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Sample records for birch tree named

  1. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  2. Ice Nuclei from Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Seifried, Teresa; Winkler, Philipp; Schmale, David, III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    While the importance of heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere is known, we still know very little about the substances triggering these freezing events. Recent findings support the theory that biological ice nuclei (IN) exhibit the ability to play an important role in these processes. Huffman et al. (2013) showed a burst of biological IN over woodlands triggered by rain events. Birch pollen are known to release a high number of efficient IN if incubated in water (Pummer et al. 2012). Therefore birches are of interest in our research on this topic. Plants native to the timberline, such as birch trees, have to cope with very cold climatic conditions, rendering freezing avoidance impossible. These plants trigger freezing in their extracellular spaces to control the freezing process and avoid intracellular freezing, which would have lethal consequences. The plants hereby try to freeze at a temperature well above homogeneous freezing temperatures but still at temperatures low enough to not be effected by brief night frosts. To achieve this, IN are an important tool. The specific objective of our work was to study the potential sources and distribution of IN in birch trees. We collected leaves, fruit, bark, and trunk cores from a series of mature birch trees in Tyrol, Austria at different altitudes and sampling sites. We also collected samples from a birch tree in an urban park in Vienna, Austria. Our data show a sampling site dependence and the distribution of IN throughout the tree. Our data suggest that leaves, bark, and wood of birch can function as a source of IN, which are easily extracted with water. The IN are therefore not restricted to pollen. Hence, the amount of IN, which can be released from birch trees, is tremendous and has been underrated so far. Future work aims to elucidate the nature, contribution, and potential ecological roles of IN from birch trees in different habitats. Huffman, J.A., Prenni, A.J., DeMott, P.J., Pöhlker, C., Mason, R

  3. The Banyan and the Birch Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Taeube, Florian A.

    Theoretical and empirical research on entrepreneurial networks is largely outcome-oriented and little integrated with family firm research. In this paper, we draw on social network and entrepreneurship literatures in order to investigate how family businesses build and make use of a variety of em...... compared to the plain structure of a birch tree describing Hollywood, where embedded ties can be different from familial ties....

  4. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  5. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO 2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO 2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO 2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO 2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO 2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO 2 . Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO 2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  6. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  7. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  8. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  9. Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plumeria rubraL. Syn. P. acutifoliaPoir. (Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit, Hindi) of Apocynaceae is an ornamental tree that is often cultivated in gardens and near temples. Both leaves and flowers are showy and contain milky latex. Flowers are in bunches, large and white with yellow ...

  10. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M

    2013-01-01

    BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic "dashboard" where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question "what is this taxon?" BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION), and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  11. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D.M. Page

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic “dashboard” where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question “what is this taxon?” BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION, and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  12. On the Effect of Thinning on Tree Growth and Stand Structure of White Birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev and Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gradel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North Mongolia are largely dominated either by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. or birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev. The increasing demand for timber and firewood is currently met by removal of wood from these forest stands. Therefore, silvicultural approaches that account for both utilization and protection are needed. Thinning trials were established in the research area Altansumber, in the mountain forest steppe west of the town of Darkhan. We analyzed the response of non-spatial and spatial structure and growth of birch and larch stands on thinning. Before thinning, spatial tree distribution was largely clumped. Thinning promoted regular tree distribution. Ingrowth of new stems after thinning tended to redirect stand structure towards clumping. Both relative and absolute tree growth and competition were evaluated before, directly after, and three years after the thinning. Competition played a significant role in tree growth before thinning. A reduction in competition after thinning triggered significantly increased growth of both birch and larch. The observed positive growth response was valid in absolute and relative terms. A methodically based forest management strategy, including thinning operations and selective cuttings, could be established, even under the harsh Mongolian conditions. Our findings could initiate the development of broader forest management guidelines for the light-taiga dominated stands.

  13. Insect enemies of birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Conklin

    1969-01-01

    Native birches are subject to attack by insects at all stages of growth from the germinating seedling to the mature tree. All parts of the tree—roots, stem, branches, foliage, and even the developing seed—may be utilized as feeding sites by insects of one kind or another. An enumeration of the many insects recorded in the literature as feeders on...

  14. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  15. The proper name of the neotropical tree boa often referred to as Corallus enhydris (Serpentes: Boidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Toure, T'Shaka; Savage, Jay M.

    1996-01-01

    Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the proper scientific name for this highly variable, wide-ranging arboreal boid is Corallus hortulanus, not Corallus enydris, as has been used so frequently in recent years.

  16. Paper birch decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, microclimate, and birch stand conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  17. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  18. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  19. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  20. Gnomonia canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot of yellow birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Jr. Kessler

    1978-01-01

    Describes a canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot disease of yellow birch seedlings in the northern Great Lakes region and tells how and when trees become infected by the fungal causal agent, Gnomonia setacea.

  1. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  2. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B.; Pereira, Olinto L.; Fernandes, Fernando M.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae. PMID:26910334

  3. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriele da Silva

    Full Text Available A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae.

  4. Comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. X. Further purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses of the major allergen of birch pollen (Betula verrucosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, H; Elsayed, S

    1986-01-01

    The previously isolated major allergen of birch pollen (fraction BV45), Int. Archs Allergy appl. Immun. 68: 70-78 (1982), was further purified by recycling chromatography. The purified preparation was run on a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) TSK-G-2000 gel filtration chromatography column and, finally, on paper high-volt electrophoresis. The protein recovered met the homogeneity criteria required for performing the N-terminal sequence analysis. The allergenic and antigenic reactivities of the HPLC-purified protein, designated BV45B, was examined. A single homogeneous precipitation line in crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) was shown. Specific IgE-inhibition tests and immuno-autoradiographic prints indicated that this allergen could bind reaginic IgE specificially and with good affinity. The homogeneity of BV45B was examined by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Several minor bands of pI differences of less than 0.1 units were visible, demonstrating the existence of some molecular variants of this protein. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the molecule was performed, and the following four amino acids were tentatively shown by sequential cleavage: NH2-Ala-Gly-Ile-Val-. The demonstration of one dominant N-terminal 1-dimethyl-amino-5-naphthalene sulphonyl (DNS)-amino acid by polyamide thin-layer chromatography at each sequence step confirmed that the N-terminal residue of the protein was not blocked; the heterogeneity shown by the IEF system was merely due to the presence of several homologous polymorphic proteins with identical N-terminal amino acid, the adequacy of the purification repertoire used.

  5. Biomass functions for tree fractions from pine, spruce, and birch in Sweden; Biomassafunktioner foer traedfraktioner av tall, gran och bjoerk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Hans

    1999-07-01

    This report describes new functions for estimation of the biomass of a tree, separated in a number of fractions. The functions will be used to estimate the potential supply of wood fuel from the forests, and to make calculations of bound carbon and indirect nitrogen balance in the forest.

  6. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  7. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us BodyParts...nce between 3D organ model IDs and organ names available in IS-A Tree. Data file File name: isa_parts..._list_e.txt (IS-A Tree) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts3d/LATEST/isa_parts..._list_e.txt File size: 126 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/bodyparts3d_isa_parts...| Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic dysfunction on the plants, grown under high atmospheric humidity, in case of sudden weather fluctuations, and might represent a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. There is no trade-off between plant hydraulic capacity and photosynthetic water-use efficiency on short time scale.

  9. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Eraenen, Janne K.; Zverev, Vitali E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  10. Potential role of soil calcium in recovery of paper birch following ice storm injury in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, an increased number of mature paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and heart-leafed paper birch (B. papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern.) in northeastern United States forests have exhibited decline symptoms including foliar loss, reduced fine branching, and tree mortality. We assessed crown health, radial...

  11. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  12. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us BodyParts...ata file File name: partof_parts_list_e.txt (PART-OF Tree) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts...3d/LATEST/partof_parts_list_e.txt File size: 58 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/bodyparts...3d_partof_parts_list_e Data acquisition method - Data analysis ...atabase Site Policy | Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  14. The impact of birch seedlings on evapotranspiration from a mined peatland: an experimental study in southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense stands of birch (Betula spp. on abandoned peat workings have often been identified as potential barriers to site restoration, but little research has been conducted to evaluate their impact on water resources. The objective of this experimental study was to determine whether birch seedlings established on an abandoned mined peatland in eastern Canada had a significant impact on evapotranspiration. Transpiration rates from birch seedlings planted in containers filled with Sphagnum compost were measured gravimetrically. Unplanted containers were used to similarly measure evaporation rates from bare peat. On average, the measured rates of evaporation (per unit area from peat were 2.5 times the rates of transpiration from birch leaves. However, if the total leaf area of a dense birch population established on an abandoned mined peatland is considered, the total amount of water lost through birch transpiration could be higher than that lost by evaporation from the peat surface. This study provides a rough estimate of potential water losses due to birch seedling transpiration, and indicates that a dense population of birch on a mined peatland may influence site hydrology even at the early establishment phase (seedlings. Consequently, recently abandoned mined peatlands should be restored rapidly to prevent the establishment of birch trees.

  15. Birch regeneration: a stochastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1968-01-01

    The regeneration of a clearcutting with paper or yellow birch is expressed as an elementary stochastic (probabalistic) model that is computationally similar to an absorbing Markov chain. In the general case, the model contains 29 states beginning with the development of a flower (ament) and terminating with the abortion of a flower or seed, or the development of an...

  16. Early flowering and seed production in a yellow birch progeny test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knud E. Clausen

    1976-01-01

    Trees in a yellow birch progeny test began to bear seed when 7 years old and the proportion of fruiting trees increased in the following 2 years. Male catkins were produced at age 8 and the number of trees with males increased greatly the following years. Although there is much variation between and within families in earliness of flowering and in number of flowers and...

  17. Birch mixture in spruce forest - a method to reduce the effects of acidification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Kristina.

    1996-01-01

    Acidification has lately been focus of increased attention in the business, industrial and public sectors. One measure that can prevent further acidification is the liming of forest soils. Another strategy would be to increase the admixture of deciduous tree species in conifer forest. This paper deals with the latter problem. From ecological and economical standpoints, the tree species offering the most advantageous admixture in Sweden would be birch, Betula pendula, and Norway spruce, Picea abies. Birch trees help to increase soil pH, while decreasing atmospheric deposition and protecting young spruce seedling from frost. The use of birch admixture need to be 50% or more to get required effect. This will lead to a reduction in spruce wood production. This need not to be a problem, however, since birch pulp will probably become more valuable in the future. The admixed forests have a higher biological diversity and are of greater value for recreation. Although spruce production on acidified sited is still high, further atmospheric deposition could lead to declines in production. Forest soils will eventually sustain serious damage if acid deposition continues to increase, which will require new alternatives for wood production be found. A high admixture of birch can offer a temporary respite if emission and deposition continue, but cannot completely compensate for the acidifying effects of present deposition levels. 26 refs, 2 figs

  18. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaner, J.W.; Hixson, R.S.; Winkler, M.A.; Boness, D.A.; Brown, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  19. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  20. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients......-treated group. CONCLUSION: The rBet v 1-based vaccine was safe and effective in treating birch pollen allergy, and induced a highly specific immune response....

  1. Management of birch for aesthetics and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Noyes

    1969-01-01

    When paper birch and yellow birch are managed for aesthetic and recreation purposes, timber values become secondary, although in some instances compatibility exists among the several objectives. At times, timber and wood-products production is excluded entirely in the interests of aesthetics and recreation. In keying forest-management practices to the appearance...

  2. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the differences in size and structure of mycobionta communities occurring in soil and on/i n roots of a 30 year-old birch and its stumps 2 years after cutting of the trees. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of Zygorhynchus moelleri and Trichoderma viride. The first species due to the metabolites produced may presumably stimulate the infection by Armlllaria. The second species is a well-known antagonist of Armillaria, Z. moelleri accounted only for 2.6, l.3 and 9.l % of the total number of isolates in rhizoplane as well as in the fine and thick roots of stumps, respectively. Trlchodcrma viride and T. virens were present in roots of Hve birch and its stumps only occasionally. The relatively big population of Mycelium radicis atrovirens- particularly in the fine roots of stumps is attributed to their high vitality and relatively lower level of root decomposition. It seems that the rate of stump root decomposilion does not favour their colonization by Z. moelleri and its supposed contribution in enhancing the infection by Armillaria might not be so distinct as on stumps of 49-year-old birches.

  3. Root biomass production in young birch stands planted at four spacings on two different sites

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of trees above ground influences on the amount of root biomass and a low root biomass might decrease the total biomass production. The amount of biomass for fractions and distribution of downy and silver birch root systems was studied including the root distribution in cardinal points. The allometric relationship between stump diameter (DSH) and stump weight and between DSH and root weight and length for the two species was quantified. The 12-year-old trees had been g...

  4. 78 FR 50410 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Project] Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule..., the Secretary may establish a restricted service list for a particular phase or issue in a proceeding. The restricted service list should contain the names of persons on the service list who, in the...

  5. Management of birch for wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel P. Shaw

    1969-01-01

    The list of wildlife species known to prefer paper birch and yellow birch as food ls a long one. To mention a few: beavers and porcupines chew on the bark and wood; sapsuckers feed on the sap; other songbirds—notably the redpoll, pine siskin, and chikadee—relish the seeds; ruffed grouse eat the catkins, buds, and seeds (in northern Maine and Canada...

  6. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Schua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  7. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  8. Application of the MASSAHAKE-method for birch whole tree chips and for the production of raw material for mechanical pulp production; MASSAHAKE-menetelmaen soveltaminen koivulle sekae mekaanisen massan raaka-ainetuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, M.; Seppaenen, V.; Nikala, L.

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this project for the year 1995 were: (1) To develop the grinding process in order to decrease the wood losses in grinder, (2) To find the connection between the initial values in the process and the quality of the pulp chips, (3) To find out the behaviour of chips from mixed tree species in the MASSAHAKE process, (4) To find out the amount of knots in the pulp chips from the MASSAHAKE-process and (5) To find out the critical factors in big fuel stock made of the fuel fraction from the MASSAHAKE-process. The research with grinder was made with five different types of grinder plates. One of the blade sets was used as a reference where all the other sets were compared. In the second task a relationship between three most important initial values and the quality of pulp chips was determined. These values were: the feeding capacity of the whole tree chips to the process, the sensitivity of the optical sorter and the pixel size of bark to be removed in optical sorter. Based on the research and analysis results a linear model describing the process was made. In the third task the behaviour of mixed tree chips in the process was examined and also some full scale pulping experiments were done. Comparing the knot content of the pulp chips both from MASSAHAKE-process and normal pulp chip process a significant difference was noticed. The pulp chips from MASSAHAKE-system contained only 1/3 of the knots in normal de-barking+chipping pulp chip line. With decreased knot content a 1-3 % increase in digester capacity could be reached. Finally in fuel fraction storing research a significant dry material loss was determined

  9. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  10. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  11. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    a clinical characterization of skin test-positive subjects without symptoms and to ascertain the predictive values of common allergologic tests. METHODS: Asymptomatic adults with positive skin prick test results for birch (n = 15), nonatopic control subjects (n = 25), and birch pollen-allergic patients (n...... = 6) were followed through use of daily diary cards during 3 consecutive birch pollen seasons. At inclusion and at the 3-year follow-up visit, conjunctival and nasal challenges, intradermal late-phase reaction evaluation, and measurement of specific IgE were performed. RESULTS: Asymptomatic sensitized...

  12. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  13. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  14. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  15. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  16. 78 FR 69848 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...] Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement..., the Secretary may establish a restricted service list for a particular phase or issue in a proceeding. The restricted service list should contain the names of persons on the service list who, in the...

  17. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO 2 and/or O 3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO 2 increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O 3 also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO 2 + O 3 ) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO 2 may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O 3 will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO 2 enhances and elevated O 3 decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth

  18. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, S.; Huttunen, S.; Vanhatalo, M.; Pakonen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O 3 ) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O 3 , i.e. O 3 levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O 3 and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels. - Northern birches are responsive to ambient ozone levels.

  19. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  20. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen

  1. Oral allergy syndrome to chicory associated with birch pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadot, P.; Kochuyt, A.-M.; van Ree, R.; Ceuppens, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few cases of IgE-mediated chicory allergy with oral, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms are reported. We present 4 patients with inhalant birch pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome to chicory. IgE-binding proteins in chicory and cross-reactivity with birch pollen were studied.

  2. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  3. BIRCH: a user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristensky, Brian

    2007-02-09

    Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy) is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment) graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  4. Establishing an Alaskan birch syrup industry: Birch Syrup—It’s the Un-maple!TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlene. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    Ten years ago a small group of Alaskans began commercial production of birch syrup from the sap of the paper birch, Betula papyrifera, and established an industry that is expanding in response to demand and has the potential to make a significant contribution to Alaska's economy. There are still many problems to be solved; research and...

  5. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application... Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for transfer of license for the Birch Creek... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404, phone (208) 589-6908. FERC Contact...

  6. Wood ants and a geometrid defoliator of birch: predation outweighs beneficial effects through the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, Kari J; Neuvonen, Seppo

    1998-02-01

    Soil amelioration by a wood-ant species and its consequences for the larval performance of autumnal moths feeding on mountain birch were studied at various distances from the nest mound. Soil nitrate and ammonium nitrogen did not show any clear relationship with distance. However, trees growing in the mound had over 20% more foliar nitrogen than more distant trees. When moth larvae were experimentally protected from predation, their survival rate and final weight tended to decrease with increasing distance. In a laboratory experiment with detached leaves, the relative growth rate of larvae was roughly 30% higher on leaves from trees located on the mound. Differences in larval performance refute the Plant Stress Hypothesis proposed by T.C.R. White and support P.W. Price's Plant Vigor Hypothesis. Predation by ants was examined along the same gradient in trees with and without a glue band that excluded ants from the canopy. Reduction in the daily survival rate of larvae attributable to ant predation was about 35% in trees growing in the mound and around 5% at a distance of 20 m. Other things being equal, about 25 times more larvae entering the penultimate instar would achieve the pupal stage outside the wood-ant territory than in the vicinity of the mound. While both the fertilizing and predatory influence of wood ants is clear, the domain of predation is much larger than the area where trees and their herbivores can exploit enhanced nutrient levels in and around ant mounds. The existence of undamaged green islands around ant mounds in otherwise totally defoliated mountain-birch forests cannot be explained by soil amelioration by wood ants but rather by their predatory activity.

  7. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Theriault

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula papyrifera is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1 develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2 assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3 describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome, binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  8. Effects of long-term elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegelberg, R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Joensuu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland); Aphalo, P. J. [Joensuu Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Joensuu (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The effects of long-term ultraviolet-B radiation on the concentrations of secondary metabolites such as phenolics and terpenoids in the bark of silver birch saplings were studied. The effects of ultraviolet-B on the concentrations of the main soluble sugars such as sucrose, raffinose, and glucose in silver birch stem were also investigated, given that they are involved in the transpiration and allocation of assimilated carbon, and UV-B-induced changes may affect tree growth. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were found to be higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term exposure to elevated UV radiation. Saplings in elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and UV-A radiation control treatment had shown significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics compared with saplings in ambient radiation. No effect of radiation treatment was observed on non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids. These observations led to the conclusion that plant parts accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. The accumulation of sugars in the stems of silver birch saplings in response to UV radiation is believed to affect tree growth, possibly because of a reduction of alpha-cellulose content and consequent reduction in cell wall production. 36 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Long-Term Storage of Yellow and Paper Birch Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knud E. Clausen

    1975-01-01

    Storage of yellow and paper birch seeds for 12 years does not appear practical but seed visibility can usually be maintained for at least 8 years, if the seeds are kept in closed containers at 36? to 40?F.

  10. Ventilation scheme, room location and meteorological factors influence indoor birch pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Matiu, Michael; Michaelis, Rico; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Allergenic pollen, often in co-occurrence with air pollutants from traffic and industries aggravating its pollen allergenicity, constitutes a major health risk for the urban population during the pollen season. Airborne pollen concentrations are traditionally monitored with fixed pollen traps mounted >10 m above ground on flat roof tops. However, the personal exposure of allergic people mostly depends on their main residences and the local emission patterns. Consequently, the assessment of indoor pollen is essential for human health since people stay most of the day inside buildings. In our study, hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations were measured on eight days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. A traditional pollen trap on the roof of the building provided the background birch pollen concentration which was compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms. The office and lab rooms were characterised by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured at a nearby climate station and directly in front of the windows. The observed flowering phenology of 56 birch trees in the nearer surrounding partly explained daily peaks in airborne pollen concentrations. As expected, outdoor pollen concentrations were larger than indoor concentrations: Mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio was highest (0.75) in a south oriented room with fully opened window and additional mechanical ventilation, followed by two rooms with fully opened windows orientated to the west and north (0.35, 0.12) and lowest in east oriented neighbouring rooms with tilted window (0.19) and with windows only opened for short ventilation (0.07). The latter two rooms even had a birch tree directly flowering in front of the façade. Hourly I/O ratios depended on meteorology and increased with outside temperature and wind speed oriented perpendicular to the window opening. As also

  11. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, S; Huttunen, S; Vanhatalo, M; Pakonen, T; Hämäläinen, A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O(3)) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O(3), i.e. O(3) levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O(3) and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels.

