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Sample records for bipolar-type plasma based

  1. Effects of electrical conductivity of substrate materials on microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, S; Sonoda, T

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared by a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation, and the structural differences between DLC films deposited on different electrical conductive substrates, i.e., conductive Si wafers and insulating glass plates are examined by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS). In the Raman measurements, graphite (G) and disorder (D) peaks are observed for both samples. However, the additional photo luminescence is overlapped on the spectra in the case of on-glass sample. To elucidate the structural difference, the intensity ratio of D to G peak (I(D)/I(G)), G peak position and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are obtained by curve fitting using Gaussian function and linear baseline. It is found that the I(D)/I(G) is lower, G peak position is higher and FWHM of G peak is narrower for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. According to Robertson [1], lower I(D)/I(G) seems more sp 3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. In contrast, higher G peak position and narrower FWHM of G peak suggest less sp 3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. The results of XPS analysis with C1s spectra reveal that sp 3 ratio, i.e., the intensity ratio of sp 3 /(sp 3 +sp 2 ) is smaller for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. The inconsistency of the trend between I(D)/I(G) and other parameters (G peak position and FWHM of G peak) might be caused by the overlap of photo luminescence signal on Raman spectrum as to on-glass sample. From these results, it is considered that sp 3 C-C bonding is reduced in amount when using insulating substrate in comparison with conductive substrate.

  2. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  3. Association of Lyme Disease and Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type: Is it Inflammation Mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingley, David William; Koola, Maju Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease has been reported to be associated with various psychiatric presentations. Borreliaburgdorferi (Bb) can present with symptoms similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It has been suggested that inflammation incurred during the Bb infection leads to neurodegenerative changes that result in schizophrenia-like presentations. We report a case of a 41-year-old male with a past history of Bb infection who presents with psychosis. Later in the course of his hospitalization, he developed mood symptoms and was diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. This case highlights the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with the unique presentation of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type in the setting of previous Bb infection.

  4. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas

  5. Sensory Gating and Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene Allelic Variants in Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura F.; Leonard, Sherry; Hall, Mei-Hua; Tregellas, Jason R.; Freedman, Robert; Olincy, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide allelic variants in the promoter region of the chromosome 15 alpha-7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) are associated with both schizophrenia and the P50 auditory evoked potential sensory gating deficit. The purpose of this study was to determine if CHRNA7 promoter allelic variants are also associated with abnormal P50 ratios in persons with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Methods P50 auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a paired stimulus paradigm in 17 subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The P50 test to conditioning ratio was used as the measure of sensory gating. Mutation screening of the CHRNA7 promoter region was performed on the subjects’ DNA samples. Comparisons to previously obtained data from persons with schizophrenia and controls were made. Results Subjects with schizophrenia, regardless of allele status, had an abnormal mean P50 ratio. Subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type and a variant allele had an abnormal mean P50 ratio, whereas those schizoaffective subjects with the common alleles had a normal mean P50 ratio. Normal control subjects had a normal mean ratio, but controls with variant alleles had higher P50 ratios. Conclusions In persons with bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, CHRNA7 promoter region allelic variants are linked to the capacity to inhibit the P50 auditory evoked potential and thus are associated with a type of illness genetically and biologically more similar to schizophrenia. PMID:17192894

  6. Paper-based plasma sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F; Mazzeo, Aaron D

    2017-05-16

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nW⋅cm -2 ⋅nm -1 ), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like "stretchy" structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  7. Genome-wide significant locus for Research Diagnostic Criteria Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Elaine K; Di Florio, Arianna; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Grozeva, Detelina; Fraser, Christine; Richards, Alexander L; Moran, Jennifer L; Purcell, Shaun; Sklar, Pamela; Kirov, George; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian R

    2017-12-01

    Studies have suggested that Research Diagnostic Criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type (RDC-SABP) might identify a more genetically homogenous subgroup of bipolar disorder. Aiming to identify loci associated with RDC-SABP, we have performed a replication study using independent RDC-SABP cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 6,559), focusing on the 10 loci that reached a p-value bipolar disorder sample. Combining the WTCCC and replication datasets by meta-analysis (combined RDC-SABP, n = 423, controls, n = 9,494), we observed genome-wide significant association at one SNP, rs2352974, located within the intron of the gene TRAIP on chromosome 3p21.31 (p-value, 4.37 × 10 -8 ). This locus did not reach genome-wide significance in bipolar disorder or schizophrenia large Psychiatric Genomic Consortium datasets, suggesting that it may represent a relatively specific genetic risk for the bipolar subtype of schizoaffective disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  9. Plasma-based and novel accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo; Nishida, Yasushi

    1992-05-01

    This publication is a collection of papers presented at Workshop on Plasma-Based and Novel Accelerators held at National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, on December 19-20, 1991. Plasma-based accelerators are attracting considerable attention in these days a new, exciting field of plasma applications. The study gives rise to and spurs study of other unique accelerators like laser-based accelerators. The talks in the Workshop encompassed beat-wave accelerator (BWA), plasma wake field accelerator (PWFA), V p x B accelerator, laser-based accelerators and some novel methods of acceleration. They also covered the topics such as FEL, cluster acceleration and plasma lens. Small scale experiments as those in universities have exhibited brilliant results while larger scale experiments like BWA in Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, and PWFA in KEK start showing significant results as well. (J.P.N.)

  10. Plasma-based EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  11. [Description of Clinical and Neurocognitive Profiles in Offspring of Bipolar-Type-I Parents From a Multimodal Intervention Program: Prisma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Ortíz, Juan David; Uribe-Villa, Esteban; Duque-Ríos, Paula; Gutiérrez-Briceño, Paola; Zapata-Henao, Violeta; Peña-Quintero, Cristian Esteban; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Offspring of bipolar parents are a high risk population for the develop of mental diseases, their study allow determining the genetic risk, early symptoms, prodromes and psychopathology of bipolar disorder. To describe the psychopathological characteristics and neurocognitives profiles of the offspring of bipolar type I parents. And to identify the presence of sub-syndromal symptoms in all the symptom domains. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 offspring between 6 and 30 years old. Semi-structured diagnostic interviews were performed. The intelectual coeficient was determined and a neuropsychological assessment was performed on 89 offspring. The most prevalent disorder in the offspring was ADHD (27.6%), with major depression (15.5%) and separation anxiety (14.1%) also being prevalent. Seven patients of the sample were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There was a statistically significant difference between the age groups for ADHD prevalence. The most frequent sub-syndromal symptoms were observed in the disruptive group. Alterations in the cognitive domains: attention, verbal fluency, work memory, and speed of information processing, were observed in the group younger than 18 years. The offspring of bipolar parents have an elevated rate of psychopathology and cognitive alterations. They are a high risk population for the development of mental disease. These subjects also require close longitudinal observation and early and preventive therapeuthic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in lithium-free adults with bipolar type I disorder using cortical pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Shen, Jim K.; Penfold, Conor; Ahlf, Kyle; Rasser, Paul E.; Fischer, Jeffrey; Yang, Yilan; Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder. Findings however, have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients’ medication status or mood state, or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences may have contributed to these inconsistent findings. Given this, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with cortical pattern matching methods to assess cortical thickness abnormalities in euthymic bipolar subjects who were not treated with lithium. Method Sixty-five subjects, including 34 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar (type I) disorder and 31 healthy subjects were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were processed to measure cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical pattern matching methods associated homologous brain regions across subjects. Spatially normalized thickness maps were analyzed to assess illness effects and associations with clinical variables. Results Relative to healthy subjects, euthymic bipolar I subjects had significantly thinner gray matter in bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Areas 11, 10, 8 and 44) and left anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Areas 24/32). Additionally, thinning in these regions was more pronounced in patients with a history of psychosis. No areas of thicker cortex were detected in bipolar subjects versus healthy subjects. Conclusions Using a technique that is highly sensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences, significant regional cortical thinning was found in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21285139

  13. Theoretical Investigations of Plasma-Based Accelerators and Other Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuets, G.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of plasma-based accelerators and other advanced accelerator concepts. The focus of the work was on the development of plasma based and structure based accelerating concepts, including laser-plasma, plasma channel, and microwave driven plasma accelerators

  14. Plasma balance equations based on orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1982-01-01

    A set of plasma balance equations is proposed which is based on orbit theory and the particle distribution function, to provide means for theoretical analysis of a number of finite Larmor radius (FLR) phenomena without use of the Vlasov equation. Several important FLR effects originate from the inhomogeneity of an electric field in the plasma. The exact solution of a simple case shows that this inhomogeneity introduces fundamental changes in the physics of the particle motion. Thus, the periodic Larmor motion (gyration) is shifted in frequency and becomes elliptically polarized. Further, the non-periodic guiding-centre drift obtains additional components, part of which are accelerated such as to make the drift orbits intersect the equipotential surfaces of a static electric field. An attempt is finally made to classify the FLR effects, also with the purpose of identifying phenomena which have so far not been investigated. (author)

  15. Trapping and dark current in plasma-based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping of thermal electrons in a nonlinear plasma wave of arbitrary phase velocity is investigated. The threshold plasma wave amplitude for trapping plasma electrons is calculated, thereby determining the fraction trapped and the expected dark current in a plasma-based accelerator. It is shown that the presence of a laser field (e.g., trapping in the self-modulated regime of the laser wakefield accelerator) increases the trapping threshold. Implications for experimental and numerical laser-plasma studies are discussed

  16. Fiber optic based optical tomography sensor for monitoring plasma uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benck, Eric C.; Etemadi, Kasra

    2001-01-01

    A new type of fiber optic based optical tomography sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of plasma uniformity. Optical tomography inverts optical emission measurements into the actual plasma distribution without assuming radial symmetry. The new sensor is designed to operate with only two small windows and acquire the necessary data in less than a second. Optical tomography is being tested on an ICP-GEC RF plasma source. Variations in plasma uniformity are measured as a function of different plasma conditions

  17. Plasma-based localized defect for switchable coupling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, Stefan; Gabard, Benjamin; Sokoloff, Jerome; Bolioli, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper experimental measurements in order to validate the concept of switchable electromagnetic band gap filters based on plasma capillaries in the microwave regime. The plasma tube is embedded inside the structure to create a bistable (plasma on or off) punctual defect. We first investigate two kinds of discharge tubes: Ar-Hg and pure Ne, which we then use to experimentally achieve plasma-based reconfigurable applications, namely, a two-port coupler and a two-port demultiplexer.

  18. Plasma Antenna Based on Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2017-12-01

    A novel plasma antenna for space or ground based generation and injection of whistler and Alfven waves is presented. The new antenna concept is based on recently manufactured, small (10-60 nm radius), single domain, non-interacting magnetic grains with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, known as superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPN), dispersed in low viscosity, non-conducting media. SPNs can be described as ensembles of non-interacting magnetic moments μ with energy E=-μB when driven by a magnetic field B, similar to ordinary paramagnets, with exception that SPNs are composed by many thousands of magnetic atoms and as result have susceptibilities comparable to ferromagnets but with zero coercivity. The Langevin function accurately describes the dynamic behavior of the magnetization in the presence of low frequency AC fields since the characteristic mechanical (Brownian) and magnetic (Neel) relaxation times are shorter than 10msecs. For ground-based applications the grains are suspended in low viscosity carrier liquids, such as water or benzne and are known as ferrofluids. For space based applications, such as wave injection from CubeSats they can be dispersed as dust in vacuum containers. Agglomeration is avoided by coating the grains by coating their surface by an appropriate surfactant molecule. The ensemble of magnetic grains is driven to rotation at the desired VLF or ELF frequency by a pair of Helmholtz like coils surrounding the grain container. The near field electric field associated with rotating magnetic field then drives currents such as were observed in Rotating Magnetic Field experiments at the UCLA/LAPD chamber [Gigliotti et al., Phys. of Plasmas 16:092106; Karavaev et al., Phys. of Plasmas 17(1):012102,2010]. The magnetic moment of the AC coil is amplified by the susceptibility χ of the SPN ensemble that depending on the grain size and material can reach values of 104-105. Preliminary estimates indicate that less than 1 kg of SPN grains and power of

  19. Modeling thrombin generation: plasma composition based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Everse, Stephen J; Mann, Kenneth G; Orfeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin has multiple functions in blood coagulation and its regulation is central to maintaining the balance between hemorrhage and thrombosis. Empirical and computational methods that capture thrombin generation can provide advancements to current clinical screening of the hemostatic balance at the level of the individual. In any individual, procoagulant and anticoagulant factor levels together act to generate a unique coagulation phenotype (net balance) that is reflective of the sum of its developmental, environmental, genetic, nutritional and pharmacological influences. Defining such thrombin phenotypes may provide a means to track disease progression pre-crisis. In this review we briefly describe thrombin function, methods for assessing thrombin dynamics as a phenotypic marker, computationally derived thrombin phenotypes versus determined clinical phenotypes, the boundaries of normal range thrombin generation using plasma composition based approaches and the feasibility of these approaches for predicting risk.

  20. Plasma based charged-particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R; Mendonca, J T; Shukla, P K

    2004-01-01

    Studies of charged-particle acceleration processes remain one of the most important areas of research in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high energy plasma accelerators. We will focus on the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic energies by plasma waves that are created by intense laser and particle beams. The generation of relativistic plasma waves by intense lasers or electron beams in plasmas is important in the quest for producing ultra-high acceleration gradients for accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high brightness lasers and electron positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator mechanism, which uses conventional long pulse (∼100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I ∼ 10 14 -10 16 W cm -2 ), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), which uses the new breed of compact high brightness lasers ( 10 18 W cm -2 , the self-modulated LWFA concept, which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering, and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomena such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm -1 have been generated with particles being accelerated to 200 MeV over a distance of millimetre. Plasma wakefields driven by positron beams at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center facility have accelerated the tail of the positron beam. In the near future

  1. Plasma production in carbon-based materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giuffreda, E.; Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Krása, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 406, Sep (2017), s. 225-228 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-ablation * pulsed-laser * target current Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  2. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Cianchi, A.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC-LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 10 16 –10 17  cm −3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  3. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  4. Radiative damping in plasma-based accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kostyukov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrons accelerated in a plasma-based accelerator undergo betatron oscillations and emit synchrotron radiation. The energy loss to synchrotron radiation may seriously affect electron acceleration. The electron dynamics under combined influence of the constant accelerating force and the classical radiation reaction force is studied. It is shown that electron acceleration cannot be limited by radiation reaction. If initially the accelerating force was stronger than the radiation reaction force, then the electron acceleration is unlimited. Otherwise the electron is decelerated by radiative damping up to a certain instant of time and then accelerated without limits. It is shown that regardless of the initial conditions the infinite-time asymptotic behavior of an electron is governed by a self-similar solution providing that the radiative damping becomes exactly equal to 2/3 of the accelerating force. The relative energy spread induced by the radiative damping decreases with time in the infinite-time limit. The multistage schemes operating in the asymptotic acceleration regime when electron dynamics is determined by the radiation reaction are discussed.

  5. Ion accelerator based on plasma vircator

    CERN Document Server

    Onishchenko, I N

    2001-01-01

    The conception of a collective ion accelerator is proposed to be developed in the frameworks of STCU project 1569 (NSC KIPT, Ukraine) in coordination with the ISTC project 1629 (VNIEF, Russia). The main processes of acceleration are supposed to be consisted of two stages.First one is the plasma assistance virtual cathode (VC) in which plasma ions are accelerated in a potential well of VC. Along with ion acceleration the relaxation oscillations, caused by diminishing the potential well due to ion compensation, arise that provides the low-frequency (inverse ion transit time) temporal modulation of an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) current. At the second stage temporally modulated IREB is injected into the spatially periodic magnetic field. The further ion acceleration is realized by the slow space charge wave that arises in IREB due to its simultaneous temporal and spatial modulation.

  6. Summary report: working group 2 on 'Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beat wave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module

  7. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F; Anania, M P; Brentegani, E; Biagioni, A; Chiadroni, E; Ferrario, M; Pompili, R; Romeo, S; Cianchi, A; Zigler, A

    2017-01-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented. (paper)

  8. Gas-filled capillaries for plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Brentegani, E.; Biagioni, A.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Zigler, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma Wakefield Accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves excited by either a laser or a particle driver beam. The amplitude of the waves, as well as their spatial dimensions and the consequent accelerating gradient depend strongly on the background electron density along the path of the accelerated particles. The process needs stable and reliable plasma sources, whose density profile must be controlled and properly engineered to ensure the appropriate accelerating mechanism. Plasma confinement inside gas filled capillaries have been studied in the past since this technique allows to control the evolution of the plasma, ensuring a stable and repeatable plasma density distribution during the interaction with the drivers. Moreover, in a gas filled capillary plasma can be pre-ionized by a current discharge to avoid ionization losses. Different capillary geometries have been studied to allow the proper temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma along the acceleration length. Results of this analysis obtained by varying the length and the number of gas inlets will be presented.

