitive ability of regenerating populations in a hardly predictive way.

  10. Investigation of antiproliferative effect of ether and ethanol extracts of birch polypore medicinal mushroom, Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes) in vitro grown mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranka, Małgorzata; Graz, Marcin; Kaczor, Jozef; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Walczak, Katarzyna; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the study conducted to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of ether and ethanol extracts isolated from Piptoporus betulinus against cancer-derived cells. The fungal material used for extract preparation and further experiments was obtained from in vitro grown strains of P. betulinus. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study evaluating antiproliferative potential of in vitro cultured birch polypore fungus. The effect of ether and ethanol extracts on cell proliferation, viability, and adhesion was assessed on colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cell line LS180, whereas the cytotoxicity effect was investigated in normal colon epithelium-derived cell line CCD 841 CoTr. Studied extracts highly decreased the viability of cancer cells, slightly inhibiting proliferation and tumor cell adhesion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity of extracts against cells of normal colon epithelium origin was observed only at the highest studied concentration. The obtained results may seem interesting in comparison with previous studies on water extracts from natural grown P. betulinus. Future research on mycelial extract activity, as well as the content analysis, is needed.

  11. Crystallographically mapped ligand binding differs in high and low IgE binding isoforms of birch pollen allergen bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Stefan; Asam, Claudia; Eckhard, Ulrich; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans

    2012-09-07

    The ability of pathogenesis-related proteins of family 10 to bind a broad spectrum of ligands is considered to play a key role for their physiological and pathological functions. In particular, Bet v 1, an archetypical allergen from birch pollen, is described as a highly promiscuous ligand acceptor. However, the detailed recognition mechanisms, including specificity factors discriminating binding properties of naturally occurring Bet v 1 variants, are poorly understood. Here, we report crystal structures of Bet v 1 variants in complex with an array of ligands at a resolution of up to 1.2 Å. Residue 30 within the hydrophobic pocket not only discriminates in high and low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms but also induces a drastic change in the binding mode of the model ligand deoxycholate. Ternary crystal structure complexes of Bet v 1 with several ligands together with the fluorogenic reporter 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate explain anomalous fluorescence binding curves obtained from 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate displacement assays. The structures reveal key interaction residues such as Tyr83 and rationalize both the binding specificity and promiscuity of the so-called hydrophobic pocket in Bet v 1. The intermolecular interactions of Bet v 1 reveal an unexpected complexity that will be indispensable to fully understand its roles within the physiological and allergenic context.

  12. The seasonal symptoms of hyposensitized and untreated hay fever patients in relation to birch pollen counts: correlations with nasal sensitivity, prick tests and RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viander, M; Koivikko, A

    1978-07-01

    A 2 year prospective study of thirty-eight birch pollen-sensitive hay fever patients under specific immunotherapy and of nineteen untreated control patients showed a significant correlation between the total seasonal symptom scores of the patients and their clinical sensitivities assessed by the RAST and a graded nasal test. The agreement between a positive nasal test and a positive RAST was 74%. In the early season with low pollen counts the onset of symptoms was significantly associated with high sensitivity of the patients, while many patients showed symptoms in the late season irrespective of their nasal and RAST sensitivity. About 90% of both the treated and the untreated patients reported mild symptoms when the pollen count exceeded 80/m(3) in the early season. 80% of them still had symptoms when the count was below 30/m(3) in the late pollen season. Although hyposensitization therapy had no effect on the occurrence of the mild symptoms, the treated patinets had severe symptoms significantly less often than the untreated ones on days with high pollen counts.

  13. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  14. Effect of CuSO4 Content in the Plating Bath on the Properties of Composites from Electroless Plating of Ni-Cu-P on Birch Veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A wood-based composite was prepared via simple electroless Ni-Cu-P plating on birch veneer for EMI shielding. The effects of CuSO4•5H2O concentration on the metal deposition, elemental composition, phase structure, surface morphology, wettability, surface resistivity, and shielding effectiveness of coatings were investigated. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. When the CuSO4•5H2O concentration was increased from 0.6 g/L to 2.2 g/L, the metal deposition was decreased from 79.61 g/m2 to 66.44 g/m2. Elemental composition showed that the copper content in the coating increased significantly, whereas the nickel content was reduced significantly and the phosphorus content was slightly reduced. The crystallinity of coatings increased, and fine-grain structure was observed, with higher copper content. Ni-Cu-P deposition improved the hydrophobic properties when the maximum static contact angle increased from 77.5° to 116.5°. The lowest surface resistivity was 367.5 mΩ/cm2, and the EMI shielding effectiveness of Ni-Cu-P-coated veneers was higher than 60 dB in frequencies ranging from 9 kHz to 1.5 GHz.

  15. The Presence of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Solids from Birch during Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentations Leads to Increased Tolerance to Inhibitors--A Proteomic Study of the Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Koppram

    Full Text Available The fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the cellulose to ethanol conversion process is largely influenced by the components of pretreated biomass. The insoluble solids in pretreated biomass predominantly constitute cellulose, lignin, and -to a lesser extent- hemicellulose. It is important to understand the effects of water-insoluble solids (WIS on yeast cell physiology and metabolism for the overall process optimization. In the presence of synthetic lignocellulosic inhibitors, we observed a reduced lag phase and enhanced volumetric ethanol productivity by S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D when the minimal medium was supplemented with WIS of pretreated birch or spruce and glucose as the carbon source. To investigate the underlying molecular reasons for the effects of WIS, we studied the response of WIS at the proteome level in yeast cells in the presence of acetic acid as an inhibitor. Comparisons were made with cells grown in the presence of acetic acid but without WIS in the medium. Altogether, 729 proteins were detected and quantified, of which 246 proteins were significantly up-regulated and 274 proteins were significantly down-regulated with a fold change≥1.2 in the presence of WIS compared to absence of WIS. The cells in the presence of WIS up-regulated several proteins related to cell wall, glycolysis, electron transport chain, oxidative stress response, oxygen and radical detoxification and unfolded protein response; and down-regulated most proteins related to biosynthetic pathways including amino acid, purine, isoprenoid biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and pentose phosphate pathway. Overall, the identified differentially regulated proteins may indicate that the likelihood of increased ATP generation in the presence of WIS was used to defend against acetic acid stress at the expense of reduced biomass formation. Although, comparative proteomics of cells with and without WIS in the acetic acid containing medium

  16. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad

    Full Text Available Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects. Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  17. Phenological diversity in the interactions between winter moth (Operophtera brumata) larvae and parasitoid wasps in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindstad, O P L; Hagen, S B; Jepsen, J U; Kapari, L; Schott, T; Ims, R A

    2011-12-01

    Population cycles of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) in sub-arctic coastal birch forests show high spatiotemporal variation in amplitude. Peak larval densities range from levels causing little foliage damage to outbreaks causing spatially extensive defoliation. Moreover, outbreaks typically occur at or near the altitudinal treeline. It has been hypothesized that spatiotemporal variation in O. brumata cycle amplitude results from climate-induced variation in the degree of phenological matching between trophic levels, possibly between moth larvae and parasitoids. The likelihood of mismatching phenologies between larvae and parasitoids is expected to depend on how specialized parasitoids are, both as individual species and as a guild, to attacking specific larval developmental stages (i.e. instars). To investigate the larval instar-specificity of parasitoids, we studied the timing of parasitoid attacks relative to larval phenology. We employed an observational study design, with sequential sampling over the larval period, along an altitudinal gradient harbouring a pronounced treeline outbreak of O. brumata. Within the larval parasitoid guild, containing seven species groups, the timing of attack by different groups followed a successional sequence throughout the moth's larval period and each group attacked 1-2 instars. Such phenological diversity within parasitoid guilds may lower the likelihood of climate-induced trophic mismatches between victim populations and many/all of their enemies. Parasitism rates declined with increasing altitude for most parasitoid groups and for the parasitoid guild as a whole. However, the observed spatiotemporal parasitism patterns provided no clear evidence for or against altitudinal mismatch between larval and parasitoid phenology.

  18. Effects of root medium pH on root water transport and apoplastic pH in red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Zwiazek, J J

    2016-11-01

    Soil pH is a major factor affecting plant growth. Plant responses to pH conditions widely vary between different species of plants. However, the exact mechanisms of high pH tolerance of plants are largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the pH responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings, a relatively sensitive species to high soil pH, with red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), reported to be relatively tolerant of high pH conditions. We examined the hypotheses that tolerance of plants to high root zone pH is linked to effective control of root apoplastic pH to facilitate nutrient and water transport processes In the study, we exposed paper birch and red-osier dogwood seedlings for six weeks to pH 5, 7 and 9 under controlled-environment conditions in hydroponic culture. Then, we measured biomass, gas exchange, root hydraulic conductivity, ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity, xylem sap pH and the relative abundance of major elements in leaf protoplasts and apoplasts. The study sheds new light on the rarely studied high pH tolerance mechanisms in plants. We found that compared with paper birch, red-osier dogwood showed greater growth, higher gas exchange, and maintained higher root hydraulic conductivity as well as lower xylem sap pH under high pH conditions. The results suggest that the relatively high pH tolerance of dogwood is associated with greater water uptake ability and maintenance of low apoplastic pH. These traits may have a significant impact on the uptake of Fe and Mn by leaf cells.

  19. Accumulative response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to heavy metals enhanced by Pb-Zn ore mining and processing plants: Explicitly spatial considerations of ordinary kriging based on a GIS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-02-01

    Plants have an accumulative response to heavy metals present in soils or deposited from airborne sources of emissions. Therefore, their tissues are very often used in studies of heavy metal contamination originating from different sources as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr in washed and unwashed needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) growing in a contaminated area. We collected needles of Scots pine and leaves of silver birch in an area around a sedimentation pond and metallurgic plant processing Pb and Zn ores near Olkusz, Poland. Concentrations of heavy metals, which have been linked with exposure to emissions, were determined from foliar samples collected at 33 sites. These sites were established at various distances (0.5-3.6 km) from the pond and metallurgic plant so as to identify the predominant accumulative response of plants. Spatial gradients for Pb and Zn were calculated using an ordinary kriging interpolation algorithm. A spatial pattern was identified by a GIS method to visualize maps over the Pb-Zn ore mining area. The accumulation of Zn (R(2) = 0.74, p < 0.05) and Pb (R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.01) in plant tissues correlated with soil concentrations. This tendency was not found in the case of Cu, Cd and Cr.

  20. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....

  1. 桦树花粉、大豆和苹果过敏原之间高免疫球蛋白E 相关性表明中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏患者很可能同时患有花粉-食物综合征%High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Zhi-xiang WANG; Xing-ai KONG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI; Michael D SPANGFORT

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏及花粉–食物过敏综合征。  创新点:国内首次研究花粉–食物过敏综合征,为中国北方地区此类患者的诊断和治疗提出了新思路。  方法:采集临床中过敏患者血清,检测桦树花粉及其主要过敏原特异性免疫球蛋白 E(IgE),同时检测大豆和苹果过敏原的特异性IgE,并评价其相关性。  结论:中国北方地区桦树花粉季节对此花粉过敏的患者有16.7%以上,主要是对桦树花粉第一组过敏原致敏。这些患者大多数同时对大豆和苹果的主要过敏原过敏,这种特异性IgE高相关性说明临床上存在花粉–食物过敏综合征。%Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pol en-food syndrome among Chinese al ergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 al ergic patients from the northern part of China and col ected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pol en extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple al ergen Mal d 1 and soy bean al ergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Results:Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost al Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. Conclusions:The prevalence of birch al ergy among patients visiting health care during pol en season can be as high as 16.7%in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch al ergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pol en al ergen Bet v 1 as wel as to the

  2. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth

  3. Based Intrusion Detection Model Poly Type BIRCH Algorithm Design and Realization%基于聚类型BIRCH算法进行数据挖掘的入侵检测模型设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春琼

    2013-01-01

      随着网络时代的发展,信息安全己成为系统运行时的重要组成部分。传统意义上的防火墙无法抗击新网络入侵,不能系统提供有效的保护。本文介绍了入侵检测以及分类,数据挖掘中的聚类模式以及BIRCH算法,并分析它们的特性。最后使用KDD CUP 1999数据库进行模拟运行测试程序,并给出结果。%With the development of the Internet age, information security has become an important part of the system is running. The firewall can not fight against the new network intrusion in the traditional sense, can not provide effective protection. This article describes the intrusion detection and classification, data mining, clustering mode and BIRCH al-gorithm, and analyze their characteristics. Finally, use the KDD CUP 1999 database simulation run the test program, and gives the results.

  4. Ground bryophyte diversity in secondary birch forests in western Sichuan, China%亚高山次生桦木林地表苔藓组成与多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓丽; 包维楷

    2011-01-01

    桦木林(Betula spp.)是我国原始冷杉林(Abies spp.)皆伐后自然恢复形成的主要次生林之一,为揭示其发育过程中地表苔藓组成与多样性差异,评估其自然恢复状况,我们选择了四川省金川县507林场地形条件基本一致的3个桦木林地以及1个原始岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)林地,调查了地表苔藓层结构和物种组成.结果显示:(1)桦木林的地表苔藓植物盖度低于原始林,不同年龄的桦木林之间其盖度没有差异(P>0.05),但优势种的组成差异及物种替代明显;(2)桦木林地表苔藓物种丰富度较原始林高,不同年龄相比,9年生和22年生较42年生桦木林地表苔藓种类丰富;(3)未郁闭桦木林(9年生)与郁闭林(22年生和42年生)间的地表苔藓物种组成相似程度(相似性系数为0.24-0.29)低于它与原始林间的相似程度(0.51);22年生和42年生桦木林间地表苔藓物种组成相似程度(相似性系数为0.50)高于它们与原始林间的相似性程度(0.13-0.24),在自然恢复过程中,桦木林与原始林下地表苔藓共有种数量逐渐减少,相似程度降低.原始林下35种地表苔藓植物中只有25种存在于迹地桦木林地.上述分析表明:迹地上自然恢复9-42年的桦木林下地表苔藓多样性虽然较云杉人工林高,但仅保存约70%的原始林下种类,而约有29%的敏感苔藓种类无法通过次生林自然恢复过程得以保育或恢复.%Secondary birch (Betula spp.) forest is an important vegetation type in western Sichuan, China.These forests have naturally regenerated from primary fir (Abies spp.) forests after clear-cutting. However,little is known about ground bryophyte species composition and community structure during this succession sequence. In our study, we sampled three plots in 9-, 22-, and 42-year old secondary forests, and a primary fir forest, respectively, in Jinchuan County. We found that bryophyte coverage in different aged secondary forests was

  5. 白桦BpUVR8基因的序列与表达模式分析%The sequence and expression analysis ofBpUVR8 gene in birch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓一; 詹亚光; 娄晓瑞; 曾凡锁

    2016-01-01

    As a photoreceptor speciifcally for UV-B light,BpUVR8 gene plays an important role in the photo-morphogenesis and growing development in plants. We cloned theUVR8 gene in birch, and named it as BpU-VR8 (GeneBank ID: AHY02156). The bioinformatics analysis shows that this sequence consists of 1326 bp with a complete open reading frame, and encodes 441 amino acids. Furthermore, it is a stable hydrophobic pro-tein. This protein may not contain signal peptide but have the transmembrane ability. The protein has two trans-membrane domains. According to the tertiary structure prediction, the protein is constituted by a seven-bladedβ-propeller, which has a high structural homology with AtUVR8 inArabidopsis thaliana. The expression analy-sis ofBpUVR8 indicates that this gene expressed in various tissues, and the expression level in leaves is higher than others. The expression ofBpUVR8 in August is highest. Besides, this gene is not sensitive to the induction of UV-B signal. Abiotic stress can induce the expression ofBpUVR8gene. This paper can provide a reference for the study of gene function in response to the UV-B signals.%本研究克隆了白桦(Betula platyphylla)UVR8基因,命名为BpUVR8(GenBank: AHY02156)。生物信息学分析表明该基因全长1326 bp,编码441个氨基酸,为稳定性蛋白,不存在信号肽,具有2个跨膜区。二级结构分析表明该蛋白属于混合型。三级结构预测结果显示, BpUVR8与AtUVR8蛋白结构具有较高相似性,均由7个β螺旋组成片层结构。BpUVR8表达模式分析表明,其主要在白桦叶片中表达,且8月份表达量最高;紫外诱导6 h,其转录表达水平上调约2倍;同时,非生物胁迫以及信号诱导在一定时间内也能影响该基因的转录表达。本文为研究白桦对UV-B信号的响应以及对UVR8功能的深入研究提供参考。

  6. 转基因白桦杂种T1代的生长发育及AP1基因的遗传分析%Growth and developmental analysis of T1 generation from BpAP1 transgenic birch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朔; 黄海娇; 杨光; 姜静; 刘桂丰

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants are characterized by long developing period and high heterozygosity. It is important to shorten the life cycle of trees in tree breeding. APETALA1 (AP1) is a member of MADS-box gene family involved in flower development in plants. Overexpression of AP1 genes induces early flowering in transgenic plants. In order to investigate the genetic stability and regularity of foreign BpAP1 gene in BpAP1 transgenic birch, we generated T1 generation seedlings using three 35S BpAP1 transgenic plants and one wild-type plant as male parents, and three wild-type birch, Betula platyphylla í Betula pendula, as female parents. The growth, development and flowering characteristics of the T1 generation seedlings were analyzed. The results indicated that the foreign BpAP1 slightly influenced the pollen vitality of transgenic plants. About 36% -58% of T1 generation inherited the foreign BpAP1 gene from their parents. Chi-square test of BpAP1 gene segregation ratios revealed that BpAP1 was inherited in accordance with Mendelian inheritance. T1 generation seedlings carrying BpAP1 gene inherited the characteristics of early flowering and dwarfism from their male parent. The average heights of 1-and 2-year-old T1 generation seedlings carrying BpAP1 gene were significantly shorter than the progeny from hybridization of wild-type birch with the percentages of 44. 19% and 18. 92%, respectively. The phenotypes of T1 generation birch carrying foreign BpAP1 gene were quite different from the ones that were lack of foreign BpAP1 gene. According to the different phenotypes, we can infer whether the T1 generation seedlings carry BpAP1 gene or not. Our study proved that the exogenous AP1 gene can be stably inherited by sexual reproduction, and the acquired transgenic birch lines exhibited accelerated flowering time and a shortened juvenile phase, indicating that it can be used as parent materials for genetic studies on birch traits.%本文以3株野生型白桦为母本、3株35S

  7. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  8. 燕山北部山地人工落叶松林与天然次生林物种多样性的比较%Biodiversity between larch plantation and secondary poplar- birch forest in north region of Yanshan mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓林; 贾彦龙; 卢金平; 李倩茹; 许中旗

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the biodiversity maintain function of Larch plantation, taking 13 - year, 30 - year Larch plantation and 13 - year,28 - year secondary poplar- birch forest as research object,the biodiversity between them and the effects of thinning on Larch plantation biodiversity were investigated. Results showed that biodiversities in Larch plantation had no significant differences with secondary poplar - birch forest except Simpson Index and Shannon - weiner Index of 30 -year Larch plantation. Thinning mainly reduced the diversity of tree layer in short time, but it had no significant effect on shrub and herb layer. Larch plantation in north region of Yanshan mountain could maintain high biodiversity.%为了解燕山北部山地华北落叶松人工林植被物种多样性维持功能的高低,选取13 a和30a生人工落叶松林,以13 a和28a生天然次生杨桦林作为对照,对两种林分的植被多样性进行调查和分析,并研究了间伐对人工落叶松林植被物种多样性的影响.结果表明,林龄相同或相近的两种林分类型相比,无论是乔木层、灌木层或是草本层,人工落叶松林丰富度、Simpson指数、Shannon- Weiner指数均表现出相当或略高于天然次生杨桦林(30a生人工落叶松林乔木层多样性指数除外);间伐对人工落叶松林植被物种多样性的短期影响主要体现在乔木层,对林下灌木层和草本层无明显影响.燕山北部山地人工落叶松林具有较高的植物多样性维持功能,没有导致物种多样性的降低.

  9. Plant Functional Types and Their Impact Environmental Factors in a Naturally Recovered Poplar-birch Woodland on the North Slope of Qilian Mountains, China%祁连山北坡自然恢复杨桦林地植物功能型组成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石福习; 赵成章; 任珩; 周伟; 高福元; 盛亚萍; 李丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) are important in understanding the dynamics and the functions of an ecosystems, which provide also useful information for ecosystem management. In 28 observation plots of a naturally recovered popiar-birch woodland on the north slope of Qilian Mountains, China, 81 plant species were classified into 18 plant functional types (PFTs), according to their life forms (including arbors, lianas, subshrub, shrub, perennial grasses, perennial forbs and annual or biennial grass) and ecotypes (including xerophyte, xerophytic and mesophytic, mesophyte and hygrophyte). The relationships between PFTs and environmental factors were studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that the dominant PFTs were PFTsl6 (mesophytic perennial forbs), PFTs23 (hygrophytic perennial forbs), PFTs9 (xerophytic and mesophytic perennial forbs) and PFTslS (mesophytic shrub) on the poplar-birch restoration woodland. The stratificd structure with wood, shrub and herb layers indicated the plant life forms had a tendency of complication and structurization, and the emerging mesophyte plants reflected changes of the micro-environments. The distribution patterns of PFTs were controlled by the soil physical and chemical properties in that soil bulk density, soil organic carbon and content of nitrogen determined the characteristics of the plant life forms, while the soil water moisture and canopy cover were the main ecologis factors that affected the distribution of ecotypes. The slope position and slope aspect controlled the plant distribution pattem and formation of the community.%依据生活型(乔木、藤本、灌木、半灌木、多年生禾草、多年生杂类草和一二年生草本)和水分生态型(旱生、旱中生、中生和湿生)将祁连山北坡次生杨桦林28个调查样地中的81个物种划分为18种植物功能型(Plant function types,PFTs),并通过典范对应分析(CCA)方法研究植物功能型与环境因子间

  10. Relationship between spatial isolation of trees and stand volume increment of polar-birch secondary forests in Changbai mountain%长白山杨桦次生林树种空间隔离度对林分生长的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔雷; 亢新刚; 杨华; 谢佳利; 黄新峰; 冯启祥

    2012-01-01

    The study was based on 6 permanent plots data of polar-birch secondary forests in Changbai Mountain, which owned the same site quality, mixed proportion and diversity of trees. The plots were located and the tree diameters at breast heights were investigated. By applying hierarchical cluster method, the plots were classified according to diversity of trees and species evenness. Then the relationship between stand volume increment and spatial isolation of trees was analyzed by tree species diversity mingling method. With the same of site quality, diversity of trees, diversity of tree and mixed proportion, the results manifested that the stand volume increment in the plots declined with the incensement of spatial isolation of trees. Finally, the reasonable advices of trees spatial isolation were given, which helps to manage an optimal spatial structure.%以6块立地条件、林分密度和混交比相同的长白山天然杨桦次生林固定样地为研究对象,样地内每木检尺和定位.通过系统聚类方法划分出树种多样性和物种均匀度相同的样地,利用树种多样性混交度研究林分蓄积生长量与物种空间隔离度的关系.结果表明:在立地条件、株数密度、混交比和树种多样性相同时,样地内林分蓄积生长量与树种空间隔离度呈反比关系.最后给出树种配置方法的建议,为今后经营合理的天然次生林空间结构给予启示.

  11. Genetic relationship of interspecies for eight birch species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic relationships of eight species of genus Betula were evaluatedusing ISSR marks. A total of 236 loci were generated from 17 ISSR primers. Perce ntage of polymorphic bands (PPB) varied from 5.93 to 19.92. The highest and the lowest level of genetic differentiation were detected in B. Ovalifolia and B. Ma ximowicziana Regel respectively. In these eight species, genetic diversity of bi rch (HT) was 24.38 %, and the genetic variation (GST ) interspecies was accounti ng for 79.36% of total genetic variation. According to the cluster results of ge netic distance, the eight species were classified into three groups as B. Davur ica, B. Ovalifolia, B. Platyphylla and B. Pendula for one group;B. Schmidtii, B . Costata and B. Ermanii Cham. Var. Communis for one group, and B. Maximowiczian a Regel for another group. The result of cluster is consistent with traditional morphological classification.

  12. Behaviour of a birch plywood under various experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Lydie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gaz -LNG- carriers must provide cryogenic reliability and safety for at least 40 years. Most of the insulation systems belong to the so-called membrane type, in which the “insulation complex” is composed of a metal membrane as a barrier, a plywood panel, insulation foam and a plywood panel glued to the inner hull. During construction and exploitation at cryogenic temperature, an impact of the membrane may occur and could lead to a LNG leakage. In order to evaluate this risk, and the role of the plywood in the perforation process of the membrane, a series of original impact tests are carried out at room and cryogenic temperatures on metal-plywood samples thanks to a specially designed catapult. In order to obtain a reliable numerical simulation of the impact, a series of impact and out of plane compression tests at room and cryogenic temperatures are carried out. Thanks to a design experiment, we identified the influence of the moisture content, from 2% up to 30%, and of the temperature, from − 173 ∘C up to +20 ∘C, on the strain rate sensitivity of the plywood.