  12. Dynamic Behaviour of Birch and Sequoia at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragov, A. M.; Lomunov, A. K.; Sergeichev, I. V.; Gray, G. T.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results of the dynamic mechanical response of for two structural woods, i.e. birch and sequoia. Monotonic and cyclic compression testing at room temperature of these materials was performed using a modified Kolsky method; a 20-mm diameter split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The birch and sequoia specimens were loaded parallel and orthogonal to the grain of the wood, as well as, at other angles relative to the wood grain. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the two woods was measured as a function of loading orientation under a uniaxial stress state as well as under circumferential confinement using a collar surrounding the sample to quantify the effect of lateral confinement on mechanical behavior. The loading and unloading responses of both woods were found to exhibit nonlinear behavior and a strong dependency on the strain rate of loading. The dynamic stress-strain responses of the birch and sequoia showed a strong influence of grain orientation of the flow stress and fracture behavior. Examination of the damage evolution and fracture responses of the birch and sequoia displayed a strong dependence on grain orientation. Cyclic dynamic loading data, obtained using a modification of the original SHPB testing method, is also presented for the two structural woods studied. In addition to the SHPB tests, plane-wave Shockwave loading experiments were conducted and the shock adiabates for birch was obtained.

  13. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  14. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  15. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  16. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for character-marked cabinets from Alaska birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geof Donovan; David. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Alaska birch lumber has a higher occurrence of defects (knots, bark pockets, flecks, spalting, etc.) when compared to competing hardwoods. These defects are a disadvantage when birch lumber is graded under standard National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) grading rules. This paper examines whether defects and other character markings found in birch lumber may be an...

  17. Numerical simulation of birch pollen dispersion with an operational weather forecast system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Vogel, Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    We included a parameterisation of the emissions of pollen grains into the comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. In addition, a detailed density distribution of birch trees within Switzerland was derived. Based on these new developments, we carried out numerical simulations of the dispersion of pollen grains for an episode that occurred in April 2006 over Switzerland and the adjacent regions. Since COSMO-ART is based on the operational forecast model of the German Weather Service, we are presenting a feasibility study of daily pollen forecast based on methods which have been developed during the last two decades for the treatment of anthropogenic aerosol. A comparison of the model results and very detailed pollen counts documents the current possibilities and the shortcomings of the method and gives hints for necessary improvements.

  18. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zygorhynchus moelleri was the dominating species on/in roots of 2 year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches. Trichoderma viride was more frequently found in the fine roots of living birches than in the fine roots of stumps though its population increased in thick roots of stumps. Occasionally the fungus also occurred on the surface of fine roots of stumps. Z. moelleri is known to produce indole 3-ethanol and indole-3 acetic acid which stimulate the growth of A. ostoyae rhizomorphs and phenoloxidizing enzymes which play an important role in the degradation of the wood. It seems that the accumulation of Z. moelleri and absence of bigger populations of T. viride on/in roots of 2-year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches may result in an increase of their susceptibility to Armillaria infection.

  19. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  20. Some physical and mechanical properties of African birch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of locally manufactured or waste materials in structural buildings without loss of performance is very crucial to the growth of developing countries. This report provides the results of some physical and mechanical property tests carried out on air dried African birch (Anogeissus leiocarpus) timber grown in Nigeria.

  1. Timber resource of Minnesota's Aspen-Birch Unit, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Arnold J. Ostrom

    1979-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Aspen-Birch Unit shows solid gains in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1962 and 1977, but a 13% decline in commercial forest area. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area a well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  2. Paper birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale Gormanson; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra Wrobel; Marla R. Emery; Michael J. Dockry

    2015-01-01

    Data on paper birch (Betula papyrifera L.; wiigwaas in the Ojibwe language), collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service on forested lands in the Great Lakes region (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) from 1980 through 2010, are reported. Also presented are results and analysis of a supplemental inventory...

  3. Accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by a birch and willow on territories, subject and not subject flooding by radioactive waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, P.I.; Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Some outcomes of a radioecological investigation of Olkhovka bog in the vicinity of Beloyarsk NPP (Sverdlovsk region, Middle Ural) are indicated, in which the sewer waters of Zarechny town and unbalanced weakly radioactive water of the plant were for a long time dropped. The data on the contents 60 , 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu in soil and grounds of inspected territory are represented. The features of accumulation 90 Sr and 137 Cs by overground organs of a birch and willow, which grow on the constantly flooded part, on shores, periodically flooded by marsh water, and on watershed plots, where plants are not subjected to influence of a bog (control) are shown. Is established, that concentration of both radionuclides in trees of a birch both the willows on a bog and coastal territory in some times exceed those on control plots. Are shown a likeness and difference in accumulation 90 Sr and 137 Cs different by overground organs of both wood breeds. The distribution and 137 Cs in wood plants, which grow on the flooded part of a bog and on land, essentially differs. The distribution 90 Sr in a trunk of a birch has a acropetal character. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories are considered. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories and probable modifications in ecological conditions on bog in connection with the discontinuance of discharge in it sewer and unbalanced waters are considered. (author)

  4. The importance of mercury in leaves, bark and wood of eight tree species across four northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, R. D.; Yang, Y.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposition affects forests even in remote areas, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known, in part because concentrations of Hg in wood are often below the analytical detection limit by ICP-OES. We analyzed Hg in wood, bark, and foliage of 8 tree species across four sites (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME) in the northeastern USA, using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (USEPA Method 7473). The hardwood species, namely American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), had lower Hg concentrations (averaging 7.7 ng g-1 in bark and 16.3 ng g-1 in foliage) than the conifers, namely red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) (averaging 22.5 ng g-1 in bark and 28.6 ng g-1 in foliage) (p < 0.001). Yellow birch had especially high Hg in wood (2.5 ng g-1) (p < 0.001); the other species averaged 1.4 ng g-1. The Hg content of aboveground biomass, estimated from modeled tree biomass and species composition at each site, declined from the west to the east. Wood is important to Hg budgets in spite of low concentrations, because of its large mass. With the proper analytical methods, it is possible to estimate pools and fluxes of Hg in forest vegetation.

  5. Evaluation of a New Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System for Micropropagation of Cultivars of Eucalyptus, Birch and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Businge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid instead of solid culture medium for the micropropagation of plants offers advantages such as better access to medium components and scalability through possible automation of the processes. The objective of this work was to compare a new temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB to solid medium culture for the micropropagation of a selection of tree species micropropagated for commercial use: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven Spach, Eucalyptus (E. grandis x E. urophylla, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh, and Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica. Cultivation of explants in the TIB resulted in a significant increase of multiplication rate and fresh weight of Eucalyptus and B. pendula, but not Betula pubescens. In addition, the fresh weight of embryogenic tissue and the maturation frequency of somatic embryos increased significantly when an embryogenic cell line of A. nordmanniana was cultivated in the TIB compared to solid culture medium. These results demonstrate the potential for scaling up and automating micropropagation by shoot multiplication and somatic embryogenesis in commercial tree species using a temporary immersion bioreactor.

  6. Evaluation and differentiation of the Betulaceae birch bark species and their bioactive triterpene content using analytical FT-vibrational spectroscopy and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîntă-Pînzaru, Simona; Dehelean, Cristina A; Soica, Codruta; Culea, Monica; Borcan, Florin

    2012-07-18

    Aiming to obtain the highest triterpene content in the extraction products, nine bark samples from the forest abundant flora of Apuseni Mountains, Romania were Raman spectroscopically evaluated. Three different natural extracts from Betula pendula Roth birch bark have been obtained and characterized using Fourier transform vibrational spectra. This study shows that principal components of the birch tree extract can be rapidly recognized and differentiated based on their vibrational fingerprint band shape and intensity. The vibrational spectroscopy results are supported by the GC-MS data. Based on IR and Raman analysis, one can conclude that all the extracts, independent on the solvent(s) used, revealed dominant betulin species, followed by lupeol. Since Raman measurements could also be performed on fresh plant material, we demonstrated the possibility to apply the present results for the prediction of the highest triterpene content in bark species, for the selection of harvesting time or individual genotypes directly in the field, with appropriate portable Raman equipment.

  7. CO 2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    White birch (Betula paperifera Mash) seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species' potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO 2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26 (o)C and 37 (o)C. Elevated CO 2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37 (o)C was higher than that at 26 (o)C under elevated CO 2. Stomatal conductance (gs) was lower at 37 (o)C than at 26 (o)C, while transpiration rate (E) was higher at 37 (o)C than that at 26 (o)C. Elevated CO 2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE) at both 26 (o)C and 37 (o)C, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37 (o)C under elevated CO 2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax), PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) varied with CO 2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37 (o)C than at 26 (o)C under elevated CO 2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO 2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm'), total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT) and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc) were higher at 37 (o)C than at 26 (o)C under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT). The data suggest that the CO 2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  8. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  9. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  10. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H.; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. ► Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. ► Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. ► Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2–8.9 mg kg −1 ) than willow and poplar (5–80 mg kg −1 ), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300–6200 mg kg −1 ) and K (320–1250 mg kg −1 ), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  11. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V Martemyanov

    Full Text Available Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs, particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

  12. Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals.

  13. Survival and growth of selected clones of birch and willow on restored opencast coal sites. [Betula pendula Roth; Betula pubescens Ehrh. ; Salix caprea L; Salix cinerea L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J.E.G.; Williams, T.G.; Moss, D.

    1985-12-01

    Selected clones of birch (Betula pendula Roth; B. pubescens Ehrh.) and willow (Salix caprea L.; S. cinerea L.) were propagated from saplings or cuttings taken from a variety of spoil heaps. These were tested, along with unselected controls, with and without fertilizers in conventional randomized experiments on six restored opencast coal sites throughout Britain. Some selected clones achieved consistently higher mean survival than unselected controls over the range of sites. Others were more variable, achieving higher survival than controls on some sites but not on others. In general, the greatest gains in survival occurred on the most difficult sites. Willows generally achieved higher shoot growth increments than birches, particularly on the sites with more fertile soils where topsoil had been replaced during restoration. Growth of unselected birch, and especially willow, equalled or exceeded that of most of the selected clones at most sites. Clones varied considerable in growth form as indicated by mean height:width ratios. However, site greatly influenced form, suggesting that site-type:form indices need to be constructed if revegetation schemes combining the advantages of height growth with those of low, litter-trapping profile are to be developed. Annual applications of a nitrogen:phosphorus (5:22) fertilizer had no significant effect on tree survival. Significant growth responses to fertilizer were few and limited to three of the less fertile sites. In general, unselected controls gave greater responses particularly to higher levels of fertilizer, than selected clones.

  14. Impact of urbanization of the proteome of birch pollen and its chemotactic activity on human granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryce, M.; Drews, O.; Schenk, M.F.; Menzel, A.; Estrella, N.; Weichenmeier, I.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Buters, J.; Ring, J.; Gorg, A.; Behrendt, H.; Traidl-Hoffmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  16. Precommercial crop-tree release increases diameter growth of Appalachian hardwood saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Neil I. Lamson

    1983-01-01

    Codominant seedling-origin crop trees 25 to 39 feet tall in even-aged, precommercial-size hardwood stands were released in West Virginia. Trees were located on two sites: good oak site index 75 and fair oak site 63. Species studied were black cherry, sweet birch, and yellow-poplar. Three-year results indicated that the trees generally responded to release; the 3-year...

  17. Geochemistry of the Birch Creek Drainage Basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Shawn A.; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) system at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the effects of these recharge waters on the geochemistry of the ESRPA system. Each of these recharge waters has a hydrochemical character related to geochemical processes, especially water-rock interactions, that occur during migration to the ESRPA. Results of these studies will benefit ongoing and planned geochemical modeling of the ESRPA at the INEEL by providing model input on the hydrochemical character of water from each drainage basin. During 2000, water samples were collected from five wells and one surface-water site in the Birch Creek drainage basin and analyzed for selected inorganic constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, measurements of gross alpha and beta radioactivity, and stable isotopes. Four duplicate samples also were collected for quality assurance. Results, which include analyses of samples previously collected from four other sites, in the basin, show that most water from the Birch Creek drainage basin has a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate character. The Birch Creek Valley can be divided roughly into three hydrologic areas. In the northern part, ground water is forced to the surface by a basalt barrier and the sampling sites were either surface water or shallow wells. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple evaporation models, simple calcite-carbon dioxide models, or complex models involving carbonate and silicate minerals. The central part of the valley is filled by sedimentary material and the sampling sites were wells that are deeper than those in the northern part. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple calcite-dolomite-carbon dioxide

  18. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-03-30

    To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg(-1)) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg(-1)), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg(-1)) and K (320-1250 mg kg(-1)), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  20. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  1. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  2. Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor Vodde; Kalev Jogiste; Jeroen Engelhart; Lee E. Frelich; W. Keith Moser; Alan Sims; Marek Metslaid

    2015-01-01

    In two hemiboreal mixed spruce-hardwood forests in north-east Estonia, we studied (1) which factors affect tree regeneration survival and development during the first post-storm decade and (2) how these effects change in time. Regeneration height and mortality of the tree species black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) J. Gaertn.), birch (Betula pendula Roth., Betula...

  3. Daily home measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children during natural birch pollen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Available methods have restricted measurements to the clinic, giving only a snapshot of the disease, which by nature is highly variable. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate...... the feasibility, repeatability, accuracy, sensitivity, and biologic plausibility of new handheld equipment for FENO measurements. We studied day-to-day home measurements of FENO during the birch pollen season in children with allergy to birch pollen and a history of mild asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during...... this season, as well as in nonatopic children. METHODS: Eleven children with mild asthma and allergy to birch pollen, performed daily home measurements of FENO for 6 weeks before and during the birch pollen season by using a handheld FENO monitor (NIOX MINO). Additionally, FENO (chemiluminescence equipment...

  4. [Oral Allergy Syndrome Following Soy Milk Ingestion in Patients with Birch Pollen Allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Persons allergic to birch pollen often report oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruit and vegetables, due to immunological cross-reactivity between pollen and foods. This phenomenon is referred to as the oral allergy syndrome (GAS). Such cross-reactive antigen reactions mainly involve Bet v 1, which is the major birch-pollen allergen, and partially involve birch-pollen profilin Bet v 2. Soybean contains Bet v 1-related antigen (Gly m 4), and soy milk often causes the OAS with severe symptoms such as precordial and abdominal burning sensation because soy milk undergoes little denaturation, and this water-soluble liquid is consumed by most people rather quickly. We evaluated the frequency of the oAS after ingestion of soymilk and examined IgE antibodies to various allergens. A total of 167 patients [122 women, 45 men; age range, 4-72 years (mean age, 32 years)], who had experienced GAS episodes and had IgE birch--pollen antibodies, were interviewed. Using the CAP system, we examined IgE antibodies to birch pollen and other allergens. Of 167 patients, 161 were examined for IgE antibodies to Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Gly m 4, and soybean. We evaluated the frequency of the GAS after soy milk ingestion based on reports by GAS patients with birch pollen allergy, and evaluated the positive rates of some of the IgE antibodies. Among the 167 patients with birch-pollen allergy and GAS on ingestion of any of the foods, there were 16 cases (10%) with OAS following soy milk ingestion. In addition, the foods that caused OAS most often were apples (123 cases, 74%), peaches (67%), and cherries (55%), followed by pears (37%) and kiwi (37%). A higher CAP class for birch pollen, Bet v 1, Gly m 4, and soybean was associated with a higher prevalence of OAS to soy milk. Of 15 patients who had GAS on ingestion of soy milk and had birch-pollen allergy, 47% (7cases) were CAP class 1 for soybean and only 7% (case) was CAP class c2, whereas 93% (14cases) were CAP class 1 for Gly m 4, and 87% (3

  5. Performance of moth larvae on birch in relation to altitude, climate, host quality and parasitoids

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, T.; Neuvonen, S.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract We studied topographical and year-to-year variation in the performance (pupal weights, survival) and larval parasitism of Epirrita autumnata larvae feeding on mountain birch in northernmost Finland in 1993-1996. We found differences in both food plant quality and parasitism between sites ranging from 80 m to 320 m above sea level. Variation in food plant quality had particularly marked effects on larval survival. The advanced phenology of the birches in relation to the start of the l...

  6. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  7. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  8. Cloning of the minor allergen Api g 4 profilin from celery (Apium graveolens) and its cross-reactivity with birch pollen profilin Bet v 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, S; Wangorsch, A; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    2000-07-01

    revised IUIS allergen nomenclature, we suggest naming the celery profilin Api g 4. In addition to the cross-reacting major allergens Api g 1 and Bet v 1, birch pollinosis and associated allergies to celery can therefore additionally be explained by the cross-reactivity between homologous profilins. Moreover, recombinant Api g 4 may be used for target-specific diagnosis and structural analyses.

  9. Vegetation of birch and aspen forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega State Nature Reserve (Russia is located in the Arkhangelsk region in the northern taiga subzone. Together with spruce forests and mires, birch forests represent one of the most wide-spread plant communities of its territory. Birch forests cover 24.6% of the Reserve's area. Aspen forests are rare plant communities in the Pinega Reserve. These forests cover only 0.9% of the whole Reserve's area. The birch and aspen forests vegetation has been classified based on 82 relevès. Eleven associations could be distinguished, which represent six groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa are provided including their biodiversity analysis. The analysis allowed establishing that the revealed syntaxa differ in relation to habitat environmental conditions: e.g., soil moisture, trophicity, nitrogen saturation and soil acidity. Sphagnum and blueberry birch forests proved to be the poorest in nitrogen, in contrast to the richest humidoherbaceous and broad-grassed groups of birch forest associations. Broad-grassed birch forests in the Pinega Reserve inhabit the most drained locations, while humidoherbaceous and Sphagnum forests occur in lesser drained locations.

  10. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  11. Stomatal regulation, structural acclimation and metabolic shift towards defensive compounds reduce O3 load in birch under chronic O3 stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.; Riikonen, J.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Maenpaa, M.; Rousi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Northern forests are encountering new threats due to continuously increasing load of oxidative stress, e.g. due to rising tropospheric O3 levels, and simultaneous climate warming, which is more intense in northern latitudes as compared to global means. The proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula) in Finnish forests is expected to increase with climate warming. Unfortunately, we have growing evidence that the vitality and the carbon sink strength of birch trees are weakened under chronic O3 stress. In this study we investigated the effects of slightly elevated O3 concentration (1.3 x the ambient), temperature (T) and their combination on the antioxidant defense, gas exchange and leaf growth of Betula pendula saplings (clone 12) growing in open-field conditions over two growing seasons. The plants were measured for SLA (specific leaf area), total leaf area, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc,max), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), relative stomatal limitation to photosynthesis (ls), dark respiration (Rd), apoplastic concentrations of AA (ascorbic acid), DHA (dehydroascobate) and total ascorbate, the redox state of apoplastic ascorbate, and total antioxidant capacity. Elevated O3 enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast in the first year of the experiment at the ambient T. However, during the second year of the experiment, the saplings responded to elevated O3 level by closing the stomata and by developing leaves with a lower leaf area per mass, rather than by accumulating ascorbate in the apoplast. O3 did not affect the total leaf area, whereas Pn was slightly and gs significantly reduced in the second year. Elevated T enhanced the total leaf area, Pn and Vc,max, redox state of ascorbate and total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast. The effects of T and O3 on total leaf area and net photosynthesis were counteractive. We were not able to detect significant differences in Rd between the

  12. Fire drives transcontinental variation in tree birch defense against browsing by snowshoe hares

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Bryant; Thomas P. Clausen; Robert K. Swihart; Simon M. Landhäusser; Michael T. Stevens; Christopher D. B. Hawkins; Suzanne Carrière; Andrei P. Kirilenko; Alasdair M. Veitch; Richard A. Popko; David T. Cleland; Joseph H. Williams; Walter J. Jakubas; Michael R. Carlson; Karin Lehmkuhl Bodony; Merben Cebrian; Thomas F. Paragi; Peter M. Picone; Jeffery E. Moore; Edmond C. Packee; Thomas Malone

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been the dominant disturbance in boreal America since the Pleistocene, resulting in a spatial mosaic in which the most fire occurs in the continental northwest. Spatial variation in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) density reflects the fire mosaic. Because fire initiates secondary forest succession, a fire mosaic creates...

  13. Damping properties of sequoia and birch under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakov, A.P.; Gerdjukov, N.N.; Zotov, E.V.; Novikov, S.A.; Sinitsin, V.A.; Scherbak, Y.I.

    1998-01-01

    The decrease mechanic effect on loads being transported, shock load limiters (dampers) are being widely used today. Usually, the materials having 'stress-strain' diagrams (σ-ε) of compression with a substantial portion, where σ = const., are used as dampers. Most widely used are dampers made of foam polystyrene having just the same compression diagram. Similar strain diagrams can be enlisted for some porous materials, timber under cross compression, perforated metallic crushers and some others. By selecting damper material, the level of transmitted to the protected object pressures can be varied from several to hundreds MPa. Timber, as being widely used and featuring good technologic properties together with low cost, becomes an attractive material to be used as the limiter of shock loads. This paper presents the results of stress-strain sequoia properties (USA deliverable) and birch properties (Volgo-Vyatski region) at dynamic (v = 10 m/s) and quasistatic (v ≅ 10 -4 m/s) loading rates. The samples (diameter 25 x 25 mm) cut at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 90 deg. angle relative to their fibre were tested on one-axis compression at -30, +20 and +65 deg. C and fixed humidity (ω = 6-7%). Dynamic tests employed Kolsky method performed at the facility including Hopkinson's compound rod (Zukas et al.,1985). Sample loading was executed by trapezoidal pulsed pressure created by the explosive device. Samples were heated and cooled by special thermostats. (authors)

  14. Tree Contractions and Evolutionary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ming-Yang

    2001-01-01

    An evolutionary tree is a rooted tree where each internal vertex has at least two children and where the leaves are labeled with distinct symbols representing species. Evolutionary trees are useful for modeling the evolutionary history of species. An agreement subtree of two evolutionary trees is an evolutionary tree which is also a topological subtree of the two given trees. We give an algorithm to determine the largest possible number of leaves in any agreement subtree of two trees T_1 and ...