  9. Tokamak plasma shape identification based on the boundary integral equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Kimura, Toyoaki

    1992-05-01

    A necessary condition for tokamak plasma shape identification is discussed and a new identification method is proposed in this article. This method is based on the boundary integral equations governing a vacuum region around a plasma with only the measurement of either magnetic fluxes or magnetic flux intensities. It can identify various plasmas with low to high ellipticities with the precision determined by the number of the magnetic sensors. This method is applicable to real-time control and visualization using a 'table-look-up' procedure. (author)

  10. Physics and application of plasmas based on pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Ozaki, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'Physics and Application of Plasmas Based on Pulsed Power Technology' held on December 21-22, 2010 at National Institute of Fusion Science are collected. The papers in this proceeding reflect the current status and progress in the experimental and theoretical researches on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  11. Design of a tritium decontamination workstation based on plasma cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniazzi, A.B.; Shmayda, W.T.; Fishbien, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    A design for a tritium decontamination workstation based on plasma cleaning is presented. The activity of tritiated surfaces are significantly reduced through plasma-surface interactions within the workstation. Such a workstation in a tritium environment can routinely be used to decontaminate tritiated tools and components. The main advantage of such a station is the lack of low level tritiated liquid waste. Gaseous tritiated species are the waste products with can with present technology be separated and contained

  12. Plasma based Ar+ beam assisted poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladkova, T.G.; Keranov, I.L.; Dineff, P.D.; Youroukov, S.Y.; Avramova, I.A.; Krasteva, N.; Altankov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma based Ar + beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow. XPS analysis was performed to study the changes in the surface chemical composition of the modified samples and the corresponding changes in the surface energy were monitored by contact angle measurements. We found that plasma based Ar + beam transforms the initially hydrophobic PDMS surface into a hydrophilic one mainly due to a raising of the polar component of the surface tension, this effect being most probably due to an enrichment of the modified surface layer with permanent dipoles of a [SiO x ]-based network and elimination of the original methyl groups. The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar + beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or bare surfaces. The cell response seems to be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar + beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting

  13. Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2010-01-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity ( 14 Wcm -2 ) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  14. Visualization of plasma collision phenomenon by particle based rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takagishi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Nakata, Susumu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we visualize plasma collision phenomenon based on XYT-space (space and time) volume data for supporting research in plasma physics. We create 3D volume data in the XYT-space by piling up a time series of XY-plane photo images taken in experiment. As a result, we can visualize as one still image all the time behavior of the plasma plume. Besides, we adopt 'fused' visualization based on particle based rendering technique. Using that technique, we can easily fuse volume rendering different materials, and compare physics of different elements in flexible ways. In addition, we propose the method to generate pseudo-3D images from pictures shoot by ICCD of two perspectives on the upper and side. (author)

  15. Preliminary Calculation for Plasma Chamber Design of Pulsed Electron Source Based on Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdi Usada

    2009-01-01

    This paper described the characteristics of pulsed electron sources with anode-cathode distance of 5 cm, electrode diameter of 10 cm, driven by capacitor energy of 25 J. The preliminary results showed that if the system is operated with diode resistance is 1.6 Ω, plasma resistance is 0.14 Ω, and β is 0.94, the achieved of plasma voltage is 640 V, its current is 4.395 kA with its pulse width of 0.8 μsecond. According to breakdown voltage based on Paschen empirical formula, with this achieved voltage, this system could be operated for operation pressure of 1 torr. (author)

  16. High-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration and laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Blaclard, Guillaume; Godfrey, Brendan; Kirchen, Manuel; Lee, Patrick; Lehe, Remi; Lobet, Mathieu; Vincenti, Henri

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale numerical simulations are essential to the design of plasma-based accelerators and laser-plasma interations for ultra-high intensity (UHI) physics. The electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations, as it is based on first principles, and captures all kinetic effects, and also scale favorably to many cores on supercomputers. The standard PIC algorithm relies on second-order finite-difference discretization of the Maxwell and Newton-Lorentz equations. We present here novel formulations, based on very high-order pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers, which enable near-total elimination of the numerical Cherenkov instability and increased accuracy over the standard PIC method for standard laboratory frame and Lorentz boosted frame simulations. We also present the latest implementations in the PIC modules Warp-PICSAR and FBPIC on the Intel Xeon Phi and GPU architectures. Examples of applications will be given on the simulation of laser-plasma accelerators and high-harmonic generation with plasma mirrors. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the European Commission through the Marie Slowdoska-Curie fellowship PICSSAR Grant Number 624543. Used resources of NERSC.

  17. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  18. The Plasma-Based Instruction in Ethiopia: Utopia or Dystopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the utopian and dystopian viewpoints held on the plasma-based instruction in Ethiopian by looking into the existing literature works and by analyzing attitudes of implementing bodies and implementers towards the program. The article identified that though implementing bodies were enthusiastic in developing and expanding the…

  19. Research on the Plasma Anemometer Based on AC Glow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new plasma anemometer based on AC glow discharge is designed in this article. Firstly, theoretical analysis of plasma anemometer working principle is introduced to prove the feasibility of the experimental measurement method. Then the experiments are carried out to study the effects of different parameters on the static discharge characteristics of the plasma anemometer system, by which the system optimization methods are obtained. Finally, several groups of appropriate parameters are selected to build the plasma anemometer system based on resistance capacitance coupling negative feedback AC glow discharge, and different airflow speeds are applied to obtain the achievable velocity measurement range. The results show that there is a linear relationship between airflow velocity and discharge current in an allowable error range, which can be applied for airflow velocity measurement. Negative feedback coupling module, which is composed of the coupling resistance and the coupling capacitance, has good effects on improving the system stability. The measurement range of the airflow velocity is significantly increased when the electrode gap is 3 mm, coupling resistance is 470 Ω, and coupling capacitance is 220 pF.

  20. Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2012-12-25

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

  1. Fluid model of inductively coupled plasma etcher based on COMSOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jia; Ji Linhong; Zhu Yu; Shi Yixiang

    2010-01-01

    Fluid dynamic models are generally appropriate for the investigation of inductively coupled plasmas. A commercial ICP etcher filled with argon plasma is simulated in this study. The simulation is based on a multiphysical software, COMSOL(TM), which is a partial differential equation solver. Just as with other plasma fluid models, there are drift-diffusion approximations for ions, the quasi-neutrality assumption for electrons movements, reduced Maxwell equations for electromagnetic fields, electron energy equations for electron temperatures and the Navier-Stokes equation for neutral background gas. The two-dimensional distribution of plasma parameters are shown at 200 W of power and 1.33 Pa (10 mTorr) of pressure. Then the profile comparison of the electron number density and temperature with respect to power is illustrated. Finally we believe that there might be some disagreement between the predicted values and the real ones, and the reasons for this difference would be the Maxwellian eedf assumption and the lack of the cross sections of collisions and the reaction rates. (semiconductor physics)

  2. Plasma density calculation based on the HCN waveform data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liaoyuan; Pan Li; Luo Cuiwen; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhongchao

    2004-01-01

    A method to improve the plasma density calculation is introduced using the base voltage and the phase zero points obtained from the HCN interference waveform data. The method includes making the signal quality higher by putting the signal control device and the analog-to-digit converters in the same location and charging them by the same power, and excluding the noise's effect according to the possible changing rate of the signal's phase, and to make the base voltage more accurate by dynamical data processing. (authors)

  3. Deoxysphingoid bases as plasma markers in Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertea Mariana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingoid bases are formed from the precursors L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA-a reaction which is catalyzed by the serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT. SPT metabolizes, besides palmitoyl-CoA also other acyl-CoAs but shows also variability towards the use of other amino acid substrates. The enzyme is also able to metabolize alanine, which results in the formation of an atypical deoxy-sphingoid base (DSB. This promiscuous activity is greatly increased in the case of the sensory neuropathy HSAN1, and pathologically elevated DSB levels have been identified as the cause of this disease. Clinically, HSAN1 shows a pronounced similarity to the diabetic sensory neuropathy (DSN, which is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Since serine and alanine metabolism is functionally linked to carbohydrate metabolism by their precursors 3-phosphoglycerate and pyruvate, we were interested to see whether the levels of certain sphingoid base metabolites are altered in patients with diabetes. Results In a case-control study we compared plasma sphingoid base levels between healthy and diabetic individuals. DSB levels were higher in the diabetic group whereas C16 and C18 sphingoid bases were not significantly different. Plasma serine, but not alanine levels were lower in the diabetic group. A subsequent lipoprotein fractionation showed that the DSBs are primarily present in the LDL and VLDL fraction. Conclusion Our results suggest that DSBs are a novel category of plasma biomarkers in diabetes which reflect functional impairments of carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, elevated DSB levels as we see them in diabetic patients might also contribute to the progression of the diabetic sensory neuropathy, the most frequent complication of diabetes.

  4. Experimental validation of a Lyapunov-based controller for the plasma safety factor and plasma pressure in the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavkov, B.; Witrant, E.; Prieur, C.; Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; the TCV-Team

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, model-based closed-loop algorithms are derived for distributed control of the inverse of the safety factor profile and the plasma pressure parameter β of the TCV tokamak. The simultaneous control of the two plasma quantities is performed by combining two different control methods. The control design of the plasma safety factor is based on an infinite-dimensional setting using Lyapunov analysis for partial differential equations, while the control of the plasma pressure parameter is designed using control techniques for single-input and single-output systems. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller is analyzed in simulations using the fast plasma transport simulator RAPTOR. The control is then implemented and tested in experiments in TCV L-mode discharges using the RAPTOR model predicted estimates for the q-profile. The distributed control in TCV is performed using one co-current and one counter-current electron cyclotron heating actuation.

  5. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  6. Plasma Sprayed Tungsten-based Coatings and their Usage in Edge Plasma Region of Tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Dufková, Edita; Piffl, Vojtěch; Peřina, Vratislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2006), s. 179-191 ISSN 0001-7043 Grant - others:Evropská unie EFDA Task TW-5-TVM-PSW (EU – Euratom) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : plasma sprayed coatings * fusion * plasma facing components * tungsten * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  7. Relativistic plasma dielectric tensor evaluation based on the exact plasma dispersion functions concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The fully relativistic plasma dielectric tensor for any wave and plasma parameter is estimated on the basis of the exact plasma dispersion functions concept. The inclusion of this concept allows one to write the tensor in a closed and compact form and to reduce the tensor evaluation to the calculation of those functions. The main analytical properties of these functions are studied and two methods are given for their evaluation. The comparison between the exact dielectric tensor with the weakly relativistic approximation, widely used presently in plasma waves calculations, is given as well as the range of plasma temperature, harmonic number, and propagation angle in which the weakly relativistic approximation is valid

  8. Advanced oxide powders processing based on cascade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonenko, O P; Smirnov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the potential advantages offered to thermal spraying and powder processing by the implementation of plasma torches with inter-electrode insert (IEI) or, in other words, cascade plasma torches (CPTs) is presented. The paper provides evidence that the modular designed single cathode CPT helps eliminate the following major disadvantages of conventional plasma torches: plasma parameters drifting, 1-5 kHz pulsing of plasma flow, as well as excessive erosion of electrodes. More stable plasma results in higher quality, homogeneity and reproducibility of plasma sprayed coatings and powders treated. In addition, CPT offers an extremely wide operating window, which allows better control of plasma parameters, particle dwell time and, consequently, particle temperature and velocity within a wide range by generating high enthalpy quasi-laminar plasmas, medium enthalpy transient plasmas, as well as relatively low enthalpy turbulent plasmas. Stable operation, flexibility with plasma gases as well as wide operating window of CPT should help significantly improve the existing plasma spraying processes and coatings, and also help develop new advanced technologies

  9. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  10. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  11. A method for studies on interactions between a gold-based drug and plasma proteins based on capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tam T T N; Østergaard, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection was developed for studies on the interaction of gold-containing drugs and plasma proteins using auranofin as example. A detection limit of 18 ng/mL of auranofin corresp...

  12. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  13. Destruction of α-synuclein based amyloid fibrils by a low temperature plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Erdinc; Munyanyi, Agatha; Greene, Lesley; Laroussi, Mounir

    2010-10-01

    Amyloid fibrils are ordered beta-sheet aggregates that are associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. At present, there is no cure for these progressive and debilitating diseases. Here we report initial studies that indicate that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma can break amyloid fibrils into smaller units in vitro. The plasma was generated by the "plasma pencil," a device capable of emitting a long, low temperature plasma plume/jet. This avenue of research may facilitate the development of a plasma-based medical treatment.

  14. Destruction of α-synuclein based amyloid fibrils by a low temperature plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Erdinc; Laroussi, Mounir; Munyanyi, Agatha; Greene, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are ordered beta-sheet aggregates that are associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. At present, there is no cure for these progressive and debilitating diseases. Here we report initial studies that indicate that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma can break amyloid fibrils into smaller units in vitro. The plasma was generated by the 'plasma pencil', a device capable of emitting a long, low temperature plasma plume/jet. This avenue of research may facilitate the development of a plasma-based medical treatment.

  15. Scratch induced failure of plasma sprayed alumina based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S; Bandyopadhyay, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scratch induced failure of alumina based coatings including nanostructured is reported. ► Ceramic is deposited on bond coat instead of steel, emulating a realistic situation. ► Lateral force data is supplemented with microscopy to observe coating failure. ► The failure mechanism during scratching has been identified. ► Critical load of failure has been calculated for each bond-top coat combination. -- Abstract: A set of plasma sprayed coatings were obtained from three alumina based top coat and two bond coat powders. Scratch test was undertaken on these coatings, under constant and linearly varying load. Test results include the lateral force data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Failure occurred by large area spallation of the top coat and in most cases tensile cracks appeared on the exposed bond coat. The lateral force showed an increasing trend with an increase in normal load up to a certain point and beyond this, it assumed a steady average value. The locations of coating spallation and occurrence of maximum lateral force did not coincide. A bond coat did not show a significant role in determining the scratch adhesion strength.

  16. Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Gallacher, J.G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Issac, R.; Jamison, S.P.; Jones, D.; Loos, de M.J.; Lyachev, A.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged

  17. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye

  18. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  19. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    plasma system[4]. The system named SoftPlasma™ is equipped with unique three-phase pulsed AC voltage. Low energy plasma polymerization has almost no thermal load for sensitive polymer materials[5]. Plasma polymerized coatings are highly cross-linked, pin-hole free and provide hydrophilic or hydrophobic...... properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy......, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy, Atomic force spectroscopy and Water contact-angle measurements. The microstructures ofPPMEA coatings with different thicknesses were also studied. For practical applications in mind, the coating stability was tested in different media (air, water, acetone, phosphate...

  20. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paparelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH. We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided.

  1. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  2. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  3. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Academichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  4. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  5. Self Passivating W-based Alloys as Plasma Facing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Koeppl, S.; Bolt, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten (W) is presently the main candidate material for the plasma-facing protection of future fusion power reactors due to the low sputter erosion under bombardment by energetic D, T and He ions. Thus a W-based protection material may provide a wall erosion lifetime of the order of five years which is a pre-requisite for economic fusion reactor operation. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO 3 compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. A loss-of-coolant event in a He-cooled reactor would lead to a temperature rise to 1100 deg. C after approx. 10 to 30 days due to the nuclear decay heat of the in-vessel components. In such a situation additional accidental intense air ingress into the reactor vessel would lead to the formation of WO 3 and subsequent evaporation of radioactive (WO 3 ) x -clusters. The use of self passivating W alloys either as bulk material or as thick coating on the steel wall may be a passively safe alternative for the plasma-facing protection. The use of this material would eliminate the above mentioned concern related to pure W. To enable the formation of a protective film in oxidizing atmosphere which seals the tungsten surface from further oxidation, different elements have been investigated as corrosion protection additives. Therefore binary and ternary tungsten alloys were synthesised using magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behaviour of films deposited on inert substrates was measured with a thermo-balance set up under synthetic air at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. Binary alloys of W-Si showed good self passivation properties by forming a SiO 2 film at the surface. The oxidation rate of a compound containing 11 wt.% Si was reduced by a factor of 10 2 compared to pure tungsten between 800 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Using ternary alloys the oxidation behaviour could be further improved. A compound of W

  6. Slit shaped microwave induced atmospheric pressure plasma based on a parallel plate transmission line resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. K.; Seo, Y. S.; Lee, H. Wk; Aman-ur-Rehman; Kim, G. C.; Lee, J. K.

    2011-11-01

    A new type of microwave-excited atmospheric pressure plasma source, based on the principle of parallel plate transmission line resonator, is developed for the treatment of large areas in biomedical applications such as skin treatment and wound healing. A stable plasma of 20 mm width is sustained by a small microwave power source operated at a frequency of 700 MHz and a gas flow rate of 0.9 slm. Plasma impedance and plasma density of this plasma source are estimated by fitting the calculated reflection coefficient to the measured one. The estimated plasma impedance shows a decreasing trend while estimated plasma density shows an increasing trend with the increase in the input power. Plasma uniformity is confirmed by temperature and optical emission distribution measurements. Plasma temperature is sustained at less than 40 °C and abundant amounts of reactive species, which are important agents for bacteria inactivation, are detected over the entire plasma region. Large area treatment ability of this newly developed device is verified through bacteria inactivation experiment using E. coli. Sterilization experiment shows a large bacterial killing mark of 25 mm for a plasma treatment time of 10 s.

  7. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  8. Plasma Instability Based Compact Coherent Terahertz Radiation Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakshi, P

    2004-01-01

    .... These are in good agreement with experiments carried out at TU Vienna. A sharp emission line was obtained in the most recent structure, suggesting that we are close to the onset of plasma instability...

  9. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  10. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  11. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  12. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath ("plasma shield") that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  13. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-01-01

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  14. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  15. Electron Beam Diagnostics in Plasmas Based on Electron Beam Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Blackwell, David; Walton, Scott; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Over the last few years, electron beam ionization has been shown to be a viable generator of high density plasmas with numerous applications in materials modification. To better understand these plasmas, we have fielded electron beam diagnostics to more clearly understand the propagation of the beam as it travels through the background gas and creates the plasma. These diagnostics vary greatly in sophistication, ranging from differentially pumped systems with energy selective elements to metal 'hockey pucks' covered with thin layers of insulation to electrically isolate the detector from the plasma but pass high energy beam electrons. Most importantly, absolute measurements of spatially resolved beam current densities are measured in a variety of pulsed and continuous beam sources. The energy distribution of the beam current(s) will be further discussed, through experiments incorporating various energy resolving elements such as simple grids and more sophisticated cylindrical lens geometries. The results are compared with other experiments of high energy electron beams through gases and appropriate disparities and caveats will be discussed. Finally, plasma parameters are correlated to the measured beam parameters for a more global picture of electron beam produced plasmas.

  16. Precedent Research on Compact Laser-plasma based Gantry for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, Park Seong; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae; Kim, Kyung Nam; Cha, Young Ho

    2012-03-01

    This is the precedent R and D to develop the technology of next generation compact particle cancer treatment system based on laser-plasma interaction and to deduce a big project. The subject of this project are the survey of application technology of laser-plasma based particle beam and the design of compact laser-plasma based gantry. The survey of characteristic of particle beam for cancer therapy and present status can be adapted to develop new system. The comparison between particle beams from the existing system and new one based on laser-plasma acceleration will be important to new design and design optimization. The project includes design of multi-dimensional laser transfer beamline, minimization of laser-plasma acceleration chamber, design of effective energy separation/selection system, and radiation safety and local shielding

  17. Laser-plasma based electron acceleration studies planned at CAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Plasma Division at the Centre for Advanced Technology is engaged in a variety of R and D activities on laser-plasma interaction with special emphasis on laser-matter interaction at ultra-high intensities. An important aspect of our future work is studies in laser-plasma based acceleration using an elaborate infrastructural set-up of ultra-fast laser and plasma diagnostic systems and recently acquired 10 TW, 50 fs Ti: Sapphire laser system. This paper presents outline of the planned studies in this field. (author)

  18. Enhanced resonant second harmonic generation in plasma based on density transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Niti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resonant second harmonic generation of a relativistic self-focusing laser in plasma with density ramp profile has been investigated. A high intense Gaussian laser beam generates resonant second harmonic beam in plasma with density ramp profile. The second harmonic undergoes periodic focusing in the plasma channel created by the fundamental wave. The normalized second harmonic amplitude varies periodically with distance and attains maximum value in the focal region. Enhancement in the second harmonic amplitude on account of relativistic self-focusing of laser based on plasma density transition is seen. Plasma density ramp plays an important role to make self-focusing stronger which leads to enhance the second harmonic generation in plasma.

  19. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-05

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification.