  13. Thermal modification of birch using saturated and superheated steam

    OpenAIRE

    Dagbro, Ola; Torniainen, Petteri; Morén, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During the thermal modification, wood is normally exposed to temperatures between 160 - 220°C. As a result physical and chemical changes are taking place and some of the wood properties are changed. Dimensional stability and weather resistance are improved. On the other hand the mechanical strength properties are usually negatively affected by the treatment. The visual appearance is also changed. There were two different types of thermal modification processes used in this study. One of them ...

  14. Connolly Hospital (Silver Birch & Woodland Units), Blanchardstown, Dublin 15.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of food-borne enteritis, and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an initiating role in the development of the autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, by induction of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies through ganglioside molecular mimicry. Results Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C. jejuni NCTC 11168 original isolate (11168-O) was compared to its genome-sequenced variant (11168-GS), and both were found to have a lower-Mr LOS form, which was different in size and structure to the previously characterized higher-Mr form bearing GM1 mimicry. The lower-Mr form production was found to be dependent on the growth temperature as the production of this form increased from ~5%, observed at 37°C to ~35% at 42°C. The structure of the lower-Mr form contained a β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc disaccharide moiety which is consistent with the termini of the GM1, asialo-GM1, GD1, GT1 and GQ1 gangliosides, however, it did not display GM1 mimicry as assessed in blotting studies but was shown in NMR to resemble asialo-GM1. The production of multiple LOS forms and lack of GM1 mimicry was not a result of phase variation in the genes tested of NCTC 11168 and was also observed in most of the human and chicken isolates of C. jejuni tested. Conclusion The presence of differing amounts of LOS forms at 37 and 42°C, and the variety of forms observed in different strains, indicate that LOS form variation may play a role in an adaptive mechanism or a stress response of the bacterium during the colonization of different hosts.

  15. Connolly Hospital (Silver Birch & Woodland Units), Blanchardstown, Dublin 15.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. METHOD: The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. DISCUSSION: This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major challenges of field research in suicide prevention. It pools data from four European regions, considerably increasing the study sample, which will be close to one million. In addition, the study will gather important information concerning the potential to transfer this multilevel program to other health care systems. The results of this research will provide a basis for developing an evidence-based, efficient concept for suicide prevention for EU-member states.

  16. 温度对桦木单板表面化学镀 Ni-Cu-P三元合金的影响%Effect of Temperature on Electrlo se s Deposition of Ni-Cu-P Ternary Alloy on Birch Veneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠彬; 李坚; 王立娟

    2015-01-01

    利用化学镀方法在桦木单板表面沉积Ni—Cu—P三元合金,考查施镀温度对镀后单板表面电阻率和电磁屏蔽效能的影响,采用扫描电镜( SEM)观察镀后单板的表面形貌,利用EDS和 XPS分析镀层成分,利用X射线衍射( XRD)分析镀层的组织结构,采用直拉法测定镀层与木材表面的结合强度。结果表明:当温度从80℃升高到90℃时,镀层平均表面电阻率从0.451Ω/cm2降低至0.301Ω/cm2;继续升高温度,表面电阻率小幅升高;在90℃时,施镀单板的电磁屏蔽效能在9 kHz~1.5 GHz频段达到55~60dB 。 SEM观察发现镀层连续、致密且具有金属光泽;EDS分析可知镀层中存在Ni、Cu和P元素,XPS分析可知镀层组成为Ni、Cu、P,其质量分数分别为79.84%、11.82%和8.34%;XRD分析表明镀层为微晶态结构;镀层与木材表面结合牢固。%We used electroless plating to deposite Ni-Cu-P ternary alloy on birch veneer to study the effects of plating tempera-ture on surface resistivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.We observed the surface morphology of plated veneer by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM), and analyzed the composition of the coating by energy dispersion spectrometer ( EDS) ,X -ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS) and the structure of the coating by X-ray diffraction ( XRD) .We meas-ured the bonding strength between the coating and wood surface by vertical pulling method.The mean surface resistivity de-creased from 0.451Ω/cm2 to 0.301Ω/cm2 with increasing temperature from 80℃to 90℃.However, the surface resistivity increased slightly with further increasing temperature.The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of plated veneer was up to 55-60 dB in frequencies range of 9-1.5 GHz at 90℃.By SEM, the coating was smooth, continuous and compact, and had metallic sheen.By EDS, the coating was composed of nickel, copper and phosphorus element.By XPS

  17. 大兴安岭白桦低质林皆伐改造后枯落物水文效应%Hydrological Effect of Birch Coppice Low-Quality Forest Litter after Clear-cutting Transformation in Daxing’ an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 董希斌; 宋启亮

    2013-01-01

    对大兴安岭地区白桦低质林进行不同带宽的带状和不同面积的块状两种不同皆伐方式的改造后枯落物水文效应变化的研究。结果表明:带宽为6~18 m的皆伐带未分解层枯落物蓄积量所占比例均小于半分解层的枯落物蓄积量,面积为5 m×5 m~30 m×30 m的块状区域未分解层枯落物蓄积量所占比例和半分解层比较大小不一;枯落物蓄积量排序:带状皆伐8.67 t/hm2>块状皆伐4.41 t/hm2。每条带宽的皆伐带未分解层的最大持水量所占比例均小于半分解层的最大持水量,每个面积的块状区域未分解层的最大持水量所占比例和半分解层比较大小不一;枯落物最大持水量排序:块状皆伐35.44 t/hm2>带状皆伐14.23 t/hm2。每条皆伐带未分解层枯落物有效拦蓄量所占比例均小于半分解层的枯落物有效拦蓄量,每个面积的块状区域未分解层的有效拦蓄量所占比例和半分解层比较大小不一;枯落物有效拦蓄量排序:带状皆伐25.17 t/hm2>块状皆伐7.81 t/hm2。带状和块状皆伐方式下,枯落物持水量与浸泡时间的关系均呈现对数关系上升,而枯落物吸水速率与浸泡时间的关系均呈现乘幂关系下降。%The experiment was conducted to study the hydrological effect of falling object in Daxing’an Mountains of birch cop-pice low-quality forest in different bandwidth and different area by two different clear cuttings.The litter proportion volume in not decomposition level is less than that of the half decomposition level in bandwidth for 6 m-18 m clear cutting band. While litter proportion volume in no decomposition level has no significant relationship with the half decomposition level in the area of 5 m×5 m-30 m×30 m.The volume of litter shows band clear cutting 8.67 t/hm2>area clear cutting 4.41 t/hm2 .Water holding capacity in no decomposition layers of the largest proportion is less than that

  18. Review: Melanie Mauthner, Maxine Birch, Julie Jessop & Tina Miller (Eds. (2002. Ethics in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Kiegelmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This book is a collection of theoretical thoughts about ethics in qualitative research. A coherent group of feminists propose issues to consider in research from a perspective of an ethics of care. The authors illustrate their argu­ments with examples from their own research ex­peri­ences. Examples from actual research, e.g. in the area of health studies are provided. This book is well suited for graduate students to learn about ethics in qualitative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401276

  19. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erofeeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013. Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  20. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeeva, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose-response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.

  1. Stabilization of the dimeric birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 impacts its immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Stefan; Ackaert, Chloé; Samonig, Martin; Asam, Claudia; Briza, Peter; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Cabrele, Chiara; Ferreira, Fatima; Duschl, Albert; Huber, Christian; Brandstetter, Hans

    2014-01-03

    Many allergens share several biophysical characteristics, including the capability to undergo oligomerization. The dimerization mechanism in Bet v 1 and its allergenic properties are so far poorly understood. Here, we report crystal structures of dimeric Bet v 1, revealing a noncanonical incorporation of cysteine at position 5 instead of genetically encoded tyrosine. Cysteine polysulfide bridging stabilized different dimeric assemblies, depending on the polysulfide linker length. These dimers represent quaternary arrangements that are frequently observed in related proteins, reflecting their prevalence in unmodified Bet v 1. These conclusions were corroborated by characteristic immunologic properties of monomeric and dimeric allergen variants. Hereby, residue 5 could be identified as an allergenic hot spot in Bet v 1. The presented results refine fundamental principles in protein chemistry and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  2. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species.

  3. The Birch Street Irregulars: mysteries found and resolved in the AAVSO data archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara J.; Saladyga, Michael; Mattei, Janet A.

    As they evaluate AAVSO data, AAVSO technical staff members run across several kinds of errors. This paper takes a humorous and Sherlock Holmes-style look at some of the most common kinds of errors detected, from observers recording the wrong Julian Date, misidentifying stars, transposing entries on the observer form, to garden-variety data entry errors.

  4. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    , Kd (L kg−1), of the herbicide glyphosate. We measured Kd in equilibrium batch sorption experiments with triplicate soil samples from 20 field plots that received biochar at different application rates (0 to 100 Mg ha−1). The results showed that pure biochar had a lower glyphosate Kd value as compared...... to soils. Yet, at the Kalundborg soils, the application of biochar enhanced the sorption of glyphosate when tested after 7–19 months of soil–biochar interaction. The relative enhancement effect on glyphosate sorption diminished with increasing biochar application rate, presumably due to increased mineral......–biochar interactions. In the Risoe soils, potential biochar effects on glyphosate sorption were affected by a distinct gradient in soil pH (7.4 to 8.3) and electrical conductivity (0.40–0.90 mS cm −1) resulting from a natural CaCO3 gradient. Thus, glyphosate Kd showed strong linear correlation with pH and EC...

  5. Genetic diversity of F1 and F2 interspecific hybrids between dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) and Himalayan birch (B. utilis var. jacquemontii (Spach) Winkl. 'Doorenbos') using RAPD-PCR markers and ploidy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Małgorzata; Pławiak, Jarosław; Muras, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Crosses between Betula nana and B. utilis 'Doorenbos' were undertaken in order to obtain interspecific hybrids which could be characterized by wide spreading stems, strong branching habit, decorative clear white bark and an interesting shape of purple leaves. The research purpose was to examine genetic diversity of the 16 F1 and F2 putative progenies by using the RAPD-PCR method and the ploidy analysis. A total of 242 RAPD markers were scored with 24 primers and 220 (90.9%) polymorphic bands were found. In the NJ dendrogram, cluster I consisted of the female parent--B. nana and 12 hybrids and cluster II grouped the male parent--B. utilis 'Doorenbos' with 4 hybrids (F2/2, F1/8, F1/7 and F2/1). The 2-D scaling by PCoA was in agreement with the similarity index, i.e. two hybrids (F1/8, F2/2) grouped with the male parent while others with female parent. Classification of the hybrid plants by chromosome counting demonstrated that 13 hybrids were confirmed with accurate chromosome counts as being diploid (2n=2x=28) and 3 plants (F1/7, F1/8, F2/2) as triploid with 42 chromosomes.

  6. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity.......Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  7. Four novel cellulose synthase (CESA) genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) involved in primary and secondary cell Wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Qiuyu; Chen, Pengfei; Song, Funan; Guan, Minxiao; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Yucheng; Yang, Chuanping

    2012-09-25

    Cellulose synthase (CESA), which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, -4, -7 and -8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula.

  8. Mercury in Orange Birch Bolete Leccinum versipelle and soil substratum: bioconcentration by mushroom and probable dietary intake by consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination, accumulation, and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by Leccinum versipelle fungus collected from distant sites across Poland. Mercury was determined using validated method by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after direct sample matrix combustion. A large set of data gained using 371 fruiting bodies and 204 soil samples revealed the susceptibility of L. versipelle to Hg contamination and permitted the estimation of probable intake of Hg contaminant by consumers foraging for this species. The range of median values of Hg determined in caps of L. versipelle was from 0.20 to 2.0 mg kg(-1) dry biomass, and the median for 19 localities was 0.65 mg kg(-1) dry biomass. The values of the Hg bioconcentration factor (BCF) determined for L. versipelle correlated negatively with Hg contents. Mercury in topsoil beneath L. versipelle ranged from 0.019 to 0.041 mg kg(-1) dry matter for less-contaminated locations (BCF of 17 to 65 for caps) and from 0.076 to 0.39 mg kg(-1) dry matter for more contaminated locations (BCF of 1.9 to 22). Fruiting bodies of L. versipelle collected in some regions of Poland if consumed in amount of 300 g in one meal in a week could provide Hg doses above the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) value of 0.004 mg Hg kg(-1) body mass, while regular consumptions for most of the locations were below the limit even with more frequent consumption. Also summarized are available data on Hg for three species of fungi of genus Leccinum foraged in Europe.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of amino acids from birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves and their liquid chromatographic determination with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, Borivoj; Lojková, Lea; Kula, Emanuel; Buchta, Ivan; Hrdlicka, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2008-05-01

    A method for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of amino acids was adapted and optimal experimental conditions were selected for a matrix consisting of dry leaves. The matrix-dependent SFE method uses a mixture of MeOH-H(2)O-acetonitrile (10:10:1 v/v/v) as a modifier (0.5 mL in situ, 300 muL on-line) at 70 degrees C and 40 MPa and no HCl is needed as an entrainer. The amino acids were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC/FLD) after gradient elution on Zorbax Eclipse AAA columns (4.6x150 mm, 3.5 mum) with aqueous Na(2)HPO(4 )buffer of pH 7.8 and ACN-MeOH-water as a mobile phase. In comparison with Soxhlet extraction, SFE gave higher recovery and selectivity, but it required longer extraction time (90 min) and it was more labor-intensive (clean-up step after the pre-concentration). Both methods should be used separately or in combination according to the matrix, number of samples, and levels of ballast compounds.

  10. Damage Characterization of Bio and Green Polyethylene–Birch Composites under Creep and Cyclic Testing with Multivariable Acoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Bravo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge gained in recent years regarding the use of acoustic emissions (AEs in ecologically friendly, natural fiber-reinforced composites (including certain composites with bio-sourced matrices, there is still a knowledge gap in the understanding of the difference in damage behavior between green and biocomposites. Thus, this article investigates the behavior of two comparable green and biocomposites with tests that better reflect real-life applications, i.e., load-unloading and creep testing, to determine the evolution of the damage process. Comparing the mechanical results with the AE, it can be concluded that the addition of a coupling agent (CA markedly reduced the ratio of AE damage to mechanical damage. CA had an extremely beneficial effect on green composites because the Kaiser effect was dominant during cyclic testing. During the creep tests, the use of a CA also avoided the transition to new damaging phases in both composites. The long-term applications of PE green material must be chosen carefully because bio and green composites with similar properties exhibited different damage processes in tests such as cycling and creep that could not be previously understood using only monotonic testing.

  11. Grass pollen symptoms interfere with the recollection of birch pollen symptoms - a prospective study of suspected, asymptomatic skin sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) is a risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. A meticulous definition of this condition requires a systematic assessment of clinical symptoms before inclusion.......Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) is a risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. A meticulous definition of this condition requires a systematic assessment of clinical symptoms before inclusion....

  12. Effect of wood ash on leaf and shoot anatomy, photosynthesis and carbohydrate concentrations in birch on a cutaway peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguraijuja, Karin; Klõšeiko, Jaan; Ots, Katri; Lukjanova, Aljona

    2015-07-01

    Trees in cutaway peatland are growing in difficult conditions. Fertilization with nutrient-rich wood ash helps improve growth conditions. Photosynthesis and carbohydrate concentration along leaf anatomy were studied on plots treated with 10 and 5 t ha(-1) wood ash (WA10 and WA5) and on untreated (Control) plot to explain the physiological background of the differences in tree growth. The leaves from WA10 had the largest leaf area, total thickness, the thickest mesophyll and also significantly larger average values of all anatomical parameters of the shoots. The photosynthetic assimilation was significantly higher on treated plots at 200 and 400 ppm CO2 levels. In leaves on the treated plots, the sucrose concentration was lower while that of starch was higher than in trees on untreated soil. The differences in the maximum photosynthesis were relatively small. At unit ground, the leaf area provided for a wood ash-treated tree an efficient surface for CO2 assimilation, light interception and some starch storage during the growing period.

  13. Computer Color Matching of Birch Veneer for Artificial Dyeing%桦木单板仿珍贵材三刺激值配色技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明辉; 管雪梅

    2010-01-01

    以桦木单板为试材,利用计算机配色技术中的三刺激值法,以Kubelka-Munk理论为依据,对仿珍贵木材染料配方的调配方法进行研究,得出4种仿珍贵木材的染料配方.紫檀:活性艳红X-3B为0.116%,活性黄X-R为0.219%,活性蓝X-R为0.032%;黑酸枝:活性艳红X-3B为0.461%,活性黄X-R为0.544%,活性蓝X-R为0.177%;黑胡桃:活性艳红X-3B为0.119%,活性黄X-R为0.206%,活性蓝X-R为0.077%;柚木:活性艳红X-3B为0.122%,活性黄X-R为0.400%,活性蓝X-R为0.082%.研究发现此方法对于木材染色的配色十分有效,经过极少次的校正就可以得到仿珍贵木材的染料配方,三刺激值相对误差小于5%.

  14. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab' fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular...

  15. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    was conducted as a clustered regimen and was performed in a specialist unit. Symptom scores from nose, eyes, and lungs, and use of oral and topical antihistamines, beta-2-agonists, and oral corticosteroids were recorded daily during the season of 2000. Sensitivity to allergen provocation in skin, conjunctiva...... antihistamines (P

  16. Footprint areas of pollen from alder (Alnus and birch (Betula in the UK (Worcester and Poland (Wrocław during 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Ambelas Skjøth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed daily pollen concentrations of Alnus spp. and Betula spp. from Worcester, UK and Wrocław, Poland. We analyzed seasonality, annual pollen index and footprint areas for the observed pollen concentrations by using the trajectory model hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT. We examined 10 years of data during the period 2005–2014 and found substantial differences in the seasonality, pollen indices and footprint areas. For both genera, concentrations in Wrocław are in general much higher, the seasons are shorter and therefore more intense than in Worcester. The reasons appear to be related to the differences in overall climate between the two sites and more abundant sources in Poland than in England. The footprint areas suggest that the source of the pollen grains are mainly local trees but appear to be augmented by remote sources, in particular for Betula spp. but only to a small degree for Alnus spp. For Betula spp., both sites appear to get contributions from areas in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, while known Betula spp. rich regions in Russia, Belarus and Scandinavia had a very limited impact on the pollen concentrations in Worcester and Wrocław. Substantial and systematic variations in pollen indices are seen for Betula spp. in Wrocław with high values every second year while a similar pattern is not observed for Worcester. This pattern was not reproduced for Alnus spp.

  17. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  18. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.

    2010-01-01

    Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down to the fun......Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down....... To place the belowground results into an ecosystem context we also investigated how plant cover and nutrient concentrations in leaves responded to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming. The ErM colonization in ericaceous dwarf shrubs increased under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations......, but did not respond to warming following 6 years of treatment. This suggests that the higher ErM colonization under elevated CO2 might be due to increased transport of carbon belowground to acquire limiting resources such as N, which was diluted in leaves of ericaceous plants under enhanced CO2...

  19. Luria's Model of the Verbal Control of Behavior. Study F: Motivational and Control in the Development of Language Functions, D. Birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Hugo

    A. R. Luria, in his conception of the verbal control of behavior, regards four fundamental and distinctive functional attributes of the human speech system as making up a signaling system that humans alone possess: (1) the nominative role of language, (2) the generalizing or semantic role, (3) the communicative role, and (4) the role of…

  20. On Natsume Soseki's Literary Influence On the White Birch School%论夏目漱石对白桦派作家的文学影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    西垣勤; 刘立善

    2006-01-01

    具有强烈社会意识的夏目漱石,在其创作中重点关注阶级社会中的上流阶级和中流阶级的青年知识分子.这一阶级的代表是白桦派的青年作家.白桦派作家尊敬漱石的人格与文格,并受其影响,但白桦派作家对漱石流露作品中严肃批判现实的主体意识,并未充分理解与认可,从而凸显了白桦派理想主义的天真性.

  1. A case of birch pollen-related food allergy syndrome%桦树花粉相关的食物过敏综合征一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵洁; 罗海燕; A Purohit; G Pauli

    2005-01-01

    70%以上桦树花粉过敏患者同时存在对某些植物源性食物过敏,即所谓的花粉相关的食物过敏(pollen related food allergy)。我们报道1例典型的桦树花粉过敏,随后发展成为对一些植物性食物过敏,并产生显著的临床症状,籍此阐明桦树花粉相关的食物过敏的临床和免疫学特征。

  2. Plantation Field protection Forest with Birch in Taller Hills Region%营造桦树山地农田防护林

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香兰; 本三存; 雷发义

    2005-01-01

    桦树与杨树都是高大阔叶乔木,在适宜桦树生长的脑山区营造桦树林网防护效能可以达到杨树林的效果,而且桦树比杨树病虫害少,耐牲畜啃食,易管护,是营造山地农田林网的好树种.

  3. 酸性染料在桦木中的渗透与吸附%Permeability and Adsorption of Acid Dyes in Birch Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦双颖; 王砥; 顾继友

    2008-01-01

    采用扫描电镜和傅立叶变换红外光谱分析手段研究了木材染色过程中染料在桦木中的渗透与附着过程:当染料质量分数较高时,在放大1 500倍的SEM照片中观察到大量染料分子发生聚集,较多地吸附在单板表层;而当染料质量分数较低时,则观察不到染料分子.这种情况同时发生在单板芯层.在试验中,用肉眼观察到的颜色变化证明了单板已经吸附了染料分子.通过对染色过程中酸性橙Ⅱ的脱附和FTIR谱图分析可以推断,酸性橙Ⅱ与桦木的结合是以物理吸附为主,但这种吸附力较弱,染料较易流失.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    The human type I allergic response is characterized by the presence of allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergen-mediated cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE on the surface of mast cells and circulating basophils triggers the release of mediators, resulting in the development of th......, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.65, b = 99.14, c = 108.90 A, alpha = 105.7, beta = 98.32, gamma = 97.62 degrees, and diffract to 2.9 A resolution when analyzed at 100 K using synchrotron-generated X--rays....

  5. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N;

    2004-01-01

    blocking activity was found in the purified IgG4 fraction. There was no significant difference in the binding avidities (1/K(d)) measured in the two IgG fractions. Thus, it appears that SIT-induced specific IgG4 contributes to the IgG blocking of allergen binding to IgE in a simple quantitative manner...

  6. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  7. Changes in petiole hydraulic properties and leaf water flow in birch and oak saplings in a CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, N.; Morii, N.; Koike, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Ueda, T. [Hokkaido DALTON, Sapporo (Japan); Funada, R. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Takagi, K.; Hiura, T.; Sasa, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Forests, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere

    2008-02-15

    This study examined the water flow and petiole hydraulic properties in the individual leaves of Betula maximowicziana Regel and ring-porous Quercus mongolica Fish. ex Ledeb ssp. crispula Menitsky. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between water flow, hydraulic properties and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2). The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on sun and shade leaves of 2 petioles were investigated in order to examine structural changes in response to CO{sub 2}. The study was conducted at the Sapporo Experimental Forest in Japan, where a free air CO{sub 2} enrichment system was used to maintain CO{sub 2} levels. Results of the study demonstrated that elevated CO{sub 2} levels consistently decreased water flow, including leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and total vessel area of the petiole in leaves exposed to the sun. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of shade leaves. It was concluded that changes in water flow were also associated with changes in petiole hydraulic properties. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Dehydrins in cold-acclimated apices of birch (Betula pubescens Ehr.) : production, localization and potential role in rescuing enzyme function during dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, P.L.H.; Kaikuranta, P.L.M.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Schoot, van der C.

    1999-01-01

    Dehydrins accumulate in various plant tissues during dehydration. Their physiological role is not well understood, but it is commonly assumed that they assist cells in tolerating dehydration. Since in perennials the ability of the shoot apex to withstand dehydration is pivotal for survival through w

  9. THE FIRST RECORD OF THE BIRCH MOUSE SICISTA IN THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTS OF CAVERNA GENEROSA (COMO, NW ITALY, WITH MORPHOMETRICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO BONA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the only one specimen collected and attributed to Sicista cf. subtilis from the Caverna Generosa has been described: a right mandible with first molar and m/2-m/3 alveoli. The Sicista specimen shows a morphological and morphometrical similarity to Sicista subtilis and it may represent the first record in Italy and the third in the whole Europe of the latter species. The discovery defines advancement in the Sicista paleogeography in the North of Italy and it certainly demonstrates that an important faunal migration during the Last Maximum Glacial involved the Western part of the Po valley, too.

  10. Environ: E00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00796 Birch Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Salicy...late, Tannin, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] Betula pendula [TAX:3505] Betulaceae Birch leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Betulaceae (birch famly) E00796 Birch ...

  11. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1) was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. We also confirmed that TNFSF13B has an important and conserved role in the regulation of total IgE levels, which supports potential evolutionary links between helminth immunity and allergic response. PMID:27977724

  12. Application of the MASSAHAKE-method for birch whole tree chips and for the production of raw material for mechanical pulp production; MASSAHAKE-menetelmaen soveltaminen koivulle sekae mekaanisen massan raaka-ainetuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, M.; Seppaenen, V.; Nikala, L.