  15. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  16. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  17. Evaluation and differentiation of the Betulaceae birch bark species and their bioactive triterpene content using analytical FT-vibrational spectroscopy and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîntă-Pînzaru Simona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aiming to obtain the highest triterpene content in the extraction products, nine bark samples from the forest abundant flora of Apuseni Mountains, Romania were Raman spectroscopically evaluated. Three different natural extracts from Betula pendula Roth birch bark have been obtained and characterized using Fourier transform vibrational spectra. Results This study shows that principal components of the birch tree extract can be rapidly recognized and differentiated based on their vibrational fingerprint band shape and intensity. The vibrational spectroscopy results are supported by the GC-MS data. Based on IR and Raman analysis, one can conclude that all the extracts, independent on the solvent(s used, revealed dominant betulin species, followed by lupeol. Conclusions Since Raman measurements could also be performed on fresh plant material, we demonstrated the possibility to apply the present results for the prediction of the highest triterpene content in bark species, for the selection of harvesting time or individual genotypes directly in the field, with appropriate portable Raman equipment.

  18. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  19. The Puzzling Origin of the Acquaintance between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Hamilton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have puzzled over the origin of the relationship between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch. That the two shared a cordial professional relationship in 1759 is not surprising, but it is unclear how and when Birch obtained the poem "The Dream, an ode by Miss Ramsey of 15" (ca. 1744-45 for his manuscript collection. Possibly Edward Cave, publisher of The Gentleman’s Magazine, or other professional associates such as Samuel Johnson or Samuel Richardson supplied it. But archival evidence indicates that Lady Isabella Finch, Lennox’s earliest patroness, was in contact with Birch in 1749, raising the question of whether she could have given Birch the poem. However, a different type of connection between Lennox and Birch is suggested by Lennox’s first novel, The Life of Harriot Stuart, written by Herself (1750, which mentions William Chillingworth, Isaac Barrow, and John Tillotson as theological influences. Lennox may have known of these three seventeenth-century divines through Birch’s biographical work on them.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 and shade on the decomposition of senesced tree foliage: impacts on microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Kaufman; R. Malcolm Strand; Mark E. Kubiske; William J. Mattson; Daniel A. Herms; Edward D. Walker; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Richard W. Merritt

    1996-01-01

    We examined microbial respiration and carbon/nitrogen content of decomposing leaf material in microcosms used for growth studies of the treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus. Leaf material originated from birch and oak trees exposed to conditions of shade/sun and elevated/ambient levels of CO2. Microbial respiration as measured...

  1. Nitrous oxide fluxes from forest floor, tree stems and canopies of boreal tree species during spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikarainen, Iikka; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Machacova, Katerina; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Boreal forests are considered as small sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) due to microbial N2O production in the soils. Recent evidence shows that trees may play an important role in N2O exchange of forest ecosystems by offering pathways for soil produced N2O to the atmosphere. To confirm magnitude, variability and the origin of the tree mediated N2O emissions more research is needed, especially in boreal forests which have been in a minority in such investigation. We measured forest floor, tree stem and shoot N2O exchange of three boreal tree species at the beginning of the growing season (13.4.-13.6.2015) at SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, located in Southern Finland (61˚ 51´N, 24˚ 17´E, 181 a.s.l.). The fluxes were measured in silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (B. pubescens) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) on two sites with differing soil type and characteristics (paludified and mineral soil), vegetation cover and forest structure. The aim was to study the vertical profile of N2O fluxes at stem level and to observe temporal changes in N2O fluxes over the beginning of the growing season. The N2O exchange was determined using the static chamber technique and gas chromatographic analyses. Scaffold towers were used for measurements at multiple stem heights and at the canopy level. Overall, the N2O fluxes from the forest floor and trees at both sites were very small and close to the detection limit. The measured trees mainly emitted N2O from their stems and shoots, while the forest floor acted as a sink of N2O at the paludified site and as a small source of N2O at the mineral soil site. Stem emissions from all the trees at both sites were on average below 0.5 μg N2O m-2 of stem area h-1, and the shoot emissions varied between 0.2 and 0.5 ng N2O m-2 g-1 dry biomass. When the N2O fluxes were scaled up to the whole forest ecosystem, based on the tree biomass and stand density, the N2O emissions from birch and spruce trees at the paludified site

  2. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  3. Tree Height-Diameter Relationships in the Alpine Treeline Ecotone Compared with Those in Closed Forests on Changbai Mountain, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter relationship is one of the most important stature characteristics of trees. It will change with climatic conditions because height and diameter growth displays different sensitivities to climatic factors such as temperature. Detecting and understanding changes in the stature of trees growing along altitudinal gradients up to their upper limits can help us to better understand the adaptation strategy of trees under global warming conditions. On Changbai Mountain in northeastern China, height-diameter datasets were collected for 2723 Erman’s birch (Betula ermanii Cham. in the alpine treeline ecotone in 2006 and 2013, and for 888 Erman’s birch, spruce (Picea jezoensis Siebold & Zucc. Carr., larch (Larix olgensis A. Henry, and fir (Abies nephrolepis Trautv. ex Maxim. along an altitudinal gradient below the alpine treeline in 2006. These datasets were utilized to explore both changes in the stature of birch at the alpine treeline over time and variations in tree stature of different tree species across altitudes at a given time point (2006. Results showed that birch saplings (<140 cm in height became stunted while birches with a height of >140 cm became more tapered in the alpine treeline ecotone. The stature of birch along the altitudinal gradient became more tapered from 1700 to 1900 m above see level (a.s.l. and then became more stunted from 1900 to 2050 m a.s.l., with 1900 m a.s.l. being the altitudinal inflection point in this pattern. The treeline birch, due to its great temperature magnitude of distribution, displayed higher stature-plasticity in terms of its height-diameter ratio than the lower elevation species studied. The stature of birch is strongly modulated by altitude-related temperature but also co-influenced by other environmental factors such as soil depth and available water, wind speed, and duration and depth of winter snow cover. The high stature-plasticity of birch makes it fare better than other species to

  4. High autumn temperature delays spring bud burst in boreal trees, counterbalancing the effect of climatic warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, O. M. [Agricultural Univesity of Norway, Department of Biology and Nature Conservation, As (Norway)

    2003-09-01

    The effect of temperature during short-day dormancy induction on the duration and stability of bud dormancy was examined in three boreal tree species (2 birches and 1 alder) grown in a controlled environment. The phenology of the latitudinal range of birch populations, and the relationship between spring bud burst and autumn and spring temperatures were also studied. Results showed that during short-day dormancy induction in the autumn high temperatures delayed bud burst in the following spring in both controlled and natural environments. It is suggested that this response to higher autumn temperatures may be a manifestation of a general synergism between high temperature and short-day photoperiodic processes, and may be an adaptive mechanism common to boreal trees. It is further conjectured that this mechanism may be important in counterbalancing the potentially adverse effects of higher winter temperatures on dormancy stability of boreal trees during climate warming. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Naming, blaming and shaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismark, M; Paterson, R

    2006-03-01

    Few doctors at the centre of complaints or disciplinary proceedings wish to be publicly named. Publication of a doctor's name can adversely affect his or her reputation, patients, and family members, even if the allegation is ultimately not upheld. Yet, there is a strong public interest in freedom of speech and transparency of complaints and disciplinary processes. In determining whether to grant name suppression, complaints agencies and disciplinary tribunals are required to balance competing public and private interests. In New Zealand, the Health and Disability Commissioner has responsibility for investigating complaints about the quality of medical care. The Commissioner's current practice is not to publicly name doctors under investigation, or even those who are found to have breached a patient's rights. This approach fits well the non-punitive, rehabilitative focus of New Zealand's medical regulatory system. In the rare cases where a matter reaches the threshold for disciplinary action, the balance tips in favour of disclosure.

  6. DATING OF LATE PLEISTOCENE TREE-RING SERIES FROM JAPAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, J.; Imamura, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Boaretto, E.; Rebollo Franco, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    We have radiocarbon dated series of tree rings from 2 fossil trees (named ND-113 and the Fuji tree) buried in fossil volcanic avalanche deposits in Japan. They are dendrochronologically floating, dating beyond the tree-ring part of the C-14 calibration curve. The trees show about 350 and 400 annual

  7. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits.

  8. Next generation immunotherapy for tree pollen allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Heiland, Teri

    2017-10-03

    Tree pollen induced allergies are one of the major medical and public health burdens in the industrialized world. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy (AIT) through subcutaneous injection or sublingual delivery is the only approved therapy with curative potential to pollen induced allergies. AIT often is associated with severe side effects and requires long-term treatment. Safer, more effective and convenient allergen specific immunotherapies remain an unmet need. In this review article, we discuss the current progress in applying protein and peptide-based approaches and DNA vaccines to the clinical challenges posed by tree pollen allergies through the lens of preclinical animal models and clinical trials, with an emphasis on the birch and Japanese red cedar pollen induced allergies.

  9. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  10. The naming of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geggus

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

  11. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, J.; Holopainen, T.; Oksanen, E.; Lindsberg, M-M.; Lappi, J.; Peltonen, P.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  13. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  14. The population and seasonal dynamics of weevils developing in the soil of birch stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Kula

    2003-01-01

    Curculionidae developing in the soil of birch stands in an air-polluted region were classified using the method of soil photoeclectors on the basis of their population dynamics (1986-2000) and phenology of their emergence from where they developed. In the course of 15 years we saw two evident culminations in the population density of Polydrusus undatus...

  15. Growth Response of Seedling Yellow Birch to Humus-Soil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Robert R. Oberg

    1966-01-01

    Previous observations of the establishment of yellow birch have cited the importance of mixed humus-mineral soil seedbeds. Godman and Krefting pointed out that both germination and growth were enhanced. Subsequent studies have shown that while germination in the absence of competition is adequate on mineral soil of a Podzol A under a wide variety of light and...

  16. MACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofiev, M.; Berger, U.; Prank, M.; Vira, J.; Arteta, J.; Belmonte, J.; Bergmann, K.C.; Chéroux, F.; Elbern, H.; Friese, E.; Galan, C.; Gehrig, R.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Kranenburg, R.; Kumar, U.; Marécal, V.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Pessi, A.M.; Robertson, L.; Ritenberga, O.; Rodinkova, V.; Saarto, A.; Segers, A.; Severova, E.; Sauliene, I.; Siljamo, P.; Steensen, B.M.; Teinemaa, E.; Thibaudon, M.; Peuch, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment in relation to birch pollen in Europe. The seven-model European ensemble of MACC-ENS, tested in trial simulations over the flowering season of 2010, was run through the flowering season of 2013. The simulations have been compared with

  17. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  18. The distribution of lignin in white birch wood as determined by bromination with TEM-EDXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, S.; Goring, D.A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorbance and bromine uptake were measured on various morphological regions of birch wood. To facilitate precise comparison, observations were made on identical locations in successive cross sections. From the data, the concentration of lignin and the ratio of the guaiacyl to syringyl residues were determined. The results obtained were then compared with the previous findings from the use of UV microscopy alone

  19. High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce and hardwood (birch, as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  20. Polyoxometalate delignification of birch kraft pulp and effect on residual lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljana Bujanovic; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph; Rajai H. Atalla

    2011-01-01

    To advance the understanding of delignification with polyoxometalates (POMs) that have been explored for use in bleaching of chemical pulps, the transformation of lignin during anaerobic treatment of birch kraft pulp with an equilibrated POM mixture composed of Na5(+2)[SiV1(-0.1)MoW10(+0.1)O

  1. Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van A.F.M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of

  2. Influence of edging practices on cutting yields of Alaska birch lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; J.W. Funck; C.C. Brunner; J.E. Reeb

    2009-01-01

    Birch lumber is often characterized by a high degree of knots, bark pockets, heartwood, and other features which force sawmill owners to decide whether to edge and trim boards to produce standard grade lumber vs. proprietary grade character-marked lumber. In addition, the edging strategies used with irregularly shaped flitches can greatly influence cut-stock recovery....

  3. Physiological, morphological and allocational plasticity in understory deciduous trees: importance of plant size and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian; Lechowicz, Martin J; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    In a 4-year study, we investigated changes in leaf physiology, crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation in seedlings and saplings of shade-tolerant sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and intermediate shade-tolerant yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) growing in natural understory light (0.5 to 35% of full sunlight) or in understory light reduced by 50% with shade nets to simulate the effect of gap closure. Leaf physiological parameters were mainly influenced by the light gradient, whereas crown morphological and whole-tree allocational parameters were mainly influenced by tree size. No single physiological, morphological or allocational trait was identified that could explain the difference in shade tolerance between the species. Yellow birch had higher growth rates, biomass allocation to branches and leaf physiological plasticity and lower crown morphological plasticity in unmodified understory light than sugar maple. Sugar maple did not display significant physiological plasticity, but showed variation with tree size in both crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation. When sugar maple was small, a greater proportion of whole-tree biomass was allocated to roots. However, physiological differences between the species decreased with decreasing light and most morphological and allocational differences tended to disappear with increasing tree size, suggesting that many species differences in shade-tolerance are expressed mainly during the seedling stage. Understory trees of both species survived for 4 years under shade nets, possibly because of higher plasticity when small and the use of stored reserves when taller. Copyright 2004 Heron Publishing

  4. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Frank J.; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D.; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick

    2008-01-01

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  6. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  7. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial...... identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed...

  8. Impacts of changing climate on the productivity of Norway spruce dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine and birch in relation to water availability in southern and northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Yun; Väisänen, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    A process-based ecosystem model was used to assess the impacts of changing climate on net photosynthesis and total stem wood growth in relation to water availability in two unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula sp.). The mixed stands were grown over a 100-year rotation (2000-99) in southern and northern Finland with initial species shares of 50, 25 and 25% for Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch, respectively. In addition, pure Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch stands were used as a comparison to identify whether species' response is different in mixed and pure stands. Soil type and moisture conditions (moderate drought) were expected to be the same at the beginning of the simulations irrespective of site location. Regardless of tree species, both annual net canopy photosynthesis (P(nc)) and total stem wood growth (V(s)) were, on average, lower on the southern site under the changing climate compared with the current climate (difference increasing toward the end of the rotation); the opposite was the case for the northern site. Regarding the stand water budget, evapotranspiration (E(T)) was higher under the changing climate regardless of site location. Transpiration and evaporation from the canopy affected water depletion the most. Norway spruce and birch accounted for most of the water depletion in mixed stands on both sites regardless of climatic condition. The annual soil water deficit (W(d)) was higher on the southern site under the changing climate. On the northern site, the situation was the opposite. According to our results, the growth of pure Norway spruce stands in southern Finland could be even lower than the growth of Norway spruce in mixed stands under the changing climate. The opposite was found for pure Scots pine and birch stands due to lower water depletion. This indicates that in the future the management should be properly adapted to climate change in order to

  9. Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the ...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dolichandrone atrovirens (Roth) K. Schum. (Spathe Trumpet Tree) of Bignoniaceae is a medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends.

  11. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Mark

    2008-03-01

    During a lesson with my A-level physics class, my school's head of English came into the lab and happened to notice the whiteboard. I had just started teaching a section on particle physics and was acquainting the students with the multitude of names found in the particle world. Among others, the board contained the words lepton, hadron, meson, baryon, photon, gluon, boson, muon, neutrino, fermion and quark. The head of English pointed out that none of the words on the board were intelligible to anyone else in the school. He added that the words themselves were utterly bizarre, although in fairness he did recognize the reference to James Joyce.

  12. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    was divided into three sections to separate parts with different moisture (heartwood and sapwood) or empty space (decays). For easier manipulation with the antenna we developed a special ruler for measuring the distance along the scans. Instead of the surveying wheel we read the distance with a camera, which was fixed on the antenna and focused on the ruler with a binary pattern. Hence, during whole measurement and the data processing we were able to identify an accurate position on the tree in view of the scan. Some preliminary measurements on the trees were also conducted. They were performed using a GSSI 900 MHz antenna. Several tree species (beech, horse-chestnut, birch, ...) in Louvain-la-Neuve and Brussels, Belgium, have been investigated to see the internal structure of the tree decays. The measurements were carried out mainly by circumferential measurement around the trunk and also by vertical measurement along the trunk for approximate detection of the cavity. The comparison between the numerical simulations, simplified tree trunk model and real data from trees is presented. This research is funded by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, Belgium) and benefits from networking activities carried out within the EU COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  13. (Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gardens and near temples. Both leaves and flowers are showy and contain milky latex. Flowers are in bunches, large and white with yellow centres; very fragrant. Root bark is bitter, acrid, astringent, carminative and laxative. It is also useful in treating ulcers and pruritus. The milky latex is used as rubefacient in rheumatism.

  14. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  15. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  16. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  17. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  18. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogenation efficiency Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  19. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  20. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  1. CO2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula paperifera Mash seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species’ potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26oC and 37oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37oC was higher than that at 26oC under elevated CO2. Stomatal conductance (gs was lower at 37oC than at 26oC, while transpiration rate (E was higher at 37oC than that at 26oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE at both 26oC and 37oC, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37oC under elevated CO2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax, PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax and triose phosphate utilization (TPU varied with CO2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm’, total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc were higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT. The data suggest that the CO2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  2. Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, K.; Kaakinen, S.; Warsta, E.; Vapaavuori, E.; Kubiske, M.E.; Nelson, N.D.; Sober, J.; Karnosky, D.F.; Saranpaa, P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) on the radial growth, wood chemistry, and structure of 5 year old trembling aspen clones and paper birch trees. Samples were collected from the Aspen Free Air CO 2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in Wisconsin. The aim of the study was to assess whether the responses of wood properties after 3 years of exposure were maintained as the canopies closed after 5 years. Annual rings were examined in order to determine the responses of the species to elevated CO 2 and O 3 were the same; to determine if slow-growing aspen genotypes became suppressed by the dominant genotypes in different treatments; and (3) to assess if the positive effects of elevated CO 2 counteracted the negative effects of O 3 . Effects were analyzed by mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the study showed that the wood properties of both species were both altered in response to the increased O 3 and CO 2 levels. Elevated CO 2 decreased uronic acids in the trembling aspens and increased stem diameter. Acid-soluble lignin concentrations decreased with elevated O 3 and decreased vessel lumen diameter. Increased levels of O 3 raised concentrations of acetone-soluble extractives in paper birch. Elevated CO 2 and O 3 levels increased starch concentrations. It was concluded that wood properties after 5 years of fumigation differed significantly from properties reported in experiments with saplings examined after 3 years of fumigation. 48 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Emission of volatile organic compounds from two silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth) clones grown under ambient and elevated CO 2 and different O 3 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Vapaavuori, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    We analysed the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two clones (4 and 80) of silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth) trees exposed to doubled ambient CO 2 and O 3 singly and in combination, in open-top chambers. VOCs were collected in July and in August from detached twigs. The effect of twig detachment as such on emissions was separately studied, and it increased the emissions of green leaf volatiles. The emission in July from both clones was dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) germacrene D, ( E,E)- α-farnesene, α-copaene and β-bourbonene, while in August, the emission was dominated by monoterpenes (MTs) ( E)- β-ocimene and ( Z)-ocimene. Elevated CO 2 concentration marginally decreased total MT emission in July, while in August the total MT emission was enhanced by elevated CO 2. O 3 or CO 2+O 3-exposure did not have any effect on total MT or total SQT emissions. In general clones 4 and 80 emitted total quantified VOCs (19 compounds) 12520 and 8590 ng g -1 fw h -1 in July, and 4640 and 4990 ng g -1 fw h -1 in August, respectively. Clone 4 emitted more β-pinene+myrcene, ( Z)-ocimene and ( E)- β-ocimene in July than clone 80, which emitted more linalool in July, and hexanal in August than clone 4. Elevated CO 2 tended to decrease the emissions of nonanal and ( E)- β-ocimene in July, while O 3 and CO 2+O 3 had no effects on emissions. Our results indicate that elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations do not have considerable effect on silver birch emissions by increasing the carbon allocation to VOCs or by inducing the emission of novel compounds. Other factors, such as temperature, light and herbivores might conceal the effects of these atmospheric gases. High SQT proportion in emission profile suggests that B. pendula may have substantial role in biogenic aerosol formation in boreal forests.

  4. Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J P; Chapin, F S; Reichardt, P B; Clausen, T P

    1987-07-01

    Plant carbon/nutrient balance has been implicated as an important factor in plant defensive chemistry and palatability to herbivores. We tested this hypothesis by fertilizing juvenile growth form Alaska paper birch and green alder with N, P and N-plus-P in a balanced 2x2 factorial experiment. Additionally, we shaded unfertilized plants of both species. Fertilization with N and N-plus-P increased growth of Alaska paper birch, reduced the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased the palatability of birch twigs to snowshoe hares. Shading decreased birch growth, decreased the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased twig palatability. These results indicate that the defensive chemistry and palatability of winter-dormant juvenile Alaska paper birch are sensitive to soil fertility and shade. Conversely the defensive chemistry and palatability of green alder twigs to snowshoe hares were not significantly affected by soil fertility or shade. The greater sensitivity of Alaska paper birch defensive chemistry and palatability to snowshoe hares in comparison to green alder is in agreement with the hypothesis that early successional woody plants that are adapted to high resource availability are more plastic in their chemical responses to the physical environment than are species from less favorable environments.