  20. Feature-Based Analysis of Plasma-Based Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geddes, Cameron G. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cormier-Michel, Estelle [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Plasma-based particle accelerators can produce and sustain thousands of times stronger acceleration fields than conventional particle accelerators, providing a potential solution to the problem of the growing size and cost of conventional particle accelerators. To facilitate scientific knowledge discovery from the ever growing collections of accelerator simulation data generated by accelerator physicists to investigate next-generation plasma-based particle accelerator designs, we describe a novel approach for automatic detection and classification of particle beams and beam substructures due to temporal differences in the acceleration process, here called acceleration features. The automatic feature detection in combination with a novel visualization tool for fast, intuitive, query-based exploration of acceleration features enables an effective top-down data exploration process, starting from a high-level, feature-based view down to the level of individual particles. We describe the application of our analysis in practice to analyze simulations of single pulse and dual and triple colliding pulse accelerator designs, and to study the formation and evolution of particle beams, to compare substructures of a beam and to investigate transverse particle loss.

  1. Towards Plasma-Based Water Purification: Challenges and Prospects for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    Freshwater scarcity derived from climate change, pollution, and over-development has led to serious consideration for water reuse. Advanced water treatment technologies will be required to process wastewater slated for reuse. One new and emerging technology that could potentially address the removal micropollutants in both drinking water as well as wastewater slated for reuse is plasma-based water purification. Plasma in contact with liquid water generates reactive species that attack and ultimately mineralize organic contaminants in solution. This interaction takes place in a boundary layer centered at the plasma-liquid interface. An understanding of the physical processes taking place at this interface, though poorly understood, is key to the optimization of plasma water purifiers. High electric field conditions, large density gradients, plasma-driven chemistries, and fluid dynamic effects prevail in this multiphase region. The region is also the source function for longer-lived reactive species that ultimately treat the water. Here, we review the need for advanced water treatment methods and in the process, make the case for plasma-based methods. Additionally, we survey the basic methods of interacting plasma with liquid water (including a discussion of breakdown processes in water), the current state of understanding of the physical processes taking place at the plasma-liquid interface, and the role that these processes play in water purification. The development of diagnostics usable in this multiphase environment along modeling efforts aimed at elucidating physical processes taking place at the interface are also detailed. Key experiments that demonstrate the capability of plasma-based water treatment are also reviewed. The technical challenges to the implementation of plasma-based water reactors are also discussed. NSF CBET 1336375 and DOE DE-SC0001939.

  2. Theoretical and numerical studies on the transport of transverse beam quality in plasma-based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrling, Timon Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This work examines effects, which impact the transverse quality of electron-beams in plasma-based accelerators, by means of theoretical and numerical methods. Plasma-based acceleration is a promising candidate for future particle accelerator technologies. In plasma-based acceleration, highly intense laser beams or high-current relativistic particle beams are focused into a plasma to excite plasma-waves with extreme transverse and longitudinal electric fields. The amplitude of these fields exceed with 10-100 GV/m the ones in today's radio-frequency accelerators by several orders of magnitude, hence, in principle allowing for accordingly shorter and cheaper accelerators based on plasma. Despite the tremendous progress in the recent decade, beams from plasma accelerators are not yet achieving the quality as demanded for pivotal applications of relativistic electron-beams, e.g. free-electron lasers (FELs).Studies within this work examine how the quality can be optimized in the production of the beams and preserved during the acceleration and transport to the interaction region. Such studies cannot be approached purely analytical but necessitate numerical methods, such as the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method, which can model kinetic, electrodynamic and relativistic plasma phenomena. However, this method is computationally too expensive for parameter-scans in three-dimensional geometries. Hence, a quasi-static PIC code was developed in connection with this work, which is significantly more effective than the full PIC method for a class of problems in plasma-based acceleration.The evolution of the emittance of beams which are injected into plasma modules was studied in this work by means of theoretical and the above numerical methods. It was shown that the beam parameters need to be matched accurately into the focusing plasma-channel in order to allow for beam-quality preservation. This suggested that new extraction and injection-techniques are required in staged plasma

  3. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C; Leduc, A; Barbeau, J; Saoudi, B; Yahia, L'H; Crescenzo, G De

    2006-01-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty

  4. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Leduc, A.; Barbeau, J.; Saoudi, B.; Yahia, L'H.; DeCrescenzo, G.

    2006-08-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty.

  5. Study of plasma-based stable and ultra-wideband electromagnetic wave absorption for stealth application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuyang, CHEN; Fangfang, SHEN; Yanming, LIU; Wei, AI; Xiaoping, LI

    2018-06-01

    A plasma-based stable, ultra-wideband electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber structure is studied in this paper for stealth applications. The stability is maintained by a multi-layer structure with several plasma layers and dielectric layers distributed alternately. The plasma in each plasma layer is designed to be uniform, whereas it has a discrete nonuniform distribution from the overall view of the structure. The nonuniform distribution of the plasma is the key to obtaining ultra-wideband wave absorption. A discrete Epstein distribution model is put forward to constrain the nonuniform electron density of the plasma layers, by which the wave absorption range is extended to the ultra-wideband. Then, the scattering matrix method (SMM) is employed to analyze the electromagnetic reflection and absorption of the absorber structure. In the simulation, the validation of the proposed structure and model in ultra-wideband EM wave absorption is first illustrated by comparing the nonuniform plasma model with the uniform case. Then, the influence of various parameters on the EM wave reflection of the plasma are simulated and analyzed in detail, verifying the EM wave absorption performance of the absorber. The proposed structure and model are expected to be superior in some realistic applications, such as supersonic aircraft.

  6. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  7. Development of barrier coatings for cellulosic-based materials by cold plasma methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Agnes Reka

    Cellulose-based materials are ideal candidates for future industries that need to be based on environmentally safe technologies and renewable resources. Wood represents an important raw material and its application as construction material is well established. Cellophane is one of the most important cellulosic material and it is widely used as packaging material in the food industry. Outdoor exposure of wood causes a combination of physical and chemical degradation processes due to the combined effects of sunlight, moisture, fungi, and bacteria. Cold-plasma-induced surface modifications are an attractive way for tailoring the characteristics of lignocellulosic substrates to prevent weathering degradation. Plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) was deposited onto wood surfaces to create water repellent characteristics. The presence of a crosslinked macromolecular structure was detected. The plasma coated samples exhibited very high water contact angle values indicating the existence of hydrophobic surfaces. Reflective and electromagnetic radiation-absorbent substances were incorporated with a high-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxane polymer in liquid phase and deposited as thin layers on wood surfaces. The macromolecular films, containing the dispersed materials, were then converted into a three dimensional solid state network by exposure to a oxygen-plasma. It was demonstrated that both UV-absorbent and reflectant components incorporated into the plasma-generated PDMSO matrix protected the wood from weathering degradation. Reduced oxidation and less degradation was observed after simulated weathering. High water contact angle values indicated a strong hydrophobic character of the oxygen plasma-treated PDMSO-coated samples. Plasma-enhanced surface modifications and coatings were employed to create water-vapor barrier layers on cellophane substrate surfaces. HMDSO was selected as a plasma gas and oxygen was used to ablate amorphous regions. Oxygen plasma

  8. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  9. Au nanoparticle-based sensor for apomorphine detection in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zanchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificially roughened gold surfaces with controlled nanostructure produced by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated as sensors for apomorphine detection aiming at clinical application. The use of such gold surfaces has been optimized using aqueous solutions of apomorphine in the concentration range between 3.3 × 10−4 M and 3.3 × 10−7 M. The experimental parameters have been investigated and the dynamic concentration range of the sensor has been assessed by the selection of two apomorphine surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS peaks. The sensor behavior used to detect apomorphine in unfiltered human blood plasma is presented and discussed.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  11. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  12. Chitosan Based Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Functionalized with Plasma and Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Vrabič Brodnjak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The great potential of regenerated cellulose fibers, which offer excellent possibilities as a matrix for the design of bioactive materials, was the lead for our research. We focused on the surface modification of fibers to improve the sorption properties of regenerated cellulose and biocomposite regenerated cellulose/chitosan fibers, which are on the market. The purpose of our investigation was also the modification of regenerated cellulose fibers with the functionalization by chitosan as a means of obtaining similar properties to biocomposite regenerated cellulose/chitosan fibers on the market. Argon gas plasma was used for fiber surface activation and chitosan adsorption. Ultrasound was also used as a treatment procedure for the surface activation of regenerated cellulose fibers and treatment with chitosan. Analyses have shown that ultrasonic energy or plasma change the accessibility of free functional groups, structure and reactivity, especially in regenerated cellulose fibers. Changes that occurred in the morphology and in the structure of fibers were also reflected in their physical and chemical properties. Consequently, moisture content, sorption properties and water retention improved.

  13. Simulation studies of gas and plasma-based charge strippers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Charge stripping of heavy ion beams at high intensities is a major challenge in current and future facilities with high intensity heavy ion beams. Conventional stripping techniques are limited in their applicability, e.g. solid carbon foils suffer from short lifetimes at high intensities and gas strippers usually achieve only low charge states. One possible alternative is the use of a plasma as a stripping medium. The presented work focuses on theoretical studies of the interaction of an heavy ion beam with a plasma and accompanying effects in possible charge strippers. The main interest in the presented studies is the final charge state distribution of the ion beam. Different models for solving the corresponding rate equations were developed, taking into account ionization, recombination, energy loss and straggling processes. Sophisticated models, e.g. for ionization cross sections, as well as limits and applicability of simplified models are discussed. Quantitative results are presented in form an overview of the charge state distributions of different - conventional and novel - charge stripping media. Furthermore comparisons are done with charge state distributions of available experimental data. Typical practically relevant target conditions are discussed as well as deterioration of beam quality.

  14. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  15. Particle-in-Cell Codes for plasma-based particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Basic principles of particle-in-cell (PIC ) codes with the main application for plasma-based acceleration are discussed. The ab initio full electromagnetic relativistic PIC codes provide the most reliable description of plasmas. Their properties are considered in detail. Representing the most fundamental model, the full PIC codes are computationally expensive. The plasma-based acceler- ation is a multi-scale problem with very disparate scales. The smallest scale is the laser or plasma wavelength (from one to hundred microns) and the largest scale is the acceleration distance (from a few centimeters to meters or even kilometers). The Lorentz-boost technique allows to reduce the scale disparity at the costs of complicating the simulations and causing unphysical numerical instabilities in the code. Another possibility is to use the quasi-static approxi- mation where the disparate scales are separated analytically.

  16. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many integral membrane proteins contain leucine-based motifs within their cytoplasmic domains that mediate internalization and intracellular sorting. Two types of leucine-based motifs have been identified. One type is dependent on phosphorylation, whereas the other type, which includes an acidic...... amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...

  17. RF plasma nitriding of severely deformed iron-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkel, H.; Glatzer, M.; Estrin, Y.; Valiev, R.Z.; Blawert, C.; Mordike, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation by cold high pressure torsion (HPT) on radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding of pure iron, as well as St2K50 and X5CrNi1810 steels was investigated. Nitriding was carried out for 3 h in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 -5 bar and temperatures of 350 and 400 deg. C. Nitrided specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and micro hardness measurements. It was found that HPT enhances the effect of nitriding leading almost to doubling of the thickness of the nitrided layer for pure iron and the high alloyed steel. The largest increase in hardness was observed when HPT was combined with RF plasma nitriding at 350 deg. C. In the case of pure iron, the X-ray diffraction spectra showed the formation of ε and γ' nitrides in the compound layer, with a preferential formation of γ' at the expense of the α-phase at the higher nitriding temperature. The corresponding surface hardness was up to 950 HV0.01. While the HPT-processed St2K50 exhibits both nitride phases after nitriding at 350 deg. C, only the γ'-phase was observed after nitriding at 400 deg. C. A surface hardness of up to 1050 HV0.01 was measured for this steel. The high alloyed steel X5CrNi1810 exhibited the highest increase in surface hardness when HPT was combined with nitriding at 350 deg. C. The surface hardness of this steel was greater than 1400 HV0.025. The XRD analyses indicate the formation of the expanded austenite (S-phase) in the surface layer as a result of RF plasma nitriding. Furthermore, after HPT X5CrNi1810 was transformed completely into deformation martensite which did not transform back to austenite under thermochemical treatment. However, in the case of nitriding of the HPT-processed high alloyed steel at 400 deg. C, the formation of the S-phase was less pronounced. In view of the observed XRD peak broadening, the formation of nitrides, such as e.g. CrN, cannot be ruled out

  18. Research on electric and thermal characteristics of plasma torch based on similarity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Changming; Tang Deli; Lan Wei

    2007-01-01

    Configuration and working principle of a DC non-transferred plasma torch have been introduced. Based on similarity theory, connections between the electric-thermal characteristics and operational parameter such as flowing gas rate and arc power have been investigated. Calculation and experiment are compared. The results indicate that the calculation results are in agreement with experimental ones. The formulas can be used for plasma torch improvement and optimization. (authors)

  19. Pilot test and optimization of plasma based deNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Michelsen, Poul

    . Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. An optimized oxidation scheme for NOx reduction processes with time dependent combustion, such as the biomass power plants, was developed. Ozone production by micro-hollow and capillary discharges at atmospheric pressures was investigated......The NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments at two industrial power plants running on natural gas (Ringsted) and biomass (Haslev). Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx of 1.56. Fourier transform infrared...... and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy were used for spatial measurements of stable molecules and radicals along the reduction reactor. Reactions of O3 injected in the flue gas in the reduction reactor were also modeled including the influence of the flue gas temperature, water droplets and SOx and HCl content...

  20. Enhancing Electrochemical Performance of Graphene Fiber-Based Supercapacitors by Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Nie, Wenqi; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fujun; Ding, Xin; Wang, Shiren; Qiu, Yiping

    2018-04-25

    Graphene fiber-based supercapacitors (GFSCs) hold high power density, fast charge-discharge rate, ultralong cycling life, exceptional mechanical/electrical properties, and safe operation conditions, making them very promising to power small wearable electronics. However, the electrochemical performance is still limited by the severe stacking of graphene sheets, hydrophobicity of graphene fibers, and complex preparation process. In this work, we develop a facile but robust strategy to easily enhance electrochemical properties of all-solid-state GFSCs by simple plasma treatment. We find that 1 min plasma treatment under an ambient condition results in 33.1% enhancement of areal specific capacitance (36.25 mF/cm 2 ) in comparison to the as-prepared GFSC. The energy density reaches 0.80 μW h/cm 2 in polyvinyl alcohol/H 2 SO 4 gel electrolyte and 18.12 μW h/cm 2 in poly(vinylidene difluoride)/ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte, which are 22 times of that of as-prepared ones. The plasma-treated GFSCs also exhibit ultrahigh rate capability (69.13% for 40 s plasma-treated ones) and superior cycle stability (96.14% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles for 1 min plasma-treated ones). This plasma strategy can be extended to mass-manufacture high-performance carbonaceous fiber-based supercapacitors, such as graphene and carbon nanotube-based ones.

  1. Performance evaluation of a permanent ring magnet based helicon plasma source for negative ion source research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Sudhir, Dass; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-10-01

    Helicon wave heated plasmas are much more efficient in terms of ionization per unit power consumed. A permanent magnet based compact helicon wave heated plasma source is developed in the Institute for Plasma Research, after carefully optimizing the geometry, the frequency of the RF power, and the magnetic field conditions. The HELicon Experiment for Negative ion-I source is the single driver helicon plasma source that is being studied for the development of a large sized, multi-driver negative hydrogen ion source. In this paper, the details about the single driver machine and the results from the characterization of the device are presented. A parametric study at different pressures and magnetic field values using a 13.56 MHz RF source has been carried out in argon plasma, as an initial step towards source characterization. A theoretical model is also presented for the particle and power balance in the plasma. The ambipolar diffusion process taking place in a magnetized helicon plasma is also discussed.

  2. Electromagnetic analysis of the plasma chamber of an ECR-based charge breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Torrisi, G.

    2016-02-01

    The optimization of the efficiency of an ECR-based charge breeder is a twofold task: efforts must be paid to maximize the capture of the injected 1+ ions by the confined plasma and to produce high charge states to allow post-acceleration at high energies. Both tasks must be faced by studying in detail the electrons heating dynamics, influenced by the microwave-to-plasma coupling mechanism. Numerical simulations are a powerful tools for obtaining quantitative information about the wave-to-plasma interaction process: this paper presents a numerical study of the microwaves propagation and absorption inside the plasma chamber of the PHOENIX charge breeder, which the selective production of exotic species project, under construction at Legnaro National Laboratories, will adopt as charge breeder. Calculations were carried out with a commercial 3D FEM solver: first, all the resonant frequencies were determined by considering a simplified plasma chamber; then, the realistic geometry was taken into account, including a cold plasma model of increasing complexity. The results gave important information about the power absorption and losses and will allow the improvement of the plasma model to be used in a refined step of calculation reproducing the breeding process itself.

  3. Electromagnetic analysis of the plasma chamber of an ECR-based charge breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Torrisi, G.

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of the efficiency of an ECR-based charge breeder is a twofold task: efforts must be paid to maximize the capture of the injected 1+ ions by the confined plasma and to produce high charge states to allow post-acceleration at high energies. Both tasks must be faced by studying in detail the electrons heating dynamics, influenced by the microwave-to-plasma coupling mechanism. Numerical simulations are a powerful tools for obtaining quantitative information about the wave-to-plasma interaction process: this paper presents a numerical study of the microwaves propagation and absorption inside the plasma chamber of the PHOENIX charge breeder, which the selective production of exotic species project, under construction at Legnaro National Laboratories, will adopt as charge breeder. Calculations were carried out with a commercial 3D FEM solver: first, all the resonant frequencies were determined by considering a simplified plasma chamber; then, the realistic geometry was taken into account, including a cold plasma model of increasing complexity. The results gave important information about the power absorption and losses and will allow the improvement of the plasma model to be used in a refined step of calculation reproducing the breeding process itself

  4. Processing considerations with plasma-based ion implantation of polymers: theoretical aspects, limitations, and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.; Pelletier, J.

    2003-01-01

    Processing of polymers using plasma-based ion implantation techniques (PBII) has general implications in terms of plasma specifications and pulse characteristics. In particular, the different aspects of the processing of polymer layers are discussed as functions of plasma density, pulse duration, and layer characteristics (thickness and permittivity). Clearly, severe limitations (true implantation energy, arcing) may appear for high-density plasmas as well as for long pulse durations, when processing polymer layers with thickness in the mm range. A review of the experimental results of ion implantation in polymeric materials via PBII processing is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the possibility of processing polymer layers with the PBII technique, but with severe limitations resulting from the process itself

  5. Two-stage plasma gun based on a gas discharge with a self-heating hollow emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Shandrikov, M V; Oks, E M

    2010-02-01

    The paper presents the results of tests of a new compact two-stage bulk gas plasma gun. The plasma gun is based on a nonself-sustained gas discharge with an electron emitter based on a discharge with a self-heating hollow cathode. The operating characteristics of the plasma gun are investigated. The discharge system makes it possible to produce uniform and stable gas plasma in the dc mode with a plasma density up to 3x10(9) cm(-3) at an operating gas pressure in the vacuum chamber of less than 2x10(-2) Pa. The device features high power efficiency, design simplicity, and compactness.