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this project for the year 1995 were: (1) To develop the grinding process in order to decrease the wood losses in grinder, (2) To find the connection between the initial values in the process and the quality of the pulp chips, (3) To find out the behaviour of chips from mixed tree species in the MASSAHAKE process, (4) To find out the amount of knots in the pulp chips from the MASSAHAKE-process and (5) To find out the critical factors in big fuel stock made of the fuel fraction from the MASSAHAKE-process. The research with grinder was made with five different types of grinder plates. One of the blade sets was used as a reference where all the other sets were compared. In the second task a relationship between three most important initial values and the quality of pulp chips was determined. These values were: the feeding capacity of the whole tree chips to the process, the sensitivity of the optical sorter and the pixel size of bark to be removed in optical sorter. Based on the research and analysis results a linear model describing the process was made. In the third task the behaviour of mixed tree chips in the process was examined and also some full scale pulping experiments were done. Comparing the knot content of the pulp chips both from MASSAHAKE-process and normal pulp chip process a significant difference was noticed. The pulp chips from MASSAHAKE-system contained only 1/3 of the knots in normal de-barking+chipping pulp chip line. With decreased knot content a 1-3 % increase in digester capacity could be reached. Finally in fuel fraction storing research a significant dry material loss was determined

  13. 大兴安岭不同演替阶段白桦种群光合生理生态特征%Photosynthetic Characteristics of Birch during Different Succession Stages in Great Xingan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱民; 祖元刚

    2005-01-01

    应用LI-6400光合作用测定系统,研究了大兴安岭不同演替阶段白桦光合生理生态学特征.结果表明:无论是最大净光合速率,还是表观最大量子效率,非演替顶极群落中的白桦[(7.79 μmol/(m2·s)、0.069 8 mol/mol)]都大于演替顶极群落中的白桦[(7.59 μmol/(m2·s)、0.045 7 mol/mol)],这表明非演替顶极群落中白桦的实际光合能力和潜在光合能力都大于演替顶极群落中的白桦.2个不同演替阶段中白桦的光饱和点相差不大,但是演替顶极群落中白桦的光补偿点却低于非演替顶极群落,这表明演替顶极群落中白桦的呼吸作用有所下降.此研究结果揭示了大兴安岭顶极群落中白桦退出主林层的生理生态学机制.

  14. 化学镀镍桦木单板的镀层成分分析及性能研究%Study on Composition Analysis of Nickel-Plate and Performances of Plated Birch Veneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立娟; 刘一星

    2005-01-01

    通过对桦木单板表面化学镀镍,可以得到连续、均匀的镀层,从而制得具有良好导电性和电磁屏蔽功能的木材-金属复合材料.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察表明:看似光滑的桦木单板表面是很粗糙的,经化学镀后桦木表面金属感极强,但基本构造没有明显改变.利用能谱(EDS)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析表明:镀层中主要成分为镍,磷含量很低.X射线衍射仪分析表明镀层为多晶结构.此木材-金属复合材料的电磁屏蔽效能在9 kHz~1.5 GHz的频率范围内可达到60 dB, 导电性和导热性能较素材有显著提高.

  15. Reproductive strategies and seeds behavior of Betula platyphylla Suk. population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By the methods of morphological anatomy and investigation in the sample fields, the main studies were carried out such as morphological anatomy of reproductive organs, birch population's reproductive ages, reproductive allotment value and seed behavior. The relationship between birch population and their surroundings was studied. The results showed that birch's flower organs and its seeds were suitable well for spreading by wind. The seeds by wind can fly far away in a short time. The quantity of seed spreading greatly varied with different communities. Birch's reproduction age can be changed in different ecological surroundings. The reproductive allotment value of birch was obviously different at different reproductive stages. In the mesic habitat, birch can grow well. The lowest reproductive age of them was 12, average age 15. In most cases the age of branches to bearing fruits was more than 18. The order of reproductive allotment values was as follows: a flowering phase > flower bud phase > fruit phase.

  16. Bariatric Surgery: A Novel Risk Factor for Food Allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockhuys, Magali; Faber, Margaretha A; Sabato, Vito; Hubens, Guy; Ebo, Didier G

    2017-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a birch pollen-allergic patient in whom a Fobi pouch gastric bypass was associated with the transition from a mild, localized, birch pollen-related oral allergy syndrome to more severe, generalized allergic reactions to peach.

  17. Harvesting wood fuels from mixed stands of hard- and softwood on forest and agricultural land. Final report; Uttag av traedbraensle ur blandbestaand av loev- och barrtraed vaexande paa skogs- och aakermark. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2001-12-01

    The aim was to study the growth of birches (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in mixed stands of birch and spruce, and in pure stands of Norway spruce. Data from nine localities have been analysed. The trials were spread between lat. 56 and 60 deg N. The experiment was established on eight localities in Sweden. Plots in mixed stands of 20-32-year-old birches and Norway spruces were established in 1983-84. Number of stems per hectare, height and diameter of the stems was registered. Then two treatments were made. On a locality all birches in a plot were cut to make pure spruce stands. In another plot 500 birches per hectare were left in the spruce stand for establishing mixed stands. The established stands were then measured. The stands were examined five years later. Stem number, height and diameter was registered. Small corrections in the stands were made eg. birch sprouts were cut and some spruces were cut. In 1996-1998 the stands were examined again. The birch shelter was cut and measured. On one shelter plot per locality 100 birches per hectare was left. The birch shelter was left for making timber production of good quality. The shelter should be cut when the birches are about 60 years old. By the results given in the study there is obvious that MAI for Norway spruce growing for 13-15 years under shelter is lower, 7.2 m{sup 3}/ha/year than for pure spruce stand, 7.9. However the total MAI including birch in the shelter was 11.5 compared with 7.9 m{sup 3}/ha/year in pure spruce stands. Corresponding MAI for biomass in shelter and pure spruce stands was 3.8 and 4.2 ton d.w./ha/year. Total MAI was 6.4 and 4.2 ton/ha/year. A practical implication of the study is that removal of birches when creating mixed stands has too small dimensions for harvesting pulp wood or fuel wood. In the end of the rotation period for mixed stands the birch stems were 16 cm at breast height. These birches could be used as pulp

  18. Data from Phelan et al. 2016 (Water Air and Soil Pollution 227:84. DOI 10.1007/s11270-016-2762-x). "Assessing the effects of climate change and air pollution on soil properties and plant diversity in sugar-maple-beech-yellow birch hardwood..."

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset describes the simulations at two pilot sites in the northeast from 1900-2100 for several soil and plant community responses to climate and nitrogen...

  19. NaBH_4前处理桦木化学镀镍制备木质电磁屏蔽复合材料%Preparation of Wood-based Electromagnetic Shielding Composite by Electroless Nickel Plating on Birch Veneer Pretreated with NaBH_4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立娟; 李坚

    2010-01-01

    以桦木单板为基材,利用NaBH_4处理后直接进行化学镀镍制备电磁屏蔽复合材料.研究NaBH4浓度和浸渍时间、施镀时间和NaOH浓度对表面电阻率的影响.分别采用扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)分析对比NaBH_4前处理和胶体钯活化所得复合材料的表面形貌和组织结构,利用频谱仪和直拉法分别测定电磁屏蔽效能和镀层附着强度.结果表明:利用4g/L的NaOH配制3g/L的NaBH_4溶液,前处理5~10min,化学镀镍20min,此条件下制备的复合材料的表面电阻率低于150mΩ/cm~2,在9kHz~1.5GHz频段,电磁屏蔽效能高于60dB.NaBH_4前处理所得复合材料的电磁屏蔽效能高于胶体钯活化;从表面形貌上观察,两种方法均可得到均匀、连续和致密的镀层,镀层完全覆盖了木材表面,具有金属光泽; XRD分析表明,NaBH_4前处理所得镀层厚些,且结晶状态更佳,木材和镀层之间为物理结合;强度测试显示两种方法所得镀层均与木材表面结合牢固.

  20. Nitrate reductase activity in some subarctic species and UV influence in the foliage of Betula pendula Roth. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywult, Marek; Turunen, Minna; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Derome, Kirsti; Norokorpi, Yrjö

    2002-02-04

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity was studied in the foliage of five subarctic species: mature trees of European white birch (Betula pubescens Erch. S.S.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), Ericaceous shrub bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), naturally growing in a forest, and seed-grown silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment at the Pallas-Ounastunturi National Park in Finnish Lapland (68 degrees N). Mean NR activity ranged from 0 in bilberry to 1477 (S.D. = 277.7) and 1910 (S.D. = 785.4) nmol g(-1) DW h(-1) in mature trees of European white birch and silver birch seedlings, respectively. Significant differences due to UV exclosure treatments were determined for the NR activity of silver birch seedlings (F = 3.62, P= 0.025*) after three growing seasons (191 days) of UV exclusion. The ambient and control silver birch seedlings had or tended to have higher NR activity than those grown under UV exclusion. No relationship was found between the foliage NR activity and total nitrogen content, which ranged from 0.61 to 1.35% per seedling. The present study suggests large differences in NR activity between the species and the induction of NR activity in silver birch seedlings due to ambient UV radiation.

  1. Frequent occurrence of T cell–mediated late reactions revealed by atopy patch testing with hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Raffaela; Moritz, Katharina; Marth, Katharina; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Blatt, Katharina; Hoermann, Gregor; Brodie, Tess M.; Kaider, Alexandra; Valent, Peter; Sallusto, Federica; Wöhrl, Stefan; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Late allergic reactions are common in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy and even occur with allergy vaccines with reduced IgE reactivity. Objective We sought to study atopy patch test (APT) reactions and T-cell responses to the recombinant birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and recombinant hypoallergenic T-cell epitope–containing Bet v 1 fragments in patients with birch pollen allergy with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods A clinical study was conducted in 15 patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (group 1), 5 patients with birch pollen allergy without AD (group 2), 5 allergic patients without birch pollen allergy (group 3), and 5 nonallergic subjects (group 4) by performing skin prick tests and APTs with rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments. T-cell, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ and CCR4+ T-cell and cytokine responses were studied by thymidine uptake, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining, and Luminex technology, respectively. Results rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induced APT reactions in not only most of the patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (11/15) but also in most of those without AD (4/5). Patients with birch pollen allergy with AD had higher Bet v 1–specific proliferation of CLA+ and CCR4+ T cells compared with patients with birch pollen allergy without AD. There were no differences in Bet v 1–specific CLA+ and CCR4+ proliferation and cytokine secretion in patients with and without APT reactions. Conclusion Hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induce T cell–dependent late reactions not only in patients with birch pollen allergy with AD but also in those without AD, which can be determined based on APT results but not based on in vitro parameters. PMID:26518092

  2. Epitope grafting, re-creating a conformational Bet v 1 antibody epitope on the surface of the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens; Ferreras, Mercedes; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Birch-allergic patients often experience oral allergy syndrome upon ingestion of vegetables and fruits, most prominently apple, that is caused by antibody cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies in patients to proteins sharing molecular surface structures with the major birch pollen group 1 allergen...... scaffold molecule without loss of epitope functionality. Furthermore, we show that increasing surface similarity to Bet v 1 of Mal d 1 variants by substitution of 6-8 residues increased the ability to trigger basophil histamine release with blood from birch-allergic patients not responding to natural Mal d...

  3. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  4. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on diffe

  5. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea.

  6. Model Validation for a Noninvasive Arterial Stenosis Detection Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-09

    equation, Journal of Scientific Computing, 27 (2006), 5–40. 15 [2] M. Akay, Noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease using advanced signal...Model validation for a noninvasive arterial stenosis detection problem H.T. Banks, Shuhua Hu and Zackary R. Kenz Center for Research in Scientific...qmul.ac.uk Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry , Queen Mary, University of London, England. M. J. Birch m.j.birch

  7. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Greely, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Subarctic Lowland Sedge Wet Meadow caraqu- carros Lacustrine Fen Meadow Open Black Spruce Forest picmar/ledgro-vaculi/vacvit/hylspl Lowland Wet Needleleaf...Forest Closed Paper Birch Forest betpap/hylspl Upland Moist Broadleaf Forest Subarctic Lowland Sedge Wet Meadow caraqu- carros -equflu Lacustrine Fen...vacvit/mosses Upland Wet Needleleaf Forest Subarctic Lowland Sedge Wet Meadow eriang- carros -carlim Lacustrine Fen Meadow Spruce–Paper Birch Woodland

  8. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  9. Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, S; Grote, M; Duchêne, M; van Ree, R; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Valenta, R

    1993-01-01

    In this study we reinvestigated the kinetics of allergen release from birch pollen (Betula verrucosa) and timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) using different protein extraction procedures, immunoblotting with specific antibodies and immune electron microscopy. Pollen allergens such as the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, the major timothy grass pollen allergens, Phl p I and Phl p V, group-II/III allergens from timothy grass and profilins were released rapidly and in large amounts from hydrated pollen. Within a few minutes pollen allergens could be detected in aqueous supernatants prepared from birch and grass pollen with serum IgE or specific antibodies. In parallel the allergen content in the pollen pellet fractions decreased. A nonallergenic protein such as heat shock protein 70 can be extracted in sufficient amounts only with harsh extraction procedures. Immune electron microscopy of dry and rehydrated birch pollens showed that after short hydration, the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, migrated into the exine and to the surface of intact pollen grains, whereas profilin, against which a lower percentage of patients is sensitized, was retained in the pollen grain. Comparing the amino acid composition and hydrophilicity of the tested allergens with a nonallergenic protein such as heat shock protein 70, no significant difference was noted. In agreement with earlier observations we conclude that the allergenic properties of proteins are rather linked to the amount and speed of solubility from airborne particles than to intrinsic properties.

  10. Quantification of lignin-carbohydrate linkages with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakshin, Mikhail; Capanema, Ewellyn; Gracz, Hanna; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative approach to characterize lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages using a combination of quantitative ¹³C NMR and HSQC 2D NMR techniques has been developed. Crude milled wood lignin (MWLc), LCC extracted from MWLc with acetic acid (LCC-AcOH) and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) preparations were isolated from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and white birch (Betula pendula) woods and characterized using this methodology on a routine 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and on a 950 MHz spectrometer equipped with a cryogenic probe. Structural variations in the pine and birch LCC preparations of different types (MWL, CEL and LCC-AcOH) were elucidated. The use of the high field NMR spectrometer equipped with the cryogenic probe resulted in a remarkable improvement in the resolution of the LCC signals and, therefore, is of primary importance for an accurate quantification of LCC linkages. The preparations investigated showed the presence of different amounts of benzyl ether, γ-ester and phenyl glycoside LCC bonds. Benzyl ester moieties were not detected. Pine LCC-AcOH and birch MWLc preparations were preferable for the analysis of phenyl glycoside and ester LCC linkages in pine and birch, correspondingly, whereas CEL preparations were the best to study benzyl ether LCC structures. The data obtained indicate that pinewood contains higher amounts of benzyl ether LCC linkages, but lower amounts of phenyl glycoside and γ-ester LCC moieties as compared to birch wood.

  11. A double-blind group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate, 2% four times daily and 4% twice daily, in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, M; Montan, P; Njå, F

    1994-03-01

    In a multicenter, double-blind, single-dummy, group-comparative study, 169 patients received ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate 2% four times daily, and 170 patients received 4% ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate twice daily, together with placebo eye-drops twice daily, for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) to birch pollen. The treatment period was 4 weeks during the birch pollen season. Daily pollen counts were used to identify the peak 14-d period. Clinical examinations were made before the start of treatment, after 1 week of treatment, and at the end of the treatment period. Patients kept daily diary record cards of eye symptom severity and concomitant therapy. Symptoms were generally mild and, except for chemosis (week 4) and soreness (weeks 2 and 3), which were less in the 4% group (P sodium cromoglycate eye-drops twice daily is as effective and well tolerated as 2% sodium cromoglycate four times daily in the treatment of birch-pollen conjunctivitis.

  12. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  13. Design of plywood and paper flywheel rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, D. L.

    Technical and economic design factors of cellulosic rotors are compared with conventional materials for stationary flywheel energy storage systems. Wood species, operation in a vacuum, assembly and costs of plywood rotors are evaluated. Wound kraft paper, twine and veneer rotors are examined. Two bulb attachments are designed. Support stiffness is shown to be constrained by the material strength, rotor configuration and speed ratio. Plywood moisture equilibrium during manufacture and assembly is critical. Disk shaping and rotor assembly are described. Potential self-centering dynamic balancing methods and equipment are described. Detailed measurements of the distribution of strengths, densities and specific energy of conventional Finnish Birch plywood and of custom made hexagonal Birch plywood are detailed. High resolution tensile tests were performed while monitoring the acoustic emissions with micoprocessor controlled data acquisition. Preliminary duration of load tests were performed on vacuum dried hexagonal birch plywood. Economics of cellulosic and conventional rotors were examined.

  14. Phenanthrene Sorption on Biochar-Amended Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumari, K. G I D; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...... carbon, while it negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar-mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil....

  15. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H., E-mail: michael.evangelou@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Deram, Annabelle, E-mail: annabelle.deram@univ-lille2.fr [Laboratoire des sciences vegetales et fongiques - EA4483, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques-ILIS, Universite Lille Nord de France - 3, rue du Professeur Laguesse, B.P. 83, F-59006 Lille Cedex (France); Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg{sup -1}) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg{sup -1}), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg{sup -1}) and K (320-1250 mg kg{sup -1}), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  16. Different sensitization profile for asthma, rhinitis, and eczema among 7-8-year-old children: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-04-01

    Sensitization to different airborne allergens in relation to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied. A cross-sectional study was performed among 7-8-year-old children living in northern Sweden. The ISAAC-questionnaire with additional questions were sent to the parents, and 3431 (97%) participated. Two-thirds of the children were invited to undergo a skin test with 10 common airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The prevalence rates of all three diseases were significantly higher among the children who were sensitized to any of the tested allergens. Among asthmatics, 40% were sensitized to cat, 34% to dog, 28% to horse, 23% to birch and 16% to timothy. The corresponding figures for rhinitis were: cat 49%, dog 33%, horse 37%, birch 46%, timothy 32%; and for eczema: cat 29%, dog 21%, horse 15%, birch 20%, and timothy 11%. Only a few children were sensitized to mites or moulds. The main risk factors for all three diseases were type-1 allergy and a family history of the disease. Independently from other risk factors, sensitization to dog (OR 2.4) and horse (OR 2.2) were significant risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to birch (OR 6.0), horse (OR 4.1), and timothy (OR 2.8) were significant risk factors for rhinitis, while birch (OR 2.4), dog (OR 2.0) and cat (OR 1.6) were significant risk factors for eczema. Despite a large over-lapping of the diseases the pattern of sensitization was different for asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Sensitization to cat was most common among all children, but sensitization to dog and horse was associated with the highest risk for asthma, and sensitization to birch showed the highest risk for rhinitis and eczema. The different risk factor pattern for the often coexisting diseases; asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, may indicate differences in the etiology.

  17. Deciduous Tree Species Alter Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability in Mid-successional Alaskan Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In Alaskan boreal forest, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering successional processes and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Fire is a common disturbance in Interior Alaska and typically burns forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow nutrient turnover and high soil organic matter accumulation rates. Historically, low severity fires have driven black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow nutrient cycling rates and large soil organic matter stocks. In contrast, high severity fires consume the organic layer and can lead to the establishment of deciduous tree species on exposed mineral soil, which produce less recalcitrant leaf litter and exhibit faster nutrient cycling rates. To improve our understanding of the long-term impacts of tree species composition on nutrient cycling in boreal forest, we quantified nitrogen (N) cycling rates and estimated soil N, phosphorus (P), and base cation pools in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1960 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Results indicate significantly higher net N mineralization in paper birch soils relative to black spruce for both the fibric organic layer and top 10 cm of mineral soil during 30-day and 90-day lab incubation studies. Net nitrification was significantly higher in the paper birch fibric layer after 90 days. Total soil N concentrations did not differ between paper birch and black spruce stands, however the black spruce organic layer was significantly larger than that of birch, resulting in larger organic layer N stocks (130 vs. 87 g N m2). In contrast, total P concentrations were significantly higher in the organic layer in birch forest, but the total P stocks did not differ significantly between species because of the larger mass of soil organic matter in the black spruce. These findings suggest that a shift towards greater deciduous

  18. Tree Productivity and Water Potential Productivity in Returning Farmland to Forest Project in Datong County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jing; Liu Chenfeng; Zhao Wanqi; He Kangning

    2004-01-01

    From 2002 to 2003, based on the investigation of sample plots and stem analysis of remained plantation communities in the areas of returning farmland to forest in the 1980s in Datong County, Qinghai Province, this paper studies tree productivity and moisture potential productivity of six types of plantations on the land of returning farmland to forest, such as green poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch (Betula platyphylla) and China spruce (Picea asperata) mixed forest, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) pure forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest and so on. The results show that: in sub-humid region of Loess Plateau, 3 000 trees per hm2 is a proper standard of planting density. Under current condition, the productivity index of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch pure forest, China spruce pure forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest with the density of 2 100-3 333 trees per hm2 can serve as potential productivity standard of actual biomass of arbor established forest. In sub-humid area, Thornthwaite Model is adopted to estimate plant climate potential productivity, which is about 8 462 kg·hm-2·a-1. The actual potential water productive efficiency of Purplecone spruce (Picea purpurea) and Asia white birch pure established forest are 17.22 and 22.14 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively, and that of green poplar and shrub mixed established forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed established forest are 21.14 and 19.09 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively. The potential productivity of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest which have grown into forest with the density of 3 000 trees per hm2 have attained or been close to that of local climax community, which is local maximum tree productivity at present. These types of forestation models are the developing

  19. Late glacial vegetation development in Denmark – new evidence based on macrofossil and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Birks, Hilary H.; Christensen, Charlie;

    2011-01-01

    . In the Younger Dryas period trees disappeared and the vegetation became open again and dominated by subarctic species. Following climate warming at the Younger Dryas–Holocene transition a shrub community of Empetrum and Juniperus developed. After approximately 200 years it was replaced by birch forest. Overall...... that the period was relatively dry. In the Allerød period the Dryas-B. nana vegetation was initially replaced by an open Salix and grass dominated vegetation and some 400 years later, the first tree birches were documented presumably occupying moist and sheltered soils while drier land remained open...

  20. Feasibility Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement, Wisconsin River at Portage, Wisconsin, Feasibility Study for Flood Control. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    species along the shoreline are silver maple, cottonwood, and river birch . Moving away from the river, green, white, and black ash and American elm become...floodplain forest is dominated by elm, cottonwood, maple, river birch , and ash and appears to be a typical climax bottomland hardwood wetland. Interspersed...U; 0C r w c $43 W) CO o C3 4 P $- -4 :44 ca- co A. d) C404 U : H a- c o ) di 0U,. Q) 4 b Vz 414 0.d W4 n En4U ’A V) 04-4 ( UV 44 0U’ . (U -140 -)0 l 0

  1. Molecular responses of plants to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Suárez, Luis Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) were assessed at different molecular levels using Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) as model species in outdoor experiments to assess the possibly interacting roles of the UV-B and UV-A wavebands in acclimation to sunlight. Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance was attenuated with plastic films. Both solar UV-B and UV-A promoted the acclimation of silver birch and Arabido...

  2. Unravelling the distinct crystallinity and thermal properties of suberin compounds from Quercus suber and Betula pendula outer barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia F; Gandini, Alessandro; Caetano, Ana; Maria, Teresa M R; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of suberin (a naturally occurring aromatic-aliphatic polyester ubiquitous to the vegetable realm) as a renewable source of chemicals and, in particular, to assess their physical properties. A comparison between cork and birch suberin fragments obtained by conventional depolymerisation processes (hydrolysis or methanolysis) is provided, focusing essentially on their thermal and crystallinity properties. It was found that suberin fragments obtained by the hydrolysis depolymerisation of birch had a high degree of crystallinity, as indicated by their thermal analysis and corroborated by the corresponding XRD diffractions, as opposed to hydrolysis-depolymerised cork suberin counterparts, which were essentially amorphous.

  3. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  4. 桦褐孔菌的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芬琴; 朴惠善

    2005-01-01

    桦褐孔菌,学名为Fuscoporia obliqua(Pers:Fr.) Aoshi或Inonotus obliquus(Fr.)Pilat,俗名为Black Birch touchwood,Birch mushroom,C1inker polypore,Tschaga pilz,Crooked schiller—Porling,Kofukisarunokoshikake。属于真菌门、担子菌亚门、层菌纲、非褐菌目(无褶菌目=多孔菌目,多孔菌科)、褐卧孔菌属(纤孔菌属)。

  5. COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF PINE AND BIRCH SPECIES WITH DIFFERENT SCHEME OF COMBINATION Сравнительная характеристика сосново-березовых культур с различной схемой смешения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiryan K. G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of condition and growth of Pinus sylvestris and Betula Pendula in their cohabitation in poor sand soils (A2 in the condition of some forest enterprises of Voronezh region; the most effective way of combination of this species is revealed

  6. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...... allergic to hazelnut but not to birch....

  7. Hazelnut allergy across Europe dissected molecularly : A EuroPrevall outpatient clinic survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, Mareen R.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Asero, Riccardo; Barreales, Laura; Belohlavkova, Simona; de Blay, Frederic; Bures, Peter; Clausen, Michael; Dubakiene, Ruta; Gislason, David; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Kowalski, Marek L.; Knulst, Andre C.; Kralimarkova, Tanya; Le, Thuy-My; Lovegrove, Alison; Marsh, Justin; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Popov, Todor; del Prado, Nayade; Purohit, Ashok; Reese, Gerald; Reig, Isabel; Seneviratne, Suranjith L.; Sinaniotis, Athanasios; Versteeg, Serge A.; Vieths, Stefan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mills, Clare; Lidholm, Jonas; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut allergy is birch pollen-driven in Northern/Western Europe and lipid transfer protein-driven in Spain and Italy. Little is known about other regions and other allergens. Objective: Establishing a molecular map of hazelnut allergy across Europe. Methods: In 12 European cities, sub

  8. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...