  5. Language trees not equal gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Kandler, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history ('phylogenesis'). Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological roots for elements of basic vocabulary) are analysed using tree-building techniques and found to be well-explained by a phylogenetic model. In this article, we question the demographic assumption which is sometimes made when a tree-building approach has been taken to a set of cultures or languages, namely that the resulting tree is also representative of a bifurcating population history. Using historical census data relating to Gaelic- and English-speaking inhabitants of Sutherland (Highland Scotland), we have explored the dynamics of language death due to language shift, representing the extreme case of lack of congruence between the genetic and the culture-historical processes. Such cases highlight the important role of selective cultural migration (or shifting between branches) in determining the extinction rates of different languages on such trees.

  6. Stability of transgenes in long-term micropropagation of plants of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fansuo; Qian, Jingjing; Luo, Wei; Zhan, Yaguang; Xin, Ying; Yang, Chuanping

    2010-01-01

    The stability of integration and expression level of transgenes in long-term micropropagation clones of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) was examined. Multiplexed PCR and reverse primer PCR demonstrated stable integration of transgenes into regenerated plants. Expression levels of the bgt and gus genes among shoot plantlets, subcultured 4, 7, 9 and 15 times, were significantly different. The transcriptional expression level of extraneous genes in regenerated plants decreased with increasing subculture number. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) occured in regenerated transgenic lines. The silencing rate of GUS in the 5th subculture plants was 22-65%. TGS in regenerated plants could be reactivated with 5-azacytidine (Azac) at 50-200 microM. GUS and BGT protein expression was reactivated in the micropropagated transgenic birch plants when treated with Azac. A decrease in expression level with increasing number of subcultures is thus associated with DNA methylation.

  7. Morphological and molecular characteristics of foliar nematode attacking silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1890 Christie, 1932 was isolated from leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth seedlings proving that the source of infection was anemones plants. This is the first report to our best knowledge showing that the source of nematode infection of a woody plant could be a perennial plant. A. fragariae was identified by morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphological diagnosis based on the bending shape of the tail of males and pronounced apex and rostrum proved to be the most accurate reliable characteristic. On the opposite, the high variability of the mucron shape in female tails made the identification by microscopic analyses difficult. Identification of the species was confirmed by analysis of 28S rDNA sequences. The morphometric data of adults extracted from silver birch was compared with that of nematodes isolated from Anemone hupehensis (Lemoine Lemoine. Males body length varied highly in samples collected from both host plant species.

  8. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  9. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  11. Elevated Air Humidity Changes Soil Bacterial Community Structure in the Silver Birch Stand

    OpenAIRE

    Truu, Marika; Ostonen, Ivika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; L?hmus, Krista; N?lvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Rosenvald, Katrin; Parts, Kaarin; Kupper, Priit; Truu, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bact...

  12. Elevated Air Humidity Changes Soil Bacterial Community Structure in the Silver Birch Stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truu, Marika; Ostonen, Ivika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Lõhmus, Krista; Nõlvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Rosenvald, Katrin; Parts, Kaarin; Kupper, Priit; Truu, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bacterial community structures of bulk soil and birch rhizosphere were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of bacteria-specific16S rRNA gene fragments and quantification of denitrification related genes. The increased air humidity altered both bulk soil and rhizosphere bacterial community structures, and changes in the bacterial communities initiated by elevated air humidity were related to modified soil abiotic and biotic variables. Network analysis revealed that variation in soil bacterial community structural units is explained by altered abiotic conditions such as increased pH value in bulk soil, while in rhizosphere the change in absorptive root morphology had a higher effect. Among root morphological traits, the absorptive root diameter was strongest related to the bacterial community structure. The changes in bacterial community structures under elevated air humidity are associated with shifts in C, N, and P turnover as well as mineral weathering processes in soil. Increased air humidity decreased the nir and nosZ gene abundance in the rhizosphere bacterial community. The potential contribution of the denitrification to the N 2 O emission was not affected by the elevated air humidity in birch stand soil. In addition, the study revealed a strong link between the bacterial community structure, abundance of denitrification related genes, and birch absorptive root morphology in the ecosystem system adaptation to elevated air humidity.

  13. Dictionary of Alaska place names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modem maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage. They conform to the principles of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for establishing standard names for use on Government maps and in other Government publications. Each name entry gives the present-day spelling along with variant spellings and names; identifies the feature named; presents the origin and history of the name; and, where possible, gives the meaning of an Eskimo, Aleut, Indian, or foreign name. Variant, obsolete, and doubtful names are alphabetically listed and are cross referenced, where necessary, to the principal entries.

  14. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  15. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  16. Taxonomic names, metadata, and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D. M. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs offer an attractive solution to the problem of globally unique identifiers for digital objects in biology. However, I suggest that in the context of taxonomic names, the most compelling benefit of adopting these identifiers comes from the metadata associated with each LSID. By using existing vocabularies wherever possible, and using a simple vocabulary for taxonomy-specific concepts we can quickly capture the essential information about a taxonomic name in the Resource Description Framework (RDF format. This opens up the prospect of using technologies developed for the Semantic Web to add ``taxonomic intelligence" to biodiversity databases. This essay explores some of these ideas in the context of providing a taxonomic framework for the phylogenetic database TreeBASE.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  2. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  3. On flora semantics in house names found in Vidzeme: materials contained in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Jansone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On flora semantics in house names found in Vidzeme: materials contained in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province The information of the counting of souls containing both house names and names of individuals is an essential aspect of historical onomastics. The first counting of souls in Vidzeme took place in 1782 and coincided with the 4th analogous census of the provinces of Russia. Subsequently these took place at irregular intervals, the 5th in 1795, the 6th in 1811, the 7th in 1816, the 8th in 1834, the 9th in 1850, and the final, 10th in 1858. The number of house names entered in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province (guberna is 14,500, including those of peasant homes that had been separated from another property whilst retaining the same name. House names based on flora (incl. names of mushrooms semantics are listed for 574 dwellings, which represent just about 4% of all house names listed for Vidzeme, providing that repeated house names are counted separately. In case of several manors data is missing (lost for the 1826 census, information for these manors is taken from previous and subsequent censuses. In many instances (279 cases registered house names were based on the names of deciduous trees found in their immediate vicinity: such names comprise 48.6% of all house names of flora semantic origin, i. e., ozols ‘oak-tree’, bērzs ‘birch-tree’, kārkls ‘osier’, liepa ‘linden tree’, kļava ‘maple tree’, apses ‘aspen’, osis ‘ash tree’, alksnis ‘alder’, lazda ‘hazel-tree’, vītols ‘willow’, ieva ‘bird cherry’. Names based on names of conifers are found (35 instances were recorded, or 6.1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., egle ‘spruce tree’, paeglis, kadiķis ‘juniper’, priede ‘pine-tree’. House names based on names of fruit trees and bushes are only occasionally found in Vidzeme, with 8 recorded instances, or 1.4% of all house names based on flora

  4. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  5. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  6. Exposure to high doses of birch pollen during pregnancy, and risk of sensitization and atopic disease in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlström, A; Lilja, G; Pershagen, G; Hedlin, G

    2003-09-01

    The role of maternal allergen exposure during pregnancy in sensitization and development of atopic disease in the child remains controversial. In the spring of 1993, extremely high levels of birch pollen were recorded in Stockholm, Sweden. In 1994, the corresponding pollen levels were low. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of exposure during pregnancy to high/low doses of birch pollen on the risk of sensitization and development of atopic disease in children. In addition, a comparison was made with children exposed to birch pollen in early infancy. Three hundred and eighty-seven children with atopic heredity, born in Stockholm in July-October 1993 or 1994 (mothers exposed during pregnancy), were investigated at age 4.5 years. The children were clinically examined and were skin prick tested (SPT) with inhalant and food allergens. IgE antibodies (RAST) against birch pollen and recombinant birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1) were analysed in serum. A comparison was made with a similar group of children exposed during the same incident, but in the first 3 months of life, in 1993. The children of mothers high-dose exposed during pregnancy in 1993 tended to be more sensitized (SPT > or = 3 mm) to birch pollen than the children with low-dose exposure during the corresponding period in 1994 (7.6 and 4.6%, respectively, OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-4.1). A similar but weak tendency was seen for positive RAST analyses (> or =0.35 kU/l) against birch pollen and rBet v 1. Children of mothers high-dose exposed during pregnancy were significantly less sensitized to birch pollen than the children high-dose exposed in early infancy (17.9%, OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7). There was an overall trend towards a slightly increased prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in the group with mothers high-dose exposed during pregnancy, compared to those with low exposure. Exposure of the mother during pregnancy to high levels of birch pollen

  7. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  8. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...... affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......-word brand names....

  9. Tolerability of the SQ Tree SLIT Tablet in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Anne O; Andersen, Jens S; Villesen, Hanne H; Steffensen, Maria A; Calderon, Moises A

    2017-09-01

    The tree pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet (ALK, Denmark) is being developed for the treatment of tree pollen induced allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis. The objective of this Phase I trial was to investigate the tolerability and acceptable dose range of the SQ tree SLIT-tablet in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation Phase I trial that included 70 adults (aged 19-61 years) with birch pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis with or without mild to moderate asthma. The trial included 6 different dosage groups that were randomized 3:1 to active treatment or placebo once daily for 28 days. Adverse events (AEs) were coded in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities by medically qualified personnel. Immunologic assessments included IgE and IgE-blocking factor. Most (96%) reported AEs were mild, and only 5 severe events (0.2%) were reported. The most frequently reported investigational medicinal product-related AEs were oral pruritus, ear pruritus, mouth edema, sensation of foreign body, throat irritation, pharyngolaryngeal pain, dry throat, tongue blistering, eye pruritus, and headache. The trial included doses ranging from 1 to 24 development units (DU), and the mean number of investigational medicinal product-related AEs per participant was highest in the 24 DU group. The 12 and 24 DU doses induced statistically significant changes from baseline compared with placebo in birch specific IgE and IgE-blocking factor. The trial found that doses up to 12 DU of the SQ tree SLIT tablet have a tolerability profile suitable for at-home administration. An immunomodulatory effect was found for all doses included in the trial, and doses up to 12 DU were thus chosen for further clinical development of the SQ tree SLIT tablet. EudraCT identifier: 2007-003234-42. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Super earth interiors and validity of Birch's Law for ultra-high pressure metals and ionic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Lucas Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Super Earths, recently detected by the Kepler Mission, expand the ensemble of known terrestrial planets beyond our Solar System's limited group. Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics have been crucial in constraining our knowledge of the composition of Earth's mantle and core. Recently published static diamond anvil cell experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron, a key deep element in most super Earth models, are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked with a two-stage light gas gun into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent static data.

  15. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, D.; Akkerdaas, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Vogel, L.; Wensing, M.; Becker, W.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Helbling, A.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van; Vieths, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and characterized the Bet v

  16. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, Diana; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Vogel, Lothar; Wensing, Marjolein; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Koppelman, Stef J.; Knulst, André C.; Helbling, Arthur; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and

  17. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America...

  18. Cooking birch pollen-related food: divergent consequences for IgE- and T cell-mediated reactivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohle, Barbara; Zwölfer, Bettina; Heratizadeh, Annice; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Antonia, Yuliya Dall; Alter, Mareike; Keller, Walter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Werfel, Thomas; Ebner, Christof

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 cross-reacts with homologous food allergens, resulting in IgE-mediated oral allergy syndromes (OASs). To avoid this food, allergy allergologists and guidebooks advise patients to consume birch pollen-related foods after heating. OBJECTIVE: We

  19. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...

  20. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  1. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  2. Armenian Names of the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, Haik A.

    2007-08-01

    Striking similarities between the Armenian names of visible to the naked eye planets and their ancient Greek names used before 6 - 5 centuries BC are presented. Mercury, for instance, was called Stilbon in Greece which means “the Gleaming” and coincides with Armenian Paylatsou. One of the names of Venus was Phosphoros and in Armenia it is called Lusaber - both of these terms meaning the “Bringer of Light”. Ancient Greeks named the fourth planet Pyroeis meaning “fiery”. The Armenian name of this planet Hrat consists of the word “hur” meaning fire and a suffix “at”. Jupiter's and Saturn's ancient names are considered as well. Moreover, the term planet has its Armenian version being in the use more than 2500 years.

  3. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  4. Mimotopes for Api g 5, a Relevant Cross-reactive Allergen, in the Celery-Mugwort-Birch-Spice Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukschal, Anna; Wallmann, Julia; Bublin, Merima; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-03-01

    In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome. Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined. Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope. The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity.

  5. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  6. Fictional names and fictional discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this dissertation I present a critical study of fiction, focusing on the semantics of fictional names and fictional discourse. I am concerned with the issue of whether fictional names need to refer, and also with the related issue of whether fictional characters need to exist, in order to best account for our linguistic practices involving fictional names. Fictional names like ‘Sherlock Holmes’, ‘Anna Karenina’, ‘Emma Woodhouse’ and ‘Don Quixote of La Mancha’ ordinarily occur in diff...

  7. Performance of moth larvae on birch in relation to altitude, climate, host quality and parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Neuvonen, Seppo

    1999-07-01

    We studied topographical and year-to-year variation in the performance (pupal weights, survival) and larval parasitism of Epirrita autumnata larvae feeding on mountain birch in northernmost Finland in 1993-1996. We found differences in both food plant quality and parasitism between sites ranging from 80 m to 320 m above sea level. Variation in food plant quality had particularly marked effects on larval survival. The advanced phenology of the birches in relation to the start of the larval period reduced pupal weights. Parasitism rates were different between years and between sites. The clearest site differences were in the proportions of different parasitoid species: Eulophus larvarum was most abundant at the lowest-altitude sites, and Cotesia jucunda at the highest. Differences in the performance of E. autumnata were related to temperature conditions: at higher temperatures, survival and the egg production index were lower, and larval parasitism was higher than at lower temperatures. The higher parasitism at higher temperatures was probably due to greater parasitoid activity during warmer days. In the comparison of different sources of spatial and annual variation in the performance of E. autumnata, the most important factor appeared to be egg mortality related to minimum winter temperature, followed by parasitism and, finally, the variation in food plant quality. If, as predicted, the climate gradually warms up, the effects of warmer summers on the outbreaks of E. autumnata suggest a decrease in outbreak intensity.

  8. NMR resonance assignments of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammer, Linda; Grutsch, Sarina; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-10-01

    In Northern America and Europe a great number of people are suffering from birch pollen allergy and pollen related food allergies. The trigger for these immunological reactions is the 17.5 kDa major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which belongs to the family of PR-10 (pathogenesis-related) proteins. In nature, Bet v 1 occurs as a mixture of various isoforms that possess different immunological properties despite their high sequence identities. Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), which is investigated here, is a hypoallergenic isoform of Bet v 1 and a potential candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy. We assigned the backbone and side chain 1 H, 13 C and 15 N resonances of this protein and predicted its secondary structure. The NMR-chemical shift data indicate that Bet v 1.0102 is composed of three α-helices and a seven stranded β-sheet, in agreement with the known structure of the hyperallergenic isoform Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a). Our resonance assignments create the foundation for detailed characterization of the dynamic properties of Bet v 1 isoforms by NMR relaxation measurements.

  9. Quantification of Model Uncertainty in Modeling Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Respiration Pulses to Simulate Birch Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshall, A. S.; Ye, M.; Niu, G. Y.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2014-12-01

    A Bayesian framework is developed to quantify predictive uncertainty in environmental modeling caused by uncertainty in modeling scenarios, model structures, model parameters, and data. An example of using the framework to quantify model uncertainty is presented to simulate soil microbial respiration pulses in response to episodic rainfall pulses (the "Birch effect"). A total of five models are developed; they evolve from an existing four-carbon (C) pool model to models with additional C pools and recently developed models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls on C degradation and microbial uptake rates. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with generalized likelihood function (not Gaussian) are used to estimate posterior parameter distributions of the models, and the posterior parameter samples are used to evaluate probabilities of the models. The models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls outperform the other models. The models with additional C pools for accumulation of degraded C in the dry zone of the soil pore space result in a higher probability of reproducing the observed Birch pulses. A cross-validation is conducted to explore predictive performance of model averaging and of individual models. The Bayesian framework is mathematically general and can be applied to a wide range of environmental problems.

  10. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although each element in the periodic table is unique due to its atomic number, it is obviously convenient to assign an appropriate name, and a symbol. One can then systematically name and represent compounds, from simple salts to coordination complexes. It is a generally accepted convention that the discoverer of an ...

  11. Street tree structural differences and associated stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure approaches leverage vegetation and soil to improve environmental quality. Municipal street trees are crucial components of urban green infrastructure because they provide stormwater interception benefits and other ecosystem services. Thus, it is important to understand the patterns and drivers of structural heterogeneity in urban street tree assemblages. In this study, we compared the forest structure of street trees across nine communities along both geographic and demographic gradients in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Specifically, we used a two-part statistical model to compare both the proportion of sampled street segments containing zero trees, and basal area magnitude for street segments with trees. We made community-scale comparisons based on street tree management, socioeconomics, and geographic setting. Then, using modeled stormwater interception estimates from i-Tree Streets, we investigated the implications of heterogeneity in street tree assemblages for stormwater interception benefits. The forest structure of street trees varied across communities in relation to management practices, namely participation in the Tree City USA program. As a consequence of this structural difference, we observed a stark discrepancy in estimated stormwater interception between Tree City USA participants (128.7 m3/km street length) and non-participants (59.2 m3/km street length). While street tree assemblages did not vary by community poverty s

  12. Multi-language naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Tang, Wallace K. S.

    2018-04-01

    Naming game is a simulation-based experiment used to study the evolution of languages. The conventional naming game focuses on a single language. In this paper, a novel naming game model named multi-language naming game (MLNG) is proposed, where the agents are different-language speakers who cannot communicate with each other without a translator (interpreter) in between. The MLNG model is general, capable of managing k different languages with k ≥ 2. For illustration, the paper only discusses the MLNG with two different languages, and studies five representative network topologies, namely random-graph, WS small-world, NW small-world, scale-free, and random-triangle topologies. Simulation and analysis results both show that: 1) using the network features and based on the proportion of translators the probability of establishing a conversation between two or three agents can be theoretically estimated; 2) the relationship between the convergence speed and the proportion of translators has a power-law-like relation; 3) different agents require different memory sizes, thus a local memory allocation rule is recommended for saving memory resources. The new model and new findings should be useful for further studies of naming games and for better understanding of languages evolution from a dynamical network perspective.

  13. Influence of meteorological variables on rainfall partitioning for deciduous and coniferous tree species in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabret, Katarina; Rakovec, Jože; Šraj, Mojca

    2018-03-01

    Rainfall partitioning is an important part of the ecohydrological cycle, influenced by numerous variables. Rainfall partitioning for pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and birch (Betula pendula Roth.) trees was measured from January 2014 to June 2017 in an urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia. 180 events from more than three years of observations were analyzed, focusing on 13 meteorological variables, including the number of raindrops, their diameter, and velocity. Regression tree and boosted regression tree analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of the variables on rainfall interception loss, throughfall, and stemflow in different phenoseasons. The amount of rainfall was recognized as the most influential variable, followed by rainfall intensity and the number of raindrops. Higher rainfall amount, intensity, and the number of drops decreased percentage of rainfall interception loss. Rainfall amount and intensity were the most influential on interception loss by birch and pine trees during the leafed and leafless periods, respectively. Lower wind speed was found to increase throughfall, whereas wind direction had no significant influence. Consideration of drop size spectrum properties proved to be important, since the number of drops, drop diameter, and median volume diameter were often recognized as important influential variables.

  14. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 system...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branched evergreen shrub or small tree (6–7 m) with soft whitish-yellow wood. Branches are numerous and drooping. The leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and somewhat fleshy. Flowers are in loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  17. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening. The species is widely natural but occasionally cultivated for firewood as it grows very ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends. Birds and bees visit flowers for nectar. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    . (6-10m high) evergreen tree with a straight trunk and broad open crown. Leaves are clustered at the end of twigs. They are dark green, broadest near the rounded apex and tapering towards the base with a short stalk. Flowers are greenish or ...

  2. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    size (upto 40 ft. high) deciduous tree with thick trunk, large crown of spreading branches and furrowed greenish-brown bark. (picture shows a young specimen). Leaves are 10-20 in. long, twice compound bearing numerous dark- green ...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diospyros peregrina (Gaertn.) Guercke Syn. Diospyros embryopteris Pers., Diospyros malabarica Desr. (PALE MOON EBONY, RIBER EBONY) of Ebenaceae is a small or mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  8. :Ffowering 'Trees-

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The tree is a host of lac insects which secrete a resinous substance that yields shellac or lac. A ruby-coloured gum known as Bengal Kino is collected from the incisions made in the bark. The wood, resistant to water, is used in water-well work. The seeds are used as anthelmintic and as an antidote for snake-bite.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading wings. Seeds bear short stiff hairs that cause skin irritation.

  10. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sterculia foetida L. (INDIAN ALMOND,. JAVA OLIVE) of Sterculiaceae is a tall deciduous tree reaching a height of 20 m with faintly ridged grey bark. The bole reaches up to 2m in girth. Branches are reddish, usually horizontal. Leaves are large, palmately compound (5–7 leaflets) and clustered at the branch ends. Flowers ...