  6. Two-stage plasma gun based on a gas discharge with a self-heating hollow emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizir, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Oks, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of tests of a new compact two-stage bulk gas plasma gun. The plasma gun is based on a nonself-sustained gas discharge with an electron emitter based on a discharge with a self-heating hollow cathode. The operating characteristics of the plasma gun are investigated. The discharge system makes it possible to produce uniform and stable gas plasma in the dc mode with a plasma density up to 3x10 9 cm -3 at an operating gas pressure in the vacuum chamber of less than 2x10 -2 Pa. The device features high power efficiency, design simplicity, and compactness.

  7. A conceptual fusion reactor based on the high-plasma-density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Carlson, G.; Hoffman, M.; Werner, R.

    1977-01-01

    Conceptual DT and DD fusion reactors are discussed based on magnetic confinement with the high-plasma-density Z-pinch. The reactor concepts have no ''first wall'', the fusion neutrons and plasma energy being absorbed directly into a surrounding lithium vortex blanket. Efficient systems with low re-circulated power are projected, based on a flow-through pinch cycle for which overall Q values can approach 10. The conceptual reactors are characterized by simplicity, small minimum size (100MW(e)) and by the potential for minimal radioactivity hazards. (author)

  8. HLA class I sequence-based typing using DNA recovered from frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Laura A; Abdur Rahman, Manal; Ng, Carmond; Le, Anh Q; Milloy, M-J; Mo, Theresa; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2012-08-31

    We describe a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for intermediate-to-high-resolution sequence-based HLA class I typing using frozen plasma as a source of genomic DNA. The plasma samples investigated had a median age of 8.5 years. Total nucleic acids were isolated from matched frozen PBMC (~2.5 million) and plasma (500 μl) samples from a panel of 25 individuals using commercial silica-based kits. Extractions yielded median [IQR] nucleic acid concentrations of 85.7 [47.0-130.0]ng/μl and 2.2 [1.7-2.6]ng/μl from PBMC and plasma, respectively. Following extraction, ~1000 base pair regions spanning exons 2 and 3 of HLA-A, -B and -C were amplified independently via nested PCR using universal, locus-specific primers and sequenced directly. Chromatogram analysis was performed using commercial DNA sequence analysis software and allele interpretation was performed using a free web-based tool. HLA-A, -B and -C amplification rates were 100% and chromatograms were of uniformly high quality with clearly distinguishable mixed bases regardless of DNA source. Concordance between PBMC and plasma-derived HLA types was 100% at the allele and protein levels. At the nucleotide level, a single partially discordant base (resulting from a failure to call both peaks in a mixed base) was observed out of >46,975 bases sequenced (>99.9% concordance). This protocol has previously been used to perform HLA class I typing from a variety of genomic DNA sources including PBMC, whole blood, granulocyte pellets and serum, from specimens up to 30 years old. This method provides comparable specificity to conventional sequence-based approaches and could be applied in situations where cell samples are unavailable or DNA quantities are limiting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  10. Polarimetry data inversion in conditions of tokamak plasma: Model based tomography concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieg, B.; Chrzanowski, J.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Mazon, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model based plasma tomography is presented. • Minimization procedure for the error function is suggested to be performed using the gradient method. • model based procedure of data inversion in the case of joint polarimetry–interferometry data. - Abstract: Model based plasma tomography is studied which fits a hypothetical multi-parameter plasma model to polarimetry and interferometry experimental data. Fitting procedure implies minimization of the error function, defined as a sum of squared differences between theoretical and empirical values. Minimization procedure for the function is suggested to be performed using the gradient method. Contrary to traditional tomography, which deals exclusively with observational data, model-based tomography (MBT) operates also with reasonable model of inhomogeneous plasma distribution and verifies which profile of a given class better fits experimental data. Model based tomography (MBT) restricts itself by definite class of models for instance power series, Fourier expansion etc. The basic equations of MBT are presented which generalize the equations of model based procedure of polarimetric data inversion in the case of joint polarimetry–interferometry data.

  11. Polarimetry data inversion in conditions of tokamak plasma: Model based tomography concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieg, B. [Maritime University of Szczecin, Waly Chrobrego 1-2, 70-500 Szczecin (Poland); Chrzanowski, J., E-mail: j.chrzanowski@am.szczecin.pl [Maritime University of Szczecin, Waly Chrobrego 1-2, 70-500 Szczecin (Poland); Kravtsov, Yu. A. [Maritime University of Szczecin, Waly Chrobrego 1-2, 70-500 Szczecin (Poland); Space Research Institute, Profsoyuznaya St. 82/34 Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Mazon, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Model based plasma tomography is presented. • Minimization procedure for the error function is suggested to be performed using the gradient method. • model based procedure of data inversion in the case of joint polarimetry–interferometry data. - Abstract: Model based plasma tomography is studied which fits a hypothetical multi-parameter plasma model to polarimetry and interferometry experimental data. Fitting procedure implies minimization of the error function, defined as a sum of squared differences between theoretical and empirical values. Minimization procedure for the function is suggested to be performed using the gradient method. Contrary to traditional tomography, which deals exclusively with observational data, model-based tomography (MBT) operates also with reasonable model of inhomogeneous plasma distribution and verifies which profile of a given class better fits experimental data. Model based tomography (MBT) restricts itself by definite class of models for instance power series, Fourier expansion etc. The basic equations of MBT are presented which generalize the equations of model based procedure of polarimetric data inversion in the case of joint polarimetry–interferometry data.

  12. Emerging science and technology of antimatter plasmas and trap-based beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surko, C.M.; Greaves, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in the ability to accumulate and cool positrons and antiprotons is enabling new scientific and technological opportunities. The driver for this work is plasma physics research - developing new ways to create and manipulate antimatter plasmas. An overview is presented of recent results and near-term goals and challenges. In atomic physics, new experiments on the resonant capture of positrons by molecules provide the first direct evidence that positrons bind to 'ordinary' matter (i.e., atoms and molecules). The formation of low-energy antihydrogen was observed recently by injecting low-energy antiprotons into a cold positron plasma. This opens up a range of new scientific opportunities, including precision tests of fundamental symmetries such as invariance under charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal, and study of the chemistry of matter and antimatter. The first laboratory study of electron-positron plasmas has been conducted by passing an electron beam through a positron plasma. The next major step in these studies will be the simultaneous confinement of electron and positron plasmas. Although very challenging, such experiments would permit studies of the nonlinear behavior predicted for this unique and interesting plasma system. The use of trap-based positron beams to study transport in fusion plasmas and to characterize materials is reviewed. More challenging experiments are described, such as the creation of a Bose-condensed gas of positronium atoms. Finally, the future of positron trapping and beam formation is discussed, including the development of a novel multicell trap to increase by orders of magnitude the number of positrons trapped, portable antimatter traps, and cold antimatter beams (e.g., with energy spreads ≤1 meV) for precision studies of positron-matter interactions

  13. Negative ion based neutral beams for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral beam systems based on negative ions have been considered because of a high expected power efficiency. Methods for the production, acceleration and neutralization of negative ions will be reviewed and possibilities for an application in neutral beam lines explored

  14. Development of an Organosilicon-Based Superhydrophobic/Icephobic Surface Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash

    During the past few decades, plasma-based surface treatment methods have gained a lot of interest in various applications such as thin film deposition, surface etching, surface activation and/or cleaning, etc. Generally, in plasma-based surface treatment methods, high-energy plasma-generated species are utilized to modify the surface structure or the chemical composition of a substrate. Unique physical and chemical characteristics of the plasma along with the high controllability of the process makes plasma treatment approaches very attractive in several industries. Plasma-based treatment methods are currently being used or investigated for a number of practical applications, such as adhesion promotion in auto industry, wound management and cancer treatment in biomedical industry, and coating development in aerospace industry. In this study, a two-step procedure is proposed for the development of superhydrophobic/icephobic coatings based on atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of aluminum substrates using air and nitrogen plasma. The effects of plasma parameters on various surface properties are studied in order to identify the optimum conditions for maximum coating efficiency against icing and wetting. In the first step, the interactions between air or nitrogen plasma and the aluminum surface are studied. It is shown that by reducing jet-to-substrate distance, air plasma treatment, unlike nitrogen plasma treatment, is capable of creating micro-porous micro-roughened structures on the surface, some of which bear a significant resemblance to the features observed in laser ablation of metals with short and ultra-short laser pulses. The formation of such structures in plasma treatment is attributed to a transportation of energy from the jet to the surface over a very short period of time, in the range of picoseconds to microseconds. This energy transfer is shown to occur through a streamer discharge from the rotating arc source in the jet body to a close proximity of

  15. Deoxysphingoid bases as plasma markers in Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bertea, Mariana; R?tti, Markus F; Othman, Alaa; Marti-Jaun, Jaqueline; Hersberger, Martin; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hornemann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sphingoid bases are formed from the precursors L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA-a reaction which is catalyzed by the serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT metabolizes, besides palmitoyl-CoA also other acyl-CoAs but shows also variability towards the use of other amino acid substrates. The enzyme is also able to metabolize alanine, which results in the formation of an atypical deoxy-sphingoid base (DSB). This promiscuous activity is greatly increased in the case of the sensory n...

  16. Plasma treatment of paper for protein immobilization on paper-based chemiluminescence immunodevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Li, Huifang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yumei; Chu, Weiru

    2016-05-15

    A novel protein immobilization method based on plasma treatment of paper on the low-cost paper-based immunodevice was established in this work. By using a benchtop plasma cleaner, the paper microzone was treated by oxygen plasma treatment for 4 min and then the antibody can be directly immobilized on the paper surface. Aldehyde group was produced after the plasma treatment, which can be verified from the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. By linked to aldehyde group, the antibody can be immobilized on the paper surface without any other pretreatment. A paper-based immunodevice was introduced here through this antibody immobilization method. With sandwich chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay method, the paper-based immunodevice was successfully performed for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection in human serum with a linear range of 0.1-80.0 ng/mL. The detection limit was 0.03 ng/mL, which was 30 times lower than the clinical CEA level. Comparing to the other protein immobilization methods on paper-based device, this strategy was faster and simpler and had potential applications in point-of-care testing, public health and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production and applications of quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches in laser-plasma based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Ewald, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas are attractive media for the next generation of compact particle accelerators because they can sustain electric fields larger than those in conventional accelerators by three orders of magnitude. However, until now, plasma-based accelerators have produced relatively poor quality electron beams even though for most practical applications, high quality beams are required. In particular, beams from laser plasma-based accelerators tend to have a large divergence and very large energy spreads, meaning that different particles travel at different speeds. The combination of these two problems makes it difficult to utilize these beams. Here, we demonstrate the production of high quality and high energy electron beams from laser-plasma interaction: in a distance of 3 mm, a very collimated and quasi-monoenergetic electron beam is emitted with a 0.5 nanocoulomb charge at 170 ± 20 MeV. In this regime, we have observed very nonlinear phenomena, such as self-focusing and temporal self-shortenning down to 10 fs durations. Both phenomena increase the excitation of the wakefield. The laser pulse drives a highly nonlinear wakefield, able to trap and accelerate plasma background electrons to a single energy. We will review the different regimes of electron acceleration and we will show how enhanced performances can be reached with state-of-the-art ultrashort laser systems. Applications such as gamma radiography of such electron beams will also be discussed

  18. Transition between laser absorption dominated regimes in carbon-based plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hajisharifi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the energy absorption enhancement of a laser by adding a variety of light ion species to a primarily carbon-based plasma during the high-power laser interaction with the finite size targets. A developed Particle-In-Cell simulation code is used to study the reduction of laser reflectivity (stimulated backward scatterings in both Brillouin- and Raman-dominated regimes. The simulation is performed in various Carbon-light ion plasmas such as Carbon-Hydrogen, Carbon-Helium, Carbon-Deuterium, and Carbon-Tritium. The results show that, in the optimized condition, the inclusion of light Hydrogen ions into the Carbon-based plasma up to 50%-50% mixture enhances the laser absorption exceeding 20% in the Brillouin regime due to the suppression of laser reflectivity in contract to 4% in the Raman-dominated regime. Moreover, the absorption dominated regime switches from Raman to Brillouin regime by adding 50% of Hydrogen ions to a purely carbon target. The results of this investigation will be applicable to the laser-plasma experiments so long as the laser energy absorption in the Carbon plasma target, the most readily available material in laboratory, is concerned.

  19. A study of far-infrared Michelson interferometry based on fast plasma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Hewitt, G.L.; Robinson, L.C.; Tait, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    Fast far-infrared multiplex spectroscopy based on a plasma-scanned Michelson interferometer is studied. Our experiments show that the interferometer has sub-millisecond time response and high spectral resolving power. In addition to a description of the experimental performance of the interferometer, we develop and discuss two different methods of interferogram inversion. (author)

  20. Application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun in additive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galchenko, N. K.; Kolesnikova, K. A.; Semenov, G. V.; Rau, A. G.; Raskoshniy, S. Y.; Bezzubko, A. V.; Dampilon, B. V.; Sorokova, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses the application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun for three-dimensional surface modification of metals and alloys. The effect of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of gas thermal coatings has been investigated.

  1. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  2. A study of far-infrared Michelson interferometry based on fast plasma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Hewitt, R.G.L.; Robinson, L.C.; Tait, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Fast far infrared (FIR) muliplex spectroscopy based on a plasma-scanned Michelson interferometer is studied. Experiments show that the interferometer has sub-millisecond time response and high spectral resolving power. In addition to the description of the experimental performance of the interferometer, two different methods of interferogram inversion are developed and discussed. (author)

  3. Long-Time Plasma Membrane Imaging Based on a Two-Step Synergistic Cell Surface Modification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao-Ran; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Zhan; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-03-16

    Long-time stable plasma membrane imaging is difficult due to the fast cellular internalization of fluorescent dyes and the quick detachment of the dyes from the membrane. In this study, we developed a two-step synergistic cell surface modification and labeling strategy to realize long-time plasma membrane imaging. Initially, a multisite plasma membrane anchoring reagent, glycol chitosan-10% PEG2000 cholesterol-10% biotin (abbreviated as "GC-Chol-Biotin"), was incubated with cells to modify the plasma membranes with biotin groups with the assistance of the membrane anchoring ability of cholesterol moieties. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated avidin was then introduced to achieve the fluorescence-labeled plasma membranes based on the supramolecular recognition between biotin and avidin. This strategy achieved stable plasma membrane imaging for up to 8 h without substantial internalization of the dyes, and avoided the quick fluorescence loss caused by the detachment of dyes from plasma membranes. We have also demonstrated that the imaging performance of our staining strategy far surpassed that of current commercial plasma membrane imaging reagents such as DiD and CellMask. Furthermore, the photodynamic damage of plasma membranes caused by a photosensitizer, Chlorin e6 (Ce6), was tracked in real time for 5 h during continuous laser irradiation. Plasma membrane behaviors including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and plasma membrane vesiculation could be dynamically recorded. Therefore, the imaging strategy developed in this work may provide a novel platform to investigate plasma membrane behaviors over a relatively long time period.

  4. History of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-based immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Charlotte; Waentig, Larissa; Panne, Ulrich; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of biomolecules requires highly sensitive and selective detection methods capable of tolerating a complex, biological matrix. First applications of biomolecule detection by ICP-MS relied on the use of heteroelements as a label for quantification. However, the combination of immunoassays and ICP-MS facilitates multiparametric analyses through elemental tagging, and provides a powerful alternative to common bioanalytical methods. This approach extends the detection of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the investigated biological system. The results might lead to the detection of diseases at an early stage, or guide treatment plans. Immunoassays are well accepted and established for diagnostic purposes, albeit ICP-MS is scarcely applied for the detection of immune-based assays. However, the screening of biomarkers demands high throughput and multiplex/multiparametric techniques, considering the variety of analytes to be queried. Finally, quantitative information on the expression level of biomarkers is highly desirable to identify abnormalities in a given organism. Thus, it is the aim of this review to introduce the fundamentals, and to discuss the enormous strength of ICP-MS for the detection of different immunoassays on the basis of selected applications, with a special focus on LA‐ICP‐MS. - Highlights: ► We discuss the fundamentals of elemental tagging for ICP‐MS applications. ► We propose a definition for the expressions “label” and “tag”. ► We highlight LA‐ICP‐MS‐based heteroelement detection. ► We give an historic overview on ICP-MS and LA‐ICP‐MS-based immunoassays. ► In a personal outlook, we discuss future improvements realistically attainable.

  5. Parallel application of plasma equilibrium fitting based on inhomogeneous platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Zhang Jinhua; Chen Liaoyuan; Li Yongge; Pan Wei; Pan Li

    2008-01-01

    An online analysis and online display platform EFIT, which is based on the equilibrium-fitting mode, is inducted in this paper. This application can realize large data transportation between inhomogeneous platforms by designing a communication mechanism using sockets. It spends approximately one minute to complete the equilibrium fitting reconstruction by using a finite state machine to describe the management node and several node computers of cluster system to fulfill the parallel computation, this satisfies the online display during the discharge interval. An effective communication model between inhomogeneous platforms is provided, which could transport the computing results from Linux platform to Windows platform for online analysis and display. (authors)

  6. Progress and improvement of KSTAR plasma control using model-based control simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Sang-hee, E-mail: hahn76@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Welander, A.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Yoon, S.W.; Bak, J.G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eidietis, N.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Han, H.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jeon, Y.M. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Johnson, R.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, H.S.; Kim, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kolemen, E.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Shin, G.W. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Woo, M.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Superconducting tokamaks like KSTAR, EAST and ITER need elaborate magnetic controls mainly due to either the demanding experiment schedule or tighter hardware limitations caused by the superconducting coils. In order to reduce the operation runtime requirements, two types of plasma simulators for the KSTAR plasma control system (PCS) have been developed for improving axisymmetric magnetic controls. The first one is an open-loop type, which can reproduce the control done in an old shot by loading the corresponding diagnostics data and PCS setup. The other one, a closed-loop simulator based on a linear nonrigid plasma model, is designed to simulate dynamic responses of the plasma equilibrium and plasma current (I{sub p}) due to changes of the axisymmetric poloidal field (PF) coil currents, poloidal beta, and internal inductance. The closed-loop simulator is the one that actually can test and enable alteration of the feedback control setup for the next shot. The simulators have been used routinely in 2012 plasma campaign, and the experimental performances of the axisymmetric shape control algorithm are enhanced. Quality of the real-time EFIT has been enhanced by utilizations of the open-loop type. Using the closed-loop type, the decoupling scheme of the plasma current control and axisymmetric shape controls are verified through both the simulations and experiments. By combining with the relay feedback tuning algorithm, the improved controls helped to maintain the shape suitable for longer H-mode (10–16 s) with the number of required commissioning shots largely reduced.