  9. The importance of the stationary and individual pollen monitoring for the diagnostic of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate pollen seasons of selected taxa with particular reference to allergic taxa such as birch (Betula sp., grasses (Poaceae, mugwort (Artemisia sp. in Cracow in 2003 and 2004 (project number 3 PO5D 034 24 funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary Burkard trap and personal Partrap FA 52 were compared. The volumetric method was used in the study. Average daily concentrations (pollen grains × m-3 were obtained by counting pollen grains every hour along 4 longitudinal transects and applying an appropriate conversion factor. Duration of the pollen season was determined using the 95% method. Variations in annual totals of pollen grains (birch and mugwort, in start dates (especially for grasses and in the season duration (birch and grasses were found. The comparison of pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary and personal traps at the same place showed non statistically significant correlation for all the studied taxa and statistically significant correlations for birch, mugwort and grasses (Spearman rank correlation. However, the statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using Burkard and Partrap carried by patients (Wilcoxon's test were noted. Very low concentrations of pollen grains measured indoor (work, flats and the influence of the local plants growing in separate place (courtyard of the Allergology Department on the pollen concentration were found.

  10. Addressing the Needs of Students with Color Vision Deficiencies in the Elementary School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karla Bame

    2013-01-01

    Color vision deficiencies affect approximately eight percent of the male population (Birch & Chisholm, 2008; Cole, 2007; Jenny & Kelso, 2007; Neitz & Neitz, 2000), yet the condition is often overlooked in the educational setting despite the pervasiveness of color in the school (Suero et al., 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Shotgun Bisulfite Sequencing of the Betula platyphylla Genome Reveals the Tree’s DNA Methylation Patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Most studies of DNA methylation have been performed in herbaceous plants, and little is known about the methylation patterns in tree genomes. In the present study, we generated a map of methylated cytosines at single base pair resolution for Betula platyphylla (white birch by bisulfite sequencing combined with transcriptomics to analyze DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression. We obtained a detailed view of the function of DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the genome of B. platyphylla. There are 34,460 genes in the whole genome of birch, and 31,297 genes are methylated. Conservatively, we estimated that 14.29% of genomic cytosines are methylcytosines in birch. Among the methylation sites, the CHH context accounts for 48.86%, and is the largest proportion. Combined transcriptome and methylation analysis showed that the genes with moderate methylation levels had higher expression levels than genes with high and low methylation. In addition, methylated genes are highly enriched for the GO subcategories of binding activities, catalytic activities, cellular processes, response to stimulus and cell death, suggesting that methylation mediates these pathways in birch trees.

  12. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Günther; Konieczyński, Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (complexation.

  13. The effect of meteorological factors on airborne Betula pollen concentrations in Lublin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Krystyna; Kubik-Komar, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of the birch atmospheric pollen seasons in Lublin in the period 2001-2010. Pollen monitoring was conducted using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 sampler. The atmospheric pollen seasons were determined with the 98% method. Regression analysis was used to determine correlations between meteorological conditions and the pattern of the birch pollen season. On average, the birch pollen season started on 12 April, ended on 13 May, and lasted 32 days. The peak value and the Seasonal Pollen Index showed the greatest variation in particular years. All the seasons were right-skewed. During the study years, a trend was found towards earlier occurrence of the seasonal peak. Regression equations were developed for the following parameters of the atmospheric pollen season: start, duration, peak value and average pollen concentration during the season. The obtained model fit was at a level of 64-81%. Statistical analysis shows that minimum temperature of February and March and total rainfall in June in the year preceding pollen release have the greatest effect on the birch atmospheric pollen season in Lublin. Low temperatures in February promote the occurrence of high pollen concentrations.

  14. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16...

  15. The effects of short- and long-term air pollutants on plant phenology and leaf characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Markevych, Iana; Beck, Isabelle; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Heinrich, Joachim; Menzel, Annette

    2015-11-01

    Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO2, NOx and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies.

  16. 75 FR 69065 - Endosulfan: Final Product Cancellation Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... end in 2 years, including over 30 crop uses plus use on ornamental trees, shrubs, and herbaceous..., red, scotch, white), shade trees (except birch), shrubs, spruce (New England area only), taxus... for pulp and timber Strawberry (Annual) Sweet potato Tart cherry Turnip Walnut Ornamental...

  17. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cut grass), Acorus americanus (sweetflag), Carex aquatilis (leafy tussock sedge ), and Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac). FACW (Facultative Wetland...where water saturates the soils or floods the soil surface at least seasonally. Examples include Carex scoparia (broom sedge ), Aconitum columbianum...Ambrosia artemisifolia (annual ragweed), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Carex eburnea (bristle-leaf sedge ), Carya ovata (shag-bark hickory), Elymus

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dale; Evans, Malkanthi; Guthrie, Najla; Sharma, Prachi; Baisley, Joshua; Schonlau, Frank; Burki, Carolina

    2010-08-01

    The potential of Pycnogenol for relieving allergic rhinitis (birch pollen) symptoms was explored in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In 2008 19 subjects started treatment 3 weeks prior to the onset of birch pollen season in Ontario, Canada. While there was an improvement of eye and nasal symptoms with Pycnogenol, there was no significance versus placebo. It was postulated that Pycnogenol may require a lag-time between the start of therapy and the onset of action. Therefore 39 subjects were treated 5-8 weeks prior to the 2009 birch allergy season. The evaluation of subjects in 2009 showed much lower scores for eye (-35%) and nasal (-20.5%) symptoms with Pycnogenol compared with placebo. In succession of the allergy season birch specific IgE increased by 31.9% in the placebo group compared with only 19.4% in the Pycnogenol group. Detailed analysis suggested that symptom-relief was better the longer subjects were on Pycnogenol prior to the allergen exposure. The best results were found with subjects who took Pycnogenol 7-8 weeks ahead of the allergy season. With the limited number of 39 patients statistical predications were unattainable. In conclusion, Pycnogenol improved allergic rhinitis symptoms when supplementation was started at least 5 weeks before the onset of the allergy season.

  19. National Dam Inspection Program. Saxe Pond Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-729, DER ID Number 8-10) Susquehanna River Basin. North Branch Mehoopany Creek, Bradford County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    formations and the Catskill Formation between them belong to the Susquehanna Group of Upper Devonian Age. They consist of sandstones, shales , and...1; 1. I)If *~~~~~ C iy GEOLOGIC MAP OF AREA AROUND SAXE POND DAM, ROSCOE BURGESS DAM AND THE BIRCH CREEK DAM SCALE 1:250,000 PENNSvVANIAN DEVONIAN

  20. Seems like I hardly see them around anymore: Historical geographies of Cottonwood decline along the Wind River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonwoods—as well as the water birch, bull berry, and currants that flourish in their galleries—hold special significance for Tribes of the Intermountain American West. These species have served ceremonial and practical purposes for generations. Yet cottonwoods have experienced well-documented dec...

  1. A catchment-scale carbon and greenhouse gas budget of a subarctic landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben R.; Johansson, Paul Torbjörn; Olsrud, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This is the first attempt to budget average current annual carbon (C) and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges and transfers in a subarctic landscape, the Lake Torneträsk catchment in northern Sweden. This is a heterogeneous area consisting of almost 4000km2 of mixed heath, birch and pine fo...

  2. Investigation of wood combustion in the high-enthalpy oxidizer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, S. M.; Zyryanov, I. A.; Budin, A. G.; Pozolotin, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The experimental data of wood combustion in the high-enthalpy oxidizer flowresearch is presented. Combustion laws of two wood species (pine and birch) in a hybrid rocket engine (HRE) are obtained. Heat flows from the flame to the condensed phase surface are defined. The prospects of the wood use in the HRE (based on thrust characteristics) are shown.

  3. 76 FR 39011 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Unincorporated Areas of Highway 6. Wood County. Approximately 1,650 feet + 678 upstream of State Highway 25. Rock...-B-1115 Birch Creek-Pouges Run Approximately 720 feet + 624 City of Brazil, downstream of White Rock Unincorporated Areas of Road. Clay County. Approximately 1.29 miles + 652 upstream of White Rock Road. *...

  4. Childhood leukaemia in the Netherlands : a register based epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractLeukaemia, literally "white blood", is the most common type of malignancy in childhood (Birch et al., 1980). The clinical features are caused by abnormal proliferation of one or more of the blood-forming cellular elements. The immature malignant cells usually disturb normal haematopoiesi

  5. Effects of increased temperature and CO{sub 2} on soil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogner, G.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. The Norwegian Forest Research Institute has studied the effects of increased CO{sub 2} and temperature on forest soil, soil leachate and plants in an open top chamber experiment. The purpose was to analyze the changes in soil parameters and the leaching of elements. Nitrate and aluminium received special attention. The growth of Norway spruce and birch was followed, and its impact on the soil parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the temperature increase of the soil and consequently an increased turnover of soil organic matter had the major effect on the quality of soil leachates. CO{sub 2} was less important. Leaching of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was high from control lysimeters with moss cover. Lysimeters with birch hardly leached NO{sub 3}{sup -} at all. Spruce is in an intermediate position. Increased leaching of Al{sup n+} is found for moss lysimeters. Leachates from birch lysimeters have high concentrations of Al{sup n+} only at the end of the growth seasons. Plant growth is to some extent increased by the CO{sub 2} treatment. Birch grew well in all lysimeters and all treatments, spruce developed clear symptoms of stress. This result does not fit with the increased availability of nutrients in soil solution

  6. Experimental Research of Moisture Evaporation Process from Biomass in a Drying Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented mass evaporation rate hardwood (birch, aspen, maple, poplar derived from experimental studies. The dependence of temperature on evaporation mass rate and calculated the accommodation coefficient for the respective temperature ranges are obtained. Analyzed the temperature of drying conditions relevant species hardwood.

  7. Prehistory and History of the El Dorado Lake Area, Kansas. Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Coffey Site..... . . . .......... . ... 35 Pomme de Terre Sites... . . . . ........ ... 36 Little Blue Sites..... . . . .......... ... 36 The...site, Little Blue sites, Pomme de Terre sites, Birch Creek, and Hominy Creek. The report is concluded with a statement concerning suggested future and...lakes. Unfortun- ately we are not told the total thickness of the Holocene deposits. 35 Pomme de Terre Sites In southwestern Missouri, extensive

  8. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... wounds and sawdust accumulation at tree bases. They feed on, and over-winter in, the interiors of trees... native to China, Japan, Korea, and the Isle of Hainan, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. It attacks many healthy hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, and elm....

  9. The role of comptetitors for Chrysomela lapponica, a north Eurasian willow pest, in pioneering a new host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, J.; Fatouros, N.E.; Neuvonen, S.; Hilker, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Palaearctic leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica usually feeds upon willows in the northern region of its occurrence. However, in Central Europe, some populations are known that have specialised on birch. In this study, we investigated the significance of other herbivores occurring together on the s

  10. Frequency of atopy in the Arctic in 1987 and 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Tyra; Koch, Anders; Friborg, Jeppe

    2002-01-01

    atopy as a positive result in an assay that tests for specific IgE against the eight most common inhalant allergens in one pool (grass, birch, mugwort, dog, cat, horse, Cladosporum herbarum, house dust mite). The frequency of atopy doubled between 1987 (39 [10%] of 392) and 1998 (87 [19%] of 467; risk...

  11. Remission of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    months and s-IgE levels of class 2 or greater against pollen (birch, grass, or mugwort). This was similar for AR to animals (cat or dog) or house dust mites (HDMs). Remission of AR was defined as AR at baseline but no rhinitis symptoms at follow-up and sensitization (s-IgE level class > or =2 at baseline...

  12. JPRS Report, China QIUSHI SEEKING TRUTH no 1, 1 January 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    beautiful. Its 700 seats are upholstered with leather . It also has an indoor JPRS-CAR-89-037 27 April 1989 40 gymnasium with a wooden floor...another prosperous village and town and picturesque landscape—elegant white birch forests, clear brooks, mushrooming factories with silvery drying

  13. Effect of Polarization on Airway Epithelial Conditioning of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Chhoden, Tashi; Arge, Maria

    2015-01-01

    to sample allergens administered to the apical side. Allergen uptake depended on both polarization and the nature of the allergen. AEC conditioning led to decreased birch allergen-specific proliferation of autologous T cells and a trend toward decreased secretion of the Th2-specific cytokines IL-5 and IL-13...

  14. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingxi Li,; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Berendse, F.; Blok, D.; Maximov, T.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundrashrub
    dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region,
    mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch
    (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and
    used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship
    bet

  15. Expression of Toll-like receptors in nasal epithelium in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkonen, Jutta; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Joenväärä, Sakari; Mattila, Pirkko; Parviainen, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Lehtonen, Mikko; Renkonen, Risto

    2015-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in barrier homeostasis, but their role in airborne allergies is not fully understood. The aim was to evaluate baseline and allergen-induced expression of TLR proteins in nasal epithelium during allergic rhinitis. Nineteen otherwise healthy non-smoking volunteers both allergic to birch pollen and non-allergic controls were enrolled. We took nasal biopsies before and after off-seasonal intranasal birch pollen or diluent challenge. The expression of epithelial TLR1-7, TLR9-10, and MyD88 proteins was immunohistochemically evaluated from the nasal biopsies. The TLR1-3 and TLR5-10 mRNAs were observed by RNA-microarray. Baseline epithelial expression of TLR proteins was wide and identical in controls and atopics. After off-seasonal intranasal birch pollen challenge, a negative change in the expression score of TLR1 and TLR6 proteins was detected in the atopic group. TLR mRNA expression was not affected by birch pollen challenge. Nasal epithelium seems to express all known TLRs. The mechanisms by which TLR1, and TLR6 proteins could affect pollen allergen transport need further studies.

  16. 75 FR 3219 - Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... January 12, 2010. On January 31, 2008, Richard Moss, licensee for the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project is located on the Middle, Birch, and... operation of the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project, until such time as the Commission acts on...

  17. Distribution of total serum IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age, and their relationship to each other in a random sample of the Dutch general population aged 20-70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Droste, JHJ; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B

    1996-01-01

    To describe the distribution of serum total IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age and to study their relationship to each other, we measured serum total IgE and specific IgE (CAP) to house-dust mile, timothy grass, cat, birch, and Cladosporium in a random sample of 2496 subject

  18. Highlights of forest pest conditions in the maritimes at the end of July, 1993. Technical note No. 286. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This note describes forest pest conditions in the Maritimes at the end of July, 1993. It discusses diseases and pests found including forest tent caterpiller, gypsy moth, fall webworm, spruce budworm, and wind damage. Others include eastern blackheaded budworm, elm leafroller, alder flea beetle, birch leafminers, oak olethreutid leafroller, yellowheaded spruce sawfly, and spruce spider mite.

  19. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.;

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration of two heterogeneous broadleaved woodlands in southern England was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. Grimsbury Wood, which had a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (Quercus robur L.) and birch (Betula pubescens L.) and had a cont...

  20. National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2013: A National Competition for High School Ocean Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Coats, Birch Aquarium , Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 7 • Hurricane Bowl (Central Gulf Coast) – Elizabeth...Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences • Southern Stingray Bowl (South Carolina & Georgia ) – Dr. Dionne

  1. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in patients with allergic rhinitis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkainen Annika

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is a tryptophan catalyzing enzyme. It has been suggested that it has a role in lower airway allergic inflammations, but its role in allergic rhinitis has not been investigated. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the expression of IDO in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients allergic to birch pollen during peak exposure to birch pollen allergen and compare it to non-atopic patients. Methods IDO expression was immunohistochemically evaluated from nasal specimens obtained in- and off-season from otherwise healthy non-smoking volunteers both allergic to birch pollen (having mild or moderate allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and non-allergic controls. Results: The IDO expression levels were low in healthy controls and remained low also in patients allergic to birch pollen. There were no differences in the expression of IDO in- and off-season in either healthy or allergic subjects. Conclusions There is a controversy in the role of IDO in upper and lower airways during allergic airway disease. It seems that IDO is associated to allergic inflammations of the lower airways, but does not have a local role in the nasal cavity at least in mild or moderate forms of allergic rhinitis.

  2. Informal learning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Caniëls, M. C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Informal learning in the Netherlands. In S. Halley, C. Birch, D. Tempelaar, M. McCuddy, N. Hérnandez Nanclares, S. Reeb Grube, W. Gijselaers, B. Rienties, & N. Nelissen (Eds), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing Borders in Education and Work

  3. Temperature as a modifier of plant-herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiyong; Ruuhola, Teija; Haviola, Sanna; Rantala, Markus J

    2007-03-01

    Temperature directly affects the growth, survival, and development rates of poikilothermic insect herbivores; it may also have an important indirect impact, via the activities of plant defensive enzymes. The effects of wounding birch leaves and temperature on the growth and development rates of a Lepidopteran moth, Epirrita autumnata, were studied. We also examined the activities of a mountain birch (Betula pubescesns spp. czerepanovii) defensive enzymes, specifically the polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), in relation to temperature and wounding. The optimal temperature for early instars in terms of survival and developmental rates was between +15 and 20 degrees C. Wounding treatment had different effects on birch PPO activity depending on the temperature: at +12 degrees C, wounding decreased the activity, suggesting induced amelioration at that temperature, whereas at +25 degrees C, wounding increased the activity, suggesting induced resistance. However, larval growth was retarded slightly, but significantly, on the leaves of wounded twigs at both temperatures. Both PPO activity and larval growth rates were affected within 12 h, indicating the existence of a transcription- and translation-independent defense system in birch leaves. We suggest that underlying the increase in PPO activity and the decrease in larval growth rate may be H2O2, which has been shown to accumulate in response to wounding. Our results also provide a possible biological mechanism for the hypothesis that low temperatures promote the success of E. autumnata and other Lepidopteran larvae via decreased defensive enzyme activities of host plants at lower temperatures.

  4. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  5. Roasted hazelnuts--allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K Skamstrup; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Lüttkopf, D

    2003-01-01

    Allergy to hazelnuts is a common example of birch pollen related food allergy. Symptoms upon ingestion are often confined to the mouth and throat, but severe systemic reactions have been described in some patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in allergenicity by roasting...

  6. Cottonwoods of the Midwest: A Community Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis X X Pignut hickory Carya glabra X Pecan Carya illinoensis X Shellbark hickory Carya lacinios X Shagbark...rugosa X Pawpaw Asimina triloba X River birch Betula nigra X American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana X Water hickory Carya aquatica X...hickory Carya ovata X Mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa X Sugarberry Celtis laevigata X Hackberry Celtis occidentalis X X Eastern redbud

  7. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    hickory Carya illinoensis pecan Carya spp. hickory Celtis laevigata sugarberry Celtis occidentalis hackberry Cephalanthus occidentalis...abundance were deciduous holly and red maple. Matos and Rudolph (1985) recorded overcup oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, black gum, water hickory ( Carya ...switchcane Berchemia scandens supplejack Betula nigra river birch Campsis radicans trumpet creeper Carpinus caroliniana ironwood Carya aquatica water

  8. Thermodynamic characterization of the PR-10 allergens Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 and pH-dependence of nApi g 1 and nDau c 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and recombinant Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, and homologous allergens, Api g 1 and Dau c 1, from celery and carrot, respectively, were studied by CD spectroscopy under conditions of varying denaturant concentration, pH and temperature to determine fundamental thermodynamic param

  9. Mechanisms of particle-induced pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model: exposure to wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juha; Lehto, Maili; Leino, Marina; Tillander, Sari; Haapakoski, Rita; Majuri, Marja-Leena; Wolff, Henrik; Rautio, Sari; Welling, Irma; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Repeated airway exposure to wood dust has long been known to cause adverse respiratory effects such as asthma and chronic bronchitis and impairment of lung function. However, the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses of the airways after wood dust exposure are poorly known. We used a mouse model to elucidate the mechanisms of particle-induced inflammatory responses to fine wood dust particles. BALB/c mice were exposed to intranasally administered fine (more than 99% of the particles had a particle size of dusts twice a week for 3 weeks. PBS, LPS, and titanium dioxide were used as controls. Intranasal instillation of birch or oak dusts elicited influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs in mice. Enhancement of lymphocytes and neutrophils was seen after oak dust exposure, whereas eosinophil infiltration was higher after birch dust exposure. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was associated with an increase in the mRNA levels of several cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in lung tissue. Oak dust appeared to be a more potent inducer of these inflammatory mediators than birch dust. The results from our in vivo mouse model show that repeated airway exposure to wood dust can elicit lung inflammation, which is accompanied by induction of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Oak and birch dusts exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in the elicitation of pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that the inflammatory responses induced by the wood species may rise via different cellular mechanisms.

  10. Tartu Waldorf-keskus : arhitektuurne ideekonkurss / Mikk Pärdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärdi, Mikk

    2013-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistluse eesmärgiks oli leida terviklik lahendus Tartu Waldorf-keskusele: lasteaed, 12-klassiline kool ja sotsiaalkeskus. Rudolf Steinerist ja lühidalt Waldorf-pedagoogikast. Waldorf-koolide arhitektuurist. Võistlustöödest, I preemia pälvinud tööst "Birch" (Joachim Zimmer, Imme Denker, Saksamaa)

  11. A Cockroach-Like Hexapod Robot for Natural Terrain Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Neuroethology. Birch, M. C, Quinn, R. D., Zill , S. N., Ritzmann, R. E. (1998) "A Model Cockroach Leg for Sensori-motor Studies," The Fifth International...S.N. Zill , R.E. Ritzmann, (1998). Kinematics and leg muscle activity in cockroaches climbing over obstacles. The Fifth International Congress of

  12. Enhancement of Antiviral Agents through the Use of Controlled-Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-11

    Comparison of Interferon Induction in Mice by Purified Penicillium chrysogenum Virus and Derived Double-Stranded RNA. J. Gen. Virol. 12: 131-139. 5... Penicillium stoloniferum. Nature 227: 504-505. 6. Sharpe, T.J., P.J. Birch and D.N. Planterose. 1971. Resistance to Virus Infection during the

  13. Thresholds in soil response to water stress: intensity and duration of dry-wet cycles induce differential soil C and bacterial diversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisermann, Aurore; Nunan, Naoise; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Terrat, Sébastien; Lata, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    After the wetting of dry soils, a CO2 flush (known as the 'Birch effect') is often observed. Although the Birch effect can often result in large CO2 fluxes, the process is not sufficiently well understood to predict its intensity. In particular, the impact of dry-wet cycles on microbial communities is poorly understood, as are the consequences of the possible changes for soil functioning. Using microcosm-based experiments, we investigated different climate change scenarios, such as drying periods of different durations (with co-variation of drying intensity and drought duration) and different rainfall intensities. The effects of four dry-wet cycles on the (i) immediate intensity of the Birch effect, (ii) rate of return to basal C mineralisation (functional resilience), (iii) total amount of CO2 released during a 5-month incubation and (iv) the dynamics of bacterial diversity were determined. Bacterial diversity was measured by pyrosequencing. The CO2 flush increased as a function of drying intensity, drought duration and wetting intensity but was not affected by the number of dry-wet cycles. However, the functional resilience was slower after the first dry-wet cycle than subsequent cycles, suggesting an adaptation of the microbial communities to water-stress. However, this was not associated with a higher stability of bacterial community since the pyrosequencing data showed that drying decreased bacterial diversity after each dry-wet cycle, but only if a threshold of minimal moisture is exceeded. These modifications were permanent over the long term and suggest that the communities were characterised by functional redundancy. Moderate droughts had no effect on overall CO2 emissions but severe droughts led to a lower loss of soil C due to the absence of mineralisation during the longer periods of desiccation that was not compensated by over-mineralisation during Birch effect. The study highlighted moisture threshold beyond which it can be observed a Birch effect and

  14. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.; Kuoppala, E.; Koskela, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  15. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or O3 on intra- and interspecific competitive ability of aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiske, M E; Quinn, V S; Marquardt, P E; Karnosky, D F

    2007-03-01

    Three model communities of trembling aspen (monoculture, and mixed with either paper birch or sugar maple) were grown for seven years in elevated atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) using Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) technology. We utilized trends in species' importance, calculated as an index of volume growth and survival, as indications of shifting community composition. For the pure aspen communities, different clones emerged as having the highest change in relative importance values depending on the pollutant exposure. In the control and elevated CO(2) treatments, clone 42E was rapidly becoming the most successful clone while under elevated O(3), clone 8 L emerged as the dominant clone. In fact, growth of clone 8 L was greater in the elevated O(3) treatment compared to controls. For the mixed aspen-birch community, importance of aspen and birch changed by - 16 % and + 62 %, respectively, in the controls. In the treatments, however, importance of aspen and birch changed by - 27 % and + 87 %, respectively, in elevated O(3), and by - 10 % and + 45 %, respectively, in elevated CO(2). Thus, the presence of elevated O(3) hastened conversion of stands to paper birch, whereas the presence of elevated CO(2) delayed it. Relative importance of aspen and maple changed by - 2 % and + 3 %, respectively, after seven years in the control treatments. But in elevated O(3), relative importance of aspen and maple changed by - 2 % and + 5 %, respectively, and in elevated CO(2) by + 9 and - 20 %, respectively. Thus, elevated O(3) slightly increases the rate of conversion of aspen stands to sugar maple, but maple is placed at a competitive disadvantage to aspen under elevated CO(2).