  12. Comparison of various sampling methods for evaluation of biodiversity of true bugs (Heteroptera) in a birch forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kula, E.; Bryja, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2002), s. 137-147 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/0537; GA MŽP SE/830/3/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Heteroptera * birch forest * biodiversity Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.246, year: 2002

  13. The influence of log soaking temperature on surface quality and integrity performance of birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Toni Antikainen; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Wood material surface properties play an important role in adhesive bond formation and performance. In the present study, a test method was developed to evaluate the integrity of the wood surface, and the results were used to understand bond performance. Materials used were rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers, produced from logs soaked at 20 or 70 °C prior...

  14. Birch Bark Dry Extract by Supercritical Fluid Technology: Extract Characterisation and Use for Stabilisation of Semisolid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Armbruster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene compounds like betulin, betulinic acid, erythrodiol, oleanolic acid and lupeol are known for many pharmacological effects. All these substances are found in the outer bark of birch. Apart from its pharmacological effects, birch bark extract can be used to stabilise semisolid systems. Normally, birch bark extract is produced for this purpose by extraction with organic solvents. Employing supercritical fluid technology, our aim was to develop a birch bark dry extract suitable for stabilisation of lipophilic gels with improved properties while avoiding the use of toxic solvents. With supercritical carbon dioxide, three different particle formation methods from supercritical solutions have been tested. First, particle deposition was performed from a supercritical solution in an expansion chamber. Second, the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS method was used for particle generation. Third, a modified RESS-procedure, forming the particles directly into the thereby gelated liquid, was developed. All three methods gave yields from 1% to 5.8%, depending on the techniques employed. The triterpene composition of the three extracts was comparable: all three gave more stable oleogels compared to the use of an extract obtained by organic solvent extraction. Characterizing the rheological behaviour of these gels, a faster gelling effect was seen together with a lower concentration of the extract required for the gel formation with the supercritical fluid (SCF-extracts. This confirms the superiority of the supercritical fluid produced extracts with regard to the oleogel forming properties.

  15. Academic Success for Students of Color . . . At What Cost? The Importance of School Context at Birch High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Terah T. Venzant; Tabron, Lolita A.

    2013-01-01

    Kiara, an African American rising freshman, has aspirations to become a medical doctor. She enrolls at Birch High School because of the reputation of the principal, Mr. Brown, whose vision for academic excellence permeates every corner of the school. Kiara graduates from high school with top honors, but realizes her success may have come at a…

  16. Short rotation hardwood species as whole-tree raw material for pulp and paper. 3. Chemical pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sulphate pulps from whole-tree leafless samples of 3 to 5-year-old, 10 to 15-year-old and 20 to 25-year-old Populus tremula, Alnus incana, Salix caprea and Betula pubescens, and 9-year-old Populus tremula X P. tremuloides required more alkali and gave lower yields than barked materials. Soda/oxygen pulps were not satisfactory. It is thought that 25% of young whole-tree hardwood chops would be acceptable in a furnish of normal Birch chips.

  17. Chadwick named college communications manager

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Heather Riley Chadwick of Blacksburg, Va., has been named communications manager for the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech. Previously, she served as the marketing and communications manager for Virginia Tech's Office of Student Programs.

  18. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  19. What's in a Name Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2015-03-01

    When solid state physics emerged in the 1940s, its name was controversial. By the 1970s, some physicists came to prefer "condensed matter" as a way to identify the discipline of physics examining complex matter. Physicists and historians often gloss this transition as a simple rebranding of a problematically named field, but attention to the motives behind these names reveals telling nuances. "Solid state physics" and "condensed matter physics"—along with "materials science," which also emerged during the Cold War—were named in accordance with ideological commitments about the identity of physics. Historians, therefore, can profitably understand solid state and condensed matter physics as distinct disciplines. Condensed matter, rather than being continuous with solid state physics, should be considered alongside materials science as an outlet for specific frustrations with the way solid state was organized.

  20. Glutathione-S-transferase: a minor allergen in birch pollen due to limited release from hydrated pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Deifl

    Full Text Available Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST.bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. The mediator-releasing activity of bGST was analysed with IgE-loaded rat basophil leukaemia cells (RBL expressing human FcεRI. BALB/c mice were immunized with bGST or Bet v 1. Antibody and T cell responses to either protein were assessed. IgE-cross-reactivity between bGST with GST from house dust mite, Der p 8, was studied with murine and human sera in ELISA. The release kinetics of bGST and Bet v 1 from birch pollen were assessed in water, simulated lung fluid, 0.9% NaCl and PBS. Eluted proteins were quantified by ELISA and analysed by immunoblotting.Only 13% of 217 birch pollen-allergic patients showed IgE-reactivity to bGST. In RBL assays bGST induced mediator release. Immunization of mice with bGST induced specific IgE and a Th2-dominated cellular immune response comparably to immunization with Bet v 1. bGST did not cross-react with Der p 8. In contrast to Bet v 1, only low amounts of bGST were released from pollen grains upon incubation in water and the different physiological solutions.Although bGST is abundant in birch pollen, immunogenic in mice and able to induce mediator release from effector cells passively loaded with specific IgE, it is a minor allergen for birch pollen-allergic patients. We refer this discrepancy to its limited release from hydrated pollen. Hence, bGST is an example demonstrating that allergenicity depends mainly on rapid elution from airborne particles.

  1. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a contemporary interest in biochar application to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and long-term carbon sequestration, a number of potential side effects of biochar incorporation in field soils remain poorly understood, e.g., in relation to interactions...... with agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient......, Kd (L kg−1), of the herbicide glyphosate. We measured Kd in equilibrium batch sorption experiments with triplicate soil samples from 20 field plots that received biochar at different application rates (0 to 100 Mg ha−1). The results showed that pure biochar had a lower glyphosate Kd value as compared...

  2. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  3. Oxidative Processing Lowers the Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch and Alder Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gute, Ellen; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2018-02-01

    Pollen carry water extractable compounds with ice nucleating (IN) activity. This study investigates whether the hydroxyl radical, as the major atmospheric oxidant, can affect the IN activity of silver birch and grey alder subpollen particles under in-cloud conditions for deposition freezing mode conditions at 234 K. It is found that oxidation increases the supersaturation ratio with respect to ice necessary for the onset of ice nucleation and decreases the fraction of particles which initiate ice nucleation. This reduction of IN activity under equivalent oxidation conditions does not occur with a mineral dust sample (Arizona Test Dust). Chemical analysis of fresh and oxidized pollen material indicates a change of molecular structure with a loss of conjugation and an increase in oxidized functional groups, such as carbonyls. This is the first demonstration that in-cloud oxidation may lower the IN abilities of biological particles such as pollen.

  4. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  5. The Name Authority Cooperative/Name Authority File Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report reviews the background and rationale for a cooperative authority file building system and describes the services, products, and operation of the new Name Authority Cooperative (NACO). The document defines the relationship between NACO, other Library of Congress (LC) cooperative projects, and the Linked Systems Project (LSP). The…

  6. Trace Element Concentrations in Tree Leaves and Lichen Collected Along a Metal Pollution Gradient Near Olkusz (Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Klimek, Beata

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the metal pollution in the vicinity of the Bukowno smelter near Olkusz in southern Poland. Birch and oak leaves, pine needles and a lichen Hypogymnia physodes, overgrowing pine bark were collected at stands at different distances from the smelter and analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) content. Concentrations of metals in the lichen were usually higher than in the tree leaves/needles and decreased with distance from the smelter, apart from the Cu content. The strongest correlation was noticed between Cd and Pb concentrations, which indicates a common pollution source (the smelter). Our results show that birch leaves can be potentially useful as a bioindicator of Zn air pollution since this species was shown to accumulate high amounts of zinc, related to environmental pollution with that metal, in their leaves.

  7. Minimum variance rooting of phylogenetic trees and implications for species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Uyen; Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees inferred using commonly-used models of sequence evolution are unrooted, but the root position matters both for interpretation and downstream applications. This issue has been long recognized; however, whether the potential for discordance between the species tree and gene trees impacts methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we introduce a new method of rooting a tree based on its branch length distribution; our method, which minimizes the variance of root to tip distances, is inspired by the traditional midpoint rerooting and is justified when deviations from the strict molecular clock are random. Like midpoint rerooting, the method can be implemented in a linear time algorithm. In extensive simulations that consider discordance between gene trees and the species tree, we show that the new method is more accurate than midpoint rerooting, but its relative accuracy compared to using outgroups to root gene trees depends on the size of the dataset and levels of deviations from the strict clock. We show high levels of error for all methods of rooting estimated gene trees due to factors that include effects of gene tree discordance, deviations from the clock, and gene tree estimation error. Our simulations, however, did not reveal significant differences between two equivalent methods for species tree estimation that use rooted and unrooted input, namely, STAR and NJst. Nevertheless, our results point to limitations of existing scalable rooting methods.

  8. Molecular characterization of Api g 1, the major allergen of celery (Apium graveolens), and its immunological and structural relationships to a group of 17-kDa tree pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; O'Riordain, G; Susani, M; Ahorn, H; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1995-10-15

    Individuals suffering from immediate hypersensitivity (type-I allergy) to a particular pollen frequently display intolerance to several foods of plant origin. In this respect, individuals sensitized to birch pollen and/or mugwort pollen frequently display type-I allergic symptoms after ingestion of celery. In this study, we expressed the major allergenic protein of celery, Api g 1, which is responsible for the birch-celery syndrome, in the form of a non-fusion protein. The open reading frame of the cDNA of Api g 1 codes for a protein of 153 amino acids with a molecular mass of 16.2 kDa and 40% identity (60% similarity) to the major allergen of birch pollen, Bet v 1. Furthermore, Api g 1 exhibited similar characteristics to (a) two proteins in parsley induced by fungal infection, (b) the major tree pollen allergens and (c) pathogenesis-related and stress-induced proteins in other plant species. The reactivity of recombinant Api g 1 with IgE antibodies present in sera from celery intolerant patients was comparable to that of the natural celery allergen. Cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 was proven by cross-inhibition experiments, which provides further support for the existence of the birch-celery syndrome and for the suggestion that allergies to some vegetable foods are epiphenomena to allergies caused by inhalation of tree pollen.

  9. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  10. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non-word...

  11. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  12. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  13. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  14. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Names of the Heavier Elements. Jitendra K Bera. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Jitendra K Bera1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8 cm across), white with a narrow tube and spreading lobes, often reddish-pink at the centre. Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain 'cerberin', which is extremely poisonous if ingested. C. manghas is found.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  18. Prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy by mucosal treatment with multi-allergen-chimers in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery or Dau c 1 (carrot, termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy.BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization.Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer.Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy.

  19. Prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy by mucosal treatment with multi-allergen-chimers in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy.

  20. New light on names and naming of dark taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ryberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing proportion of fungal species and lineages are known only from sequence data and cannot be linked to any physical specimen or resolved taxonomic name. Such fungi are often referred to as “dark taxa” or “dark matter fungi”. As they lack a taxonomic identity in the form of a name, they are regularly ignored in many important contexts, for example in legalisation and species counts. It is therefore very urgent to find a system to also deal with these fungi. Here, issues relating to the taxonomy and nomenclature of dark taxa are discussed and a number of questions that the mycological community needs to consider before deciding on what system/s to implement are highlighted.

  1. To name or not to name: Criteria to promote economy of change in Linnaean classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Guayasamin, Juan M; Miralles, Aurélien; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The Linnaean classification system provides the universal reference system for communicating about the diversity of life and its hierarchic history. Several limitations that challenge the stability of this system have been identified and, as a result, alternative systems have been proposed since its early inception. The revolution caused by molecular phylogenetics has, more than ever, exemplified that Linnaean classification schemes are subject to a degree of instability that may hamper their significance and communication power. Our analysis of recent changes in the classification of several groups of organisms, with a focus on amphibians and reptiles, reveals two main sources of instability: (i) revisionary, objective (empirical) changes based on the discovery of unambiguous instances of non-monophyly and on progress in the Globe’s species inventory, and (ii) subjective changes based on author preferences or on a poor analysis of the advantages and limitations of new classification schemes. To avoid subjective taxonomic instability, we review and elaborate proposals for the assignment of Linnaean rank to clades, and thereby for the naming of these clades as Linnaean taxa (Taxon Naming Criteria: TNCs). These are drafted from the perspective of practicing taxonomists and can help choosing among alternative monophyly-based classifications under a premise of economy of change. We provide a rationale for each TNC along with real and theoretical examples to illustrate their practical advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that not all TNCs lead to equally informative and stable taxonomies. Therefore, we order the various TNCs by the generality of their implications and provide a workflow scheme to guide the procedure of taxonomic decisions concerning the creation or modification of supraspecific classifications. The following criteria are considered primary when naming taxa: (i) Mono phyly of the taxon in an inferred species tree; (ii) Clade Stability, i.e., the

  2. Mapping and Naming the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ewen A.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. First Era: From Prehistoric Images to Archetype Map: 1. Pre-telescopic lunar observations; 2. Early telescopic observations of the Moon; 3. Van Langren (Langrenus) and the birth of selenography; 4. Six more years of sporadic activity; Part II. Second Era: From Archetype to Maturity: 5. 140 years of sporadic activity; 6. A globe, tree rings, and a city; 7. Lunar cartography comes of age; Part III. Third Era: From proliferation to standardisation: 8. Lunar mapping in the Victorian period; 9. Nomenclature gets international attention; Part IV. The Space Age Demands Changes: 10. Setting up guidelines; 11. Planets and satellites set the rules. Appendices 1 - 22.

  3. Thinning of Tree Stands in the Arctic Zone of Krasnoyarsk Territory With Different Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Polyakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2001 six permanent sample plots (PSP were established in forest stands differing in degrees of damage by pollution from the Norilsk industrial region. In 2004 the second forest inventory was carried out at these PSP for evaluation of pollutant impacts on stand condition changes. During both inventory procedures the vigor state of every tree was visually categorized according to 6-points scale of «Forest health regulations in Russian Federation». The changeover of tree into fall was also taken into account. Two types of Markov’s models simulating thinning process in tree stands within different ecological conditions has been developed: 1 based on assessment for probability of tree survival during three years; 2 in terms of evaluation of matrix for probability on change of vigor state category in the same period. The reconstruction of tree mortality from 1979 after industrial complex «Nadezda» setting into operation was realized on the basis of probability estimation of dead standing trees conservation during three years observed. The forecast of situation was carried out up to 2030. Using logistic regression the probability of tree survival was established depending on four factors: degree of tree damage by pollutants, tree species, stand location in relief and tree age. The acquired results make it possible to single out an impact of pollutants to tree stands’ resistance from other factors. There was revealed the percent of tree fall, resulted by pollution. The evaluation scale of SO2 gas resistance of tree species was constructed: birch, spruce, larch. Larch showed the highest percent of fall because of pollution.

  4. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tree Inventory Data, Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes in one data file the common names, base diameters, and calculated tree masses for almost 3,000 trees on a 5 hectare plot (20 x 2,500 m)...

  6. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tree Inventory Data, Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes in one data file the common names, base diameters, and calculated tree masses for almost 3,000 trees on a 5 hectare plot (20 x 2,500...

  7. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    for mankind - in the name of care for the other", and Zizek (2003:23) in a similar matter when he points out that "the ultimate source of evil is compassion itself". Butler (2005) refers to ethical violence when she describes the rigid ethical standards set out to be what Kaulingfreks calls the ‘keeper...... of the right way'. Care for the other is argued for as a social responsibility, but rather becomes a sign of mistrust and assimilation. The love shown from the organization becomes assimilation - it wants to own you; absorb you - all in the name of love. The paradox according to Legge (1999) is therefore...... that the more we value an employee as a resource, the more it leads to its consumption rather than its development. Following Levinas, this paper argues that this assimilating need to know and control the other, to illuminate or manipulate is not ethical at all; it has nothing to do with our original experience...

  8. Upland Trees Contribute to Exchange of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) in Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Thompson, R.; Canadell, J.; Winiwarter, W.; Machacova, K.; Maier, M.; Halmeenmäki, E.; Svobodova, K.; Lang, F.; Pihlatie, M.; Urban, O.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration contributes to the acceleration of the greenhouse effect. However, the role of trees in the N2O exchange of forest ecosystems is still an open question. While the soils of temperate and boreal forests were shown to be a natural source of N2O, trees have been so far overlooked in the forest N2O inventories. We determined N2O fluxes in common tree species of boreal and temperate forests: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), downy and silver birch (Betula pubescens, B. pendula), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). We investigated (1) whether these tree species exchange N2O with the atmosphere under natural field conditions, (2) how the tree N2O fluxes contribute to the forest N2O balance, and (3) whether these fluxes show seasonal dynamics. The studies were performed in a boreal forest (SMEAR II station, Finland; June 2014 - May 2015) and two temperate mountain forests (White Carpathians, Czech Republic; Black Forest, Germany; June and July 2015). Fluxes of N2O in mature tree stems and forest floor were measured using static chamber systems followed by chromatographic and photo-acoustic analyses of N2O concentration changes. Pine, spruce and birch trees were identified as net annual N2O sources. Spruce was found the strongest emitter (0.27 mg ha-1 h-1) amounting thus up to 2.5% of forest floor N2O emissions. All tree species showed a substantial seasonality in stem N2O flux that was related to their physiological activity and climatic variables. In contrast, stems of beech trees growing at soils consuming N2O may act as a substantial sink of N2O from the atmosphere. Consistent N2O consumption by tree stems ranging between -12.1 and -35.2 mg ha-1 h-1 and contributing by up to 3.4% to the forest floor N2O uptake is a novel finding in contrast to current studies presenting trees as N2O emitters. To understand these fluxes, N2O exchange of photoautotrophic organisms associated with

  9. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  10. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree ...

  11. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  12. The Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 Induces Different Responses in Dendritic Cells of Birch Pollen Allergic and Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  13. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  14. Differences in ecosystem carbon distribution and nutrient cycling linked to forest tree species composition in a mid-successional boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M.; Mack, Michelle C.; Johnstone, Jill F.; McGuire, A. David; Genet, Helene; Schuur, Edward A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is expanding deciduous forest cover in areas previously dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana). Needle-leaf conifer and broad-leaf deciduous species are commonly associated with differences in tree growth, carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, and C accumulation in soils. Although this suggests that changes in tree species composition in Alaska could impact C and nutrient pools and fluxes, few studies have measured these linkages. We quantified C, nitrogen, phosphorus, and base cation pools and fluxes in three stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a single fire event in 1958. Paper birch consistently displayed characteristics of more rapid C and nutrient cycling, including greater aboveground net primary productivity, higher live foliage and litter nutrient concentrations, and larger ammonium and nitrate pools in the soil organic layer (SOL). Ecosystem C stocks (aboveground + SOL + 0–10 cm mineral soil) were similar for the two species; however, in black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, whereas aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest. Radiocarbon analysis indicated that approximately one-quarter of the black spruce SOL C accumulated prior to the 1958 fire, whereas no pre-fire C was observed in birch soils. Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over C and nutrient cycling in boreal forest and forest compositional shifts may have long-term implications for ecosystem C and nutrient dynamics.

  15. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurring birch and hemlock seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah K. Poznanovic; Erik A. Lilleskov; Christopher R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediated effects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominated stands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with...

  16. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  17. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no erroneous...

  18. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a...

  19. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  20. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  1. Fossil quality and naming dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J

    2008-12-23

    The intense interest in dinosaurs through the past 30 years might have led to an increase in poor practice in naming new species. A review of the data shows that the reverse is the case. For 130 years, from the 1820s to the 1950s, most new species of dinosaurs were based on scrappy and incomplete material. After 1960, the majority of new species have been based on complete skulls or skeletons, and sometimes on materials from several individuals. This switch in the quality of type specimens corresponds to the recent explosive renaissance of interest in dinosaurs, during which the number of new species named per year has risen, from three or four in the 1950s, to thirty or more today. The pattern of specimen quality varies by continent, with the highest proportion of new species based on good material in North America, then Asia, then South America, then Africa and finally Europe. This ranking reflects a complex pattern of perhaps overstudy in Europe, immensely rich reserves of new dinosaur materials in North America and Asia, and a relative paucity in South America and Africa.

  2. Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Pummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc. is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. The ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so presumably augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. Our experiments lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of the High Temperature Treatment of Birch in a Prototype Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various wood modification technologies have been commercialized as alternatives to the traditional chemical treatments for wood preservation. The high temperature heat treatment of wood is one of these commercially viable and environmentally friendly alternative wood modification technologies. During this treatment, wood is heated to temperatures above 200°C by contacting it with hot gas. The chemical structure of wood changes leading to increased dimensional stability and resistance to microorganisms. Wood darkens making it aesthetically more attractive. However, it loses some of its elasticity. Therefore, the high temperature heat treatment has to be optimized for each species and each technology. The mathematical modeling is an important tool for optimization. It can also be used as a powerful tool for furnace modification and design. A reliable and predictive model was developed to simulate numerically the heat treatment process. Heat treatment experiments were carried out in the prototype furnace of the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi. The model was validated by comparing the predictions with the experimental data. In this paper, the results of the model applied to birch heat treatment are presented. The model predictions are in good agreement with the data.