  7. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  8. Induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    We describe an induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifier that is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is designed to produce up to 2 MW of average power at a frequency of 250 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment. In addition, we shall describe a FEL amplifier design for plasma heating of advanced tokamak fusion devices. This system is designed to produce average power levels of about 10 MW at frequencies ranging form 280 to 560 GHz. 7 refs., 1 tab

  9. Plasma-based creation of short light pulses: analysis and simulation of amplification and focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riconda, C.; Weber, Stefan A.; Lancia, L.; Marqués, J.-R.; Mourou, G.; Fuchs, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2015), s. 014002 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma-based amplification * PIC simulations * parametric instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015

  10. Towards the petascale in electromagnetic modeling of plasma-based accelerators for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhwiler, D L; Antonsen, T; Cary, J R; Cooley, J; Decyk, V K; Esarey, E; Geddes, C G R; Huang, C; Hakim, A; Katsouleas, T; Messmer, P; Mori, W B; Tsung, F S; Vieira, J; Zhou, M

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based lepton acceleration concepts are a key element of the long-term R and D portfolio for the U.S. Office of High Energy Physics. There are many such concepts, but we consider only the laser (LWFA) and plasma (PWFA) wakefield accelerators. We present a summary of electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for recent LWFA and PWFA experiments. These simulations, including both time explicit algorithms and reduced models, have effectively used terascale computing resources to support and guide experiments in this rapidly developing field. We briefly discuss the challenges and opportunities posed by the near-term availability of petascale computing hardware

  11. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun [Monroeville, PA

    2012-04-24

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  12. Application of electrochemical plasma techniques in surface engineering of iron based structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coaca, E.; Rusu, O.; Mihalache, M.; Minca, M.; Tacica, M.; Florea, S.; Oncioiu, G.; Andrei, V.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of austenitic stainless steels 304 L and 316 L was modified by various complex surface treatments: - plasma electrolytic carbo-nitriding by means of Plasma electrolytic saturation (PES); the saturation of cathodic surfaces with C, N was performed using suitable electrolytes (aqueous solutions of inorganic acids, appropriate salts containing the desired elements and certain organic compounds); -electrodeposition of Al from ChCl based Ionic Liquid. The coatings obtained in various experimental conditions have been investigated by means of electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion x-ray spectrometry, electrochemical techniques, and the properties of the thin films have been correlated with the microstructure and the composition of the surface layers which are strongly dependents of the different regimes of diffusion treatments. The preliminary results on Electrochemical Plasma Technology (EPT) treatments demonstrate that we can select the processing parameters for essential improvement of corrosion behaviour in some aggressive medium and high values of microhardness. (authors)

  13. Monitoring of Optical Emission from High Temperature Plasma Based on Chromatic Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrios, Tomtsis

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental approach is presented for processing the optical emission produced from electric arc plasma. The method is based on chromatic modulation techniques to provide a holistic measurement of the persistence of particle decays within the environment of high power circuit breakers. Chromaticity changes in a number of chromatic parameters are related to changes in physical electric arc plasma environment (e.g. particle concentration). The results are in the form of chromatic maps which show how the overall electric arc plasma and its environment behave and respond. Such maps show the totality of information which can be accessed about the arcing event and the level of monitoring discrimination which is achievable with the chromatic methodology in a simple and easy to understand manner. The suggested method provides easier data analysis and high levels of data compression.

  14. Nonthermal fusion reactor concept based on Hall-effect magnetohydrodynamics plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The failure of magnetic confinement controlled thermonuclear fusion research to achieve its goal is attributed to its foundation on the incomplete MHD plasma description instead of the more general HMHD (Hall-effect magnetohydrodynamics) theory. The latter allows for a certain magnetic plasma self-confinement under described stringent conditions. A reactor concept based on the formation, acceleration, and forced disintegration of magnetized whirl structures, plasmoids, is proposed. The four conventional MHD theory objections, i.e., absence of dynamo action, fast decay caused by resistivity, non-existence of magnetic self-confinement, and negligible non-thermal fusion yield, are shown not to apply. Support for the scheme from dense plasma focus research is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  15. The renewed HT-7 plasma control system based on real-time Linux cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.P., E-mail: qpyuan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xiao, B.J.; Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Walker, M.L.; Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D. [General Atomics, DIII-D National Fusion Facility, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardware and software structure of the new HT-7 plasma control system (HT-7 PCS) is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All original systems were integrated in the new HT-7 PCS. And the implementation details of the control algorithms are given in the paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different from EAST PCS, the AC operation mode is realized in HT-7 PCS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experiment results are discussed. Good control performance has been obtained. - Abstract: In order to improve the synchronization, flexibility and expansibility of the plasma control on HT-7, a new plasma control system (HT-7 PCS) was constructed. The HT-7 PCS was based on a real-time Linux cluster with a well-defined, robust and flexible software infrastructure which was adapted from DIII-D PCS. In this paper, the hardware structure and system customization details for HT-7 PCS are reported. The plasma position and current control, plasma density control and off-normal event detection, which were realized in separated systems originally, have been integrated and implemented in such HT-7 PCS. All these control algorithms have been successfully validated in the last several HT-7 experiment campaigns. Good control performance has been achieved and the experiment results are discussed in the paper.

  16. Real-time control of Tokamak plasmas: from control of physics to physics-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felici, F. A. A.

    2011-11-01

    shown effective stabilization of both 3/2 and 2/1 NTMs, and have localized the most effective deposition location. Studies of current-profile driven destabilization of tearing modes in TCV plasmas with significant amounts of ECCD show a great sensitivity to details of the current profile, but failed to identify a stationary region in the parameter space in which NTMs are always destabilized, suggesting that transient effects play a role. The simultaneous control of magnetic and kinetic plasma profiles is another key requirement for advanced tokamak operation. While control of kinetic plasma profiles around an operating point can be handled using standard linear control techniques, the strongly nonlinear physics of the coupled profiles complicates the problem. Since internal magnetic quantities are difficult to measure with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution – even after years of diagnostic development – routine control of tokamak plasma profiles remains a daunting and challenging task. In this thesis, physics understanding of plasma current and energy transport is embedded in the control solution. The new lightweight transport code RAPTOR (RApid Plasma Transport simulatOR) has been derived focusing on simplicity and speed of simulation for real-time control. The partial differential equation for current diffusion is solved in real-time during a plasma shot in the TCV control system using RAPTOR. For the first time, this concept is applied experimentally to the tokamak current density profile problem. The real-time simulation gives a physics-model based estimate of key plasma quantities, to be controlled or monitored in real-time by different control systems. Any available diagnostics can be included into the simulation providing additional constraints and removing measurement uncertainties. The real-time simulation approach holds the advantage that knowledge of the plasma profiles is no longer restricted to those points in space and time where they are

  17. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  18. Modeling Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 Conversion in Mixtures with N2, O2 and H2O: the Bigger Plasma Chemistry Picture

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weizong

    2018-01-18

    Due to the unique properties of plasma technology, its use in gas conversion applications is gaining significant interest around the globe. Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 conversion have become major research areas. Many investigations have already been performed regarding the single component gases, i.e. CO2 splitting and CH4 reforming, as well as for two component mixtures, i.e. dry reforming of methane (CO2/CH4), partial oxidation of methane (CH4/O2), artificial photosynthesis (CO2/H2O), CO2 hydrogenation (CO2/H2), and even first steps towards the influence of N2 impurities have been taken, i.e. CO2/N2 and CH4/N2. In this feature article we briefly discuss the advances made in literature for these different steps from a plasma chemistry modeling point of view. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive plasma chemistry set, combining the knowledge gathered in this field so far, and supported with extensive experimental data. This set can be used for chemical kinetics plasma modeling for all possible combinations of CO2, CH4, N2, O2 and H2O, to investigate the bigger picture of the underlying plasmachemical pathways for these mixtures in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma. This is extremely valuable for the optimization of existing plasma-based CO2 conversion and CH4 reforming processes, as well as for investigating the influence of N2, O2 and H2O on these processes, and even to support plasma-based multi-reforming processes.

  19. TiO2-Based Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Plasma Membrane and the Effects of Phosphatase Inhibitor Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Ingrell, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorylation of plasma membrane proteins frequently initiates signal transduction pathways or attenuate plasma membrane transport processes. Because of the low abundance and hydrophobic features of many plasma membrane proteins and the low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation, studies...... of the plasma membrane phosphoproteome are challenging. We present an optimized analytical strategy for plasma membrane phosphoproteomics that combines efficient plasma membrane protein preparation with TiO 2-based phosphopeptide enrichment and high-performance mass spectrometry for phosphopeptide sequencing....... We used sucrose centrifugation in combination with sodium carbonate extraction to achieve efficient and reproducible purification of low microgram levels of plasma membrane proteins from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs, 10 (7) cells), achieving more than 70% yield of membrane proteins...

  20. A Nanoflare-Based Cellular Automaton Model and the Observed Properties of the Coronal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fuentes, Marcelo; Klimchuk, James Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We use the cellular automaton model described in Lopez Fuentes and Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode/XRT and SDOAIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10 percent - 15 percent both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.

  1. A NANOFLARE-BASED CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL AND THE OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF THE CORONAL PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Marcelo López [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    We use the cellular automaton model described in López Fuentes and Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode /XRT and SDO /AIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10%–15% both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.

  2. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 x 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V x ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V x , the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90 degree. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 x 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches

  3. Method and platform standardization in MRM-based quantitative plasma proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Jackson, Angela M; Domanski, Dominik; Burkhart, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-12-16

    There exists a growing demand in the proteomics community to standardize experimental methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) platforms in order to enable the acquisition of more precise and accurate quantitative data. This necessity is heightened by the evolving trend of verifying and validating candidate disease biomarkers in complex biofluids, such as blood plasma, through targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approaches with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS). Considering the lack of performance standards for quantitative plasma proteomics, we previously developed two reference kits to evaluate the MRM with SIS peptide approach using undepleted and non-enriched human plasma. The first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). Here, these kits have been refined for practical use and then evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. For an identical panel of 22 plasma proteins, similar concentrations were determined, regardless of the kit, instrument platform, and laboratory of analysis. These results demonstrate the value of the kit and reinforce the utility of standardized methods and protocols. The proteomics community needs standardized experimental protocols and quality control methods in order to improve the reproducibility of MS-based quantitative data. This need is heightened by the evolving trend for MRM-based validation of proposed disease biomarkers in complex biofluids such as blood plasma. We have developed two kits to assist in the inter- and intra-laboratory quality control of MRM experiments: the first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). In this paper, we report the use of these kits in intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. This

  4. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  5. Comparative investigation of ELM control based on toroidal modelling of plasma response to RMP fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang

    2016-10-01

    The type-I edge localized mode (ELM), bursting at low frequency and with large amplitude, can channel a substantial amount of the plasma thermal energy into the surrounding plasma-facing components in tokamak devices operating at the high-confinement mode, potentially causing severe material damages. Learning effective ways of controlling this instability is thus an urgent issue in fusion research, in particular in view of the next generation large devices such as ITER and DEMO. Among other means, externally applied, three-dimensional resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have been experimentally demonstrated to be successful in mitigating or suppressing the type-I ELM, in multiple existing devices. In this work, we shall report results of a comparative study of ELM control using RMPs. Comparison is made between the modelled plasma response to the 3D external fields and the observed change of the ELM behaviour on multiple devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, DIII-D, JET, and KSTAR. We show that toroidal modelling of the plasma response, based on linear and quasi-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, provides essential insights that are useful in interpreting and guiding the ELM control experiments. In particular, linear toroidal modelling results, using the MARS-F code, reveal the crucial role of the edge localized peeling-tearing mode response during ELM mitigation/suppression on all these devices. Such response often leads to strong peaking of the plasma surface displacement near the region of weak equilibrium poloidal field (e.g. the X-point), and this provides an alternative practical criterion for ELM control, as opposed to the vacuum field based Chirikov criteria. Quasi-linear modelling using MARS-Q provides quantitative interpretation of the side effects due to the ELM control coils, on the plasma toroidal momentum and particle confinements. The particular role of the momentum and particle fluxes, associated with the neoclassical toroidal

  6. Study of carbon dioxide gas treatment based on equations of kinetics in plasma discharge reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Varaki, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) as the primary greenhouse gas, is the main pollutant that is warming earth. CO2 is widely emitted through the cars, planes, power plants and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas and oil). Thus, there is a need to develop some method to reduce CO2 emission. To this end, this study investigates the behavior of CO2 in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The behavior of different species and their reaction rates are studied using a zero-dimensional model based on equations of kinetics inside plasma reactor. The results show that the plasma reactor has an effective reduction on the CO2 density inside the reactor. As a result of reduction in the temporal variations of reaction rate, the speed of chemical reactions for CO2 decreases and very low concentration of CO2 molecules inside the plasma reactor is generated. The obtained results are compared with the existing experimental and simulation findings in the literature.

  7. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  8. Efficient adhesion-based plasma membrane isolation for cell surface N-glycan analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyung Jin; Seo, Hoon; Sung, Min-Sun; Cho, Yee Sook; Lee, Seung-Goo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-08-06

    Glycans, which decorate cell surfaces, play crucial roles in various physiological events involving cell surface recognition. Despite the importance of surface glycans, most analyses have been performed using total cells or whole membranes rather than plasma membranes due to difficulties related to isolation. In the present study, we employed an adhesion-based method for plasma membrane isolation to analyze N-glycans on cell surfaces. Cells were attached to polylysine-coated glass plates and then ruptured by hypotonic pressure. After washing to remove intracellular organelles, only a plasma membrane fraction remained attached to the plates, as confirmed by fluorescence imaging using organelle-specific probes. The plate was directly treated with trypsin to digest and detach the glycoproteins from the plasma membrane. From the resulting glycopeptides, N-glycans were released and analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and HPLC. When N-glycan profiles obtained by this method were compared to those by other methods, the amount of high-mannose type glycans mainly contaminated from the endoplasmic reticulum was dramatically reduced, which enabled the efficient detection of complex type glycans present on the cell surface. Moreover, this method was successfully used to analyze the increase of high-mannose glycans on the surface as induced by a mannosidase inhibitor treatment.

  9. Plasma sterols and depressive symptom severity in a population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basar Cenik

    Full Text Available Convergent evidence strongly suggests major depressive disorder is heterogeneous in its etiology and clinical characteristics. Depression biomarkers hold potential for identifying etiological subtypes, improving diagnostic accuracy, predicting treatment response, and personalization of treatment. Human plasma contains numerous sterols that have not been systematically studied. Changes in cholesterol concentrations have been implicated in suicide and depression, suggesting plasma sterols may be depression biomarkers. Here, we investigated associations between plasma levels of 34 sterols (measured by mass spectrometry and scores on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR16 scale in 3117 adult participants in the Dallas Heart Study, an ethnically diverse, population-based cohort. We built a random forest model using feature selection from a pool of 43 variables including demographics, general health indicators, and sterol concentrations. This model comprised 19 variables, 13 of which were sterol concentrations, and explained 15.5% of the variation in depressive symptoms. Desmosterol concentrations below the fifth percentile (1.9 ng/mL, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.9 were significantly associated with depressive symptoms of at least moderate severity (QIDS-SR16 score ≥10.5. This is the first study reporting a novel association between plasma concentrations cholesterol precursors and depressive symptom severity.

  10. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  11. Frontiers in pulse-power-based high energy density plasma physics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this volume of report were presented at the Symposium on Frontiers in Pulse-power-based High Energy Density Physics' held by National Institute for Fusion Science. The topics include the present status of high energy density plasma researches, extreme ultraviolet sources, intense radiation sources, high power ion beams, and R and D of related pulse power technologies. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qijun; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Dongbin; Ren, Shubin; Qu, Xuanhui

    2017-01-01

    Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decr...

  13. Label Free Detection of Biomolecules Using Charge-Plasma-Based Gate Underlap Dielectric Modulated Junctionless TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Girish; Raj, Balwinder

    2018-05-01

    Nanoscale devices are emerging as a platform for detecting biomolecules. Various issues were observed during the fabrication process such as random dopant fluctuation and thermal budget. To reduce these issues charge-plasma-based concept is introduced. This paper proposes the implementation of charge-plasma-based gate underlap dielectric modulated junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (DM-JLTFET) for the revelation of biomolecule immobilized in the open cavity gate channel region. In this p+ source and n+ drain regions are introduced by employing different work function over the intrinsic silicon. Also dual material gate architecture is implemented to reduce short channel effect without abandoning any other device characteristic. The sensitivity of biosensor is studied for both the neutral and charge-neutral biomolecules. The effect of device parameters such as channel thickness, cavity length and cavity thickness on drain current have been analyzed through simulations. This paper investigates the performance of charge-plasma-based gate underlap DM-JLTFET for biomolecule sensing applications while varying dielectric constant, charge density at different biasing conditions.

  14. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and risk of venous thromboembolism among cancer patients: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Both venous thromboembolism (VTE) and high plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are markers of occult cancer and aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. In this population-based cohort study, we assessed VTE risk among cancer patients with high plasma Cbl levels. MATERIALS...

  15. ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from

  16. Control of supersonic axisymmetric base flows using passive splitter plates and pulsed plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Todd Mitchell

    An experimental investigation evaluating the effects of flow control on the near-wake downstream of a blunt-based axisymmetric body in supersonic flow has been conducted. To better understand and control the physical phenomena that govern these massively separated high-speed flows, this research examined both passive and active flow-control methodologies designed to alter the stability characteristics and structure of the near-wake. The passive control investigation consisted of inserting splitter plates into the recirculation region. The active control technique utilized energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges placed around the base. The flow-control authority of both methodologies was evaluated with experimental diagnostics including particle image velocimetry, schlieren photography, surface flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and discrete surface pressure measurements. Using a blowdown-type wind tunnel reconstructed specifically for these studies, baseline axisymmetric experiments without control were conducted for a nominal approach Mach number of 2.5. In addition to traditional base pressure measurements, mean velocity and turbulence quantities were acquired using two-component, planar particle image velocimetry. As a result, substantial insight was gained regarding the time-averaged and instantaneous near-wake flow fields. This dataset will supplement the previous benchmark point-wise laser Doppler velocimetry data of Herrin and Dutton (1994) for comparison with new computational predictive techniques. Next, experiments were conducted to study the effects of passive triangular splitter plates placed in the recirculation region behind a blunt-based axisymmetric body. By dividing the near-wake into 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 cylindrical regions, the time-averaged base pressure distribution, time-series pressure fluctuations, and presumably the stability characteristics were altered. While the spatial base pressure distribution was

  17. DLTS Analysis and Interface Engineering of Solution Route Fabricated Zirconia Based MIS Devices Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have fabricated low-temperature sol-gel spin-coated and oxygen (O2) plasma treated ZrO2 thin film-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. To understand the impact of plasma treatment on the Si/ZrO2 interface, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were performed. It is reported that the interface state density ( D it) comes down to 7.1 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 from 4 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, after plasma treatment. The reduction in D it is around five times and can be attributed to the passivation of oxygen vacancies near the Si/ZrO2 interface, as they try to relocate near the interface. The energy level position ( E T) of interfacial traps is estimated to be 0.36 eV below the conduction band edge. The untreated ZrO2 film displayed poor leakage behavior due to the presence of several traps within the film and at the interface; O2 plasma treated films show improved leakage current density as they have been reduced from 5.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 1.98 × 10-9 A/cm2 for gate injection mode and 6.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 6.3 × 10-10 A/cm2 for substrate injection mode at 1 V. Hence, we suggest that plasma treatment might be useful in future device fabrication technology.