  16. Ash pollen allergy: reliable detection of sensitization on the basis of IgE to Ole e 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Konrad; Probst, Elisabeth; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regenass, Stephan; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    Background: Alongside hazel, alder and birch pollen allergies, ash pollen allergy is a relevant cause of hay fever during spring in the European region. For some considerable time, ash pollen allergy was not routinely investigated and its clinical relevance may well have been underestimated, particularly since ash and birch tree pollination times are largely the same. Ash pollen extracts are not yet well standardized and diagnosis is therefore sometimes unreliable. Olive pollen, on the other hand, is strongly cross-reactive with ash pollen and is apparently better standardized. Therefore, the main allergen of olive pollen, Ole e 1, has been postulated as a reliable alternative for the detection of ash pollen sensitization. Methods: To determine to what extent specific IgE against Ole e 1 in patients with ash pollen allergy is relevant, we included 183 subjects with ash pollen allergy displaying typical symptoms in March/April and positive skin prick test specific IgE against Ole e 1 (t224) and ash pollen (t25) and various birch allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2/v 4) in a retrospective study. Results: A significant correlation was seen between specific IgE against Ole e 1 and ash pollen, but also to a slightly lesser extent between IgE against Ole e 1 and skin prick test with ash pollen, the latter being even higher than IgE and skin prick test both with ash pollen. No relevant correlation was found with birch pollen allergens, demonstrating the very limited cross-reactivity between ash and birch pollen. Conclusion: It appears appropriate to determine specific IgE against Ole e 1 instead of IgE against ash pollen to detect persons with ash pollen allergy. Our findings may also support the idea of using possibly better standardized or more widely available olive pollen extracts instead of ash pollen extract for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  17. Uptake and Translocation of Iron by Native Tree Species In A Constructed Wetland Treating Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The objectives of this study were: (a to compare the uptake of iron by red maple, white birch and red spruce trees growing under flooded soil conditions in the constructed wetland and well drained soil conditions in a nearby reference site, (b to evaluate the seasonal variability of iron in these trees and (c to determine the distribution of iron in different compartments of these trees (leaves, twigs, branches, trunk wood, trunk bark and roots. The average iron concentrations in the aboveground compartments of red maple, white birch and red spruce trees were within the range of iron concentrations reported in the literature for these trees. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland had significantly greater iron concentrations in their roots than the same species in the reference site. The average iron concentrations in the leaves of red maple trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed an increasing trend towards the end of the growing season while the average iron concentrations in the twigs of red maple and white birch trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed maximum concentrations at the beginning of the growing season. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland retained a major portion of their overall iron concentration in their root systems.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  19. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  20. The Amendment of Two Mechanisms of Reduction Reactions in Fundamental Organic Chemistry (Higher Education Press)%高教版《基础有机化学》中两个还原反应机理的修正与补充

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏铭; 孟凡君; 赖鹏翔

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry is the core course of chemistry, biology and medicine, and other disciplines. The textbook Fundamental Organic Chemistry ( Higher Education Press) is adopted by many universities. We proposed amendment for two mechanisms in this book involving the radical anion intermediate, the alkynes reduction with alkali metal in liquid ammonia and the Birch reduction.%在教学过程中发现高等教育出版社出版的《基础有机化学》一书中有两个经自由基负离子的还原反应(即炔烃用碱金属和液氨还原反应和Birch(伯奇)还原反应)机理有不妥和需要完善之处,对此进行了修正与补充。

  1. Development and application of sedimentary pigments for assessing effects of climatic and environmental changes on subarctic lakes in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Leavitt, Peter R.; Hall, Roland I.;

    2010-01-01

    vegetation zones (alpine, birch, conifer/birch) were incompletely distinguished by the ordinations. In the RDAs, the primary pigment variability occurred along a production gradient that was correlated negatively to water-column DOC content and d13C signature of sediments. This pattern suggested......A surface-sediment survey of pigments in 100 lakes in the Scandes Mountains, northern Sweden, was combined with a reconstruction of Holocene sedimentary pigments from Lake Seukokjaure to assess the major factors regulating phototrophic communities, and how these controls may have changed during...... to the modern tree line. The spatial survey of sedimentary pigments was analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). PCA explained 73-83% of variance in pigment abundance and composition, whereas RDA explained 22-32% of variation in fossil assemblages. Dissolved organic...

  2. Comparison and analysis of the main technological factors of influencing mechanical properties of scrimber and PSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main mechanical properties of scrimber and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) were researched through technological test. Experimental materials of scrimber are small log of Aspen, Dahurian larch and Birch. Experimental materials of PSL come from fishtail veneer strips at plywood plant of Aspen and Birch. In the laboratory conditions low quality small log and wood residues can yield scrimber and PSL with high strength. After the technological conditions of scrimber were compared with that of PSL, the main factors of influencing their properties were separately pointed out and the reasons influencing properties have been analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the hot-pressing pressure is an important technological factor for scrimber. The ratio of veneer-strand length to thickness is a key technological factor for PSL.

  3. Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Jankovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors for the establishment and growth of pine and birch. For oak, the main factors for establishment and growth were favorable moisture, higher pH and N concentration. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting the establishment of seedlings and growth of saplings of the most common trees species in the urban boreal forest is needed to predict successional trajectories and to aid management.

  4. Glued Joint Behavior of Ribs for Wood-Based Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolovs, G.; Rocens, K.; Sliseris, J.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of composite sandwich plywood plates with cell type core and their connections between skin layers of birch plywood and a core of straight and curved plywood honeycomb-type ribs. This shape of core ribs provides several improvements for these plates in the manufacturing process as well as improves the mechanical properties of plywood plates. This specific form of ribs allows simplifying the manufacturing of these plates although it should be detailed and improved. The most typical cases (series of specimens) were compared to the results obtained from FEM (ANSYS) simulations. All thicknesses of elements are chosen according to plywood supplier assortment. Standard birch plywood (Riga Ply) plates were used - three layer plywood was chosen for skin elements (Surfaces) and three or five layer plywood was chosen for edge elements. Different bond pressures were taken to compare their influence on joint strength and stiffness.

  5. Specific immunotherapy has long-term preventive effect of seasonal and perennial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L; Niggemann, B; Dreborg, S;

    2007-01-01

    evaluated the long-term clinical effect and the preventive effect of developing asthma 7-years after termination of SIT. METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven subjects, aged 16-25 years with grass and/or birch pollen allergy was investigated 10 years after initiation of a 3-year course of SIT......BACKGROUND: 3-year subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SIT) in children with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis reduced the risk of developing asthma during treatment and 2 years after discontinuation of SIT (5-year follow-up) indicating long-term preventive effect of SIT. OBJECTIVE: We...... with standardized allergen extracts of grass and/or birch or no SIT respectively. Conjunctival provocations were performed outside the season and methacholine bronchial provocations were performed during the season and winter. Asthma was assessed by clinical evaluation. RESULTS: The significant improvements...

  6. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL HAVING DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xue,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL panels made from poplar (Populus ussuriensis Kom. and birch (Betula platyphylla Suk. veneers were tested for mechanical properties. The effects of the assembly pattern on the modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR of the LVL with vertical load testing were investigated. Three analytical methods were used: composite material mechanics, computer simulation, and static testing. The reliability of the different LVL assembly patterns was assessed using the method of Monte-Carlo. The results showed that the theoretical and ANSYS analysis results of the LVL MOE and MOR were very close to those of the static test results, and the largest proportional error was not greater than 5%. The veneer amount was the same, but the strength and reliability of the LVL made of birch veneers on the top and bottom was much more than the LVL made of poplar veneers. Good assembly patterns can improve the utility value of wood.

  7. Hazelnut allergy in children and adults: diagnosis and underlying mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Masthoff, L.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Hazelnut is a frequently consumed tree nut. This thesis shows that allergic symptoms to hazelnut are common but highly variable in severity, and they differ between children and adults. Hazelnut allergy in adults is generally limited to mild and local symptoms in the oral cavity, whereas in children, more severe symptoms such as angio-edema, urticaria and dyspnea are frequently observed. In adults, hazelnut allergy is associated with birch pollen allergy, whereas in children, it is often acco...

  8. 16 Pollen Allergens Differ From Nonallergenic Pollen Proteins by Their Lower Extent of Evolutionary Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Radauer, Christian; Guhslc, Eva; Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2012-01-01

    Background Pollen contains hundreds of different proteins. However, only a small fraction of them have been identified to be allergenic. We aimed to test the hypothesis that most pollen proteins are non-allergenic due to their high extent of sequence conservation among non-related species. Methods Data on the composition of pollen proteomes of birch (Betula pendula), pellitory (Parientaria judaica) and timothy grass (Phleum pratense) were obtained from the literature. Sequences were downloade...

  9. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    determined photocolorimetrically using vanillin reagent, on ethanol extracts of bark which were cleaned up on polyamide. The highest catechin content...Jul 84) 39 Artificial Graphite, Production and Properties (A.’ D. Kokurin; ZHURNAL PRIKLADNOY KHIMII, No 9, Sep 84) 40 Step-Wise Extraction ...Birch Wood (L. K. Molotkov; KHIMIYA DREVESINY, No 5, Sep-Oct 84).... 109 Catechin Content of Birth (Betula Pendula Roth.) Bark in Relation to Climatic

  10. Phase 2 Site Investigations Report. Volume 1 of 3: General Annex-Wide Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rose Rosa mudiflora Northern Arrowwood Viburnum recognitum Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra Orchard Grass Dactylis glomerata Panic Grass Panicum sp...Paper Birch Betula papyrifera Partridge-Berry Mitchela repens Pink Ladyslipper Cypripedium Poison Ivy Toxicodendron radicans Poverty Grass Danthonia ...mixture of white pine and oak is the predominant forest type in the northern portion (Figure 2-5). Open areas vegetated with grasses , forbs, and

  11. Remedial Investigations Report for Fort Devens Subbury Training Annex, Maynard, Massachusetts, Sites P11/P13 and Sites A12/P36/P37, Phase 2. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Poverty grass Danthonia spicata X Panic grass Panicum sp. X Common Milkweed Ascelpias syriaca X X Indian Pipe Monotropa uniflora X Pink Ladyslipper...Viburnum recognitum Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra Orchard Grass Dactylis glomerata Panic Grass Panicum sp. Paper Birch Betula papyrifera Partridge-Berry...Mitchella repens Pink Ladyslipper Cypripedium Poison Ivy Toxicodendron radicans Poverty Grass Danthonia spicata Privet Ligustrum vulgare Queen Anne’s

  12. Advanced Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    2.4.6 MagLev Train or MagLifter.............................................................................................. 21 2.4.7 Coilgun...Ring An orbital ring is comprised of two or more space elevators connected together in orbit by an orbital MagLev train system (Birch, 1982...1983a, b; Brakke, 1982). The MagLev trains ride on a massive segmented metal cable that orbits the Earth. Payloads are transported up to orbit from

  13. Structure of active IspH enzyme from escherichia coli provides mechanistic insights into substrate reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Gräwert, Tobias

    2009-07-20

    The terminal step of the non-mevalonate pathway of terpene biosynthesis is catalyzed by IspH (see scheme). In the crystal structure of IspH from E. coli, a bound inorganic diphosphate ligand occupies the position of the diphosphate residue of the substrate. Together with mutation studies and theoretical calculations, these data support a mechanism which is analogous to the Birch reduction of allylic alcohols. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. The finding of a paleo-spruce timber in Hunshandak sandy land and its paleoecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海亭; 刘鸿雁; 腰希申

    1997-01-01

    A paleo-sprucc (Picea jezoensis) timber dated to (10 040 + 100) a B. P. was found in the Hunshan-dak sandy land, Inner Mongolia, which is also one of the oldest timber found in China. Pollen and mammal fossil further evidence that theropencedrymion dominated by birch and spruce existed in this area in the late period of the earlier Holocene. This finding has great significance for the analysis of paleoclimate, paleovegetation and landscape development in this area.

  15. Long-term effect of different planting proportions on forest landscape in Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China after the catastrophic fire in 1987

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xugao; LI Xiuzhen; HE Hongshi; XIE Fuju

    2007-01-01

    A landscape model(LANDIS)was used to study the long-term forest dynamics under five planting types (100% larch(P1);70% larch and 30% Mongolian Scotch pine(Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica)(P2);50% larch and 50% Mongolian Scotch pine(P3);30% larch and 70% Mongolian Scotch pine(P4),100% Mongolian Scotch pine (P5)),which were also employed in severely burned area under current planting intensity,and under natural regeneration(as a comparison)in Tuqiang Forest Bureau in the northern slopes of Great Xing'an Mountains after the catastrophic fire in 1987.Results showed that different planting types had a significant influence on the abundance of larch,Mongolian Scotch pine and white birch.The abundance of larch increased with time,whereas the abundance of Mongolian Scotch pine was in a converse way.The abundance of larch and Mongolian Scotch pine under these planting scenarios was higher than that under natural regeneration.Under these planting scenarios,the abundance of larch increased with the increasing proportion of larch,and the abundance of Mongolian Scotch pine was in a similar way.Contrary to larch and Mongolian Scotch pine,white birch had higher abundance under natural regeneration than that under these planting scenarios.Also,the different proportions of larch and Mongolian Scotch pine had an influence on the abundance of white birch.White birch had higher abundance with the increasing proportion of Mongolian Scotch pine.As for the total abundance of larch and Mongolian Scotch pine,the difference was not significant under P2,P3 and P4 scenarios,but was higher than that under P1 and P5 scenarios,which indicated that individual-species planting should not be used in the forest landscape.

  16. The Application of PCR Reaction for Identification of MHB Bacteria Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ząbkiewicz Anna; Myga-Nowak Magdalena; Bandurska Katarzyna; Paczyńska Justyna; Szybecka Anna; Krupa Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) from selected unpolluted locations as well as subjected to industrial emissions. To determine the species of bacteria isolated from the roots of ectomycorrhizal pine and birch, a method based on the sequence analysis of a 16S rRNA gene was used. The isolated bacteria were initially characterized by available biochemical methods and phenotypic observation. On the selected bacteria representatives isolation of DNA was performed, on which...

  17. Phase Transition and EOS of Marmatite (Zn0.76Fe0.23S) up to 623 K and 17 Gpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xi; ZHOU Wen-Ge; XIE Hong-Sen; LIU Yong-Gang; FAN Da-Wei; LIU Jing; LI Yan-Chun; LUO Chong-Ju; MA Mai-Ning

    2007-01-01

    @@ In situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction for natural marmatite (Zn0.76Fe0.23S) is performed up to 17.7 GPa and 623K. It is fitted by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) that K0 and α0 for marmatite are 85(3)GPa and 0. 79(16)× 10-4 K-1, respectively.

  18. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. II. Sampling by high-volume airsampler with immunochemical quantification versus Burkard pollen trap sampling with morphologic quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Weeke, E R; Nielsen, J

    1992-01-01

    , was analysed, and close correlations between the 2 sampling techniques were found (rs 0.5-0.8, p .... Pollen counts and immunochemical estimation were compared with the symptom score recordings of allergic persons for birch season 1989 and for grass seasons 1986, 1988, and 1989. A close correlation was found for both sampling techniques for the grass seasons in 1986 and 1989 (rs 0.51-0.61, p

  19. Arctic Haze: Natural or Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    AGASP II was turned down flatly and abruptly. In November 1985, John Miller from NOAA Silver Spring attended a meeting in Tashkent and received informal...chemistry laboratories has a Varian Series 634 UV -visible spectrophotometer with autosampler and DR37 digital printer. Other facilities available through the...Firm-Thompson. Birch . Gauthier Lowenthal, both of Nrragansciu. R I &Samuels (73] Assignee: Board of Governors for Higher (57] ABSTRACT Education, State

  20. Army Communicator. Volume 28, Number 1, Spring 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    received the 2002 Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award for his innova- tive method that enhances the performance of electronic systems. Most electronic...ELECTRONICS COMMAND ENGINEER NABS THOMAS EDISON AWARD FORT MONMOUTH, N.J. – The Research and Development Council of New Jersey recently honored a...attendees, 200 exhibitors CPT Thomas Birch 7 State of Signal Regiment strong Denise Allen 8 ‘Cyberman’ makes everyone cyberwarriors Denise Allen 9

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Verification of Revised Water Vapour Correction to the Index of Refraction of Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, J.; Doiron, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Edlén equation has become the standard method of relating the index of refraction of air to the air temperature, pressure and humidity. The recent suggestion for improvements in the humidity dependence by Birch and Downs has been verified at the 0,633 μm He-Ne laser wavelength using the line scale interferometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  2. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time-distance helioseismology pipeline has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time-distance helioseismology: a Gabor wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, 2004). Using Doppler velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference travel-time perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (1997) and Gizon and Birch (2002). We investigated the relationships among these three travel-time definitions, their sensitivities to fitting parameters, and estimated the random errors they produce

  3. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Solar Dynamics Observatory-Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler-velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time - distance helioseismology pipeline (Zhao et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2010) has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross-covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time - distance helioseismology: a Gabor-wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004). Using Doppler-velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument onboard SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference traveltime perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet-Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997) and Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002). We investigated the relationships among

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  5. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Icress Rorippa obtusa Obtuse yellow cress Unidentified sp. P I CUCURBITACEAE Sicyos angulatus Bur-cucumber1 CYPERACEAE Carex aenca Sedge Carex annectens...Bitter- White oak Little bluestem Reed-canary- Sedges flackbcrry nut White pine Nodding grama grass Milkweed Green ash hickory Sugar maple Northern Rice...Aster Cottonwood Hackbcrry Paper birch dropseed cutgrass Blue-joint Silver maple Ironwood Ironwood Hairy grama River sedge grass Slippery Bur oak Red

  6. A generalized equation of state with an application to the Earth's mantle

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Robles-Gutiérrez; J. M. A. Robles-Domínguez; C. Lomnitz

    2010-01-01

    This study analizes the pertinency of including in the state equation of Kamerlingh-Onnes, non additive, potentials of multiple-interactiions of particles. These forces are indeed real and of a electrodinamic character. From the state equation no gerenalized, we obtained the isotherms in the vecinity of the critical point, and of the triple point for polar (or no polar) systems. We developed the example of water. We generalized the state equation for the mantle developed by Birch, and in part...

  7. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  8. Track-Before-Detect for Sensors with Complex Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-09

    Proceedings of the American Control Conference , pages 4393–4397, Arlington, VA... of the American Control Conference , pages 3755–3760, Arlington, VA, USA, June 2001. [12] M. I. Skolnik. Introduction to Radar Systems. McGraw-Hill...Radar, Sonar and Naviga- tion, 152(5):345–352, October 2005. [11] D. J. Salmond and H. Birch. A particle filter for track- before-detect. In Proceedings

  9. Highlights of forest pest conditions in the maritimes at the end of June, 1993. Technical note No. 285. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This note describes forest pest conditions in the Maritimes at the end of June, 1993. It discusses diseases and pests found including forest tent caterpiller, gypsy moth, red shoots of balsam fir, aspen leafroller, spruce budworm, poplar serpentine leafminer, maple leafroller, and spruce spider mite. Others include elm leafminer, leafroller of birch, satin moth, cherry blight, aspen twoleaf, fall cankerworm, winter moth, and leaf and twig blight of aspen.

  10. Spectroscopic investigations of newly formed betulin-cyclodextrin guest-host type complexes as potential anti skin cancer candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falamaş, A.; Pînzaru, S. Cînta; Chiş, V.; Dehelean, C.

    2011-05-01

    Betulin and the related compounds found in the outer bark of the birch tree have attached an increasing interest in the pharmaceutical formulation, due to their anti-cancer activity. Betulin exhibits a very poor solubility; therefore new approaches are required, such as the preparation of the guest-host type complexes using cyclodextrins. The new prepared betulin - hydroxy-propyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HPGCD) complexes have been obtained and characterized using vibrational spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with quantum chemical calculation.

  11. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  12. Conditionally bounding analytic ranks of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bober, Jonathan W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for bounding the rank of an elliptic curve under the assumptions of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture and the generalized Riemann hypothesis. As an example, we compute, under these conjectures, exact upper bounds for curves which are known to have rank at least as large as 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24. For the known curve of rank at least 28, we get a bound of 30.

  13. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) in Germany – current presence, allergological relevance and containment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Buters, Jeroen; Alberternst, Beate; Nawrath, Stefan; WIMMER Maria; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Starfinger, Uwe; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) is a neophyte in Europe and Germany, which originated from the United States of America. In the USA the rate of sensitization against ragweed equals that of grass pollen, and without containment the rate of allergic sensitizations against ragweed pollen will clearly increase. Currently, the most frequent sensitizations in Germany are against grass pollen, followed by sensitizations against house dust mite and birch pollen. Ragweed pollen evokes symptoms at ab...

  14. Thermokarst Rates Intensify Due to Climate Change and Forest Fragmentation in an Alaskan Boreal Forest Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Breen, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse scar-bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5o C of thawing. Increases in the collapse of lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998 and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30x30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, respectively. Gradient boosting and regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950-2009 landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² of birch forest area to wetlands on the Tanana Flats, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights the vulnerability of lowland

  15. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    tuberculatus WM Amorpha A. fruiticosa WMS Betula B. nigra FF, LF Bidens B. cernua, B. frondosa SMA Carex C. spp.1 SM Carya C. cordiformis, C. illinoensis LF...include pecan ( Carya ), hickory ( Carya ), river birch (Betula), sycamore (Platanus), and red/black oak (Quercus). This general class is most com- mon...near the edge of the floodplain, or out of the floodplain. This general class typi- cally consists of red or white oak (Quercus), hickory ( Carya

  16. Forms of Memory in Post-colonial Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn McCredden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available there are many forms of memory in post-colonial Australia, and many kinds of haunting. This paper investigates the poetry of contemporary Indigenous poets Sam Wagan Watson and Tony Birch, and reads the script of the Federal Government’s February 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, asking how and why the nation should be haunted – historically and imaginatively - into the future.

  17. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses.

  18. Recent Glacier Recession – a New Source of Postglacial Treeline and Climate History in the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Öberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming during the past century has imposed recession of glaciers and perennial snow/ice patches along the entire Swedish Scandes. On the newly exposed forefields, subfossil wood remnants are being outwashed from beneath ice and snow bodies. In Scandinavia, this kind of detrital wood is a previously unused source of postglacial vegetation and climate history. The present study reports radiocarbon dates of a set of 78 wood samples, retrieved from three main sites, high above modern treelines and stretching along the Swedish Scandes. In accord with previous studies, pine (Pinus sylvestris colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in “empty” glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present-ay treeline position and the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present. In respons to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered in a 100-150 broad belt above the uppermost pines. The recent emergence of tree remnants in the current habitats relates to the contemporary episode of climate warming, possibly unprecedented for several past millennia. It is inferred, by an anology with the past, that in a future scenario with summers 3.5 ° warmer than present, the birch treeline may rise by 600 m or so.

  19. Phase II Private Sector Financed Military Family Housing Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    NFA. SS35 Paxson Park Site, bordered by fire station, Mt. Illiamna School, Orion Elementary School, Aurora School, Bldg 5091 and park pavilion...Pacific Coast, western hemlock-sitka spruce forest and the interior boreal forests of white spruce, paper birch, and aspen. The species associations...indications of overall ecosystem health. On Elmendorf AFB, moose and snowshoe hare are key species for terrestrial habitats in the boreal forest

  20. Quality Control of Biomedicinal Allergen Products - Highly Complex Isoallergen Composition Challenges Standard MS Database Search and Requires Manual Data Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Spiric

    Full Text Available Allergy against birch pollen is among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in Europe and is diagnosed and treated using extracts from natural sources. Quality control is crucial for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. However, current methods are very difficult to standardize and do not address individual allergen or isoallergen composition. MS provides information regarding selected proteins or the entire proteome and could overcome the aforementioned limitations. We studied the proteome of birch pollen, focusing on allergens and isoallergens, to clarify which of the 93 published sequence variants of the major allergen, Bet v 1, are expressed as proteins within one source material in parallel. The unexpectedly complex Bet v 1 isoallergen composition required manual data interpretation and a specific design of databases, as current database search engines fail to unambiguously assign spectra to highly homologous, partially identical proteins. We identified 47 non-allergenic proteins and all 5 known birch pollen allergens, and unambiguously proved the existence of 18 Bet v 1 isoallergens and variants by manual data analysis. This highly complex isoallergen composition raises questions whether isoallergens can be ignored or must be included for the quality control of allergen products, and which data analysis strategies are to be applied.

  1. Imaginer, monter : la mémoire inachevée d’Auschwitz selon Georges Didi-Huberman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Balint-Babos

    2014-12-01

    Écorces by Georges Didi-Huberman is the “récit-photo” of a wandering experience through the camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau in June 2010. The author takes photographs of some pieces of birch bark and reflects on what remains of Auschwitz today. Does this gesture have the power to shift him from mourning? In this article, I study the “inachevé” (the act of un-finishing as a metaphor of the birch bark: on the one hand, this is a small part of a tree, a part of a text, a fragment; on the other hand, this is an image in our memory, a precarious surface that is detached from a body (of a tree. What to expect of a photographed piece of birch bark in such a place like Birkenau? I thus analyze the question of mounting (le montage pieces of text and images, the idea of the partial and the production of “small truths” as figures of the unfinished space of our memory.