  4. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  5. From plants to birds: higher avian predation rates in trees responding to insect herbivory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäntylä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An understanding of the evolution of potential signals from plants to the predators of their herbivores may provide exciting examples of co-evolution among multiple trophic levels. Understanding the mechanism behind the attraction of predators to plants is crucial to conclusions about co-evolution. For example, insectivorous birds are attracted to herbivore-damaged trees without seeing the herbivores or the defoliated parts, but it is not known whether birds use cues from herbivore-damaged plants with a specific adaptation of plants for this purpose. METHODOLOGY: We examined whether signals from damaged trees attract avian predators in the wild and whether birds could use volatile organic compound (VOC emissions or net photosynthesis of leaves as cues to detect herbivore-rich trees. We conducted a field experiment with mountain birches (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, their main herbivore (Epirrita autumnata and insectivorous birds. Half of the trees had herbivore larvae defoliating trees hidden inside branch bags and half had empty bags as controls. We measured predation rate of birds towards artificial larvae on tree branches, and VOC emissions and net photosynthesis of leaves. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The predation rate was higher in the herbivore trees than in the control trees. This confirms that birds use cues from trees to locate insect-rich trees in the wild. The herbivore trees had decreased photosynthesis and elevated emissions of many VOCs, which suggests that birds could use either one, or both, as cues. There was, however, large variation in how the VOC emission correlated with predation rate. Emissions of (E-DMNT [(E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene], beta-ocimene and linalool were positively correlated with predation rate, while those of highly inducible green leaf volatiles were not. These three VOCs are also involved in the attraction of insect parasitoids and predatory mites to herbivore-damaged plants

  6. Introduction to parallel algorithms and architectures arrays, trees, hypercubes

    CERN Document Server

    Leighton, F Thomson

    1991-01-01

    Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays Trees Hypercubes provides an introduction to the expanding field of parallel algorithms and architectures. This book focuses on parallel computation involving the most popular network architectures, namely, arrays, trees, hypercubes, and some closely related networks.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest architectures of arrays and trees. This text then presents the structures and relationships between the dominant network architectures, as well as the most efficient parallel algorithms for

  7. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and there is need to understand why and propose adequate solutions to improve survival rate of trees in plantation. The study was conducted in three sectors of Huye District namely Mukura, Tumba and Ngoma ...

  8. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name...

  9. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association

  10. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  11. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  12. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolibowska Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharides, polyphenols or terpenes. These fungi are commonly found in Poland and may superbly compete with Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lentinula edodes (Shitake used in Asia for medicinal purposes.

  13. Can spatial data substitute temporal data in phenological modelling? A survey using birch flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Caffarra, Amelia; Menzel, Annette

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the evaluation of long-term series, the analysis of spatial gradients, such as urbanization gradients, may be helpful in assessing phenological responses to global warming. But are phenological responses of birch (Betula pendula Roth) assessed by temperature variations comparable over time and space and can spatially calibrated models predict long-term phenological data adequately? We calibrated and tested linear regression models and the process-based DORMPHOT model on phenological and temperature data sampled along an urbanization gradient in 2010 and 2011 in the German cities Munich and Ingolstadt (spatial data). Additionally, we analysed data from the German Meteorological Service for the period 1991-2010 (long-term data). The model comparison showed that the DORMPHOT model performed better than the linear model. Therefore, the importance of forcing and chilling sums as well as photoperiod, factors which were all considered in the DORMPHOT model, was evident. Models calibrated on spatial data produced good predictions of spatial data, but they were less adequate for predicting long-term data. Therefore, a time-for-space substitution might not always be appropriate. This finding was also confirmed by a comparison of temperature response rates. The rate of change in the spatial data (-4.4 days °C(-1)) did not match the changes observed in the long-term data (-1.9 days °C(-1)). Consequently, it is important not to generalize results derived from one specific study method, but their inherent methodological, spatial and temporal peculiarities have to be considered.

  14. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Distribution and turnover of 137Cs in birch forest ecosystems: influence of precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thørring, H.; Skuterud, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study radioactive caesium in soil and plants from birch forests subject to different chemical climate. Four areas and three types of precipitation regimes were considered, representing a natural climatic range found in Norway: (A) acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); (B) precipitation rich in “sea salts”/marine cations (coastal areas); and (C) + (D) low concentrations of sea salts (inland areas). The results showed significant regional differences in plant uptake between the investigated areas. For instance the aggregated soil-to-plant transfer coefficients (Tag) were generally up to 7–8 times higher for the area receiving acid rain. Differences in caesium speciation partly explained the regional variability - e.g. the exchangeable fraction ranged from 1 to 40% (with the largest fraction of exchangeable caesium found in southernmost Norway). Transfer coefficients estimated on the basis of exchangeable fractions showed no significant differences between the areas of highest (A) and lowest (C) Tags. However, exchangeable fractions taken into consideration, the uptake of 137 Cs in plants in the acid rain-influenced area is still about twice that in the sea salt influenced area B. A significantly lower concentration of soluble base cations and a higher share of acid components in soils in area A is a likely explanation for this observation. - Highlights: ► Precipitation quality affects soil chemistry and plant uptake of Cs. ► Soil-to-plant transfer of Cs was highest in a coastal area receiving acid rain. ► Differences in Cs speciation partly explained regional transfer variability.

  16. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  17. An Efficient Trajectory Data Index Integrating R-tree, Hash and B*-tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Jun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To take into account all of efficiency and query capability, this paper presents a new trajectory data index named HBSTR-tree. In HBSTR-tree, trajectory sample points are collectively stored into trajectory nodes sequentially. Hash table is adopted to index the most recent trajectory nodes of mobile targets, and trajectory nodes will not be inserted into spatio-temporal R-tree until full, which can enhance generation performance in this way. Meantime, one-dimensional index of trajectory nodes in the form of B*-tree is built. Therefore, HBSTR-tree can satisfy both spatio-temporal query and target trajectory query. In order to improve search efficiency, a new criterion for spatio-temporal R-tree and one new node-selection sub-algorithm are put forward, which further optimize insertion algorithm of spatio-temporal R-tree. Furthermore, a database storage scheme for spatio-temporal R-tree is also brought up. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms current methods in several aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and supported query types, and then supports real-time updates and efficient accesses of huge trajectory database.

  18. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  19. TREDRA, Minimal Cut Sets Fault Tree Plot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREDRA is a computer program for drafting report-quality fault trees. The input to TREDRA is similar to input for standard computer programs that find minimal cut sets from fault trees. Output includes fault tree plots containing all standard fault tree logic and event symbols, gate and event labels, and an output description for each event in the fault tree. TREDRA contains the following features: a variety of program options that allow flexibility in the program output; capability for automatic pagination of the output fault tree, when necessary; input groups which allow labeling of gates, events, and their output descriptions; a symbol library which includes standard fault tree symbols plus several less frequently used symbols; user control of character size and overall plot size; and extensive input error checking and diagnostic oriented output. 2 - Method of solution: Fault trees are generated by user-supplied control parameters and a coded description of the fault tree structure consisting of the name of each gate, the gate type, the number of inputs to the gate, and the names of these inputs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: TREDRA can produce fault trees with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 56 levels. The width of each level may range from 3 to 37. A total of 50 transfers is allowed during pagination

  20. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  1. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  2. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace......-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site...... at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE...

  3. The effect of cisplatin administration on certain trace elements homeostasis in rats and the protective effect of silver birch (Betula pendula) sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselin, Florin; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Berbecea, Adina; Doma, Alexandru Octavian; Brezovan, Diana; Savici, Jelena; Trif, Alexandra; Cristina, Romeo Teodor

    2018-02-07

    A clinically active structure with known antitumor activities is cisplatin (CDDP), but this it comes with toxicity characteristics which can be faded by the beneficial effects of Silver birch (Betula pendula) sap. We aimed to assess the cisplatin activity on: Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in rats and to observe the effect of birch sap. Healthy Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were divided in four groups: Control: receiving 1 mL saline I.P. way + water; E1: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P.; E2: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P. + birch sap and Control sap group: 1 mL saline I.P. + birch sap. Blood was collected: at the trial's start and after 48 h, and blood and organs (liver, kidney and spleen) for the cytoarchitecture investigation and readings were sampled after seven days. Samples were processed in nitric acid by microwave digestion and readings were completed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, the outcomes being statistically analyzed by ANOVA. Cisplatin produced a significant imbalance in the trace elements homeostasis, the birch sap administration recovering them usual homeostasis status. Comparatively with the Control, rats exposed to cisplatin presented a not significant (p > 0.05) decrease of Zn (-26.74%) and Mg (-10.25%), a significant (p  0.05) increase of Mn (+28.16%). Birch sap administration after Cisplatin was followed by restoration or nevertheless significant increase (p sap against diverse cisplatin deleterious side-effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  6. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  7. Naming game with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network topology. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches a consensus state asymptotically. In this paper, we study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, where errors are represented by error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed....

  8. Seeds in the Organic Layers and Soil of Four Beech-Birch-Maple Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond E. Graber; Donald F. Thompson

    1978-01-01

    Forest floor samples were collected in northern hardwood stands 5, 38, 95, and 200+ years old. The seeds contained in these samples were germinated in a greenhouse. Thirty-five species of herbs, shrubs, and trees were identified. The largest number of species, 23, were from the 5-year-old stand. The oldest stand had the fewest species, 17. Rubus and...

  9. 27 CFR 19.165 - Trade names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names. 19.165 Section 19.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Trade names. (a) Operating permits. Where a trade name is to be used in connection with the operations...

  10. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  11. Ethnology and the Study of Proper Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Susan S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of uncovering the universal features of proper names and relating them to different naming systems. Suggests that this viewpoint may lead to an appreciation of proper names as a sociolinguistic universal and a cultural variable, beyond the particulars on which most of the literature has focused. (MES)

  12. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  13. Resolving person names in web people search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Azzopardi, L.; de Rijke, M.; King, I.; Baeza-Yates, R.

    2009-01-01

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the

  14. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  15. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  16. MILITARY NAMES IN SOUTH AFRICA - QUO VADIS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Service to Chief of Staff Logistics (now controlling the names function) neces- sitated a general policy in respect of naming buildings and streets in military areas (SADF4/4.77) the first such offi- cial promulgated policy. Name-giving in the SADF received a new impetus and dimension during the unprecedented expansion of ...

  17. Experimental methods for the Palaeolithic dry distillation of birch bark: implications for the origin and development of Neandertal adhesive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Soressi, M; Pomstra, D; Langejans, G H J

    2017-08-31

    The destructive distillation of birch bark to produce tar has recently featured in debates about the technological and cognitive abilities of Neandertals and modern humans. The abilities to precisely control fire temperatures and to manipulate adhesive properties are believed to require advanced mental traits. However, the significance given to adhesive technology in these debates has quickly outgrown our understanding of birch bark tar and its manufacture using aceramic techniques. In this paper, we detail three experimental methods of Palaeolithic tar production ranging from simple to complex. We recorded the fuel, time, materials, temperatures, and tar yield for each method and compared them with the tar known from the Palaeolithic. Our results indicate that it is possible to obtain useful amounts of tar by combining materials and technology already in use by Neandertals. A ceramic container is not required, and temperature control need not be as precise as previously thought. However, Neandertals must have been able to recognize certain material properties, such as adhesive tack and viscosity. In this way, they could develop the technology from producing small traces of tar on partially burned bark to techniques capable of manufacturing quantities of tar equal to those found in the Middle Palaeolithic archaeological record.

  18. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The spiders (Araneae of pure pine and birch stands on restored open dump sites in Saxony and Brandenburg (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschker, Ulrich M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spider communities of four restored, afforested pure stands of first generation pine, birch and birch-robinia in the postmining landscape and one natural pine forest of the Lower Lusatia (Germany: Saxony and Brandenburg were investigated. From 1997-98 a total of 6,368 spiders were caught using stemeclectors and pitfall traps. More than 50% of the specimens collected were juveniles. The remaining individuals were identified and represent 123 from 23 families. Among them are several taxa listed in the Red Data Lists of Germany (n = 16, Brandenburg (n = 13 and Saxony (n = 14. One species, Clubiona leucaspis is rare for Germany and new to Saxony. When comparing afforested stands of pine on postmining areas with natural ones the species Coelotes terrestris (Amaurobiidae was observed exclusively in the latter. The absence of this species on restored sites seems to indicate a disturbance of the soil up to almost 60 years after the end of restoration. According to pitfall trapping in three pine forests the increasing biomass of spiders indicates a high predation rate at the oldest site, whereas the highest species diversity was found on younger, rehabilitated sites.

  20. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2005-05-01

    One-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and current-year white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown in ambient (360 ppm) or twice ambient (720 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and at three soil temperatures (Tsoil = 7, 17 and 27 degrees C initially, increased to 10, 20 and 30 degrees C two months later, respectively) in a greenhouse for 4 months. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2.5 and 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) in jack pine in both CO2 treatments and g(s) and E in white birch in ambient [CO2], but enhanced instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment. Treatment effects on g(s) and E remained significant throughout the 4-month study. Low Tsoil reduced maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax) in jack pine in elevated [CO2] after 2.5 months of treatment, but not after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in the light (DeltaF/Fm') in jack pine, but decreased DeltaF/Fm' in white birch after 4 months of treatment. In response to low Tsoil, photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (Jc) decreased in jack pine after 2.5 months and in white birch after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased the ratio of the photosynthetic linear electron transport to oxygenation (Jo) to the total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (Jo/J(T)) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment, but the effects became statistically insignificant in white birch after 4 months of treatment. High Tsoil decreased foliar N concentration in white birch. Elevated [CO2] increased Pn, IWUE and Jc but decreased Jo/J(T) in both species at both measurement times except Jc in white birch after 2.5 months

  1. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  2. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  3. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  4. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Pokorná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  5. Name signs in Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakken Jepsen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    A name sign is a personal sign assigned to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons who enter the deaf community. The mouth action accompanying the sign reproduces all or part of the formal first name that the person has received by baptism or naming. Name signs can be compared to nicknames...... in spoken languages, where a person working as a blacksmith by his friends might be referred to as ‘The Blacksmith’ (‘Here comes the Blacksmith!’) instead of using the person’s first name. Name signs are found not only in Danish Sign Language (DSL) but in most, if not all, sign languages studied to date....... This article provides examples of the creativity of the users of Danish Sign Language, including some of the processes in the use of metaphors, visual motivation and influence from Danish when name signs are created....

  6. Impact of roadside tree lines on indoor concentrations of traffic-derived particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Barbara A; Ahmed, Imad A M; Davison, Brian; Karloukovski, Vassil; Clarke, Robert

    2013-12-03

    Exposure to airborne particulate pollution is associated with premature mortality and a range of inflammatory illnesses, linked to toxic components within the particulate matter (PM) assemblage. The effectiveness of trees in reducing urban PM10 concentrations is intensely debated. Modeling studies indicate PM10 reductions from as low as 1% to as high as ~60%. Empirical data, especially at the local scale, are rare. Here, we use conventional PM10 monitoring along with novel, inexpensive magnetic measurements of television screen swabs to measure changes in PM10 concentrations inside a row of roadside houses, after temporarily installing a curbside line of young birch trees. Independently, the two approaches identify >50% reductions in measured PM levels inside those houses screened by the temporary tree line. Electron microscopy analyses show that leaf-captured PM is concentrated in agglomerations around leaf hairs and within the leaf microtopography. Iron-rich, ultrafine, spherical particles, probably combustion-derived, are abundant, form a particular hazard to health, and likely contribute much of the measured magnetic remanences. Leaf magnetic measurements show that PM capture occurs on both the road-proximal and -distal sides of the trees. The efficacy of roadside trees for mitigation of PM health hazard might be seriously underestimated in some current atmospheric models.

  7. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  8. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  9. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  10. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  11. Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katri Kostiainen; Seija Kaakinen; Elina Warsta; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil D. Nelson; Jaak Sober; David F. Karnosky; Pekka Saranpaa; Elina Vapaavuori

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]) on radial growth, wood chemistry and structure of five 5-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and the wood chemistry of paper birch (Betula papyrifera...

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    of the clinical symptoms of allergy. In order to study the structural basis of allergen-antibody interaction, a complex between the major birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 and a Fab' fragment isolated from the murine monoclonal Bet v 1 antibody BV16 has been crystallized. Complex crystals belong to space group P1...

  13. The Influence of the Electromagnetic Field and of the Thermal Field on the Processing of Birch Wood in a Microwave Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANDICI Livia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of numerical and experimental modelling obtained from the processing of birch wood in a microwave field. For the experimental measurements we used a multimode applicator. The applicator is equipped with a slot which allows to change the distribution of the electromagnetic field inside the applicator and to homogenise it.

  14. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  15. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in early stages of sapwood decay in red spruce, eastern hemlock, red maple, and paper birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jody Jellison; Jon Connolly; Jonathan Schilling

    2007-01-01

    The decay of coarse woody debris is a key component in the formation of forest soil and in the biogeochemical cycles of Ca and Mg. We tracked changes in density and concentration of Ca and Mg in sapwood of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and...

  16. Changes in flowering of birch in the Czech Republic in recent 25 years (1991–2015) in connection with meteorological variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, J.; Kožnarová, V.; Možný, M.; Bartošová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2015), s. 285-302 ISSN 0065-0951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : birch * phenology * aerobiology * Czech Republic * CHMI * effective temperature * synoptic situation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Ozone-induced H2O2 accumulation in field-grown aspen and birch is linked to foliar ultrastructure and peroxisomal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Oksanen; E. Häikiö; J. Sober; D.F. Karnosky

    2003-01-01

    Saplings of three aspen (Populus tremuloides) genotypes and seedlings of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were exposed to elevated ozone (1.5x ambient) and 560 p.p.m. CO2, singly and in combination, from 1998 at the Aspen-FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) site (Rhinelander, USA).

  18. Comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density Corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schrijver, A.; Nachtergale, Lieven; Staelens, Jeroen; Luyssaert, S.; De Keersmaeker, Luc

    In Flanders, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication are exceeded in the majority of the forest stands, and many previously nitrogen limited forest ecosystems have become nitrogen saturated. The present study investigates whether a naturally regenerated stand of silver birch (Betula

  19. On the History of the Name Ruslan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Yu. Namitokova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors postulate that there exists a common stock of Russian personal names resulting from a partial blending of national anthroponymicons. The main part of the paper focuses on the history of the personal name Ruslan which has etymological ties with the widespread Turkic name Arslan having the pre-onomastic meaning ‘lion’. The authors study the variation of the name in Russian folklore and in the 15th–17th centuries documents and historical sources. They also pay particular attention to the role of Pushkin’s poem Ruslan and Ludmila in the formation of the associative background of the studied name and to various onomastic derivatives, the latter include patronyms, surnames and the female name Ruslana. The author conclude that the name Ruslan became especially popular in Soviet and post-Soviet periods when it acquired a specific “semantic aura”, namely, in Caucasus where Ruslan became a kind of mark of Russian identity and, thus, contributed to the unification of the anthroponymic space. This conclusion was verified in the course of a survey done among 40 respondents representing different peoples of Caucasus. For most respondents the name has positive connotations and is associated with the Turkic name Arslan and the name of Pushkin’s character. However, some respondents consider it as a “non-Muslim”, Russian name and point out that it is often perceived as such outside Russia. The history of the name Ruslan and the ways of its transonymisation can be an interesting object for further research, especially due to the emergence of new communication technologies and onomastic discourses.

  20. Parents accidentally substitute similar sounding sibling names more often than dissimilar names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Zenzi M; Wangerman, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling's reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling's name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar.

  1. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Graph-structured Conditional Random Fields for Named Entity Categorization in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yotaro; Asahara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yuji

    This paper presents a method for categorizing named entities in Wikipedia. In Wikipedia, an anchor text is glossed in a linked HTML text. We formalize named entity categorization as a task of categorizing anchor texts with linked HTML texts which glosses a named entity. Using this representation, we introduce a graph structure in which anchor texts are regarded as nodes. In order to incorporate HTML structure on the graph, three types of cliques are defined based on the HTML tree structure. We propose a method with Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to categorize the nodes on the graph. Since the defined graph may include cycles, the exact inference of CRFs is computationally expensive. We introduce an approximate inference method using Tree-based Reparameterization (TRP) to reduce computational cost. In experiments, our proposed model obtained significant improvements compare to baseline models that use Support Vector Machines.

  3. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.

  4. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  5. [Proposed Chinese name of Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Shan

    2009-02-28

    The way to translate species name of Pomacea canaliculata into Chinese has been of confusion for a long time. We collected the relevant references on investigations of snail, species similar to Pomacea canaliculata and made comparison on the characteristics of those species which serve as intermediate snail host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is proposed the genus name of Pomacea is translated as [Chinese characters: see text], and species name Pomacea canaliculata be [Chinese characters: see text].

  6. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  7. Thoughts about the Name of Our Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aronowitz, Teri; AbuFannouneh, AbdulMuhsen; Al Usta, Maysa'; Fraley, Hannah E; Howlett, Mary Susan L; Mtengezo, Jasintha Titani; Muchira, James Muturi; Nava, Adrianna; Thapa, Saurja; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-10-01

    This essay addresses the name of our discipline. Discussion of the use of the term, nursology, focuses on the origin of the term, its use as a name for our discipline and its use as a research method and a practice methodology. Advantages and disadvantages of nursology as the name for our discipline are gleaned from PhD program students' responses to a question posed by Reed (1997). © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  9. Vegetation development and nutrients supply of trees in habitats with high sulfur concentration in reclaimed former sulfur mines Jeziórko (Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likus-Cieślik, Justyna; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents an assessment of vegetation (composition and cover-abundance), nutrient supply, and especially sulfur accumulation in the trees foliage (birch and pine) used in reforestation and wood small-reed (Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth) appearing in succession on reclaimed areas of the former Jeziórko sulfur mine (southern Poland, Tarnobrzeg region). In researched area, three categories of vegetation cover were determined: category D-degraded and unsuccessfully reforested plots, and two categories with successful reforestation: P-pine and B-birch stands. On each category, four study plots (4-6 areas each, depends on site category) were established. Soil and vegetation samplings (current year and 2-year-old pine needles, birch leaves, and wood small-reed foliage) were collected on the subplots established in regular grid square (10 × 10 m) in each category. Basic soil properties and nutrient content in soils and vegetation were analyzed. Trees grew well in areas where neutralization and reclamation treatments were carried out properly and showed a good supply of nutrients (exception of phosphorus and nitrogen), while on category D, only herbaceous vegetation with low cover-abundance and dominated by wood small-reed were noted. Linear correlations between the soil and trees nutrients content occurred, while the correlations between the soil and wood small-reed did not occur. Wood small-reed did not display increased sulfur uptake which may indicate a strategy of blocking pollutant uptake from the soil and may be recommended as a species resistant to sulfurous soils.