  18. MULTILAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA COATINGS ON SCREEN PROTECTION ELEMENTS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations pertaining to an influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen, fractional composition of initial powder and degree of cooling with compressed air on anti-meteoric coating characteristics. Optimum modes (arc current 600 A; spray distance of 110 mm; consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen – 50 l/min; fractional composition of zirconium dioxide powder <50 μm; compressed air consumption for cooling – 1 m3/min; p = 4 bar make it possible to obtain anti-meteoric coatings based on zirconium dioxide with material utilization rate of 62 %, total ceramic layer porosity of 6 %. After exposure of compression plasma flows on a coating in the nitrogen atmosphere a cubic modification of zirconium oxide is considered as the main phase being present in the coating. The lattice parameter of cubic zirconium oxide modification is equal to 0.5174 nm. Taking into consideration usage of nitrogen as plasma formation substance its interaction with zirconium coating atoms occurs and zirconium nitride (ZrN is formed with a cubic crystal lattice (lattice parameter 0.4580 nm. Melting of pre-surface layer takes place and a depth of the melted layer is about 8 μm according to the results of a scanning electron microscopy. Pre-surface layer being crystallized after exposure to compression plasma flows is characterized by a homogeneous distribution of ele-ments and absence of pores formed in the process of coating formation. The coating structure is represented by a set of lar- ge (5–7 μm and small (1–2 μm zirconium oxide particles sintered against each other. Melting of coating surface layer and speed crystallization occur after the impact of compression plasma flows on the formed coating. Cracking of the surface layer arises due to origination of internal mechanical stresses in the crystallized part. While using a scanning electron microscopy a

  19. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Shahbaba, Babak; Uchio, Edward; Feddersen, Søren; Moylan, Donald; Wojno, Kirk; Shore, Neal

    2018-03-01

    Distinguishing between low- and high-grade prostate cancers (PCa) is important, but biopsy may underestimate the actual grade of cancer. We have previously shown that urine/plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers can predict high grade PCa. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied, designated a Gleason Score (GS) based on biopsy, and assigned to prostatectomy prior to participation in the study. The primary outcome measure was the urine/plasma test accuracy in predicting high grade PCa on prostatectomy compared with biopsy findings. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients. The urine/plasma assay confirmed a previous validation and was highly accurate in predicting the presence of high-grade PCa (Gleason ≥3 + 4) with sensitivity between 88% and 95% as verified by prostatectomy findings. GS was upgraded after prostatectomy in 27% of patients and downgraded in 12% of patients. This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. GPU based 3D feature profile simulation of high-aspect ratio contact hole etch process under fluorocarbon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Poo-Reum; Lee, Se-Ah; Yook, Yeong-Geun; Choi, Kwang-Sung; Cho, Deog-Geun; Yu, Dong-Hun; Chang, Won-Seok; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Im, Yeon-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Although plasma etch profile simulation has been attracted much interest for developing reliable plasma etching, there still exist big gaps between current research status and predictable modeling due to the inherent complexity of plasma process. As an effort to address this issue, we present 3D feature profile simulation coupled with well-defined plasma-surface kinetic model for silicon dioxide etching process under fluorocarbon plasmas. To capture the realistic plasma surface reaction behaviors, a polymer layer based surface kinetic model was proposed to consider the simultaneous polymer deposition and oxide etching. Finally, the realistic plasma surface model was used for calculation of speed function for 3D topology simulation, which consists of multiple level set based moving algorithm, and ballistic transport module. In addition, the time consumable computations in the ballistic transport calculation were improved drastically by GPU based numerical computation, leading to the real time computation. Finally, we demonstrated that the surface kinetic model could be coupled successfully for 3D etch profile simulations in high-aspect ratio contact hole plasma etching.

  1. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  2. Physical Characteristics of AR 11024 Plasma Based on SPHINX and XRT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.; Engell, A. J.; Kuzin, S. V.

    We have studied the evolution of basic physical properties of plasma within the coronal part of the isolated, new cycle region (AR 11024) during its crossing over the solar disc in July 2009. Our analysis is based on the high temporal and spectral resolution measurements performed by the Polish X-ray spectrometer SphinX onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite. Hinode XRT images provide information on spatial extension of the emission within this active region. It is found that the average temperature of the plasma within the analysed region is the highest (˜6 MK) when the region is young and gradually declines to ˜2 MK when the emission measure is the highest. An average density during this first part of the evolution is estimated to be ˜2 x 10^9 cm^{-3}.

  3. Lyapunov-based distributed control of the safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Witrant, Emmanuel; Prieur, Christophe; Brémond, Sylvain; Nouailletas, Rémy; Artaud, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    A real-time model-based controller is developed for the tracking of the distributed safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma. Using relevant physical models and simplifying assumptions, theoretical stability and robustness guarantees were obtained using a Lyapunov function. This approach considers the couplings between the poloidal flux diffusion equation, the time-varying temperature profiles and an independent total plasma current control. The actuator chosen for the safety-factor profile tracking is the lower hybrid current drive, although the results presented can be easily extended to any non-inductive current source. The performance and robustness of the proposed control law is evaluated with a physics-oriented simulation code on Tore Supra experimental test cases. (paper)

  4. Brazing and machining of carbon based materials for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, M.; Guerreschi, U.; Rossi, M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon based materials in the recent years have often been considered and used as armour material in plasma facing components for several fusion devices, because of their low Z and good high temperature characteristics that are compatible with the operation of nuclear reactors. These materials are often connected (mechanically or by brazing) to metals, that allow the support and the cooling functions (heat sink materials). In the following the experience of Ansaldo Ricerche about the study and the manufacturing of plasma facing components and mockups is described with reference to the influence of the carbon materials in performing brazing junction with metals. It is interesting to observe how the different characteristics of the carbon materials influence the brazing process. ((orig.))

  5. Characteristics of Ni-based coating layer formed by laser and plasma cladding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guojian; Kutsuna, Muneharu; Liu Zhongjie; Zhang Hong

    2006-01-01

    The clad layers of Ni-based alloy were deposited on the SUS316L stainless plates by CO 2 laser and plasma cladding processes. The smooth clad bead was obtained by CO 2 laser cladding process. The phases of clad layer were investigated by an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The microstructures of clad layers belonged to a hypereutectic structure. Primary phases consist of boride CrB and carbide Cr 7 C 3 . The eutectic structure consists of Ni + CrB or Ni + Cr 7 C 3 . Compared with the plasma cladding, the fine microstructures, low dilutions, high Vickers hardness and excellent wear resistance were obtained by CO 2 laser cladding. All that show the laser cladding process has a higher efficiency and good cladding quality

  6. Stabilisation of a three-dimensional boundary layer by base-flow manipulation using plasma actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dörr, P C; Kloker, M J

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for controlling the crossflow-vortex-induced laminar breakdown in a three-dimensional swept-wing-type boundary-layer flow is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Similar to the classical application of suction at the wall the aim is to modify the quasi two-dimensional base flow and to weaken primary crossflow (CF) instability, mainly due to a reduction of the basic CF. Not only localised volumetric forcing by plasma actuators but also CF counter-blowing and spots with a moving wall are investigated to identify effective fundamental mechanisms. It is found that counter blowing always results in partial blockage of the flow and eventually increased CF velocity, whereas moving-wall spots can slightly reduce the CF and the amplitude of crossflow vortices. Using discrete volumetric forcing a significant attenuation even of finite-amplitude crossflow vortices and thus a distinct transition delay is achieved. (paper)

  7. Comment on “Beamstrahlung considerations in laser-plasma-accelerator-based linear colliders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lebedev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Schroeder, Esarey, Geddes, Benedetti, and Leemans [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 101301 (2010PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.101301 and Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 051301 (2012PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.051301] have proposed a set of parameters for a TeV-scale collider based on plasma wakefield accelerator principles. In particular, it is sugested that the luminosities greater than 10^{34}  cm^{-2} s^{-1} are attainable for an electron-positron collider. In this Comment we dispute this set of parameters on the basis of first principles. The interactions of accelerating beam with plasma impose fundamental limitations on beam properties and, thus, on attainable luminosity values.

  8. Plasma-spray synthesis and characterization of ti-based nitride and oxide nanogranules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipas, Georgios S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of nanosized Ti-based nanogranules via plasma spraying is reported. The synthesis route involved use of both nitrogen and oxygen gases with varying results. In the case of nitrogen, a mixture of titanium nitrides were produced, yielding both the Ti2N and the sub-stoichiometric TiN0.61 compounds. In the case of oxygen, both the stoichiometric rutile and TiO ceramic phases were indexed. Based on EDS analysis, even fractional oxygen concentrations caused tungsten impurities which originated from the cathode electrode. The method yielded particle mass median sizes of the order of 15nm and the smallest particles detected were 5nm. (author)

  9. Development of Laser Based Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion Research on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert Adam

    plasma diagnostics. Plasma diagnostics collect data from fusion reactors in a number of different ways. Among these are far infrared (FIR) laser based systems. By probing a fusion plasma with FIR lasers, many properties can be measured, such as density and density fluctuations. This dissertation discusses the theory and design of two laser based diagnostic instruments: 1) the Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer and Polarimeter (FIReTIP) systems, and 2) the High-ktheta Scattering System. Both of these systems have been designed and fabricated at UC Davis for use on the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U), located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). These systems will aid PPPL scientists in fusion research. The FIReTIP system uses 119 ?m methanol lasers to pass through the plasma core to measure a chord averaged plasma density through interferometry. It can also measure the toroidal magnetic field strength by the way of polarimetery. The High-ktheta Scattering System uses a 693 GHz formic acid laser to measure electron scale turbulence. Through collective Thomson scattering, as the probe beam passes through the plasma, collective electron motion will scatter power to a receiver with the angle determined by the turbulence wavenumber. This diagnostic will measure ktheta from 7 to 40 cm-1 with a 4-channel receiver array. The High-ktheta Scattering system was designed to facilitate research on electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, which are believed to be a major contributor to anomalous transport on NSTX-U. The design and testing of these plasma diagnostics are described in detail. There are a broad range of components detailed including: optically pumped gas FIR lasers, overmoded low loss waveguide, launching and receiving optical designs, quasi-optical mixers, electronics, and monitoring and control systems. Additionally, details are provided for laser maintenance, alignment techniques, and the fundamentals of nano-CNC-machining.

  10. Langmuir probe-based observables for plasma-turbulence code validation and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.

  11. Nitrogen plasma-treated multilayer graphene-based field effect transistor fabrication and electronic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Jhih; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Honda, Shin-ichi; Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Chemical doping with hetero-atoms is an effective method used to change the characteristics of materials. Nitrogen doping technology plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment was used in this work to dope nitrogen atoms to modulate multilayer graphene electrical properties. The measured I-V multilayer graphene-base field-effect transistor characteristics (GFETs) showed a V-shaped transfer curve with the hole and electron region separated from the measured current-voltage (I-V) minimum. GFETs fabricated with multilayer graphene from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibited p-type behavior because of oxygen adsorption. After using different nitrogen plasma treatment times, the minimum in I-V characteristic shifted into the negative gate voltage region with increased nitrogen concentration and the GFET channel became an n-type semiconductor. GFETs could be easily fabricated using this method with potential for various applications. The GFET transfer characteristics could be tuned precisely by adjusting the nitrogen plasma treatment time.

  12. Degradation of carbon-based materials under ablative conditions produced by a high enthalpy plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Petraconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A stationary experiment was performed to study the degradation of carbon-based materials by immersion in a plasma jet. In the experiment, graphite and C/C composite were chosen as the target materials, and the reactive plasma jet was generated by an air plasma torch. For macroscopic study of the material degradation, the sample’s mass losses were measured as function of the exposure time under various temperatures on the sample surface. A microscopic analysis was then carried out for the study of microscopic aspects of the erosion of material surface. These experiments showed that the mass loss per unit area is approximately proportional to the exposure time and strongly depends on the temperature of the material surface. The mass erosion rate of graphite was appreciably higher than the C/C composite. The ablation rate in the carbon matrix region in C/C composite was also noticeably higher than that in the fiber region. In addition, the latter varied according to the orientation of fibers relatively to the flow direction. These tests indicated an excellent ablation resistance of the C/C composite, thus being a reliable material for rocket nozzles and heat shielding elements of the protection systems of hypersonic apparatuses from aerodynamic heating.

  13. Penning plasma based simultaneous light emission source of visible and VUV lights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, G. L., E-mail: glvyas27@gmail.com [Manipal University Jaipur (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N. [CSIR-Central Electronics and Engineering Research Institute, Microwave Tubes Division (India); Manchanda, R. [Institute for Plasma Research (India); Halder, N. [Manipal University Jaipur (India)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, a laboratory-based penning plasma discharge source is reported which has been developed in two anode configurations and is able to produce visible and VUV lights simultaneously. The developed source has simultaneous diagnostics facility using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The two anode configurations, namely, double ring and rectangular configurations, have been studied and compared for optimum use of the geometry for efficient light emissions and recording. The plasma is produced using helium gas and admixture of three noble gases including helium, neon, and argon. The source is capable to produce eight spectral lines for pure helium in the VUV range from 20 to 60 nm and total 24 spectral lines covering the wavelength range 20–106 nm for the admixture of gases. The large range of VUV lines is generated from gaseous admixture rather from the sputtered materials. The recorded spectrum shows that the plasma light radiations in both visible and VUV range are larger in double ring configuration than that of the rectangular configurations at the same discharge operating conditions. To clearly understand the difference, the imaging of the discharge using ICCD camera and particle-in-cell simulation using VORPAL have also been carried out. The effect of ion diffusion, metastable collision with the anode wall and the nonlinear effects are correlated to explain the results.

  14. The Influence of Hot-Rolled Temperature on Plasma Nitriding Behavior of Iron-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hossary, F. M.; Khalil, S. M.; Lotfy, Kh.; Kassem, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    Experiments were performed with an aim of studying the effect of hot-rolled temperature (600 and 900°C) on radio frequency (rf) plasma nitriding of Fe93Ni4Zr3 alloy. Nitriding was carried out for 10 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at a base pressure of 10-2 mbarr. Different continuous plasma processing powers of 300-550 W in steps 50 W or less were applied. Nitrided hot-rolled specimens were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness measurements. The results reveal that the surface of hot-rolled rf plasma nitrided specimens at 600°C is characterized with a fine microstructure as a result of the high nitrogen solubility and diffusivity. Moreover, the hot-rolled treated samples at 600°C exhibit higher microhardness value than the associated values of hot-rolled treated samples at 900°C. The enhancement of microhardness is due to precipitation and predominance of new phases ( γ and ɛ phases). Mainly, this conclusion has been attributed to the high defect densities and small grain sizes of the samples hot-rolled at 600°C. Generally, the refinement of grain size plays a dramatic role in improvement of mechanical properties of tested samples.

  15. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Sanna; Eklund, Martin; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Fredolini, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Schwenk, Jochen M; Gabrielson, Marike

    2018-02-14

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  16. A tesselation-based model for intensity estimation and laser plasma interactions calculations in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaïtis, A.; Chapman, T.; Strozzi, D.; Divol, L.; Michel, P.

    2018-03-01

    A three-dimensional laser propagation model for computation of laser-plasma interactions is presented. It is focused on indirect drive geometries in inertial confinement fusion and formulated for use at large temporal and spatial scales. A modified tesselation-based estimator and a relaxation scheme are used to estimate the intensity distribution in plasma from geometrical optics rays. Comparisons with reference solutions show that this approach is well-suited to reproduce realistic 3D intensity field distributions of beams smoothed by phase plates. It is shown that the method requires a reduced number of rays compared to traditional rigid-scale intensity estimation. Using this field estimator, we have implemented laser refraction, inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption, and steady-state crossed-beam energy transfer with a linear kinetic model in the numerical code Vampire. Probe beam amplification and laser spot shapes are compared with experimental results and pf3d paraxial simulations. These results are promising for the efficient and accurate computation of laser intensity distributions in holhraums, which is of importance for determining the capsule implosion shape and risks of laser-plasma instabilities such as hot electron generation and backscatter in multi-beam configurations.

  17. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  18. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations

  19. Interactions of sugar-based bolaamphiphiles with biomimetic systems of plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Lins, Laurence; Obounou Akong, Firmin; Haudrechy, Arnaud; Bouquillon, Sandrine; Deleu, Magali

    2016-11-01

    Glycolipids constitute a class of molecules with various biological activities. Among them, sugar-based bolaamphiphiles characterized by their biocompatibility, biodegradability and lower toxicity, became interesting for the development of efficient and low cost lipid-based drug delivery systems. Their activity seems to be closely related to their interactions with the lipid components of the plasma membrane of target cells. Despite many works devoted to the chemical synthesis and characterization of sugar-based bolaamphiphiles, their interactions with plasma membrane have not been completely elucidated. In this work, two sugar-based bolaamphiphiles differing only at the level of their sugar residues were chemically synthetized. Their interactions with membranes have been investigated using model membranes containing or not sterol and with in silico approaches. Our findings indicate that the nature of sugar residues has no significant influence for their membrane interacting properties, while the presence of sterol attenuates the interactions of both bolaamphiphiles with the membrane systems. The understanding of this distinct behavior of bolaamphiphiles towards sterol-containing membrane systems could be useful for their applications as drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidding, Bernhard

    2008-05-01

    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to ∼50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the ∼80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10 19 W=cm 2 into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via ''bubble acceleration'', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations < or similar 5 fs can thus be created, which is at least an order of magnitude shorter than with conventional accelerator technology. In addition, more than one laser pulse fragment can be powerful enough to drive a bubble. Distinct double peaks have been observed in the electron spectra, indicating that two quasimonoenergetic electron bunches separated by only few tens of fs have formed. This is backed up by PIC-Simulations (Particle-in-Cell). These results underline the feasibility of the construction of small table-top accelerators, while at the

  1. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kan, E-mail: xiekan@bit.edu.cn [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r = 0.9 m) under ≈10{sup −5 }Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ≈300 eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ≈75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3 A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  2. An adhesion-based method for plasma membrane isolation: evaluating cholesterol extraction from cells and their membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukov, Ludmila; Blank, Paul S; Polozov, Ivan V; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2009-11-15

    A method to isolate large quantities of directly accessible plasma membrane from attached cells is presented. The method is based on the adhesion of cells to an adsorbed layer of polylysine on glass plates, followed by hypotonic lysis with ice-cold distilled water and subsequent washing steps. Optimal conditions for coating glass plates and time for cell attachment were established. No additional chemical or mechanical treatments were used. Contamination of the isolated plasma membrane by cell organelles was less than 5%. The method uses inexpensive, commercially available polylysine and reusable glass plates. Plasma membrane preparations can be made in 15 min. Using this method, we determined that methyl-beta-cyclodextrin differentially extracts cholesterol from fibroblast cells and their plasma membranes and that these differences are temperature dependent. Determination of the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio from intact cells does not reflect methyl-beta-cyclodextrin plasma membrane extraction properties.