  2. Quality Control of Biomedicinal Allergen Products – Highly Complex Isoallergen Composition Challenges Standard MS Database Search and Requires Manual Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Jelena; Engin, Anna M.; Karas, Michael; Reuter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Allergy against birch pollen is among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in Europe and is diagnosed and treated using extracts from natural sources. Quality control is crucial for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. However, current methods are very difficult to standardize and do not address individual allergen or isoallergen composition. MS provides information regarding selected proteins or the entire proteome and could overcome the aforementioned limitations. We studied the proteome of birch pollen, focusing on allergens and isoallergens, to clarify which of the 93 published sequence variants of the major allergen, Bet v 1, are expressed as proteins within one source material in parallel. The unexpectedly complex Bet v 1 isoallergen composition required manual data interpretation and a specific design of databases, as current database search engines fail to unambiguously assign spectra to highly homologous, partially identical proteins. We identified 47 non-allergenic proteins and all 5 known birch pollen allergens, and unambiguously proved the existence of 18 Bet v 1 isoallergens and variants by manual data analysis. This highly complex isoallergen composition raises questions whether isoallergens can be ignored or must be included for the quality control of allergen products, and which data analysis strategies are to be applied. PMID:26561299

  3. Quality Control of Biomedicinal Allergen Products - Highly Complex Isoallergen Composition Challenges Standard MS Database Search and Requires Manual Data Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Jelena; Engin, Anna M; Karas, Michael; Reuter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Allergy against birch pollen is among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in Europe and is diagnosed and treated using extracts from natural sources. Quality control is crucial for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. However, current methods are very difficult to standardize and do not address individual allergen or isoallergen composition. MS provides information regarding selected proteins or the entire proteome and could overcome the aforementioned limitations. We studied the proteome of birch pollen, focusing on allergens and isoallergens, to clarify which of the 93 published sequence variants of the major allergen, Bet v 1, are expressed as proteins within one source material in parallel. The unexpectedly complex Bet v 1 isoallergen composition required manual data interpretation and a specific design of databases, as current database search engines fail to unambiguously assign spectra to highly homologous, partially identical proteins. We identified 47 non-allergenic proteins and all 5 known birch pollen allergens, and unambiguously proved the existence of 18 Bet v 1 isoallergens and variants by manual data analysis. This highly complex isoallergen composition raises questions whether isoallergens can be ignored or must be included for the quality control of allergen products, and which data analysis strategies are to be applied.

  4. Carbon sequestration and plant nutrients in soil in different land types in Thingvellir Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdóttir, María; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Mankasingh, Utra

    2015-04-01

    Special properties of volcanic soils (andisol) that is most common in Iceland can sequestrate considerably more carbon (C) that other types of soils. A mellow developed andisol with natural ecosystem such as birch forest or grass- and heathland is presumably to be fertile and sequestrate a lot of carbon. Coniferous tree species have been imported to Iceland for large scale utilisation in Icelandic forestry and is therefore an imported species/ecosystem. Abroad it has been noticed that coniferous trees acidify soil and change the properties of the soil so other species cannot thrive in it. The Icelandic Forest service is aiming tenfold the coverage of forests in Iceland before the year 2100 but about 50% of tree species that the institution uses is coniferous species. It is therefore important to research the soil due to the plant types that are planted in the soil. The aim of this project is to compare soil properties, soil nutrients and soil sequestration in heathland, birch forest and coniferous forest in Thingvellir national park in Iceland. Heathland and birch forest represent the natural ecosystem but coniferous forest imported ecosystem. Carbon (C) in soil will be measured, proportion of carbon and nitrogen (C:N), respiration from soil (CO2) and live green biomass and organic matter in the soil. The speed of decomposition of organic matter will be estimated. Important nutrients, pH and cation exchange capacity will be measured among other physical properties as bulk density, grain size and water holding capacity of the soil.

  5. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  6. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  7. Clustering of foodstuffs in food hypersensitivity. An inquiry study in pollen allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E

    1984-01-01

    600 pollen allergic patients were questioned about hypersensitivity symptoms from various foodstuffs. The answers regarding one foodstuff were compared with those of other foodstuffs making 780 tables, from which the Spearmen 's correlation coefficients were calculated. Most of the combinations of foodstuffs showed statistically significant correlations. The highest value of the correlation coefficient was found for certain combinations: Various nuts reciprocally as well as nuts combined with apple and stone fruits. Stone fruits reciprocally and even stone fruits combined with apple and pear. Apple and pear. Kiwi fruit and avocado. Potato and carrot. Swede , parsnip and celery reciprocally. Strawberry and wild strawberry. Fish and bread, fish and cheese. Beer and wine. Several of the foodstuffs showing high degrees of correlation are known to be associated with birch pollen allergies. It is probable that at least some of these correlations are due to true IgE-mediated cross-reactivity with common allergens in birch pollen and foodstuffs. Other, hitherto less well understood mechanisms, might be at work as well. It is concluded that clustering of foodstuffs is common in food hypersensitivity and that in Sweden this phenomenon mostly is due to the association between birch pollen and some foodstuffs.

  8. Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen--Cas s 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Ferreira, F; Hirschwehr, R; Ahorn, H; Horak, F; Jager, S; Sperr, W; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-11-15

    Pollens from trees of the order Fagales (e.g. birch, alder, hazel, and hornbeam) all contain one major allergen--the main cause for tree pollen allergy. So far the major allergens from birch (Bet v 1), alder (Aln g 1), hazel (Cor a 1), and hornbeam (Car b 1) have been characterized, showing high sequence similarity with each other (1-4). We present the molecular and immunologic characterization of Cas s 1, the major allergen from the European chestnut (Castanea sativa). From aqueous pollen extracts from European chestnut a protein was purified to homogeneity and was subjected to further investigation. The protein revealed a Mr of 22 kDa and was shown to represent the major allergen of the European chestnut (immunoblotting, histamine release) and designated Cas s 1. Despite a marked difference in Mr, Cas s 1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity at the N-terminus and is antigenically closely related to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (17 kDa), as shown by binding to the anti-Bet v 1 monoclonal antibody BIP-1 and by IgE-inhibition tests using recombinant Bet v 1.

  9. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  10. Foliar fungi of Betula pendula: impact of tree species mixtures and assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diem; Boberg, Johanna; Cleary, Michelle; Bruelheide, Helge; Hönig, Lydia; Koricheva, Julia; Stenlid, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Foliar fungi of silver birch (Betula pendula) in an experimental Finnish forest were investigated across a gradient of tree species richness using molecular high-throughput sequencing and visual macroscopic assessment. We hypothesized that the molecular approach detects more fungal taxa than visual assessment, and that there is a relationship among the most common fungal taxa detected by both techniques. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the fungal community composition, diversity, and distribution patterns are affected by changes in tree diversity. Sequencing revealed greater diversity of fungi on birch leaves than the visual assessment method. One species showed a linear relationship between the methods. Species-specific variation in fungal community composition could be partially explained by tree diversity, though overall fungal diversity was not affected by tree diversity. Analysis of specific fungal taxa indicated tree diversity effects at the local neighbourhood scale, where the proportion of birch among neighbouring trees varied, but not at the plot scale. In conclusion, both methods may be used to determine tree diversity effects on the foliar fungal community. However, high-throughput sequencing provided higher resolution of the fungal community, while the visual macroscopic assessment detected functionally active fungal species.

  11. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I

    2016-07-01

    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species.

  12. Assessing seedbank recruitment windows of opportunity in thaw slump thermokarsts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, D. C.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Tall shrub thickets (>1m) of birch and willow have been observed in stabilized lobes of thaw slump thermokarsts (gullies cause by thawed permafrost) in the Low Arctic near Toolik Lake, Alaska. We tested whether there are differences in seedling recruitment and establishment in thermokarsts vs outside the disturbance by comparing in-situ seedling presence, greenhouse germination of natural seedbanks, and cohort age groups of willow (Salix spp.) and birch in two 50m transects sampled in thermokarst lobes of different age: one young lobe of 7 y.a. at Lake NE-14, and one older lobe of 22 y.a. at Lake I-minus 1 vs. two transects outside the lobes. Young thermokarsts may provide germination windows of opportunity for fast growing species like graminoids and deciduous shrubs. In-situ seedling observations generally agreed with expectations. Fifteen times as many live seedlings were observed in the young lobe vs. outside, composed mainly of graminoids and willows, and five times more seedlings were observed inside the older lobe vs. outside, including 25% birch. Germination trials of seedbanks, as expected, showed a reverse trend. The smaller seedbanks in the young lobe had far fewer germinants than outside: over 49 times more seedlings germinated in the outside seedbank compared to the thermokarst, and were composed mainly of longer-lived evergreen shrubs in the genera Ledum and Rhododendron. The older lobe, by contrast, showed seven times greater germination than outside and was composed mainly of graminoids. Birch made up only 5%, reflecting variation in species composition between sites. ANOVA of seedbank germination across sites showed unit increase in number of germinated seeds was negatively correlated to percent cover of bare soil, positively correlated to the amount of organic matter present in the surface soil as reflected in sample volume, and positively correlated to thaw depth. Reverse trends in germination trials vs. presence of live seedlings may be

  13. Changes in species composition and diversity in the restoration process of sub-alpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangming MA; Shirong LIU; Zuomin SHI; Yuandong ZHANG; Bing KANG; Baoyu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    By adopting the concept of space as a substi-tute for time, we analyzed the dynamics of species com-position and diversity of different restoration sequences (20, 30, 40, 50 years) in two secondary forest types in western Sichuan Province, distributed in a northerly or northwesterly direction. The analysis was based on the results of measurements of 50 plots located at elevations between 3100-3600 m. The forests originated from nat-ural regeneration in combination with reforestation of spruce when the old-growth bamboo-dark brown con-iferous forests and moss-dark brown coniferous old growth forests were harvested. Similar old-growth dark brown coniferous forests at ages ranging between 160 and 200 years were selected as the reference forests for comparisons. We recorded 167 species of vascular plants from 44 families and 117 genera. There was no significant difference in terms of the number of species among secondary forests. But the importance values of dominant species varied during the restoration pro-cesses. The dominant species in the secondary forests is Betula albo-sinensis, while Abiesfaxoniana is the dom-inant species in old-growth dark brown coniferous for-ests. Species richness increased significantly with restoration processes. It increased quickly in secondary forests during the period from 30 to 40 years, but decreased significantly in the old-growth dark brown coniferous forests. The species richness among growth forms decreased in the following order: herb layer> sh-rub layer > tree layer. The maximum value of the even-ness index occurred in secondary forests at age 40 and remained relatively stable in the bamboo-birch forests, but the evenness index tended to decrease in moss-birch forests and slightly increased in the old-growth moss-dark brown coniferous forests. There was a statistically significant difference in the evenness index between the tree and shrub layers as well as between the tree layer and the herb layer, but there was no

  14. The Influence of Dipping Technology on Fire Retardant Retention Quantity of FRW Fire-Retarding Veneer%浸渍工艺对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎涛; 乔磊; 李晓乐; 林会峰; 姜道鸿; 韩爽

    2012-01-01

    The new-type fire retardant FRW was selected to treat poplar and birch veneer, and the influence of the treatment technology conditions including the soaking time and solution concentration, veneer thickness and the timber of different tree species on the fire retardant retention quantity of the FRW fire-retarding veneer was studied. The results showed that along with the prolonging of soaking time duration and increasing of the solution concentration, the fire retardant retention quantity of the poplar and birch veneer both increased. There was difference in the fire retardant retention quantity between the tree species, the fire retardant retention quantity of poplar veneer was higher than that of the birch veneer. At the same time, with the increase of veneer thickness, the fire retardant retention quantity showed a downward trend in the overall.%选用新型木材阻燃剂FRW处理杨木和桦木单板,探讨浸渍工艺条件(浸渍时间和浸渍浓度)、单板厚度、树种等因素对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响.结果表明:随着单板浸渍时间的增加和浸渍浓度的提高,杨木和桦木的单板载药量均呈上升趋势;树种不同,其载药量存在差异,杨木单板的载药量高于桦木单板;随着单板厚度的增加,单板载药量在整体上呈下降趋势.

  15. Improvement of the quality of wood derived biofuel-oils; Puuperaeisten biopolttooeljyjen laadun parantaminen. Raakasuovan terminen nestefaasikaesittely hiilivety-polttoaineiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P.; Kuoppala, E.; Kylloenen, H.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Liquid-phase thermochemical processing of tall oil soap has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Both catalytic hydrotreatment and liquid-phase thermal treatment of a mixed pine/birch soap have been investigated in the laboratory. Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons were the principal products formed in both types of treatment. Although the liquid product formed under hydrotreatment conditions contained a higher proportion of aliphatic compounds, it was clear that the thermal treatment process would be, economically, the more favorable option. In the thermal process, a predominantly hydrocarbon oil product was obtained at 450 deg C using a residence time of at least 60 min. About 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap was recovered as oil product, about 30 % as gases, and about 20 % as organic material contained in an aqueous slurry phase. When the oil product was carefully separated from the aqueous slurry phase, only trace amounts of impurities, such as water, sodium and organic acid salts were present in the product. A techno-economic evaluation of the process concept has been performed. The economics of the thermal treatment process appear to be favorable in comparison with those of the conventional acidulation process

  16. Ultraviolet-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in Betula pendula leaves is dependent upon nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Dong, Ju-Fang; Jin, Hai-Hong; Sun, Li-Na; Xu, Mao-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants. Nitric oxide generation and flavonoid accumulation are two early reactions of plants to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation. However, the source of UV-B-triggered NO generation and the role of NO in UV-B-induced flavonoid accumulation are not fully understood. In order to evaluate the origin of UV-B-triggered NO generation, we examined the responses of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and the expression levels of NIA1 and NIA2 genes in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings to UV-B irradiation. The data show that UV-B irradiation stimulates NR activity and induces up-regulation of NIA1 but does not affect NIA2 expression during UV-B-triggered NO generation. Pretreatment of the leaves with NR inhibitors tungstate (TUN) and glutamine (Gln) abolishes not only UV-B-triggered NR activities but also UV-B-induced NO generation. Furthermore, application of TUN and Gln suppresses UV-B-induced flavonoid production in the leaves and the suppression of NR inhibitors on UV-B-induced flavonoid production can be reversed by NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside. Together, the data indicate that NIA1 in the leaves of silver birch seedlings is sensitive to UV-B and the UV-B-induced up-regulation of NIA1 may lead to enhancement of NR activity. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that NR is involved in UV-B-triggered NO generation and NR-mediated NO generation is essential for UV-B-induced flavonoid accumulation in silver birch leaves.

  17. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  18. Tree species diversity influences herbivore abundance and damage: meta-analysis of long-term forest experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehviläinen, Harri; Koricheva, Julia; Ruohomäki, Kai

    2007-05-01

    Plant monocultures are commonly believed to be more susceptible to herbivore attacks than stands composed of several plant species. However, few studies have experimentally tested the effects of tree species diversity on herbivory. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of uniformly collected data on insect herbivore abundance and damage on three tree species (silver birch, black alder and sessile oak) from seven long-term forest diversity experiments in boreal and temperate forest zones. Our aim was to compare the effects of forest diversity on herbivores belonging to different feeding guilds and inhabiting different tree species. At the same time we also examined the variation in herbivore responses due to tree age and sampling period within the season, the effects of experimental design (plot size and planting density) and the stability of herbivore responses over time. Herbivore responses varied significantly both among insect feeding guilds and among host tree species. Among insect feeding guilds, only leaf miner densities were consistently lower and less variable in mixed stands as compared to tree monocultures regardless of the host tree species. The responses of other herbivores to forest diversity depended largely on host tree species. Insect herbivory on birch was significantly lower in mixtures than in birch monocultures, whereas insect herbivory on oak and alder was higher in mixtures than in oak and alder monocultures. The effects of tree species diversity were also more pronounced in older trees, in the earlier part of the season, at larger plots and at lower planting density. Overall our results demonstrate that forest diversity does not generally and uniformly reduce insect herbivory and suggest instead that insect herbivore responses to forest diversity are highly variable and strongly dependent on the host tree species and other stand characteristics as well as on the type of the herbivore.

  19. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  20. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Buried late holocene paleosols of the nienshants cultural-historical monument in St. Petersburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, A. V.; Nikonov, A. A.; Savelieva, L. A.; Pinakhina, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Buried Late Holocene paleosols of the Nienshants historical monument at the junction of the Neva and Okhta rivers (St. Petersburg) have been studied. These soils developed from estuary deposits of the Littorina basin with abundant artifacts of the Neolithic and Early Iron ages (7-2 ka BP). The soil cover of the area consists of the mature dark-humus profile-gleyed soils on elevated elements of the mesotopography (3.0-3.5 a.s.l.) and dark-humus gley soils in the local depressions (2.0-2.6 m a.s.l.). The soils are characterized by the low to moderate content of humus of the fulvate-humate type. The beginning of humus formation in the dark-humus gley soil on the slope facing the Neva River is estimated at about 2600 yrs ago; for the darkhumus profile-gleyed soils of the studied paleocatena, at about 2000 and 1780 yrs ago; and for the darkhumus gley soil, at about 1440 years ago. Judging from the spore-pollen spectra, the development of these soils took place in the Subatlantic period under birch and pine-birch forests with the admixture of spruce and alder trees. The gleyed horizons of the buried soil at the depth of 1.6-1.2 m on the Neva-facing slope date back to the Late Subboreal period (2500-2600 yrs ago), when pine-birch-spruce forests were widespread in the area. The new data contribute to our knowledge of the environmental conditions during the Neolithic and Iron ages.

  2. Composition of riparian litter input regulates organic matter decomposition: Implications for headwater stream functioning in a managed forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Johan; Jonsson, Micael; Burrows, Ryan M; Bundschuh, Mirco; Sponseller, Ryan A

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags. Total litter inputs ranged more than fivefold among sites and increased with the proportion of deciduous vegetation in the riparian zone. In line with differences in initial litter quality, mean decomposition rate was highest for alder, followed by birch, spruce, and lodgepole pine (12, 55, and 68% lower rates, respectively). Further, these rates were greater in coarse-mesh bags that allow colonization by macroinvertebrates. Variance in decomposition rate among sites for different species was best explained by different sets of environmental conditions, but litter-input composition (i.e., quality) was overall highly important. On average, native litter decomposed faster in sites with higher-quality litter input and (with the exception of spruce) higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients and open canopies. By contrast, lodgepole pine decomposed more rapidly in sites receiving lower-quality litter inputs. Birch litter decomposition rate in coarse-mesh bags was best predicted by the same environmental variables as in fine-mesh bags, with additional positive influences of macroinvertebrate species richness. Hence, to facilitate energy turnover in boreal headwaters, forest management with focus on conifer production should aim at increasing the presence of native deciduous

  3. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  4. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs) with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE colonization without

  5. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of developing xylem responding to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli in Betula platyphylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Betula platyphylla Suk (birch is a fast-growing woody species that is important in pulp industries and the biofuels. However, as an important pulp species, few studies had been performed on its wood formation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular responses of birch xylem to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli. After trunks of birch trees were subjected to bending for 8 weeks, the cellulose content was significantly greater in tension wood (TW than in opposite wood (OW or normal wood (NW, whereas the lignin content in TW was significantly lower than that in OW and NW. In addition, TW grew more rapidly than OW and generated TW-specific fibers with an additional G-layer. Three transcriptome libraries were constructed from TW, OW and NW of B. platyphylla, respectively, after the plants were subjected to artificial bending. Overall, 80,909 nonredundant unigenes with a mean size of 768 nt were assembled. Expression profiles were generated, and 9,684 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the TW, OW and NW libraries. These included genes involved in secondary cell wall structure, wood composition, and cellulose or lignin biosynthesis. Our study showed that during TW formation, genes involved in cellulose synthesis were induced, while the expression of lignin synthesis-related genes decreased, resulting in increased cellulose content and decreased lignin levels in TW. In addition, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins play important role in TW formation. These findings may provide important insights into wood formation at the molecular level.

  6. Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

    2013-12-01

    We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

  7. Sensitization according to skin prick testings in atopic patients with asthma or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Northern Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E Eriksson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin prick tests (SPT were performed on 2113 atopic patients (407 children and 1 706 adults with asthma and/or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. Test extracts were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae [D. farinae, cat, dog, horse, birch, timothy, mugwort, Cladosporium, Alternaria, cockroach, chironomids (red mosquito larvae, RML and shrimp. Among the allergens, timothy followed by cat, birch and dog gave the highest number of positive SPT. Positive SPT with house dust mites (HDM, furred animals, RML and Cladosporium were more common in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis; birch and timothy more common in patients with rhinitis. Sensitization against D. pteronyssinus, horse, timothy and Cladosporium was more common in men than in women. Although the general sensitization pattern of the atopic patients at the participating centers showed similarities, there were also significant differences between centers. Positive SPT with furred animals were most prevalent in Northern and Central Sweden and St Petersburg, and least common in Siberia and Denmark. Pollen allergy was most common in Novosibirsk and on the west coast of Sweden, and less common in Vladivostok. Sensitization against HDM was most common in Lithuania and least prevalent in Northern Sweden and Finland. Insect allergens gave the most positive reactions in St Petersburg and the least positive reaction in Novosibirsk. Sensitization against multiple allergens was found in 74% of the patients and a mono-allergy in 26%. The degree of atopy was higher in males than in females and higher in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis. The month of birth of the patients did not influence significantly the test results. It is concluded that although the sensitization pattern shows similarities in different regions, it is also influenced to some extent by residence as well as by diagnosis, sex

  8. Effect of Heat Treatment on Sorption Properties and Dimensional Stability of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas NAVICKAS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed in order to determine how the heating process affects sorption properties and dimensional and shape stability of oak, lime and birch wood. By subjecting specimens to 3 hours heating at 130, 160, 190 and 220 ºC temperatures, a decrease in volume, density and mass was observed in proportion to the applied temperature. It was established that when oak wood specimens underwent heating at 220 ºC temperature, the decline of mass was 1.2 times higher than in the case of birch specimens. Both heated and unheated specimens underwent moistening in air at 25 ºC ±1 ºC temperature for 3 weeks with relative humidity being 85 % ±1 % and were soaked in water at room temperature for 4 hours. It was found that after applying high temperature heating, specimens absorbed smaller amounts of moisture. It was demonstrated that during the soaking process, the volume of unheated specimens was 3 times higher than in the case of specimens heated at 220 ºC temperature. The change in the volume of unheated oak was 1.27 times smaller than in the case of lime specimens and 1.16 times larger than in the case of birch specimens, which underwent heating at 220 ºC temperature. In addition, specimens that were exposed to heat had more stable measurements and shapes. It was noticed that the heating process caused significant changes in moisture and dimensional stability of specimens, when higher temperatures ranging from 190 ºC to 220 ºC were used. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5239

  9. [The study of profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens in the Moscow region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2014-05-01

    The profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens is an important element of common pattern of immune diseases needed for development of effective pharmaceuticals. The purpose of the study was to analyze the rate of detection of combined forms of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens (pollen of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood, fungi A. alternata, C. herbarum, R. nigricans, P. notatum, C. albicans, A. fumigatus) in the Moscow region on the basis of data of scarification skin samples. The mono-sensibilization was established in 23.36% of all cases of hypersensitivity. At that, among leading allergens turned out A. alternata and cocksfoot pollen (6.54% and 4.67%), followed by allergens of wormwood pollen, P. notatum, R. nigricans, birch pollen and C. albicans (3.74%, 3.74%, 1.87%, 1.87% and 0.93% correspondingly). The polysensibilization was established in 51.40% of cases. Besides, the combined hypersensitivity to pollen allergens of plants (20.26%) and to pollen and fungal allergens (20.56%) occurred more frequently In the group of patients with polysensibilization predominated combined allergic reactions to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergens (36.36%). On the whole, most frequently occurred sensitization to allergens of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood and A. alternata allergen (76.14%, 69.32%, 57.95%, 55.68%, 39.77% and 56.82% correspondingly). In the Moscow region predominate combined forms of hypersensitivity to two and more pollen and fungal allergens. The polysensitization to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergen occurs more frequently.