  10. Degradation effects in the extraction of antioxidants from birch bark using water at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Zettersten, Camilla; Nyholm, Leif; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-02-24

    Experiments with birch bark samples have been carried to enable a distinction between extraction and degradation effects during pressurised hot water extraction. Two samples, E80 and E180, contained birch bark extracts obtained after extraction at 80 and 180°C for up to 45 min, respectively. Two other samples, P80 and P180, were only extracted for 5 min at the two temperatures and were thereafter filtered and hydrothermally treated at 80 and 180°C, respectively. During the latter treatment, samples were collected at different times to assess the stability of the extracted compounds. An offline DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, as well as a high performance liquid chromatographic separation coupled to an electrochemical detector, were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the processed samples. The results obtained with the different techniques were compared to assess the yield of the extraction and degradation processes. In addition, an online hyphenated system comprising high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array; electrochemical; and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ECD-MS/MS) was used to study the compositions of the extracts in more detail. The results for the samples processed at 80°C showed that the extraction reached a steady-state already after 5 min, and that the extracted compounds were stable throughout the entire extraction process. Processing at 180°C, on the other hand, gave rise to partly degraded extracts with a multitude of peaks in both the diode array and electrochemical detectors, and a higher antioxidant capacity compared to for the extracts obtained at 80°C. It is concluded that HPLC-DAD-ECD is a more appropriate technique for the determination of antioxidants than the DPPH assay. The mass spectrometric results indicate that one of the extracted antioxidants, catechin, was isomerised to its diastereoisomers; (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin. Copyright

  11. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  12. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  13. Enhancing Communication through Gesture and Naming Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caute, Anna; Pring, Tim; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Best, Wendy; Marshall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether gesture, naming, and strategic treatment improved the communication skills of 14 people with severe aphasia. Method: All participants received 15 hr of gesture and naming treatment (reported in a companion article [Marshall et al., 2012]). Half the group received a further 15 hr of strategic…

  14. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  15. Personal name resolution of web people search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Azzopardi, L.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Disambiguating personal names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a difficult and challenging task. In this paper, we explore the extent to which the "cluster hypothesis" for this task holds (i.e., that similar documents tend to represent the

  16. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  17. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  18. Trends in seedling growth and carbon-use efficiency vary among broadleaf tree species along a latitudinal transect in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L

    2014-03-01

    Factors constraining the geographic ranges of broadleaf tree species in eastern North America were examined in common gardens along a ~1500 km latitudinal transect travers in grange boundaries of four target species: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to the north vs. eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) to the south. In 2006 and 2007, carbon-use efficiency (CUE), the proportion of assimilated carbon retained in biomass, was estimated for seedlings of the four species as the quotient of relative growth rate (RGR) and photosynthesis per unit tree mass (Atree ). In aspen and birch, CUE and RGR declined significantly with increasing growth temperature, which spanned 9 °C across gardens and years. The 37% (relative) CUE decrease from coolest to warmest garden correlated with increases in leaf nighttime respiration (Rleaf ) and the ratio of Rleaf to leaf photosynthesis (R%A ). For cottonwood and sweet gum, however, similar increases in Rleaf and R%A accompanied modest CUE declines, implying that processes other than Rleaf were responsible for species differences in CUE's temperature response. Our findings illustrate marked taxonomic variation, at least among young trees, in the thermal sensitivity of CUE, and point to potentially negative consequences of climate warming for the carbon balance, competitive ability, and persistence of two foundation species in northern temperate and boreal forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Meilerman, Monica B; Underhill, Peter A; Zegura, Stephen L; Hammer, Michael F

    2008-05-01

    Markers on the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome continue to have applications in many fields including evolutionary biology, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. In 2002, the Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing the relationships among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. Here we present an extensively revised Y chromosome tree containing 311 distinct haplogroups, including two new major haplogroups (S and T), and incorporating approximately 600 binary markers. We describe major changes in the topology of the parsimony tree and provide names for new and rearranged lineages within the tree following the rules presented by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2002. Several changes in the tree topology have important implications for studies of human ancestry. We also present demography-independent age estimates for 11 of the major clades in the new Y chromosome tree.

  20. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  1. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

  2. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  3. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  4. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  5. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  6. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  7. Names, Varieties and Ideologies in Revived Cornish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies-Deacon Merryn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The attribution of names is a significant process that often highlights concerns over identity, ideology and ownership. Within the fields of minority languages and Celtic Studies, such concerns are especially pertinent given that the identities in question are frequently perceived as under threat from dominant cultures. The effect of concerns caused by this can be examined with reference to revived Cornish, which became divided into three major varieties in the later twentieth century; by examining the names of these varieties, we can draw conclusions about how they are perceived, or we are invited to perceive them. The motivations of those involved in the Cornish language revival are equally reflected in the names of the organisations and bodies they have formed, which equally contribute to the legitimation of revived Cornish. This paper examines both these categories of name, as well as the phenomenon of Kernowisation, a term coined by Harasta (2013 to refer to the adoption of Cornish personal names, and here extended to the use of Cornish names in otherwise English-language contexts. Examining the names that have been implemented during the Cornish language revival, and the ways in which they are used or indeed refused by those involved, gives us an insight into the various ideologies that steer the revival process. Within the context of the precarious nature of Cornish and Celtic identity, we can identify the concerns of those involved in the Cornish revival movement and highlight the role of naming as an activity of legitimation, showing how the diversity of names that occur reflects an equally diverse range of motivations and influences.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  9. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...

  10. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  11. Usages of people names as cohesive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sipavicius Seide

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usages of people names (proper name, nickname and pseudonym as cohesive elements. In this brief study, some usages of people names which ocurred in journalistic texts are analysed from an onomastic point of view. Emphasis  is placed on cultural, social and historic values of such usages. Data presented are parcial results of a broader research whose objective is to analyse textually and rethorically lexical cohesion tools observed in a sample of journalistic texts published by three Brazilian magazines (Istoé, Época and Veja during the second semester of 2008.

  12. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  13. An idealized model for tree-grass coexistence in savannas : The role of life stage structure and fire disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; D'Andrea, Fabio; Provenzale, A.

    2010-01-01

    1. We discuss a simple implicit-space model for the competition of trees and grasses in an idealized savanna environment. The model represents patch occupancy dynamics within the habitat and introduces life stage structure in the tree population, namely adults and seedlings. A tree can be

  14. Typification of infrageneric names in Ulmus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7billion per year U.S. nursery industry, but utilization of these plants has been limited in recent decades by introduced diseases, especially Dutch elm disease. Research and breeding for disease resistance have been base...

  15. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  16. What’s in a Name? – Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways......The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names...... of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic) naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media...

  17. Analisi Pengaruh Store Name, Brand Name, Dan Price Discounts Terhadap Purchase Intentions Konsumen Infinite Tunjungan Plaza

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Andy Gunawan:SkripsiAnalisis pengaruh store name, brand name dan price discounts terhadap purchase intention konsumen infnite tunjungan plaza Di era globalisasi ini, persaingan dagang antara Perusahaan – Perusahaan baik lokal maupun global menjadi semakin ketat, oleh karena itu Perusahaan selalu berusaha untuk meningkatkan ketertarikan minat beli konsumen. Beberapa variabel yang menjadi fokus Perusahaan adalah store name, brand name, dan price discount. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meng...

  18. Listing of awardee names: Active awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This catalog/directory presents DOE`s procurement and assistance data system, arranged according to awardee name, bin, completion date, description of work, division, vendor ID, city, state, congressional district, contract value, obligations to date, P/S.

  19. Resolving Person Names in Web People Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Krisztian; Azzopardi, Leif; de Rijke, Maarten

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the problem presents many difficulties and challenges. This chapter treats the task of person name disambiguation as a document clustering problem, where it is assumed that the documents represent particular people. This leads to the person cluster hypothesis, which states that similar documents tend to represent the same person. Single Pass Clustering, k-Means Clustering, Agglomerative Clustering and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis are employed and empirically evaluated in this context. On the SemEval 2007 Web People Search it is shown that the person cluster hypothesis holds reasonably well and that the Single Pass Clustering and Agglomerative Clustering methods provide the best performance.

  20. Last Name Selection in Audit Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Crabtree

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we build on Gaddis (2017a by illuminating a key variable plausibly related to racial perceptions of last names—geography. We show that the probability that any individual belongs to a race is conditional not only on their last name but also on surrounding racial demographics. Specifically, we demonstrate that the probability of a name denoting a race varies considerably across contexts, and this is more of a problem for some names than others. This result has two important implications for audit study research: it suggests important limitations for (1 the generalizability of audit study findings and (2 for the interpretation of geography-based conditional effects. This means that researchers should be careful to select names that consistently signal racial groups regardless of local demographics. We provide a slim R package that can help researchers do this.

  1. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  2. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  3. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  4. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  5. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  6. Note on the name of king Narmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Takacs

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The name of Narmer (n'r-mr, king of Upper Egypt in the late predynastic period (ab. 3000 B. C., has remained a mystery for long millennia. The first component of the name is clearly identical with n'r "Weis (catfish" (OK, Med., Gr., Wb II 209, 2-6. But the second element -mr has so far been lacking a reliable and convincing etymological explanation on the Egyptian lexical material. In this brief paper we attempt to give a solution for the second component of the name in the Common Afrasian (Semito-Hamitic lexical material. First, we can also admit that the Egyptian vocabulary does not help too much to clarify -mr, as there is no Egyptian word to fit in the name.

  7. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  8. About the scientific names of paraphyletic taxa

    OpenAIRE

    TIMM, Tarmo

    2012-01-01

    The 'naturality' of monophyletic taxa in comparison with that of paraphyletic ones is discussed, with examples from Clitellata. Regular scientific names for paraphyletic taxa are inevitable in a workable biological classification.

  9. The change of religion and the names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kousgård Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available What actually happened at the time when Denmark was christianized? An important viewpoint to the topic is the nomenclature, both personal names and place-names. What happened to these in the missionary period? Can they be exploited as evidence about the change of religion? What happened to these and to the naming practices in connection with the introduction of Christianity? These questions are relevant, because several pre-Christian cultic words entered into the personal nomenclature which the Christian mission found in use on its arrival. The fate of the nomenclature in the period does suggest that the change in religion took place reasonably peacefully and gradually. There are, however, certain features about the place-names suggesting that there were local differences in the conduct of the mission.

  10. Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. MacIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce in Alberta (Canada with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter. Fixed effects models (without plot as subject including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter. Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models.

  11. Decision Tree Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    8 2.4 Irrigation, Agronomic Inputs, and...documents will provide the reader in-depth background on the science and engineering mechanisms of phytoremediation. Using the decision tree and the...ITRC – Phytoremediation Decision Tree December 1999 8 • Contaminant levels • Plant selection • Treatability • Irrigation, agronomic

  12. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  13. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  14. Uncovering dynamic fault trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junges, Sebastian; Guck, Dennis; Katoen, Joost P.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    Fault tree analysis is a widespread industry standard for assessing system reliability. Standard (static) fault trees model the failure behaviour of systems in dependence of their component failures. To overcome their limited expressive power, common dependability patterns, such as spare management,

  15. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  16. Trees Are Terrific!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

  17. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  18. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  19. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  20. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    designation. O’Neill is a Roman Catholic. Navy Secretary John F. Lehman, Jr., a Catholic, has defended the name USS Corpus Christi, saying the...spring when Roman Catholic and other religious leaders and peace activists objected to the original name Corpus Christi, which in Latin means “Body of...Naval Shipyard. Portland also has the largest port in Maine, and it is home to men and women whose livelihood relies upon the ocean and its

  1. The naming of minor planets: multicultural relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    To date, among the hundred or so minor planets we discovered with various instruments around the world, twenty of these objects have been definitively numbered and named. We have choosen the names according to our centers of interest. In honouring people in domains as varied as astronomy, astronautics, music, paleontology, comic strips, . . . we had the opportunity of establishing fruitful relationships with a large horizon of cultures. It was also a good opportunity for the diffusion of astronomy towards other communities.

  2. What is in a name? : Mutual fund flows when managers have foreign-sounding names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Niessen-Ruenzi, A.; Spalt, O.G.

    We show that name-induced stereotypes affect the investment choices of U.S. mutual fund investors. Managers with foreign-sounding names have about 10% lower annual fund flows, and this effect is stronger among funds with investor clienteles more likely to be suspicious of foreigners. Foreign-named

  3. Between Ethnic and English Names: Name Choice for Transnational Chinese Students in a US Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…

  4. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  5. The history of Latin teeth names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, František

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an account of the Latin naming of the different types of teeth by reviewing relevant historical and contemporary literature. The paper presents etymologies of Latin or Greek teeth names, their development, variants and synonyms, and sometimes the names of their authors. The Greek names did not have the status of official terms, but the Latin terms for particular types of teeth gradually established themselves. Names for the incisors, canines and molars are Latin calques for the Greek ones (tomeis, kynodontes, mylai), dens serotinus is an indirect calque of the Greek name (odús) opsigonos, and the term pre-molar is created in the way which is now common in modern anatomical terminology, using the prefix prae- = pre and the adjective molaris. The Latin terms dentes canini and dentes molares occur in the Classical Latin literature, the term (dentes) incisivi is found first time in medieval literature, and the terms dentes premolares and dens serotinus are modern-age ones.

  6. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  7. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  8. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  9. Computational study of developing high-quality decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiwei

    2002-03-01

    Recently, decision tree algorithms have been widely used in dealing with data mining problems to find out valuable rules and patterns. However, scalability, accuracy and efficiency are significant concerns regarding how to effectively deal with large and complex data sets in the implementation. In this paper, we propose an innovative machine learning approach (we call our approach GAIT), combining genetic algorithm, statistical sampling, and decision tree, to develop intelligent decision trees that can alleviate some of these problems. We design our computational experiments and run GAIT on three different data sets (namely Socio- Olympic data, Westinghouse data, and FAA data) to test its performance against standard decision tree algorithm, neural network classifier, and statistical discriminant technique, respectively. The computational results show that our approach outperforms standard decision tree algorithm profoundly at lower sampling levels, and achieves significantly better results with less effort than both neural network and discriminant classifiers.

  10. [Anatomical names of skeletal surfaces: analysis and classification of Latin names, and comparison with corresponding Japanese names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2007-12-01

    For better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of possible need for future revision, Latin anatomical names (Terminologia Anatomica) of the skeletal surfaces were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Facies indicated: 1) morphological resemblance of the surface; 2) the structure that articulates with the surface; 3) the structure attached to the surface; 4) the structure in contact with the surface; 5) the way of connection between the surface and the structure that faces it; 6) the structure of which the surface is a component; 7) the structure that the surface faces; 8) the site that the surface faces; 9) the relative position of the surface; 10) the non-relative position of the surface; 11) an articulation of the surface; or 12) both the structure with which the surface articulates and the structure of which the surface is a component. Analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  11. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  12. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... with apple and A72 showed a good diagnostic value with a sensitivity of more than 70% and a specificity of 100%. The SCT showed a poor sensitivity to apple, A72 and commercial apple extract. The ML test was not suitable in detecting specific IgE to apple compared with the CAP test. In daily practice...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  13. What’s in a Name?—Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Borkfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human, peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media etc. in our societies today, and asks the question of what the consequences of naming non-human animals are for us, for the beings named and for the power relations between our species and the non-human species and individuals we name.

  14. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  15. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  16. Combined effects of environmental disturbance and climate warming on insect herbivory in mountain birch in subarctic forests: Results of 26-year monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M V; Zverev, V; Zvereva, E L

    2017-12-01

    Both pollution and climate affect insect-plant interactions, but the combined effects of these two abiotic drivers of global change on insect herbivory remain almost unexplored. From 1991 to 2016, we monitored the population densities of 25 species or species groups of insects feeding on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) in 29 sites and recorded leaf damage by insects in 21 sites in subarctic forests around the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia. The leaf-eating insects demonstrated variable, and sometimes opposite, responses to pollution-induced forest disturbance and to climate variations. Consequently, we did not discover any general trend in herbivory along the disturbance gradient. Densities of eight species/species groups correlated with environmental disturbance, but these correlations weakened from 1991 to 2016, presumably due to the fivefold decrease in emissions of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals from the smelter. The densities of externally feeding defoliators decreased from 1991 to 2016 and the densities of leafminers increased, while the leaf roller densities remained unchanged. Consequently, no overall temporal trend in the abundance of birch-feeding insects emerged despite a 2-3°C elevation in spring temperatures. Damage to birch leaves by insects decreased during the observation period in heavily disturbed forests, did not change in moderately disturbed forests and tended to increase in pristine forests. The temporal stability of insect-plant interactions, quantified by the inverse of the coefficient of among-year variations of herbivore population densities and of birch foliar damage, showed a negative correlation with forest disturbance. We conclude that climate differently affects insect herbivory in heavily stressed versus pristine forests, and that herbivorous insects demonstrate diverse responses to environmental disturbance and climate variations. This diversity of responses, in combination with the

  17. Age-dependent sensitization to the 7S-vicilin-like protein Cor a 11 from hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in a birch-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, M M; Hagendorens, M M; Trashin, S; Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2012-01-01

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) allergy exhibits age and geographically distinct sensitization patterns that have not yet been fully resolved. To study sensitization to Cor a 11 in different age groups of hazelnut-allergic patients and infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) sensitized to hazelnut in a birch-endemic region. Sera from 80 hazelnut-allergic patients, 33 infants under 1 year of age with AD (24 sensitized and 9 not sensitized to hazelnut), 32 healthy control individuals, and 29 birch pollen-allergic but hazelnut-tolerant individuals were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) E reactivity to Cor a 11 by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to Cor a 1.01, Cor a 1.04, Cor a 8, and Cor a 9 was studied by ISAC microarray. Forty patients (22 preschool children, 10 schoolchildren, and 8 adults) with systemic reactions on consumption of hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 11 (respective rates of 36%, 40%, and 12.5%). Forty patients (6 preschool children, 10 schoolchildren, and 24 adults) reported oral allergy syndrome but only 2 of them (of preschool age) were sensitized to Cor a 11. Two (8%) of the AD infants sensitized to hazelnut showed IgE reactivity to Cor a 11. This reactivity was not observed in any of the AD infants without sensitization to hazelnut, in any of the birch-pollen allergic patients without hazelnut allergy, or in any of the healthy control individuals. Sensitization to Cor a 11 in a birch-endemic region is predominantly found in children with severe hazelnut allergy, a finding that is consistent with observations concerning sensitization to Cor a 9.

  18. The influence of felling season and log-soaking temperature on the wetting and phenol formaldehyde adhesive bonding characteristics of birch veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Pekka Saranpää; Martin Ohlmeyer; Mark Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most adhesive studies employing wood veneer as the substrate assume that it is a relatively uniform material if wood species and veneer thickness are constant. In the present study, veneers from rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) were produced from logs harvested in spring, autumn and winter, and soaked at 20°C and 70°C prior to peeling. Firstly...

  19. A Novel Approach for Protein-Named Entity Recognition and Protein-Protein Interaction Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers focus on developing protein-named entity recognition (Protein-NER or PPI extraction systems. However, the studies about these two topics cannot be merged well; then existing PPI extraction systems’ Protein-NER still needs to improve. In this paper, we developed the protein-protein interaction extraction system named PPIMiner based on Support Vector Machine (SVM and parsing tree. PPIMiner consists of three main models: natural language processing (NLP model, Protein-NER model, and PPI discovery model. The Protein-NER model, which is named ProNER, identifies the protein names based on two methods: dictionary-based method and machine learning-based method. ProNER is capable of identifying more proteins than dictionary-based Protein-NER model in other existing systems. The final discovered PPIs extracted via PPI discovery model are represented in detail because we showed the protein interaction types and the occurrence frequency through two different methods. In the experiments, the result shows that the performances achieved by our ProNER and PPI discovery model are better than other existing tools. PPIMiner applied this protein-named entity recognition approach and parsing tree based PPI extraction method to improve the performance of PPI extraction. We also provide an easy-to-use interface to access PPIs database and an online system for PPIs extraction and Protein-NER.

  20. A COMPARITIVE STUDY USING GEOMETRIC AND VERTICAL PROFILE FEATURES DERIVED FROM AIRBORNE LIDAR FOR CLASSIFYING TREE GENERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study between two different approaches for tree genera classification using descriptors derived from tree geometry and those derived from the vertical profile analysis of LiDAR point data. The different methods provide two perspectives for processing LiDAR point clouds for tree genera identification. The geometric perspective analyzes individual tree crowns in relation to valuable information related to characteristics of clusters and line segments derived within crowns and overall tree shapes to highlight the spatial distribution of LiDAR points within the crown. Conversely, analyzing vertical profiles retrieves information about the point distributions with respect to height percentiles; this perspective emphasizes of the importance that point distributions at specific heights express, accommodating for the decreased point density with respect to depth of canopy penetration by LiDAR pulses. The targeted species include white birch, maple, oak, poplar, white pine and jack pine at a study site northeast of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.