  3. Characteristics of polyimide-based composite membranes fabricated by low-temperature plasma polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung Thi Tran; Mori, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    Composite membranes were prepared by the deposition of plasma-polymerized allylamine films onto a porous polyimide substrate. The relationship between the plasma conditions and the membrane characteristics was described in terms of monomer flow rate, plasma discharge power, plasma polymerization time, and so on. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicate that the thickness of the plasma polymer layer increased and the membrane skin pore size decreased gradually with the increasing of plasma polymerization time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra demonstrate the appearance of amine groups in the plasma deposited polymer and the contact angle measurements indicate that the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces increased significantly after plasma polymerization. The composite membranes can reject salt from sodium chloride feed solution, and membrane separation performance depends strongly on the plasma conditions applied during the preparation of the plasma deposited polymer films

  4. Iron-based Nanocomposite Synthesised by Microwave Plasma Decomposition of Iron Pentacarbonyl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Bohumil; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Hoder, T.; Kudrle, V.; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 263, - (2007), s. 147-152 ISSN 1012-0386. [Diffusion and Thermodynamics of Materials /IX/. Brno, 13.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : iron-based nanopowder * synthesis * microwave plasma method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2005 http://www.scientific.net/3-908451-35-3/3.html

  5. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Tabares, F.L.; Ortiz, P.; Herrero, V.J.; Tanarro, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  6. Plasma actuators for active flow control based on a glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn, M.; Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Schein, J.; Belinger, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a glow discharge based active flow control for high flow velocities and low Reynolds numbers is presented. Unlike common plasma actuators such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) or spark jets, this actuator uses small impulse bits at frequencies. The actuator is optimized for frequencies up to 40 kHz to counter Tollmien Schlichting wave effects and so reduce overall air foil drag. Several measurements to prove the non-eroding effect of the actuator and the electrical properties were performed. It was found that the actuator is capable of operating at high frequencies without measurable erosion. (paper)

  7. Theory-based scaling of the SOL width in circular limited tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, F.D.; Ricci, P.; Labit, B.; Furno, I.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.; Arnoux, G.; Silva, C.; Gunn, J.P.; Horacek, J.; Kočan, M.; LaBombard, B.

    2013-01-01

    A theory-based scaling for the characteristic length of a circular, limited tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is obtained by considering the balance between parallel losses and non-linearly saturated resistive ballooning mode turbulence driving anomalous perpendicular transport. The SOL size increases with plasma size, resistivity, and safety factor q. The scaling is verified against flux-driven non-linear turbulence simulations, which reveal good agreement within a wide range of dimensionless parameters, including parameters closely matching the TCV tokamak. An initial comparison of the theory against experimental data from several tokamaks also yields good agreement. (letter)

  8. Laser-plasma accelerator-based single-cycle attosecond undulator source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibai, Z.; Tóth, Gy.; Nagyváradi, A.; Sharma, A.; Mechler, M. I.; Fülöp, J. A.; Almási, G.; Hebling, J.

    2018-06-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs), producing high-quality electron beams, provide an opportunity to reduce the size of free-electron lasers (FELs) to only a few meters. A complete system is proposed here, which is based on FEL technology and consists of an LPA, two undulators, and other magnetic devices. The system is capable to generate carrier-envelope phase stable attosecond pulses with engineered waveform. Pulses with up to 60 nJ energy and 90-400 attosecond duration in the 30-120 nm wavelength range are predicted by numerical simulation. These pulses can be used to investigate ultrafast field-driven electron dynamics in matter.

  9. Program for Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, Thomas C.; Muggli, Patric

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 Program for Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators. The progress made under this program in the period since November 15, 2002 is reflected in this report. The main activities for this period were to conduct the first run of the E-164 high-gradient wakefield experiment at SLAC, to prepare for run 2 and to continue our collaborative effort with CERN to model electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators. Each of these is described. Also attached to this report are papers that were prepared or appeared during this period

  10. Paper-Based MicroRNA Expression Profiling from Plasma and Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sai Mun; Tan, Karen Mei-Ling; Chua, Hui Wen; Huang, Mo-Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Li, Mo-Huang; Tucker, Steven; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise for monitoring metastatic progression and characterizing metastatic disease. However, leukocyte and red blood cell contamination of routinely isolated CTCs makes CTC-specific molecular characterization extremely challenging. Here we report the use of a paper-based medium for efficient extraction of microRNAs (miRNAs) from limited amounts of biological samples such as rare CTCs harvested from cancer patient blood. Specifically, we devised a workflow involving the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) ® Elute Card with a digital PCR-inspired "partitioning" method to extract and purify miRNAs from plasma and CTCs. We demonstrated the sensitivity of this method to detect miRNA expression from as few as 3 cancer cells spiked into human blood. Using this method, background miRNA expression was excluded from contaminating blood cells, and CTC-specific miRNA expression profiles were derived from breast and colorectal cancer patients. Plasma separated out during purification of CTCs could likewise be processed using the same paper-based method for miRNA detection, thereby maximizing the amount of patient-specific information that can be derived from a single blood draw. Overall, this paper-based extraction method enables an efficient, cost-effective workflow for maximized recovery of small RNAs from limited biological samples for downstream molecular analyses. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  11. Recent advances in ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopy and imaging for reacting plasmas and flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Adamovich, Igor; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

    2017-10-01

    Reacting flows and plasmas are prevalent in a wide array of systems involving defense, commercial, space, energy, medical, and consumer products. Understanding the complex physical and chemical processes involving reacting flows and plasmas requires measurements of key parameters, such as temperature, pressure, electric field, velocity, and number densities of chemical species. Time-resolved measurements of key chemical species and temperature are required to determine kinetics related to the chemical reactions and transient phenomena. Laser-based, noninvasive linear and nonlinear spectroscopic approaches have proved to be very valuable in providing key insights into the physico-chemical processes governing reacting flows and plasmas as well as validating numerical models. The advent of kilohertz rate amplified femtosecond lasers has expanded the multidimensional imaging of key atomic species such as H, O, and N in a significant way, providing unprecedented insight into preferential diffusion and production of these species under chemical reactions or electric-field driven processes. These lasers not only provide 2D imaging of chemical species but have the ability to perform measurements free of various interferences. Moreover, these lasers allow 1D and 2D temperature-field measurements, which were quite unimaginable only a few years ago. The rapid growth of the ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic measurements has been fueled by the need to achieve the following when measurements are performed in reacting flows and plasmas. They are: (1) interference-free measurements (collision broadening, photolytic dissociation, Stark broadening, etc), (2) time-resolved single-shot measurements at a rate of 1-10 kHz, (3) spatially-resolved measurements, (4) higher dimensionality (line, planar, or volumetric), and (5) simultaneous detection of multiple species. The overarching goal of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic

  12. Microcantilever based disposable viscosity sensor for serum and blood plasma measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Onur; Elbuken, Caglar; Ermek, Erhan; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Erdem Alaca, B; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Urey, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measuring blood plasma and serum viscosity with a microcantilever-based MEMS sensor. MEMS cantilevers are made of electroplated nickel and actuated remotely with magnetic field using an electro-coil. Real-time monitoring of cantilever resonant frequency is performed remotely using diffraction gratings fabricated at the tip of the dynamic cantilevers. Only few nanometer cantilever deflection is sufficient due to interferometric sensitivity of the readout. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is tracked with a phase lock loop (PLL) control circuit. The viscosities of liquid samples are obtained through the measurement of the cantilever's frequency change with respect to a reference measurement taken within a liquid of known viscosity. We performed measurements with glycerol solutions at different temperatures and validated the repeatability of the system by comparing with a reference commercial viscometer. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions based on Sader's theory and agreed reasonably well. Afterwards viscosities of different Fetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin mixtures are measured both at 23°C and 37°C, body temperature. Finally the viscosities of human blood plasma samples taken from healthy donors are measured. The proposed method is capable of measuring viscosities from 0.86 cP to 3.02 cP, which covers human blood plasma viscosity range, with a resolution better than 0.04 cP. The sample volume requirement is less than 150 μl and can be reduced significantly with optimized cartridge design. Both the actuation and sensing are carried out remotely, which allows for disposable sensor cartridges. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Density Transition Based Self-Focusing of cosh-Gaussian Laser Beam in Plasma with Linear Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Density transition based self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma with linear absorption has been studied. The field distribution in the plasma is expressed in terms of beam width parameter, decentered parameter, and linear absorption coefficient. The differential equation for the beam width parameter is solved by following Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) and paraxial approximation through parabolic wave equation approach. The behaviour of beam width parameter with dimensionless distance of propagation is studied at optimum values of plasma density, decentered parameter and with different absorption levels in the medium. The results reveal that these parameters can affect the self-focusing significantly. (paper)

  14. Simulation of the Plasma Afterglow in the Discharge Gap of a Subnanosecond Switch Based on an Open Discharge in Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. L.; Schweigert, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    The phenomenon of subnanosecond electrical breakdown in a strong electric field observed in an open discharge in helium at pressures of 6-20 Torr can be used to create ultrafast plasma switches triggering into a conducting state for a time shorter than 1 ns. To evaluate the possible repetition rate of such a subnanosecond switch, it is interesting to study the decay dynamics of the plasma remaining in the discharge gap after ultrafast breakdown. In this paper, a kinetic model based on the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision method is used to study the dynamics of the plasma afterglow in the discharge gap of a subnanosecond switch operating with helium at a pressure of 6 Torr. The simulation results show that the radiative, collisional-radiative, and three-body collision recombination mechanisms significantly contribute to the afterglow decay only while the plasma density remains higher than 1012 cm-3; the main mechanism of the further plasma decay is diffusion of plasma particles onto the wall. Therefore, the effect of recombination in the plasma bulk is observed only during the first 10-20 μs of the afterglow. Over nearly the same time, plasma electrons become thermalized. The afterglow time can be substantially reduced by applying a positive voltage U c to the cathode. Since diffusive losses are limited by the ion mobility, the additional ion drift toward the wall significantly accelerates plasma decay. As U c increases from 0 to +500 V, the characteristic time of plasma decay is reduced from 35 to 10 μs.

  15. AMITIS: A 3D GPU-Based Hybrid-PIC Model for Space and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Shahab; Poppe, Andrew R.; Delory, Gregory T.; Farrell, William M.

    2017-05-01

    We have developed, for the first time, an advanced modeling infrastructure in space simulations (AMITIS) with an embedded three-dimensional self-consistent grid-based hybrid model of plasma (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) that runs entirely on graphics processing units (GPUs). The model uses NVIDIA GPUs and their associated parallel computing platform, CUDA, developed for general purpose processing on GPUs. The model uses a single CPU-GPU pair, where the CPU transfers data between the system and GPU memory, executes CUDA kernels, and writes simulation outputs on the disk. All computations, including moving particles, calculating macroscopic properties of particles on a grid, and solving hybrid model equations are processed on a single GPU. We explain various computing kernels within AMITIS and compare their performance with an already existing well-tested hybrid model of plasma that runs in parallel using multi-CPU platforms. We show that AMITIS runs ∼10 times faster than the parallel CPU-based hybrid model. We also introduce an implicit solver for computation of Faraday’s Equation, resulting in an explicit-implicit scheme for the hybrid model equation. We show that the proposed scheme is stable and accurate. We examine the AMITIS energy conservation and show that the energy is conserved with an error < 0.2% after 500,000 timesteps, even when a very low number of particles per cell is used.

  16. The web-based user interface for EAST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.R., E-mail: rrzhang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China); Yuan, Q.P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China); Yang, F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China); Department of Computer Science, Anhui Medical University, Anhui (China); Zhang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China); Johnson, R.D.; Penaflor, B.G. [General Atomics, DIII-D National Fusion Facility, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The plasma control system (PCS) plays a vital role at EAST for fusion science experiments. Its software application consists of two main parts: an IDL graphical user interface for setting a large number of plasma parameters to specify each discharge, several programs for performing the real-time feedback control and managing the whole control system. The PCS user interface can be used from any X11 Windows client with privileged access to the PCS computer system. However, remote access to the PCS system via the IDL user interface becomes an extreme inconvenience due to the high network latency to draw or operate the interfaces. In order to realize lower latency for remote access to the PCS system, a web-based system has been developed for EAST recently. The setup data are retrieved from the PCS system and client-side JavaScript draws the interfaces into the user's browser. The user settings are also sent back to the PCS system for controlling discharges. These technologies allow the web-based user interface to be viewed by authorized users with a web browser and have it communicate with PCS server processes directly. It works together with the IDL interface and provides a new way to aid remote participation.

  17. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Li

    Full Text Available Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process. Keywords: Powder metallurgy, Nb-Ti based alloy, Porous material, Mechanical alloying, Plasma spheroidizing, Solidification microstructure

  18. Numerical simulation of Trichel pulses of negative DC corona discharge based on a plasma chemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Lan, Lei; Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Yu; Wen, Xishan; Du, Xinyu; He, Wangling

    2017-10-01

    A numerical simulation method of negative direct current (DC) corona discharge based on a plasma chemical model is presented, and a coaxial cylindrical gap is adopted. There were 15 particle species and 61 kinds of collision reactions electrons involved, and 22 kinds of reactions between ions are considered in plasma chemical reactions. Based on this method, continuous Trichel pulses are calculated on about a 100 us timescale, and microcosmic physicochemical process of negative DC corona discharge in three different periods is discussed. The obtained results show that the amplitude of Trichel pulses is between 1-2 mA, and that pulse interval is in the order of 10-5 s. The positive ions produced by avalanche ionization enhanced the electric field near the cathode at the beginning of the pulse, then disappeared from the surface of cathode. The electric field decreases and the pulse ceases to develop. The negative ions produced by attachment slowly move away from the cathode, and the electric field increases gradually until the next pulse begins to develop. The positive and negative ions with the highest density during the corona discharge process are O4+ and O3- , respectively.

  19. Characterization of Fe-based alloy coating deposited by supersonic plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Zhong-yu; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wen, Dong-hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-based coating exhibited few oxides, high density and bond strength. • Amorphous/nanocrystalline phases were found in the coating. • Formation mechanism of excellent coating was investigated. -- Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize the Fe-based alloy coating deposited by the supersonic plasma spraying process. The condition of the melting particles was in situ monitored. The microstructure of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscope and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The phase composition was examined by X-ray diffraction. The microhardness and porosity were also measured, respectively. Results show the prepared coatings have excellent properties, such as few oxides, high microhardness and a low porosity amount. At the same time, a mass of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases was found in the coating. The mechanism of the formation of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases was investigated. The appropriate material composition of spraying material and flash set process of plasma spraying are the key factors. Moreover, the mechanism for oxidation resistance is also investigated, where the separation between melting metal and oxygen by the formation of SiO 2 films is the key factor

  20. Plasma-based actuators for turbulent boundary layer control in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budovsky, A. D.; Polivanov, P. A.; Vishnyakov, O. I.; Sidorenko, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study is devoted to development of methods for active control of flow structure typical for the aircraft wings in transonic flow with turbulent boundary layer. The control strategy accepted in the study was based on using of the effects of plasma discharges interaction with miniature geometrical obstacles of various shapes. The conceptions were studied computationally using 3D RANS, URANS approaches. The results of the computations have shown that energy deposition can significantly change the flow pattern over the obstacles increasing their influence on the flow in boundary layer region. Namely, one of the most interesting and promising data were obtained for actuators basing on combination of vertical wedge with asymmetrical plasma discharge. The wedge considered is aligned with the local streamlines and protruding in the flow by 0.4-0.8 of local boundary layer thickness. The actuator produces negligible distortion of the flow at the absence of energy deposition. Energy deposition along the one side of the wedge results in longitudinal vortex formation in the wake of the actuator providing momentum exchange in the boundary layer. The actuator was manufactured and tested in wind tunnel experiments at Mach number 1.5 using the model of flat plate. The experimental data obtained by PIV proved the availability of the actuator.

  1. The web-based user interface for EAST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.R.; Xiao, B.J.; Yuan, Q.P.; Yang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Johnson, R.D.; Penaflor, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma control system (PCS) plays a vital role at EAST for fusion science experiments. Its software application consists of two main parts: an IDL graphical user interface for setting a large number of plasma parameters to specify each discharge, several programs for performing the real-time feedback control and managing the whole control system. The PCS user interface can be used from any X11 Windows client with privileged access to the PCS computer system. However, remote access to the PCS system via the IDL user interface becomes an extreme inconvenience due to the high network latency to draw or operate the interfaces. In order to realize lower latency for remote access to the PCS system, a web-based system has been developed for EAST recently. The setup data are retrieved from the PCS system and client-side JavaScript draws the interfaces into the user's browser. The user settings are also sent back to the PCS system for controlling discharges. These technologies allow the web-based user interface to be viewed by authorized users with a web browser and have it communicate with PCS server processes directly. It works together with the IDL interface and provides a new way to aid remote participation

  2. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean) are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: 4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index. PMID:22292108

  3. Lattice Gas Model Based Optimization of Plasma-Surface Processes for GaN-Based Compound Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonokawa, Kiyohide; Suzuki, Takuma; Kitamori, Kazutaka; Sawada, Takayuki

    2001-10-01

    Progress of the epitaxial growth technique for GaN-based compounds makes these materials attractive for applications in high temperature/high-power electronic devices as well as in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. For MBE growth of GaN epilayer, atomic nitrogen is usually supplied from ECR-plasma while atomic Ga is supplied from conventional K-cell. To grow high-quality epilayer, fundamental knowledge of the detailed atomic process, such as adsorption, surface migration, incorporation, desorption and so forth, is required. We have studied the influence of growth conditions on the flatness of the growth front surface and the growth rate using Monte Carlo simulation based on the lattice gas model. Under the fixed Ga flux condition, the lower the nitrogen flux and/or the higher the growth temperature, the better the flatness of the front surface at the sacrifice of the growth rate of the epilayer. When the nitrogen flux is increased, the growth rate reaches saturation value determined from the Ga flux. At a fixed growth temperature, increasing of nitrogen to Ga flux ratio results in rough surface owing to 3-dimensional island formation. Other characteristics of MBE-GaN growth using ECR-plasma can be well reproduced.