  10. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  11. Pollen evidence for late pleistocene bering land bridge environments from Norton Sound, Northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Phillips, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    After more than half a century of paleoenvironmental investigations, disagreements persist as to the nature of vegetation type and climate of the Bering land bridge (BLB) during the late Wisconsin (Sartan) glacial interval. Few data exist from sites on the former land bridge, now submerged under the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Two hypotheses have emerged during the past decade. The first, based on pollen data from Bering Sea islands and adjacent mainlands of western Alaska and Northeast Siberia, represents the likely predominant vegetation on the Bering land bridge during full-glacial conditions: graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation associated with cold, dry winters and cool, dry summer climate. The second hypothesis suggests that dwarf birch-shrub-herb tundra formed a broad belt across the BLB, and that mesic vegetation was associated with cold, snowier winters and moist, cool summers. As a step towards resolving this controversy, a sediment core from Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea was radiocarbon dated and analyzed for pollen content. Two pollen zones were identified. The older, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of 29,500 and 11,515 14C yr BP, contains pollen assemblages composed of grass, sedge, wormwood, willow, and a variety of herb (forb) taxa. These assemblages are interpreted to represent graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation that developed under an arid, cool climate regime. The younger pollen zone sediments were deposited about 11,515 14C yr BP, when rising sea level had begun to flood the BLB. This younger pollen zone contains pollen of birch, willow, heaths, aquatic plants, and spores of sphagnum moss. This is interpreted to represent a Lateglacial dwarf birch-heath-willow-herb tundra vegetation, likely associated with a wetter climate with deeper winter snows, and moist, cool summers. This record supports the first hypothesis, that graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation extended into the lowlands of the BLB during full glacial conditions of the

  12. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 1996-2003 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R.; Montgomery, Michael; Bailey, Timothy D. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, John Day, OR)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The last Annual Program Report was submitted in 1997, and described projects undertaken in 1995. This report describes Program activities carried out in 2003, along with a summary of projects undertaken during the years 1996 through 2002. The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary table of past projects (1996-2002), along with a text description of more extensive habitat improvement projects, including: (1) Implementation of a four-phased project on the Lobato property (Birch Creek) beginning in 1996 and involving a demonstration bioengineering site and riparian improvements (fencing, planting), (2) Implementation of stable channel design/instream structure placement on the Houser property, East Birch Creek, beginning in 1998, an (3) Implementation of a joint, US Army Corps of Engineers/ODFW (cost share) project beginning in 2001 on the Brogoitti property, East Birch Creek, which involved implementation of stable channel design/construction and riparian improvement treatments.

  13. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Lea; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Alenius, Harri; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2009-08-21

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 microg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  14. Elastic moduli of pyrope rich garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Singh, C. K.

    2013-06-01

    The elastic properties of minerals depend on its composition, crystal structure, temperature and level of defects. The elastic parameters are important for the interpretation of the structure and composition of the garnet rich family. In present work we have calculated the elastic moduli such as isothermal bulk modulus, Young's modulus and Shear modulus over a wide range of temperature from 300 K to 1000 K by using Birch EOS and Poirrier Tarantola equation of state. The obtained results are compared with the experimental results obtained by measuring the elastic moduli of single crystal. The calculated results show that the logarithmic isothermal EOS does not cooperate well with experimental results.

  15. Results of forest insect and disease surveys in the Eastern Region of Ontario, 1987. Miscellaneous report No. 81. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keizer, A.

    1988-01-01

    Report for 1987 summarizing forest damage by insects, diseases and abiotic agents in the Eastern Region of Ontario. Included are summaries of forest decline and dieback evaluations as well as special surveys, infestation forecasts and miscellaneous pests in the forest districts of Napanee, Tweed, Carleton Place, Cornwall and Brockville. Textual descriptions of pests are accompanied by maps and statistical tables. Pests covered include birch leafminers, spruce budworm, gypsy moths, tent caterpillars, canker, needle rust, bark diseases, and leaf spot. Abiotic damage described in this report covers drought, frost injury, and snow and ice damage. Forest health reports and special surveys are also described.

  16. Volume and structural study of Fe{sub 64}Mn{sub 36} anti-ferromagnetic Invar alloy under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, M., E-mail: matsushita@eng.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3-Bunkyocho, Matsuyama 790-0826 (Japan); Nakano, S. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohfuji, H. [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, 2-Bunkyocho, Matsuyama 790-0826 (Japan); Yamada, I. [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-Bunkyocho, Matsuyama 790-0826 (Japan); Kikegawa, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    We have investigated the pressure variation of the volume and structure of an FCC Fe{sub 64}Mn{sub 36} anti-ferromagnetic Invar alloy. The inclination of the pressure-volume (P-V) curve of the FCC structure becomes discontinuous at a pressure of 4 GPa. According to the bulk modulus at zero pressure estimated by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the pressure between 4 and 10 GPa is 33 GPa larger than that at a pressure below 4 GPa. Considering previous experiments on magnetism at high pressure the Neel temperature at 4 GPa almost decreases to room temperature. These results suggest that the increase in the bulk modulus by 33 GPa can be attributed to the pressure-induced magnetic phase transition from anti-ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Volume at zero pressure was estimated using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The volume of FCC structure in the anti-ferromagnetic state was 1.17% larger than the volume in the paramagnetic state, namely, the spontaneous magnetostriction was 1.17%. Pressure-induced structural transition from FCC to HCP occurs with an increase in the pressure, especially at up to 5 GPa. The value of c/a is 1.62; this value almost corresponds to that of an ideal HCP structure. The bulk modulus of the HCP structure estimated by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state is larger than that of the FCC structure, and the volume/atom ratio is smaller than that of the FCC structure. - Research highlights: > We have investigated the pressure variation of volume and structure of FCC Fe{sub 64}Mn{sub 36} alloy. > We discovered that the change in inclination of the pressure-volume (P-V) curve of the FCC structure becomes discontinuous at a pressure of 4 GPa. This pressure corresponds to the Neel temperature, which decreases down to room temperature. > Further we estimated bulk modulus and volume at zero pressure using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. As a result, we have demonstrated that anti-ferromagnetism has very close relationship with the

  17. [Herbal medicines against urinary tract infections--traditional empiricism or pharmacological evidence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastigkeit, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Empirically, a variety of plants are used for uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The variety of phytopharmaceuticals with valid results is much smaller. There is a variety of observational studies about Cranberry, bearsgrape leaves, birch leaves and European goldenrod. This also justifies a recommendation in the pharmacy in a complementary medical treatment. Desireably, larger placebo-controlled studies, which proove the empirical healing, would provide more evidence. Children, pregnant women, men and patients with fever, severe cramps and blood in the urine should not medicate themselve. The patient should be referred to a doctor.

  18. 燕山北部山地4种植物群落结构组成及相似性研究%Study on the structure characteristics and comparability in different plant communities in the north region of Yanshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继东; 李东胜; 贾哲; 刘峰; 许中旗; 郭万军

    2013-01-01

    燕山北部山地为燕山山地向坝上高原的过渡地带,其森林植被是首都北京的第一道生态屏障.通过野外调查绣线菊灌丛、榛子灌丛、天然杨桦林和人工落叶松林4种植物群落,分析不同群落的植物组成、结构特征和群落相似性,结果表明,从科、属、种的数量综合来看,植物群落丰富度依次为:榛子灌丛>天然杨桦林>人工落叶松林>绣线菊灌丛;天然杨桦林和人工落叶松林的垂直结构最为完整,优势层为乔木层,榛子灌丛群落的灌木层处于优势地位,绣线菊灌丛群落结构最为简单;榛子灌丛、天然杨桦林和人工落叶松林3种群落之间的相似性较高.%The north region of Yanshan Mountain is the transition from Yanshan mountainous region to the plateau region,where the forest vegetation is the first ecological barrier for the capital Beijing. Based on the field investigation data, the structure characteristics and species diversities of four kinds of plant communities were studied in the paper, including the spiraea shrub, the hazel shrub, the natural aspen-birch forest and the artificial larch forest. The results showed that the vertical structure of the natural aspen-birch forest and the artificial larch forest were the most complicated, the dominant layer was tree layer, the shrub layer in hazel shrub community was the dominant, the community structure of the spiraea shrub was the most simple; the similarity among the hazel shrub,natural aspen-birch forest and artificial larch forest were higher; while the diversities of different layers of artificial larch forest were intermediate between the hazel shrub and the artificial larch forest,species diversities of the spiraea shrub communities were the lowest. The tree layer diversity of natural aspen-birch forest was the highest, the diversity of herb layer and shrub layer in the hazel shrub community was the highest.

  19. Sound velocities in iron to 110 gigapascals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiquet, G; Badro, J; Guyot, F; Requardt, H; Krisch, M

    2001-01-19

    The dispersion of longitudinal acoustic phonons was measured by inelastic x-ray scattering in the hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) structure of iron from 19 to 110 gigapascals. Phonon dispersion curves were recorded on polycrystalline iron compressed in a diamond anvil cell, revealing an increase of the longitudinal wave velocity (VP) from 7000 to 8800 meters per second. We show that hcp iron follows a Birch law for VP, which is used to extrapolate velocities to inner core conditions. Extrapolated longitudinal acoustic wave velocities compared with seismic data suggest an inner core that is 4 to 5% lighter than hcp iron.

  20. Characterization of Hardwood Soda-AQ Lignins Precipitated from Black Liquor through Selective Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo; Sahoo, Gokarneswar

    2016-01-01

    In the development of integrated biorefinery process alternatives to produce value-added by-products, various black liquors from sulfur-free pulping processes offer potential feedstocks for recovering their main chemical constituents, lignin and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In this study, lignin fractions were obtained from silver birch (Betula pendula) soda-anthraquinone black liquor by carbonation (pH to about 8.5) or by acidification (pH to about 2) with H2SO4 after carbonation or directly....

  1. Reconnaissance Report for Hydropower, Lock and Dam 8, Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Cl ~ S- C r rC - .. CJ -- C -L L -- - - .-: 3:) cc; uCL :3 Uv - _c S . .3 ( C9 Z .C .) - C rz LL:> -4---- - - - - -9 - ’ - ’-9-;--r- C -~ o - n >-z...usual forest is dominated by black willow and cottonwood. On open sites near the up- land edge of the wet ground, river birch or swamp oak are the...usual dominants. As both of these types mature, they are invaded by silver maple and American elm. A summary of the vegetation composition (in acres) of

  2. Global Analysis of the Shallow Geology of Large-Scale Ocean Slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Lisitzin, 1972), and to metric scales. 25 IAI e0 - -0 0,0 .C . Uv E -- -- " nGD 0 E c v C 0 0A IA 0 IA- i-..𔃻 -- S - . w , _ M E o E SC t~ E IA In SII...R. Sparks, S. Carey, and T. Huang (1980). Volcanogenic Sedimentation in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Jour. Geol., v. 88, p. 523- 540. 105 Silver , E., J...1978). Margins of Gulf of Mexico. MAPG Bull., v. 62, n. 11, p. 2290-2307. 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AREA 6 Birch , G. (1977). Surficial Sedimi-nts on the

  3. Auditory and Visual Evoked Potentials as a Function of Sleep Deprivation and Irregular Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-15

    comparisons are made between Block 1 and Block 5; amplitude decreased from 11.3 uV on Block 1 to 5.4 uV on Block 5. Statistical analysis revealed that...trial analysis with various ERP waves ( Birch , Lawrence, & Hare, 1988; Chase, McCarthy, Squires, & Schaneveldt, 1984; Fabiani, Gratton, Karis, & Donchin...Beckman silver - silver chloride electrodes. The EEG signals were amplified and filtered by Grass 7P122 D.C. amplifiers. For EEG signals, the time

  4. Heegner modules and elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin L

    2004-01-01

    Heegner points on both modular curves and elliptic curves over global fields of any characteristic form the topic of this research monograph. The Heegner module of an elliptic curve is an original concept introduced in this text. The computation of the cohomology of the Heegner module is the main technical result and is applied to prove the Tate conjecture for a class of elliptic surfaces over finite fields; this conjecture is equivalent to the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for the corresponding elliptic curves over global fields.

  5. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering of LiTaO sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Wei; Pan Yue Wu; Dong Shu Shan; Zou Guang Tian; Liu Jing

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering of LiTaO sub 3 at high pressure. The result remains stable up to 36 GPa. The average isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained to be k sub 0 =(225 +- 6) GPa and k sub 0 '=1.3 +- 0.5 at zero pressure by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and the 'universal' equation of state. The linear incompressibility of LiTaO sub 3 between the a- and c-directions differs by a factor of four, which shows that the compression is anisotropic

  6. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    of Mal d 1 mRNA were produced by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ten genetically modified (GM) apple lines were selected. In vitro plantlets were first transferred to a greenhouse, then grafted onto wild-type M.9 rootstock to promote the development of fruit-producing trees. Levels of Mal d 7 gene......Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  7. Flavonoids in the leaves of Polish species of the genus Betula L. IV. The flavonoids of Betula pubescens Ehrh., B. carpatica Waldst., B. tortuosa Ledeb., and B. nana L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the flavonoids detected earlier, the leaves of purebred B. pubescens specimens were found to contain quercetin 3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, luteolin 4'-glucoside, isoquercitrin, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside, whereas B. nana exhibited a low content of myricetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-arabinoside, and also possibly quercetin 7-rhamnoside. The qualitative composition of the flavonoids of desiccated B. tortuosa leaves seems to point to the validity of the assumption that this birch is of hybrid origin. The set of flavonoids in B. carpatica was almost identical with that in B. tortuosa.

  8. Economic and energy value of black locust

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kraszkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic and energy usage of black locust tree biomass for fuel purposes with reference to oak, hornbeam, beech, birch, poplar and willow wood as a competing timber species on the biomass market. It has been shown that the average price of black locust timber in the forest inspectorates considered in the survey is comparable with other hardwood species and PLN 40 more expensive (for one cubical meter) than poplar and willow timber. It has also been proved that energy un...

  9. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R. N.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Romanovsky, V.; Breen, Amy L.; Bolton, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  10. The relative roles of climate and land use in the degradation of a terrestrial ecosystem: a case study from Kjarardalur, West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Around AD 870 the virgin environment of Iceland became populated by humans and mammal land herbivores. Since then, the island has lost nearly all of its native birch woodland, resulting in dramatic degradation of landscapes and ecosystems, attributed mainly to over-exploitation of woodlands and late-medieval climate deterioration. As part of policy making in agriculture, a heated debate is ongoing over limitations to sheep grazing in pastures suffering from long-term degradation. In this context the history of climate and land use is of great importance. Those who consider grazing a minimal attribute to land degradation argue that the harsh climate conditions of the little ice age are the primary mechanism behind the current degraded landscape. Others err on the side of caution and propose a careful approach to grazing. This study forms a contribution to the historical context of the impact of grazing upon the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem. Using the analyses of pollen and spores from coprophilous fungi as principal methods, we present data about historical environmental change from within two different land holdings in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland. One dataset comes from within a landholding governed by the chieftain farm Reykholt, the other comes from within the land of the indipendent farm, Norðtunga. In the past the valley was used primarily as a pasture, associated with shielings (organised seasonal grazing). Pollen data from the pasture in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland, demonstrate a rapid loss of birch (Betula pubescens) woodland from grazing areas owned by the major farm and institution, Reykholt. The suppressive nature of grazing is demonstrated by the expansion of woodland as soon when animal stocks are reduced, probably as a consequence of the bubonic plague after AD 1402. Resumed exploitation of resources eventually depleted all birch woodland from the Reykholt landholding and precipitated soil erosion. The trajectory of environmental change

  11. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolibowska Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharides, polyphenols or terpenes. These fungi are commonly found in Poland and may superbly compete with Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lentinula edodes (Shitake used in Asia for medicinal purposes.

  12. Elliptic Tales Curves, Counting, and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Avner

    2012-01-01

    Elliptic Tales describes the latest developments in number theory by looking at one of the most exciting unsolved problems in contemporary mathematics--the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture. The Clay Mathematics Institute is offering a prize of 1 million to anyone who can discover a general solution to the problem. In this book, Avner Ash and Robert Gross guide readers through the mathematics they need to understand this captivating problem. The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which are cubic equations in two variables. These equations may appear simple, yet they arise from

  13. Effects of tree species richness and composition on moose winter browsing damage and foraging selectivity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Harriet T; Koricheva, Julia

    2013-07-01

    The optimal foraging theory, the nutrient balance hypothesis, and the plant association theories predict that foraging decisions and resulting tree damage by large mammalian browsers may be influenced by the species richness and species composition of forest stands. This may lead to either associational susceptibility (increased damage on a focal plant in a mixed stand) or associational resistance (reduced damage in a mixed stand). Better understanding of the mechanisms and the relative importance of tree species richness and composition effects on foraging by mammalian browsers is needed to support sustainable management of forests and mammal populations. However, existing knowledge of forest diversity effects on foraging by large mammalian browsers comes largely from observational studies while experimental evidence is limited. We analysed winter browsing by moose (Alces alces L.) in a long-term, large-scale experiment in Finland, which represents a tree species richness gradient from monocultures to 2-, 3- and 5-species mixtures composed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). The intensity of browsing per plot increased with tree species richness while browsing selectivity decreased with tree species being targeted more equally in species-rich mixtures. Tree species composition of a plot was also an important determinant of intensity of browsing. The greatest browsing occurred in plots containing preferred species (pine and birch) while intermediate preference species (larch and alder) experienced associational susceptibility when growing with pine and birch compared with their monocultures or mixtures without pine and birch. In contrast, we found no evidence of associational resistance; the presence of a least preferred species (spruce) in a mixture had no significant effect on moose browsing on other tree species. We

  14. Elasticity of hcp cobalt at high pressure and temperature: a quasi-harmonic case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonangeli, D; Krisch, M; Farber, D L; Ruddle, D G; Fiquet, G

    2007-11-30

    We performed high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on a single crystal of hcp cobalt at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature, deriving 4 of the 5 independent elements of the elastic tensor. Our experiments indicate that the elasticity of hcp-Co is well described within the frame of a quasi-harmonic approximation and that anharmonic high-temperature effects on the elastic moduli, sound velocities and elastic anisotropy are minimal at constant density. These results support the validity of the Birch's law and represent an important benchmark for ab initio thermal lattice dynamics and molecular-dynamics simulations.

  15. THE EFFECT OF HARDWOOD FIBER MORPHOLOGY ON THE HYGROEXPANSIVITY OF PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iiro Pulkkinen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of fiber characteristics, especially fiber wall thickness, on the hygroexpansion behavior of paper due to humidity changes. Five different eucalyptus Kraft pulp samples were studied with an OPTIDIM hygroexpansivity tester. As a reference, birch and acacia were included. In all, seven pulp samples were refined at low consistency (LC, using a Voith Sulzer refiner. Both anisotropic and isotropic sheets were investigated. The sheets were dried under restraint. The results showed that fiber wall thickness is an important factor in controlling the hygroexpansivity of paper through fiber network activation.

  16. Likelihood estimations of vegetative alteration near known or proposed sources of air pollution. 2nd annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.

    1979-10-01

    Research in the development of a computer model to simulate and predict SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation is reported. Laboratory experiments were devoted to studies on the effects of environmental variables on plant response to SO/sub 2/. A model structure was developed and will be implemented as laboratory data are analyzed. Preliminary results of experiments on the effects of light intensity, temperature, and SO/sub 2/ damage to river birch seedlings are reported. Data are presented on the effects of soil moisture stress on pinto bean plant response to SO/sub 2/. (JGB)

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance and quantitative color investigations of various vacuum heat treated wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Kondratyeva, K.R. Safiullin, I.G. Motygullin, A.V. Klochkov, M.S. Tagirov, V.V. Kuzmin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the heat treatment duration on the electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude of free radicals for various wood species was observed. It was found that the amplitude of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal grows linearly with the vacuum heat treatment duration. The quantitative measurements of color changes for various wood species (pine, spruce, larch, birch and small-leaved lime were performed. It is found that results of EPR experiments and color measurements of heat treated samples correlate with each other.

  18. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  19. Formula and 2-adic valuation of L(1) of elliptic curves with CM by -3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For the rational integers λ≡1, 3, or 5 (mod 6), considering elliptic curves y2=x3-2433Dλ over the field (-3), the formula for the value at s=1 of Hecke L-series attached to such elliptic curves, expressed as a finite sum of values of Weierstrass -functions, is obtained. Moreover, when λ≡3 (mod 6), the lower bounds of 2-adic valuations of these values are also obtained. These results are consistent with the predictions of the conjecture of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer in a sense, and have generalized and advanced some results in recent literature.

  20. Bulk Modulus and Electronic Band Structure of ZnGa2X4 (X=S,Se): a First-Principles Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-Shu; MI Shu; SUN eeng-Jun; LU Yuan; LIANG Jiu-Qing

    2009-01-01

    First-principles local density functional calculations are presented for the compounds ZnGa2X4 (X = S, Se). We investigate the bulk moduli and electronic band structures in a defect chalcopyrite structure. The lattice constants and internal parameters axe optimized. The electronic structures are analysed with the help of total and partial density of states. The relation between the cohesive energy and the unit cell volume is obtained by fully relaxed structures. We derive the bulk modulus of ZnGa2X4 by fitting the Birch-Murnaghan's equation of state. The extended Cohen's empirical formula agrees well with our ab initio results.

  1. FENOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF TREES AND SHRUBS IN TOMSK

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaeva S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of phenological phenomena of 9 tree and shrub species and longevity of their vegetation activity was made in Tomsk (southeastern West Siberian Plain). Since 1969 until 2013 the start of the phenological phenomena in the trees and shrubs became to be earlier and the end did to be later. Trends of the start of birch juice moving and flowering is higher (–2.5–3.4 days/decade) than trends of leave appearance, yellowing and falling (+2.5–1.3 days/decade) in the trees and shrubs. Dates...

  2. Utilization of non-merchantable wood in Steppe regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovol' skil, E.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A description, with diagram, is given of the design of a small mobile retort developed in the USSR for pyrolysis of unmerchantable wood in the steppe regions. The type of wood considered is the tree and shrub material in shelterbelts, e.g. Cornus sanguinea, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ribes aureum, Cotinus coggygria (Rhus continus) and Caragana arborescens. Yields of charcoal, settled tar, alcohols, and volatile acids from each of these species are given in % of oven-dry wood for pyrolysis at 320/sup 0/C for 2 h. Comparative data are given for dry distillation of wood of birch, spruce, and pine (400/sup 0/C, 8 h).

  3. [Soil enzyme activities under two forest types as affected by different levels of nitrogen deposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-tao; Li, Xue-feng; Han, Shi-jie; Hu, Yan-ling

    2008-12-01

    A simulation test was conducted to study the change trends of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and sucrase activities under natural broadleaf-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and secondary poplar (Populus davidiana) -birch (Betula platyphylla) mixed forests as affected by 0, 25, and 50 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) of N deposition. The results showed that the effects of elevated N deposition on test enzyme activities varied with forest type, and short-term nitrogen addition could significantly affect the test enzyme activities. High N deposition decreased soil polyphyneol oxidase activity, and correspondingly, soil cellulase and sucrase activities also had a trend of decrease.

  4. Development of Nature Protection Technologies of Hydrocarbon Wastes Disposal on the Basis of High- Temperature Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantarin, V. D.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    The research shows the thermal balance of low-temperature pyrolysis of birch sawdust with the possibility of further development of nature protection technology of hydrocarbon wastes disposal with secondary useful products production. The actual problem was solved by preventing environmental pollution by greenhouse gases using pyrolysis process as a method of disposal of hydrocarbon wastes with secondary useful products production. The objective of paper is to study features of the processes of thermal processing of wastes and development of environmentally sound technology of disposal C-containing wastes, contributing to the implementation of the pollution prevention concept.

  5. Structural stability of infinite- layer CaCuO2 under high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In situ high-pressure energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements on polycrystalline powder CaCuO2 with an infinite layer structure (IL CaCuO2) have been performed by using diamond anvil cell (DAC) instrument with synchrotron radiation. The results suggest that the crystal structure of IL CaCuO2 is stable under pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature. According to Birch-Murn- aghan equation of state, assuming pressure derivative the bulk modulus B0=181 ± 9 GPa is obtained.

  6. Læringsspil, lærerroller og didaktisk design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Thorkild; Hansbøl, Mikala; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm;

    2010-01-01

    I de senere år har der været øget fokus på computerspil til undervisningsbrug. Der er både i Danmark (se f.eks. Birch Andreasen, Meyer og Rattleff, 2008 samt Drotner og Illum Hansen, 2009) og i Europa (OECD 2009) politisk fokus på digitale læremidler og deres anvendelse i undervisningen. Danske s...... aktualiseres på, når de tages i brug, didaktisk design i relation til læreren i og med spil, og konstruktioner af læreren/lærerroller i og med spil....

  7. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  8. Apocalypto: revealing lost text with XMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David; Davis, Graham R.; Lai, Yu-kun; Rosin, Paul

    2014-09-01

    "Can brute-force high-contrast tomography techniques and image processing techniques retrieve textual content from damaged heritage materials?" The Dental Institute at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is the leading centre for very high contrast X-Ray Microtomography imaging. The Apocalypto Project is our collaboration with the heritage community and experts in Computer Vision systems in the Computer Science Department at Cardiff University. This collaboration has developed techniques and a workflow that allows us to reveal textual content from moisture-damaged parchment rolls. This article will also present some initial results from burned and heat shrunken parchment rolls, an insect damaged Mamluk cap and a birch bark roll.

  9. Determination of trace amounts of molybdenum in plant tissue by solvent extraction-atomic-absorption and direct-current plasma emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, L H; Kubin, A

    1986-03-01

    Methods are presented for determination of molybdenum in plant tissue by flame and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry and direct-current argon-plasma emission spectrometry. The samples are digested in HNO(3)-H(2)SO(4)-HC1O(4) mixture, and Mo is separated and concentrated by chelation and extraction. Three organic solvents (methyl isobutyl ketone, di-isobutyl ketone and isoamyl alcohol) and two ligands (8-hydroxyquinoline and toluene-3,4-dithiol) were studied. The procedure were tested on pine needle and birch leaf samples.