  1. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  2. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  3. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  4. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  5. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  6. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  7. Color naming across languages reflects color use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R

    2017-10-03

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  8. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  9. Clock Tree Power Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Austbø, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The buffered clock tree structure is commonly used to distribute the clock signal to the memory elements in digital circuits. Since the clock signal is used as a temporal reference, it has to be distributed to the registers with decent timing characteristics and low skew. In order to achieve this, buffers and inverters are inserted in the clock tree, typically by a synthesis tool. The clock tree is a major contributor to the power consumption. This is a result of a combination of high swit...

  10. New Investigations in the School of Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoli Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of names and argumentation from the pre-Qin period represent a precious inheritance left behind by ancient Chinese thinkers. As one of the schools from the pre-Qin period, nomenalism made a great contribution to the study of names. Modern research on nomenalism has been greatly affected by the Han Dynasty historians. However, their introduction to the school is vague. In respect to nomenalism, there are some unsolved problems that still need to be clarified and have not been noticed by many scholars. The present thesis analyses the characteristics and functions of nomenalism; it discusses the relations between nomenalists and sophists and epitomises their contributions to the study of names.

  11. Glaucoma and the Origins of Its Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-05-01

    To identify the origins of the name of the disease Glaucoma. Ancient Greek medical literature, Homeric poems, and ancient Greek religion and art were examined. The roots of the name Glaucoma could be traced back to Homeric times. Ancient Greek physicians following the Hippocratic tradition preferred the use of the terms Hypochysis or Hypochyma for the same disease. This fact indicates that the older term Glaucoma did not fulfill strict medical criteria, but had a long history connected to superstition, which the rational ancient Greek physician tried to overcome using terms derived from their fundamental principal of humoral pathology. In ancient Greek medical literature, Glaucoma had a significant place among ocular diseases. The origin of its name could be traced back to Homeric times and could be connected to the ancient belief of a primitive folk about the apotropaic role of animals against diseases, which in this case is represented by the superstitious role of the owl.

  12. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  13. NAMED ENTITY DISAMBIGUATION: A HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HienT. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic annotation of named entities for enriching unstructured content is a critical step in development of Semantic Web and many Natural Language Processing applications. To this end, this paper addresses the named entity disambiguation problem that aims at detecting entity mentions in a text and then linking them to entries in a knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method, combining heuristics and statistics, for named entity disambiguation. The novelty is that the disambiguation process is incremental and includes several rounds that filter the candidate referents, by exploiting previously identified entities and extending the text by those entity attributes every time they are successfully resolved in a round. Experiments are conducted to evaluate and show the advantages of the proposed method. The experiment results show that our approach achieves high accuracy and can be used to construct a robust entity disambiguation system.

  14. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first......A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... sent to 50 students and I received 18 answers (38%). The second survey was sent to 86 students and I received 48 answers (56%). These figures provides a good indication.The answers showed a marked positive effect: the students felt welcome, accepted and respected; the learning environment was more...

  15. Precedent Proper Names in Informal Oikonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Akhmetova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Russian language informal city names (oikonyms motivated by other toponyms (with reference to Russia and the CIS. The author shows that the motivating proper name can replace the city name (e. g. Глазго < Glasgow ‘Glazov’ or contaminate with it (e. g. Экибостон < Ekibastuz + Boston, the “alien” onym being attracted to construct an informal oikonym due to its phonetic similarity or, on occasion, due to an affinity, either real or imaginary, between the two settlements. The author argues that the phonetic motivation is more characteristic for the modern urban tradition, than for popular dialects.

  16. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  17. Sustainable cultivation of broadleaved trees in a recycling community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the future, with problems of global warming and acidification and with an increasing need to recirculate wastes of the community in an ecologically acceptable and economically sound manner, the cultivation of broadleaved species (birch, aspen, poplar, alder and willow in particular) on suitable forest land and on former agricultural land is of utmost interest if following the recycling philosophy. The wood produced could be used primarily for short fibres and for energy. Also of interest is the production of methanol, biogas and electricity, chipboard and laminates, in the context of a forest industry concerned with the further development of the raw materials. The main advantages of cultivating fast-growing, broadleaved trees on former agricultural land are that: * in Sweden it has been shown possible to produce 10-12 tonnes of dry matter of woody biomass per hectare and year by cultivating willows and hybrid poplars, * in such plantations, the energy efficiency ratio will be 1 to 15-20, meaning that for every energy unit used, 15-20 can be harvested, and * some residual products from society, such as sludges, ashes, and wastewaters can be used as fertilizers in such plantations. 16 refs

  18. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  19. [Why the name "Erasmus" for an hospital ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2017-01-01

    Why the name "Erasmus" for an hospital ? Apart for local circumstances, there are far more obvious reasons for this choice. Erasmus was in close contact with the medical world. Indeed, he suffered all his life from more or less severe diseases and had therefore frequent contacts with doctors. Also, the ideas he was defending stood for the principle of free inquiry before its time. For these various reasons giving the name « Erasmus » to the university clinics of the Free University of Brussels (ULB) was a judicious choise.

  20. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared

  1. Love me, love me not: changed names

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: " A selection of 150 cities within Slavs and Tatars’ Eurasian remit, Love Me, Love Me Not : Changed Names plucks the petals off the past to reveal an impossibly thorny stem : a lineage of names changed by the course of the region’s grueling history. Some cities divulge a resolutely Asian heritage, so often forgotten in today’s quest, at all costs, for European integration. Some vacillate almost painfully, and others with numbing repetition, entire metro...

  2. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...

  3. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  4. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  5. Compound word effects differ in reading, on-line naming, and delayed naming tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhoff, A W; Briihl, D; Schwartz, J

    1996-07-01

    Bimorphemic compound words (e.g., blueberry), bimorphemic suffixed words (e.g., ceaseless), and monomorphemic controls (e.g., arthritis) were read in neutral sentence contexts in Experiment 1. The main result revealed longer first fixation durations on compound words than on control and suffixed words. Different effects emerged when naming tasks were used. An on-line naming task revealed substantially shorter naming latencies for compound words than for control and suffixed words. Naming latencies for compound and control words were equivalent in a delayed naming task. These results indicate that on-line naming latencies and word-viewing durations may yield diverging results. They also suggest that activation of constituent words of compound words occurs independently from the specification of conventional word meanings.

  6. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  7. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product ... cuts and wounds by the aboriginal people of Australia. Today, tea tree oil is often used externally ...

  8. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  9. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  10. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 7. Spelling the names of plant varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the practice of transliteration of the Ukrainian cultivar names and rendering foreign names by means of the Ukrainian language, as well as special aspects of cultivar names spelling in special literature. Results. Cultivar names as a special category require preservation of primary graphics or sound type in the other language. This can be achieved by direct inclusion of the original name to the Ukrainian text or by practical transcribing, but not by transliteration or translation. Otherwise, Ukrainian names should be transliterated for inclusion to the texts in Latin characters. Transcription/transliteration in both directions is performed from the source language, though, as practice shows, in some Ukrainian publications the Russian is wrongly used as an intermediary language. Some national scientific publications ignore the recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that is not conducive to the success of scientific communication in the globalized world. Conclusions. The foreign names of plant varieties should be entered into the Ukrainian text keeping the original spelling or by means of practical transcription. The loan of foreign names is performed by transcribing directly from the source language; if the language doesn’t have the Latin alphabet, Latinized name transcription is acceptable. Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that concern graphic highlighting of the cultivar names in the text enclosing them in single quotation marks and writing each word of a cultivar name with a capital letter should necessarily be applied in the foreign-language publications and extended to the Ukrainian special literature, at least, in terms of the use of single quotation marks. Ukrainian names should be transliterated only in accordance with the regulations.

  11. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Alexander; Hutter, Marcus; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compres...

  12. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  13. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  14. Tree Improvement Glossary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

  15. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    between words. DTE supports the widely used Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)-X format as well as several other file...formats, and it provides numerous options for customizing how dependency trees are displayed. Built entirely in Java , it can run on a wide range of...software application called Dependency Tree Editor (DTE) that can read files in Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)-X format and use them

  16. Suberin fatty acids isolated from outer birch bark improve moisture barrier properties of cellulose ether films intended for tablet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Halenius, Anna; Paavo, Maaja; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Pirttimaa, Minni; Paaver, Urve; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Kogermann, Karin; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-07-15

    We showed that the addition of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) even at small concentrations significantly improves the water vapor barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. SFAs were isolated from the outer birch bark using extractive hydrolysis. The effects of SFAs on the film formation of aqueous HPMC were investigated with free films plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Special attention was paid on the physical solid-state, moisture barrier and mechanical stress-strain properties of films intended for tablet film coatings. Topography and surface morphology, glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young's modulus, and water vapor permeation (WVP) of films were studied. The addition of SFAs lowered the Tg of films suggesting partial enhancement in film plasticization. The WVP of films decreased with increasing SFAs concentration up to 15% (calculated as a % w/w from a polymer weight). The WVP value for a non-suberized reference film and suberized film plasticized with PEG 400 was 2.13×10(-6) and 0.69[×10(-6) g/(mm(2)×h)×mm/Pa], respectively. The addition of SFAs impaired the mechanical stress-strain properties of HPMC films by reducing the deformation capacity of film. In conclusion, the film properties and performance of aqueous HPMC can be modified by including SFAs in the films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  18. Searching for magnetism in hydrogenated graphene: using highly hydrogenated graphene prepared via Birch reduction of graphite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Poh, Hwee Ling; Šaněk, Filip; Maryško, Miroslav; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-07-23

    Fully hydrogenated graphene (graphane) and partially hydrogenated graphene materials are expected to possess various fundamentally different properties from graphene. We have prepared highly hydrogenated graphene containing 5% wt of hydrogen via Birch reduction of graphite oxide using elemental sodium in liquid NH3 as electron donor and methanol as proton donor in the reduction. We also investigate the influence of preparation method of graphite oxide, such as the Staudenmaier, Hofmann or Hummers methods on the hydrogenation rate. A control experiment involving NaNH2 instead of elemental Na was also performed. The materials were characterized in detail by electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy both at room and low temperatures, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis and electrical resistivity measurements. Magnetic measurements are provided of bulk quantities of highly hydrogenated graphene. In the whole temperature range up to room temperature, the hydrogenated graphene exhibits a weak ferromagnetism in addition to a contribution proportional to field that is caused not only by diamagnetism but also likely by an antiferromagnetic influence. The origin of the magnetism is also determined to arise from the hydrogenated graphene itself, and not as a result of any metallic impurities.

  19. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 alleviates birch pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S-P; Oh, H-N; Choi, C-Y; Ahn, H; Yun, H S; Chung, Y M; Kim, B; Lee, S J; Chun, T

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of selected probiotics in a mouse model of birch pollen (BP)-induced allergic rhinitis. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 ameliorated the symptoms of BP-induced allergic rhinitis by reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, and both the histological scores and the number of infiltrated cells in the nasal cavities and lungs. Compared with those from vehicle-treated mice, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and draining lymph node samples from CJLP133 and CJLP243-administrated mice showed diminished numbers of immune cells, increased secretion of a Th1-type cytokine (IFN-γ) and decreased production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). Consistent with these results, levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, serum IgE and BP-specific serum IgG1 were decreased, whereas secretion of IFN-γ and BP-specific serum IgG2a was augmented upon administration of CJLP133 and CJLP243 in mice. Oral administration of L. plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 alleviates symptoms of BP-induced allergic rhinitis in mice by recovering Th1/Th2 balance via enhancement of the Th1-type immune response. Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 have therapeutic effects on BP-induced allergic rhinitis in an animal model. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-04-01

    Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d (PDB entry 3k78) are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the 3k78 model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). The abnormal refinement is compared with normal refinement of an isomorphous variant structure of Bet v 1l (PDB entry 1fm4). A variety of analytical tools, including the application of Diederichs plots, Rσ plots and bulk-solvent analysis are discussed as promising aids in validation. The examination of the Bet v 1d structure also cautions against the practice of indicating poorly defined protein chain residues through zero occupancies. The recommendation to preserve diffraction images is amplified. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaf N resorption efficiency and litter N mineralization rate have a genotypic tradeoff in a silver birch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J M H; Rousi, Matti

    2018-02-07

    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H 2  = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH 4 + yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Considering the issue of aligning Ukrainian plant names. Communication 3. Names for Ribes L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature and the system of genus Ribes s.l., application of indigenous and introduced plant names, from which such commercial small fruit crops as gooseberry, black and red currant have been formed, is considered. Scientifi c names based on Ukrainian generic name Porichky are streamlined. Ukrainian names for 64 taxa at the rank of species and variety were given. For hybrids nothotaxa ×Ribelaria Mezhenskyj, nothosubg. nov. (= subg. Ribes × subg. Grossularia and ×Сalocalyx Mezhenskyj, nothosect. nov. (= sect. Calobotrya × sect. Symplocalyx were defi ned.

  4. What’s In Your Name? Associated Meanings of the Common Filipino Names Among Young Filipinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaira G. Castillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Name is important in knowing someone’s identity. By a person’s name someone can know his or her character. It is also possible that they bear a particular name because of their background and other factors that can lead to something important. This study aimed to find out the associative meanings of the most common Filipino male and female names among the Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Sta. Mesa students. Different factors such as character traits, physical appearance, and skills/talents were considered in determining meanings of the names. The study used quantitative and qualitative research approach, specifically the descriptive method, to analyze the gathered data. A selfadministered survey was distributed to 400 randomly selected respondents. General findings revealed that the respondents associated the most common Filipino male names in the same way regarding character traits and skills/talents. However, they have different associations to the male names in terms of physical appearance. On the other hand, the respondents associated the most common Filipino female names into similar character traits and physical appearance but associated them with different skills/talents. Results also revealed that the most common factors that influence the respondents’ associated meanings were relationships, experiences, popularity, and perception. The results imply that while young Filipinos associate similar character traits, physical appearances and skills to common Filipino names, they have different reasons in giving meanings to them.

  5. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  6. Biggert named chairman of energy subcommittee

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Representative Judy Biggert has been named Chairman of the Energy Subcommittee of the House Science Committee, a key panel with jurisdiction over the federal government's civilian energy and science research activities, including the work done at Argonne and Fermilab (1 page).

  7. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  8. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  9. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Malt, Barbara C; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages' lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns.

  10. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  11. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    evolutionary change, and the name sources of the Navy’s ships have not been immune to this change.”9 The July 2012 Navy report to Congress states that...Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with Gilt Star and 2 palms; Whereas during World War II, Clifton B. Cates led Marines at Guadalcanal, and

  12. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate...

  13. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  14. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz...

  15. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIPO...

  16. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  17. SOCIOLINGUISTIC IMPORT OF NAME-CLIPPING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... emblems or compulsory badges every person is expected to bear for identification. They are also used to divulge the way the Igbo view life in its entirety including personal, family and general life experiences which, most of the times, encompass cultural and philosophical undertones. Igbo names, which ...

  18. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdi Evizal; Tohari Tohari; Irfan D. Prijambada; Jaka Widada; Donny Widianto

    2009-01-01

    Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), namely sun coffee (without shade trees), coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina ...

  19. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  20. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  1. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Xiping Wang; Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    The resistance drilling technique has been in focus for assessing the specific gravity (SG) of young Eucalyptus trees from plantations for pulpwood production. Namely, the data of 50 34-month-old and 50 62-monthold trees from Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations was evaluated, while...

  2. Some strong limit theorems for nonhomogeneous Markov chains indexed by controlled trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Peng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a kind of infinite, local finite tree T, named a controlled tree, is introduced. Some strong limit properties, such as the strong law of large numbers and the asymptotic equipartition property, for nonhomogeneous Markov chains indexed by T, are established. The outcomes are the generalizations of some well-known results.

  3. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  4. Anatomy of the Pythagoras' Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teia, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of nature can be seen at play in a tree: no two are alike. The Pythagoras' tree behaves just as a "tree" in that the root plus the same movement repeated over and over again grows from a seed, to a plant, to a tree. In human life, this movement is termed cell division. With triples, this movement is a geometrical and…

  5. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  6. Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-02-11

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the pollen season for two pollen seasons. Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of oral allergy syndrome (OAS). The primary efficacy endpoint was the Average Adjusted Symptom Score (AAdSS) over the second pollen season and was analyzed by ANCOVA. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the AAdSS over the first pollen period. Safety was evaluated by means of adverse event monitoring. 574 patients (284 in the active group and 290 in the placebo group) were randomized and 496 completed the study. Over the second pollen period, the least square (LS) mean AAdSS was significantly lower in the 300IR group than in the placebo group (LS mean difference -2.04, 95% CI [-2.69, -1.40], (p mouth edema. There were no reports of anaphylaxis. Pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution demonstrated sustained clinical efficacy over 2 pollen seasons and was well tolerated in adults with birch pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Efficacy results were consistent in patients with and without oral allergy syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01731249.

  7. Lognormal Approximations of Fault Tree Uncertainty Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shanawany, Ashraf Ben; Ardron, Keith H; Walker, Simon P

    2018-01-26

    Fault trees are used in reliability modeling to create logical models of fault combinations that can lead to undesirable events. The output of a fault tree analysis (the top event probability) is expressed in terms of the failure probabilities of basic events that are input to the model. Typically, the basic event probabilities are not known exactly, but are modeled as probability distributions: therefore, the top event probability is also represented as an uncertainty distribution. Monte Carlo methods are generally used for evaluating the uncertainty distribution, but such calculations are computationally intensive and do not readily reveal the dominant contributors to the uncertainty. In this article, a closed-form approximation for the fault tree top event uncertainty distribution is developed, which is applicable when the uncertainties in the basic events of the model are lognormally distributed. The results of the approximate method are compared with results from two sampling-based methods: namely, the Monte Carlo method and the Wilks method based on order statistics. It is shown that the closed-form expression can provide a reasonable approximation to results obtained by Monte Carlo sampling, without incurring the computational expense. The Wilks method is found to be a useful means of providing an upper bound for the percentiles of the uncertainty distribution while being computationally inexpensive compared with full Monte Carlo sampling. The lognormal approximation method and Wilks's method appear attractive, practical alternatives for the evaluation of uncertainty in the output of fault trees and similar multilinear models. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  9. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  10. Miombo trees and mycorrhizae : ecological strategies, a basis for afforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyanziza, E.

    1994-01-01

    This project has covered one or several aspects of the life cycle of the main miombo tree species, namely Afzelia quanzensis ,Brachystegia microphylla, Brachystegia spiciformis

  11. Evaluation of three indigenous Multi-purpose tree species for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic evaluation of three indigenous Multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) namely Pterocarpus santalinoides (PS), Grewia pubescens (GP) and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) and one exotic Leucaena leucocephala (LL) which acted as the control were investigated to determine their growth performance and biomass ...

  12. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii ...

  13. Characteristics and storage of whole-tree biomass for energy; Ensiharvennuspuun erilliskaesittely tehdasvarastolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J.

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of this thesis are to describe fuelwood characteristics and to determine how they are affected by length of storage, type of storage, fuel composition and tree species. The fuel characteristics of whole-tree biomass are discussed in terms of proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, heating value, particle size, composition and tree species, and the storage schedules presented in the seven enclosed papers. The study material comprises of small-sized trees from cleanings and thinnings, and logging residue from regeneration cuttings. The species studied are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner) and trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.). The variability of the chemical composition and the heating value is small in any given tree component. However, significant differences were found between whole-tree components and species. The species factor, however, diminishes when the weighted heating value of crown, whole-stems or stump-root-system are considered. Crown material from regeneration cuttings has higher heating value than small-sized stems and whole trees. Heating values of whole-tree components and whole trees are higher at the northern extent of their range than further south in Ostrobothnia. Some correlation between lignin, carbohydrate and extractive contents with effective heating value was found. The most significant property of fuelwood is moisture content because it determines the effective heating value of the fuelwood. It also varies with a wide range. However, moisture content can be manipulated to some extent by choosing the right procurement schedules. Transpiration drying is a valid drying method prior to comminution which will shorten the time of artificial chip drying. It can be applied to both small-sized trees and logging residues

  14. Purposeful naming: The case of beer halls named during both the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the reasons behind names given to beer halls from their inception in colonial Rhodesia to present day Zimbabwe. To achieve this goal, it analyses names of beer halls, beer outlets built in the former townships of colonial Rhodesia (now called high-density suburbs), and those built at growth points, ...

  15. Action naming in anomic aphasic speakers : Effects of instrumentality and name relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a

  16. Colour-Name versus Shape-Name Learning in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study designed to compare color-name with shape-name learning by three-year-old children in an experimentally controlled format. Results show that children learned color-label associates significantly more slowly than matched shape-label associates, and they committed more errors with colors than with shapes during learning. Provides a…

  17. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolontaev, V.M.; Kolontaev, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  18. Some trees with partition dimension three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlina, Ketut Queena; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    The concept of partition dimension of a graph was introduced by Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang (1998) [2]. Let G(V, E) be a connected graph. For S ⊆ V (G) and v ∈ V (G), define the distance d(v, S) from v to S is min{d(v, x)|x ∈ S}. Let Π be an ordered partition of V (G) and Π = {S1, S2, ..., Sk }. The representation r(v|Π) of vertex v with respect to Π is (d(v, S1), d(v, S2), ..., d(v, Sk)). If the representations of all vertices are distinct, then the partition Π is called a resolving partition of G. The partition dimension of G is the minimum k such that G has a resolving partition with k partition classes. In this paper, we characterize some classes of trees with partition dimension three, namely olive trees, weeds, and centipedes.

  19. Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wnorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.

  20. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all