  10. Numerical-experimental investigation of resonance characteristics of a sounding board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlychkov, S. V.

    2007-05-01

    The paper presents results of numerical and experimental investigations into the vibrations of thin-walled structures, considering such their features as the complexity of geometry, the laminated structure of walls, the anisotropy of materials, the presence of stiffeners, and the initial stresses. The object of the study is the sounding board of an acoustic guitar, the main structural material of which is a three-layer birch veneer. Based on the finite-element method, a corresponding calculation model is created, and the steady-state regimes of forced vibrations of the sounding board are investigated. A good correspondence between calculation results and experimental data is found to exist.

  11. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Host

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  12. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  13. Effects of heat treatment of wood on hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation and biomechanical properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Hirvonen, J; Lahdenperä, M; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2010-08-01

    Wood is a natural fiber reinforced composite. It structurally resembles bone tissue to some extent. Specially heat-treated birch wood has been used as a model material for further development of synthetic fiber reinforced composites (FRC) for medical and dental use. In previous studies it has been shown, that heat treatment has a positive effect on the osteoconductivity of an implanted wood. In this study the effects of two different heat treatment temperatures (140 and 200 degrees C) on wood were studied in vitro. Untreated wood was used as a control material. Heat treatment induced biomechanical changes were studied with flexural and compressive tests on dry birch wood as well as on wood after 63 days of simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion. Dimensional changes, SBF sorption and hydroxylapatite type mineral formation were also assessed. The results showed that SBF immersion decreases the biomechanical performance of wood and that the heat treatment diminishes the effect of SBF immersion on biomechanical properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis it was shown that hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation formed on the 200 degrees C heat-treated wood. An increased weight gain of the same material during SBF immersion supported this finding. The results of this study give more detailed insight of the biologically relevant changes that heat treatment induces in wood material. Furthermore the findings in this study are in line with previous in vivo studies.

  14. On impact of transport conditions on variability of the seasonal pollen index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, M

    2017-01-01

    This discussion paper reveals the contribution of pollen transport conditions to the inter-annual variability of the seasonal pollen index (SPI). This contribution is quantified as a sensitivity of the pollen model predictions to meteorological variability and is shown to be a noticeable addition to the SPI variability caused by plant reproduction cycles. A specially designed SILAM model re-analysis of pollen seasons 1980-2014 was performed, resulting in the 35 years of the SPI predictions over Europe, which was used to compute the SPI inter-annual variability. The current paper presents the results for birch and grass. Throughout the re-analysis, the source term formulations and habitation maps were kept constant, which allowed attributing the obtained variability exclusively to the pollen release and transport conditions during the flowering seasons. It is shown that the effect is substantial: it amounts to 10-20% (grass) and 20-40% (birch) of the observed SPI year-to-year changes reported in the literature. The phenomenon has well-pronounced spatial- and species-specific patterns. The findings were compared with observation-based statistical models for the SPI prediction, showing that such models highlight the same processes as the analysis with the SILAM model.

  15. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  16. The First Deep Space Cubesat Broadband IR Spectrometer, Lunarcubes, and the Search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Malphrus, Ben; Reuter, Dennis; MacDowall, Robert; Folta, David; Hurford, Terry; Brambora, Cliff; Farrell, William

    2017-01-01

    BIRCHES is the compact broadband IR spectrometer of the Lunar Ice Cube mission. Lunar Ice Cube is one of 13 6U cubesats that will be deployed by EM1 in cislunar space, qualifying as lunarcubes. The LunarCube paradigm is a proposed approach for extending the affordable CubeSat standard to support access to deep space via cis-lunar/lunar missions. Because the lunar environment contains analogs of most solar system environments, the Moon is an ideal target for both testing critical deep space capabilities and understanding solar system formation and processes. Effectively, as developments are occurring in parallel, 13 prototype deep space cubesats are being flown for EM1. One useful outcome of this 'experiment' will be to determine to what extent it is possible to develop a lunarcube 'bus' with standardized interfaces to all subsystems using reasonable protocols for a variety of payloads. The lunar ice cube mission was developed as the test case in a GSFC R&D study to determine whether the cubesat paradigm could be applied to deep space, science requirements driven missions, and BIRCHES was its payload. JPL's Lunar Flashlight, and Arizona State University's LunaH-Map, both also EM1 lunar orbiters, will also be deployed from EM1 and provide complimentary observations to be used in understanding volatile dynamics in the same time frame.

  17. Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis pollen in newcomers to the area with the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Marusić, M; Juricić, M; Vrdoljak, E; Petrovecki, M; Rozga, A; Stavljenić-Rukavina, A

    1993-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis (wall pellitory) pollen and other environmental allergens was studied in pollinosis patients allergic to P. officinalis pollen who were born in areas without P. officinalis and later moved to the city of Split, where P. officinalis is responsible for some 65% of pollinosis cases. Highly significant positive correlations were found for both the intensity of skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area. In contrast, the respective data on subjects hypersensitive to P. officinalis pollen allergen, but born and living in the area of Split, revealed a tendency to negative correlation between age and intensity of hypersensitivity to P. officinalis. A number of patients from both groups were tested for presence of serum IgE antibodies specific for 14 common environmental allergens. Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen was associated with hypersensitivity to olive, mugwort, and birch pollen in newcomers; hypersensitivity to birch and, to some extent, olive pollen was significantly more frequent in newcomers than in autochthonous patients who were allergic to P. officinalis pollen. Regardless of whether the patients were autochthons or newcomers to the area with P. officinalis, hypersensitivity to P. officinalis mostly excluded hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and vice versa.

  18. Linking belowground and aboveground phenology in two boreal forests in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-11-01

    The functional equilibrium between roots and shoots suggests an intrinsic linkage between belowground and aboveground phenology. However, much less understanding of belowground phenology hinders integrating belowground and aboveground phenology. We measured root respiration (Ra) as a surrogate for root phenology and integrated it with observed leaf phenology and radial growth in a birch (Betula platyphylla)-aspen (Populus davidiana) forest and an adjacent larch (Larix gmelinii) forest in Northeast China. A log-normal model successfully described the seasonal variations of Ra and indicated the initiation, termination and peak date of root phenology. Both root phenology and leaf phenology were highly specific, with a later onset, earlier termination, and shorter period of growing season for the pioneer tree species (birch and aspen) than the dominant tree species (larch). Root phenology showed later initiation, later peak and later termination dates than leaf phenology. An asynchronous correlation of Ra and radial growth was identified with a time lag of approximately 1 month, indicating aprioritization of shoot growth. Furthermore, we found that Ra was strongly correlated with soil temperature and air temperature, while radial growth was only significantly correlated with air temperature, implying a down-regulating effect of temperature. Our results indicate different phenologies between pioneer and dominant species and support a down-regulation hypothesis of plant phenology which can be helpful in understanding forest dynamics in the context of climate change.

  19. First Principles Calculation of Structural Parameters of Si Crystal%Si晶体结构参数的第一性原理计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林传金; 郭莉莉

    2013-01-01

    The total energy of Si crystal were calculated in different lattice constant by first principles, which based on the density functional theory. The calculated data were gotten by the Birch-Muranghan third-order equation, then the related parameters were obtained. The Si crystal’s specific form of Birch-Muranghan third equation was also deduced with these parameters. The lattice constant and elastic modulus of Si crystal in the steady state were also calculated, which were quite consistent with the experimental values.%本文采用基于密度泛函理论的第一性原理计算不同晶格常数下 Si 晶体的总能,用计算所得出的数据通过 Brich-Muranghan三阶状态方程进行拟合得到相关的参数,获得 Si晶体的 Brich-Muranghan三阶状态方程具体形式,并通过计算获得Si在稳定状态下的晶格常数和体弹性模量,结果与实验数值相符。

  20. Boreal pollen contain ice-nucleating as well as ice-binding ‘antifreeze’ polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischmeier, Katharina; Budke, Carsten; Wiehemeier, Lars; Kottke, Tilman; Koop, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ice nucleation and growth is an important and widespread environmental process. Accordingly, nature has developed means to either promote or inhibit ice crystal formation, for example ice-nucleating proteins in bacteria or ice-binding antifreeze proteins in polar fish. Recently, it was found that birch pollen release ice-nucleating macromolecules when suspended in water. Here we show that birch pollen washing water exhibits also ice-binding properties such as ice shaping and ice recrystallization inhibition, similar to antifreeze proteins. We present spectroscopic evidence that both the ice-nucleating as well as the ice-binding molecules are polysaccharides bearing carboxylate groups. The spectra suggest that both polysaccharides consist of very similar chemical moieties, but centrifugal filtration indicates differences in molecular size: ice nucleation occurs only in the supernatant of a 100 kDa filter, while ice shaping is strongly enhanced in the filtrate. This finding may suggest that the larger ice-nucleating polysaccharides consist of clusters of the smaller ice-binding polysaccharides, or that the latter are fragments of the ice-nucleating polysaccharides. Finally, similar polysaccharides released from pine and alder pollen also display both ice-nucleating as well as ice-binding ability, suggesting a common mechanism of interaction with ice among several boreal pollen with implications for atmospheric processes and antifreeze protection. PMID:28157236

  1. Carbosilane dendrimers bearing globotriaoses: syntheses of globotrioasyl derivative and introduction into carbosilane dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Terabatake, Mikiko; Umino, Atsushi; Esumi, Yasuaki; Hatano, Ken; Terunuma, Daiyo; Kuzuhara, Hiroyoshi

    2006-08-01

    As an application of a one-pot reaction involving Birch reduction and subsequent S(N)2 reaction in liquid ammonia, synthetic assembly of trisaccharidic moieties of globotriaosyl ceramide onto carbosilane dendrimers was accomplished using tris(3-bromopropyl)phenylsilane and tris[tris(3-bromopropyl)silylpropyl]phenylsilane as the core scaffolds. The common globotriaosyl derivative having benzylsulfide functionality at the terminal of the aglycon was efficiently prepared from d-galactose and d-lactose as starting materials. The glycosyl donor derived from galactose and the glycosyl acceptor derived from lactose were condensed in the presence of silver triflate as the best promoter to provide corresponding trisaccharide with newly formed alpha-1-4 linkages in 90% yield. Fully benzylated protection of the trisaccharide was deprotected under the Birch reduction condition followed by acetylation to give an acetate in which alkene was converted into benzyl sulfide by radical addition of alpha-toluenethiol in high yields. On the other hand, carbosilane dendrimers were prepared from appropriate chlorosilanes as starting materials by a combination of hydrosylation followed by alkenylation. The terminal C=C double bonds of the carbosilanes were converted into corresponding alcohols by means of the usual hydroboration reaction, and the alcohols underwent further chemical manipulation to give carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral bromine atoms.

  2. Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Luis O; Tegelberg, Riitta; Brosché, Mikael; Keinänen, Markku; Lindfors, Anders; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2010-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities; however, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Here, we report differential effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and phenolic accumulation in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings grown outdoors. Plants were exposed for 30 days to six UV treatments created using three types of plastic film. Epidermal flavonoids measured in vivo decreased when UV-B was excluded. In addition, the concentrations of six flavonoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry declined linearly with UV-B exclusion, and transcripts of PAL and HYH measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were expressed at lower levels. UV-A linearly regulated the accumulation of quercetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-arabinopyranoside and had a quadratic effect on HYH expression. Furthermore, there were strong positive correlations between PAL expression and accumulation of four flavonols under the UV treatments. Our findings in silver birch contribute to a more detailed understanding of plant responses to solar UV radiation at both molecular and metabolite levels.

  3. Increase of mycorrhizal C flux in Siberian temperate forests during the extreme drought of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyailo, Oleg; Matvienko, Anastasia; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climatic events have strong effect on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The soil C flux is the major uncertainty in the global C budget. Autotrophic (roots and mycorrhizae) component and heterotrophic microorganisms respond differently to altered precipitation and temperature, however their responses might vary in different ecosystems. We studied mycorrhizal, heterotrohic and total soil CO2 fluxes using in-growth mesh collars in forest soils under different tree species. The fluxes were measured between May and October of 2010-2012. The summer of 2012 was extremely hot and dry in Siberia, breaking records for the past 70 years of meteorological monitoring. The drought reduced soil surface CO2 flux for 20-30 % depending on the tree species. It is very surprising that the mycorrhizal flux in 2012 was under most species similar to the flux in a wetter years (2010-2011), under birch the mycorrhizal flux was even 1.5 times higher during the drought. Thus, decline in overall soil surface CO2 flux was mainly due to reduction of heterotrophic activities. Since the proportion of heterotrophic and autrophic activities is related to soil C sequestration, we conclude that under the most tree species in Siberia soil C will be accumulated during the drought. The most positive effect of the drought for soil carbon accrual is to be expected under birch.

  4. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-10-13

    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.

  5. Selective Behaviour of Honeybees in Acquiring European Propolis Plant Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, Valery A; Bakier, Sławomir; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Honey bees harvest resins from various plant species and use them in the hive as propolis. While there have been a number of studies concerning the chemical composition of this antimicrobial product, little is known about selective behavior and bee preference when different potential plant sources of resin are available. The main objective of this paper was to investigate some aspects of behavioral patterns of honeybees in the context of resin acquisition. Samples of propolis originating from temperate zones of Europe and the supposed botanical precursors of the product were analyzed. Taxonomical markers of bud resins of two white birch species, aspen, black poplar, horse-chestnut, black alder, and Scots pine were determined through GC-MS analysis. All these trees have been reported as sources of propolis, but comparisons of the chemical composition of their bud resins with the compositions of propolis samples from seven European countries have demonstrated the presence of taxonomical markers only from black poplar, aspen, and one species of birch. This suggests selective behavior during the collection of bud resins by honeybees. To examine the causes of such selectivity, the antimicrobial properties of bud resins were determined. Horse-chestnut resins had lower antimicrobial activity than the other resins which did not differ significantly.

  6. Polyphenols in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves induced by plant activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Koskinen, Piia; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Karonen, Maarit; Tiilikkala, Kari; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2014-05-21

    Strawberry leaves contain high amounts of diverse phenolic compounds potentially possessing defensive activities against microbial pathogens and beneficial properties for human health. In this work, young strawberry plants were treated with two plant activators, S-methylbenzo-1,2,3-thaidiazole-7-carbothiate (BTH) and birch wood distillate. Phenolic compounds from activator-treated and control leaves were subjected to quantitative analyses by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and microQTOF ESI-MS. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were detected and characterized, and 21 different ellagitannins constituted the largest group of compounds in the strawberry leaves (37.88-45.82 mg/g dry weight, 47.0-54.3% of total phenolics). Treatment with BTH resulted in higher levels of individual ellagitannins, whereas treatment with birch wood distillate strongly increased the levels of chlorogenic acid in strawberry leaves compared with the control. The results suggest that different plant activators may be useful tools for the activation of different branches in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in strawberry.

  7. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part II. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), apple allergenicity governed by Mal d 1 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-03-01

    Of the plant allergens listed in the Official Allergen Database of the International Union of Immunological Societies, approximately 25% belong to the group of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). They have been classified into 17 PR families based on similarities in their amino acid sequence, enzymatic activities, or other functional properties. Plant-derived allergens have been identified with sequence similarities to PR families 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. The main birch allergen in northern Europe is a class 10 (PR-10) protein from the European white birch (Betula pendula) termed Bet v 1. Pollen of other Fagales species contains PR-10 homologues that share epitopes with Bet v 1, as do several fruits, nuts and vegetables. Among the plant food fruits of the Rosaceae family are the most frequently responsible for allergenic reactions. It is documented, that approximately 2% of European population is allergic to apples. The article presents molecular characterization of PR-10 proteins with regard to their structure and function as well as apple Mal d 1 gene-determined allergenicity.

  8. Genetic architecture underlying host choice differentiation in the sympatric host races of Lochmaea capreae leaf beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudi, Shaghayegh; Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif

    2016-04-01

    Speciation in herbivorous insects has received considerable attention during the last few decades. Much of this group's diversity originates from adaptive population divergence onto different host plants, which often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host choice behaviour. Differences in host choice often translates directly into divergence in mating sites, and therefore positive assortative mating will be created which will act as a strong barrier to gene flow. In this study, we first explored whether host choice is a genetically determined trait in the sympatric willow and birch host races of the leaf feeding beetle Lochmaea capreae, or whether larval experience influences adult host choice. Once we had established that host choice is a genetically based trait we determined its genetic architecture. To achieve this, we employed a reciprocal transplant design in which offspring from pure willow and birch cross-types, F1, F2 and backcrosses were raised on each host plant and their preference was determined upon reaching adulthood. We then applied joint-scaling analysis to uncover the genetic architecture of host preference. Our results suggest that rearing host does not have a pronounced effect on adult's host choice; rather the segregation pattern implies the existence of genetic loci affecting host choice in these host races. The joint-scaling analysis revealed that population differences in host choice are mainly influenced by the contribution of additive genetic effects and also maternally inherited cytoplasmic effects. We explore the implications of our findings for evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  9. Boreal pollen contain ice-nucleating as well as ice-binding ‘antifreeze’ polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischmeier, Katharina; Budke, Carsten; Wiehemeier, Lars; Kottke, Tilman; Koop, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Ice nucleation and growth is an important and widespread environmental process. Accordingly, nature has developed means to either promote or inhibit ice crystal formation, for example ice-nucleating proteins in bacteria or ice-binding antifreeze proteins in polar fish. Recently, it was found that birch pollen release ice-nucleating macromolecules when suspended in water. Here we show that birch pollen washing water exhibits also ice-binding properties such as ice shaping and ice recrystallization inhibition, similar to antifreeze proteins. We present spectroscopic evidence that both the ice-nucleating as well as the ice-binding molecules are polysaccharides bearing carboxylate groups. The spectra suggest that both polysaccharides consist of very similar chemical moieties, but centrifugal filtration indicates differences in molecular size: ice nucleation occurs only in the supernatant of a 100 kDa filter, while ice shaping is strongly enhanced in the filtrate. This finding may suggest that the larger ice-nucleating polysaccharides consist of clusters of the smaller ice-binding polysaccharides, or that the latter are fragments of the ice-nucleating polysaccharides. Finally, similar polysaccharides released from pine and alder pollen also display both ice-nucleating as well as ice-binding ability, suggesting a common mechanism of interaction with ice among several boreal pollen with implications for atmospheric processes and antifreeze protection.

  10. Use of isotope ratios to assess sources of Pb and Zn dispersed in the environment during mining and ore processing within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgopolova, A. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: allad@nhm.ac.uk; Weiss, D.J. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Seltmann, R. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Kober, B. [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mason, T.F.D. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Coles, B. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Stanley, C.J. [Centre for Russian and Central EurAsian Mineral Studies (CERCAMS), Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    Element concentrations, element ratios and Pb and Zn isotope data are reported for different geologic samples (barren and ore-bearing granites and host rocks), technogenic products (ore concentrates and tailings) and biologic samples (lichens and birch leaves) from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining district, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, with the aim to trace the sources of Pb and Zn at a local level within the mining site. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptors of contamination within the mining site. Pb/Zr and Zn/Zr values indicated Pb and Zn enrichment relative to host rocks. Zn isotope data of 15 geologic and 11 lichen samples showed different Zn isotopic signatures with the total range for the geologic suite of -0.4 per mille to +1.2 per mille and for lichens of +0.4 per mille to +1.4 per mille in {delta} {sup 66}Zn relative to Lyon JMC Zn standard. The source of isotopically heavy Zn within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site could be potentially associated with long-range atmospheric aerosols that also contributed Pb to the studied mining site. Our results demonstrated that Zn isotopes might be used as new tools for Zn source assessment.

  11. Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

  12. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  13. Effects of litter quality and climate change along an elevational gradient on litter decomposition of subalpine forests, Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenfeng Xu; Jianxiao Zhu; Fuzhong Wu; Yang Liu; Bo Tan; Wanqin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and freeze-thaw events are two key factors controlling litter decomposition in cold biomes. Predicted global warming and changes in freeze-thaw cycles therefore may directly or indirectly impact litter decomposition in those ecosystems. Here, we conducted a 2-year-long litter decomposition experiment along an ele-vational gradient from 3000 to 3600 m to determine the potential effects of litter quality, climate warming and freeze-thaw on the mass losses of three litter types [dragon spruce (Picea asperata Mast.), red birch (Betula albosi-nensis Burk.), and minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wild)]. Marked differences in mass loss were observed among the litter types and sampling dates. Decay constant (k) values of red birch were significantly higher than those of the needle litters. However, mass losses between ele-vations did not differ significantly for any litter type. During the winter, lost mass contributed 18.3–28.8% of the net loss rates of the first year. Statistical analysis showed that the relationships between mass loss and litter chemistry or their ratios varied with decomposition peri-ods. Our results indicated that short-term field incubations could overestimate the k value of litter decomposition. Considerable mass was lost from subalpine forest litters during the wintertime. Potential future warming may not affect the litter decomposition in the subalpine forest ecosystems of eastern Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Predicting impacts of climate change on the aboveground carbon sequestration rate of a temperate forest in northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    Full Text Available The aboveground carbon sequestration rate (ACSR reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. To reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS Pro7.0 was used to simulate the ACSR of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern China based on both current and predicted climatic data. On the community level, the ACSR of mixed Korean pine hardwood forests and mixed larch hardwood forests, fluctuated during the entire simulation, while a large decline of ACSR emerged in interim of simulation in spruce-fir forest and aspen-white birch forests, respectively. On the species level, the ACSR of all conifers declined greatly around 2070s except for Korean pine. The ACSR of dominant hardwoods in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, such as Manchurian ash, Amur cork, black elm, and ribbed birch fluctuated with broad ranges, respectively. Pioneer species experienced a sharp decline around 2080s, and they would finally disappear in the simulation. The differences of the ACSR among various climates were mainly identified in mixed Korean pine hardwood forests, in all conifers, and in a few hardwoods in the last quarter of simulation. These results indicate that climate warming can influence the ACSR in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, and the largest impact commonly emerged in the A2 scenario. The ACSR of coniferous species experienced higher impact by climate change than that of deciduous species.

  15. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  16. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  17. Study on Biodiversity Index of Different Models of Conversion of Farmland to Forest in Huangshui River of Qinghai Province%青海湟水河流域不同退耕还林模式生物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学元

    2011-01-01

    基于香农-威纳多样性指教,研究了青海湟水河流域相同林龄(8年)的不同退耕还林模式生物多样性.结果表明,湟水河流域不同退耕还林模式生物多样性为云杉桦树混交>沙棘>桦树>云杉>云杉沙棘混交>农田,草本层多样性>乔木层.%Based on biodiversity index of Shannon-Weiner, the effects of biodiversity index from different models of conversion of farmland to forest in Huangshui river of Qinghai Province were studied, the results showed that mixture of picea crassifolia and birch > hippophae rham-noides > birch > picea crassifolia > mixture of picea crassifolia and hippophae rhamnoides > farmland, biodiversity index of herbaceous layer >arbor layer.

  18. The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S; Zaug, J M

    2009-06-05

    The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The {alpha} phase was found to transform into the {alpha}' phase at 0.87 {+-} 0.04 GPa with a volume change of 0.1 {+-} 0.3 cc/mol. A fit of a second order Birch-Murghanan equation to the data gave Vo = 16.94 {+-} 0.08 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 6.7 {+-} 0.5 GPa for the {alpha} phase and Vo = 16.4 {+-} 0.1 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 9.1 {+-} 0.3 GPa for the {alpha}' phase. The {alpha}' phase was found to transform to the A17 phase of black phosphorus at 2.68 {+-} 0.34 GPa and then with increasing pressure to the A7 and then simple cubic phase of black phosphorus. A fit of a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation to our orthorhombic and rhombohedral black phosphorus data gave Vo = 11.43 {+-} 0.02 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 34.7 {+-} 0.5 GPa for the A17 phase and Vo = 9.62 {+-} 0.01 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 65.0 {+-} 0.6 GPa for the A7 phase.

  19. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low.

  20. Pressure-temperature stability studies of FeOOH using x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, Arianna E.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Kunz, Martin

    2008-07-21

    The Mie-Gruneisen formalism is used to fit a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to high-temperature (T), high-pressure (P) X-ray diffraction unit-cell volume (V) measurements on synthetic goethite (alpha-FeOOH) to combined conditions of T = 23-250o C and P = 0-29.4 GPa. We find the zero-pressure thermal expansion coefficient of goethite to be alpha0 = 2.3 (+-0.6) x 10-5 K-1 over this temperature range. Our data yield zero-pressure compressional parameters: V0 = 138.75 (+- 0.02) Angstrom3, bulk modulus K0 = 140.3 (+- 3.7) GPa, pressure derivative K0' = 4.6 (+- 0.4), Gruneisen parameter gamma0 = 0.91 (+- 0.07), and Debye temperature Theta0 = 740 (+- 5) K. We identify decomposition conditions for 2alpha-FeOOH --> alpha-Fe2O3 + H2O at 1 - 8 GPa and 100-400oC, and the polymorphic transition from alpha-FeOOH (Pbnm) to epsilon-FeOOH (P21mn). The non-quenchable, high-pressure epsilon-FeOOH phase P-V data are fitted to a second-order (Birch) equation of state yielding, K0 = 158 (+- 5) GPa and V0 = 66.3 (+- 0.5) Angstrom3.