  4. Processing of pure titanium containing titanium-based reinforcing ceramics additives using spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondiu Olayinka DUROWOJU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The densification behaviour, microstructural changes and hardness characteristics during spark plasma sintering of CP-Ti reinforced with TiC, TiN, TiCN and TiB2 were investigated. Commercially pure Ti powders were dry mixed with varied amounts (2.5 and 5 wt. % of the ceramic additives using a T2F Turbula mixer for 5 h and at a speed of 49 rpm. The blended composite powders were then sintered using spark plasma sintering system (model HHPD-25 from FCT Germany at a heating rate of 100oC min-1, dwell time of 5 min and sintering temperature of 950ºC. The sintering of CP-Ti was used as a base study to select the proper spark plasma sintering temperature for full density. Densification was monitored through analysis of the recorded punch displacement and the measured density of the sintered samples using Archimedes method. High densities ranging from 97.8% for 5% TiB2 addition to 99.6% for 5% TiCN addition were achieved at a relatively low temperature of 950°C. Microstructural analyses show a uniform distribution of the additives and finer structure showing their inhibitive effect on grain growth. An improved hardness was observed in all the cases with highest values obtained with TiCN as a result of the combined effect of TiC and TiN. A change in the fracture mode from trans granular to intergranular was also observed.

  5. Summary report : working group 5 on 'electron beam-driven plasma and structure based acceleration concepts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, M. E.; Katsouleas, T.

    2000-01-01

    The talks presented and the work performed on electron beam-driven accelerators in plasmas and structures are summarized. Highlights of the working group include new experimental results from the E-157 Plasma Wakefield Experiment, the E-150 Plasma Lens Experiment and the Argonne Dielectric Structure Wakefield experiments. The presentations inspired discussion and analysis of three working topics: electron hose instability, ion channel lasers and the plasma afterburner

  6. Plasma based total treatment of waste and low-grade fuels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Oost, G.; Leys, C.; Joos, M.; Van Heesch, B.; Hrabovský, Milan; Šunka, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 784-793 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  7. Dielectric Barrier Discharge based Mercury-free plasma UV-lamp for efficient water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ram; Hossain, Afaque M; Pal, U N; Kumar, N; Khairnar, K; Mohan, M Krishna

    2017-12-12

    A structurally simple dielectric barrier discharge based mercury-free plasma UV-light source has been developed for efficient water disinfection. The source comprises of a dielectric barrier discharge arrangement between two co-axial quartz tubes with an optimized gas gap. The outer electrode is an aluminium baked foil tape arranged in a helical form with optimized pitch, while the inner electrode is a hollow aluminium metallic rod, hermetically sealed. Strong bands peaking at wavelengths 172 nm and 253 nm, along with a weak band peaking at wavelength 265 nm have been simultaneously observed due to plasma radiation from the admixture of xenon and iodine gases. The developed UV source has been used for bacterial deactivation studies using an experimental setup that is an equivalent of the conventional house-hold water purifier system. Deactivation studies for five types of bacteria, i.e., E. coli, Shigella boydii, Vibrio, Coliforms and Fecal coliform have been demonstrated with 4 log reductions in less than ten seconds.

  8. Hot tungsten plate based ionizer for cesium plasma in a multi-cusp field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Amitkumar D.; Sharma, Meenakshee; Ramasubramanian, Narayanan; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.

    2015-01-01

    In a newly proposed basic experiment, contact-ionized cesium ions will be confined by a multi cups magnetic field configuration. The cesium ion will be produced by impinging collimated neutral atoms on an ionizer consisting of the hot tungsten plate. The temperature of the tungsten plate will also be made high enough (∼2700 K) such that it will contribute electrons also to the plasma. It is expected that at this configuration the cesium plasma would be really quiescent and would be free from even the normal drift waves observed in the classical Q-machines. For the ionizer a design based on F. F. Chen's design was made. This ionizer is very fine machining and exotic material like Tungsten plate, Molybdenum screws, rings, and Boron Nitride ceramics etc. The fine and careful machining of these materials was very hard. In this paper, the experience about to join the tungsten wire to molybdenum plate and alloy of tantalum and molybdenum ring is described. In addition experimental investigations have been made to measure 2D temperature distribution profile of the Tungsten hot plate using infrared camera and the uniformity of temperature distribution over the hot plate surface is discussed. (author)

  9. Compact gain saturated plasma based X-ray lasers down to 6.9nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jorge; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Berrill, M.; Shlyaptsev, V.

    2017-10-01

    Plasma based soft x-ray amplifiers allow many experiments requiring bright, high energy soft x-ray laser pulses to be conducted in compact facilities. We have extended the wavelength of compact gain saturated x-ray lasers to 6.89 nm in a Ni-like Gd plasma generated by a Ti:Sa laser. Gain saturated laser operation was also obtained at 7.36 nm in Ni-like Sm. Isolectronic scaling and optimization of laser pre-pulse duration allowed us to also observe strong lasing at 6.6 nm and 6.1 nm in Ni-like Tb, and amplification at 6.4 nm and 5.89 nm in Ni-like Dy. The results were obtained by transient laser heating of solid targets with traveling wave excitation at progressively increased gracing incidence angles. We show that the optimum pump angle of incidence for collisional Ni-like lasers increases linearly with atomic number from Z =42 to Z =66, reaching 43 degrees for Ni-like Dy, in good agreement with hydrodynamic/atomic physics simulations. These results will enable single-shot nano-scale imaging and other application of sub-7 nm lasers to be performed at compact facilities. Work supported by Grant DE-FG02-4ER15592 of the Department of Energy, Office of Science, and by the National Science Foundation Grant ECCS 1509925.

  10. Surface plasma resonance enhanced photocurrent generation in NiO photoanode based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong; Cui, Jin [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Li, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Cao, Kun; Yuan, Shuai [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Cheng, Yibing [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wang, Mingkui, E-mail: mingkui.wang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SPR effect from Au-nanostructures was first investigated in NiO-based solar cells. • Enhanced photocurrent generation was observed in p-DSC and perovskite solar cell. • Au-nanorods SPR effect induced charge kinetics were investigated. - Abstract: Surface plasma resonance (SPR) effect has been demonstrated to improve solar cell performance. This work reports on the SPR effect from Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} on p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} works as an antenna to transform photons with long wavelength into electric field followed by an enhanced excitation of dye. The devices using the NiO electrode containing Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} shows overall power conversion efficiencies of about 0.2% in combination with I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} electrolyte, and 0.29% with T{sup −}/T{sub 2} electrolyte, which are superior to those without adding Au nanorods. Detailed investigation including spectroscopy and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveals that plasma effect of Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} contribute to charge injection efficiency, and thus on the photocurrent. The effect of Au NRs can be further extended to the inverted planar perovskite solar cells, showing obviously improvement in photocurrent.

  11. A fluorogenic probe for SNAP-tagged plasma membrane proteins based on the solvatochromic molecule Nile Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Efthymia; Reymond, Luc; Umebayashi, Miwa; Hovius, Ruud; Riezman, Howard; Johnsson, Kai

    2014-03-21

    A fluorogenic probe for plasma membrane proteins based on the dye Nile Red and SNAP-tag is introduced. It takes advantage of Nile Red, a solvatochromic molecule highly fluorescent in an apolar environment, such as cellular membranes, but almost dark in a polar aqueous environment. The probe possesses a tuned affinity for membranes allowing its Nile Red moiety to insert into the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, becoming fluorescent, only after its conjugation to a SNAP-tagged plasma membrane protein. The fluorogenic character of the probe was demonstrated for different SNAP-tag fusion proteins, including the human insulin receptor. This work introduces a new approach for generating a powerful turn-on probe for "no-wash" labeling of plasma membrane proteins with numerous applications in bioimaging.

  12. High efficiency GaN-based LEDs using plasma selective treatment of p-GaN surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Bae; Naoi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Shiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Takaki, Ryohei; Sato, Hisao [Nitride Semiconductor Co., Ltd., 115-7 Itayajima, Akinokami, Seto-cho, Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    We have studied a new method of increasing the extraction efficiency of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) using a plasma surface treatment. In this method, prior to the evaporation of a semitransparent p-metal, the surface of a p-GaN located beneath a p-pad is selectively exposed to a nitrogen plasma in a reactive ion etching (RIE) chamber. The electrical characteristics of the plasma treated p-GaN remarkably changes its resistivity into semi-insulator without any parasitic damage. Since the LEDs with a new method have no light absorption in a p-pad region, a higher optical power can be extracted compared to a conventional LEDs without plasma selective treatment on the p-GaN surface. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  14. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  15. Investigation of plasma interaction with carbon based and mixed materials related to next-generation fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Korshunov, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites, tungsten and beryllium are considered at present as candidate-materials for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The presence of various materials, as the divertor and the first wall components, will unavoidably result in the formation of mixed layers on the surfaces of plasma facing components. In this review, processes of plasma interaction with these materials and layers formed by mixing of the materials are considered. Mixed W-Be and W-C layers were prepared by deposition of two species atoms upon a substrate under simultaneous sputtering of two targets by 20 keV Ar + -ions. The thickness of the deposited mixed layers was 100-500 nm. The most important processes investigated here are: a) erosion at threshold energies and at various temperatures, b) erosion at plasma disruption, c) surface modification at normal operation regime and disruption, d) the influence of the surface modification on material erosion, e) erosion product formation at plasma disruption (dust creation), f) hydrogen isotopes retention in materials. An experimental method of determination of sputtering yield under ion bombardment in the near-threshold energy range has been developed. The method is based on the use of special regimes of field ion microscopic analysis. The method has been used for measurement of the sputtering yield of C-C composite, technically pure tungsten, tungsten oxide and mixed W-C layer on the tungsten by deuterium ions. The energy dependences of the sputtering yield of those materials by deuterium ions at energies ranging from 10 to 500 eV was investigated. Temperature dependences of pure and B-doped C-C composites erosion by deuterium ions were investigated. Material erosion was studied in a steady state plasma at the LENTA facility with parameters close to those expected at normal operation of ITER, and in the MKT plasma accelerator simulating plasma disruption. Surface modifications of graphite materials and tungsten

  16. Fabrication And Properties Of Silver Based Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Prepared By Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations of the obtained nanocomposite materials based on silver with addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The powder of carbon nanotubes content from 0.1 to 3 wt. % was produced by application of powder metallurgy methods, through mixing and high-energetic milling, and also chemical methods. Modification of carbon nanotubes included electroless deposition of silver particles on the carbon nanotube active surfaces and chemical reduction with strong reducing agent – sodium borohydride (NaBH4. The obtained powder mixtures were consolidated by SPS – Spark Plasma Sintering method. The formed composites were subjected to tests of relative density, electrical conductivity and electro-erosion properties. Detailed examinations of the structure with application of X-ray microanalysis, with consideration of carbon nanotubes distribution, were also carried out. The effect of manufacturing methods on properties of the obtained composites was observed.

  17. Tribological performance of ultrathin diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J X; Li, E Q; Tian, Z; Pan, X F; Xu, J; Jin, L; Yang, H G

    2008-01-01

    Ultrathin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thicknesses of 5-60 nm have been prepared on Si by plasma-based ion implantation. Raman spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that these DLC films present high sp 3 /sp 2 ratios. XPS also displays that each DLC film firmly adheres to the Si substrate owing to a C-Si transition layer. Atomic force microscopy shows that the DLC films are smooth and compact with average roughness (R a ) of about 0.25 nm. Sliding friction experiments reveal that these DLC films show significantly improved tribological performance. With increase of DLC film thickness, the sp 3 /sp 2 ratio increases, the roughness decreases, the hardness increases, the adhesive wear lightens and thereby the tribological performance becomes enhanced. Also, the effects of the applied load and the reciprocating frequency on the tribological performance are discussed

  18. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2018-01-01

    standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients....... CONCLUSIONS: This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%....... of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. METHODS: This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied...

  19. Surface modification of PET film by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Mizutani, D.; Ohmura, Y.; Endo, H.; Yoneda, R.; Ikenaga, N.; Takikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that thin diamond like carbon (DLC) coating is very Amsterdam, Theenhancing the barrier characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) against CO 2 and O 2 gases. However, coating technique has a problem of DLC-deposit peeling. In this research, we develop a new technique to change the PET surface into DLC by ion implantation instead of coating the surface with the DLC deposit. The surface of PET film is modified by plasma-based ion implantation using pulse voltages of 10 kV in height and 5 μs in width. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy shows that the specific absorption peaks for PET decrease with dose, that is, the molecules of ethylene terephthalate are destroyed by ion bombardment. Then, laser Raman spectroscopy shows that thin DLC layer is formed in the PET surface area

  20. A development of laser-plasma-based soft x-ray microscope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyong Woo; Kim, Kyu Gyeom; Kwon, Young Man; Yoon, Kwon Ha

    2003-01-01

    Soft x-ray nano-imaging microscopy system for biomedical application with a high resolution about 50 nm has been designed and described, and its integrated techniques also have been studied. The system is mainly composed of soft x-ray generation system, nano-scaled control system, x-ray optical device like a condenser or object mirror, a CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate (MCP) and vacuum system. In the system, soft x-ray is generated from the laser-based plasma by focusing Nd:YAG laser beam on tantalum (Ta) target. In an x-ray optical system, a wolter mirror has been considering condensing the x-ray beam on a biological specimen and zone plate was adapted as an object mirror. A Si 3 N 4 was used as specimen holder for keeping a biological sample alive in atmosphere conditions. A back-illuminated-CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate was determined to set up.

  1. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent, E-mail: saktug@gtu.edu.tr [The Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Durdu, Salih, E-mail: durdusalih@gmail.com [The Department of Industrial Engineering, Giresun University, Merkez, Giresun 28200 (Turkey); Yalçın, Emine, E-mail: emine.yalcin@giresun.edu.tr [The Department of Biology, Giresun University, Merkez, Giresun 28200 (Turkey); Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin, E-mail: kultigin.cavusoglu@giresun.edu.tr [The Department of Biology, Giresun University, Merkez, Giresun 28200 (Turkey); Usta, Metin, E-mail: ustam@gtu.edu.tr [The Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze, Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28 days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370 A/cm{sup 2} was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292 A/cm{sup 2}. The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was formed on zirconium at different current densities by single-step plasma electrolytic oxidation. • The amount of hydroxyapatite and calcium-based phases increased with

  2. Development of online, continuous heavy metals detection and monitoring sensors based on microfluidic plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majeed, Wameath Sh

    This research is dedicated to develop a fully integrated system for heavy metals determination in water samples based on micro fluidic plasma atomizers. Several configurations of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomizer are designed, fabricated and tested toward this target. Finally, a combination of annular and rectangular DBD atomizers has been utilized to develop a scheme for heavy metals determination. The present thesis has combined both theoretical and experimental investigations to fulfil the requirements. Several mathematical studies are implemented to explore the optimal design parameters for best system performance. On the other hand, expanded experimental explorations are conducted to assess the proposed operational approaches. The experiments were designed according to a central composite rotatable design; hence, an empirical model has been produced for each studied case. Moreover, several statistical approaches are adopted to analyse the system performance and to deduce the optimal operational parameters.. The introduction of the examined analyte to the plasma atomizer has been achieved by applying chemical schemes, where the element in the sample has been derivitized by using different kinds of reducing agents to produce vapour species (e.g. hydrides) for a group of nine elements examined in this research individually and simultaneously. Moreover, other derivatization schemes based on photochemical vapour generation assisted by ultrasound irradiation are also investigated. Generally speaking, the detection limits achieved in this research for the examined set of elements (by applying hydroborate scheme) are found to be acceptable in accordance with the standard limits in drinking water. The results of copper compared with the data from other technologies in the literature, showed a competitive detection limit obtained from applying the developed scheme, with an advantage of conducting simultaneous, fully automated, insitu, online- real time

  3. Microstructural development and mechanical properties of iron based cermets processed by pressureless and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Van der Biest, O.; Vanmeensel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Processing of Fe-based cermets by pressureless sintering and spark plasma sintering. ► Influence of carbon content on the sintering mechanism and hardness. ► The cermet phase diagram was calculated and permits to explain the microstructure. ► SPS provides ferritic matrix and different carbide distribution than CPS samples. ► Pressureless sintered samples contain retained austenite at room temperature. - Abstract: Iron-based cermets are an interesting class of metal-ceramic composites in which properties and the factors influencing them are to be explored. In this work the metal matrix contains Cr, W, Mo and V as alloying elements, and the hard phase is constituted by 50 vol% of titanium carbonitride (TiCN) particles. The work studies the influence of the C content and the processing method on the sinterability, microstructure and hardness of the developed cermet materials. For that purpose, cermet samples with different C content in the matrix (0 wt%, 0.25 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt%) were prepared by conventional pressureless sintering (CPS) and, in order to achieve finer microstructures and to reduce the sintering time, by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density and hardness (HV30) of the processed materials was evaluated, while their phase composition and microstructure was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The equilibrium phase diagram of the composite material was calculated by ThermoCalc software in order to elucidate the influence of the carbon content on the obtained phases and developed microstructures.

  4. Cobalt oxide-based catalysts deposited by cold plasma for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierski, P.; Jozwiak, L.; Sielski, J.; Tyczkowski, J., E-mail: jacek.tyczkowski@p.lodz.pl

    2015-11-02

    In proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), both the anodic hydrogen oxidation reaction and the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) require appropriate catalysts. So far, platinum-based catalysts are still the best option for this purpose. However, because these catalysts are too expensive for making commercially viable fuel cells, extensive research over the past decade has focused on developing noble metal-free alternative catalysts. In this paper, an approach based on cobalt oxide films fabricated by plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is presented. Such a material can be used to prepare catalysts for ORR in PEMFC. The films containing CoO{sub X} were deposited on a carbon paper thereby forming the electrode. Morphology and atomic composition of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The possibility of their application as the electro-catalyst for ORR in PEMFC was investigated and the electro-catalytic activities were evaluated by the electrochemical measurements and single cell tests. It was found that the fuel cell with Pt as the anode catalyst and CoO{sub X} deposit as the cathode catalyst was characterized by the open circuit voltage of 635 mV, Tafel slope of approx. 130 mV/dec and the maximum power density of 5.3 W/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells was plasma deposited. • The catalyst exhibits activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. • Morphology and atomic composition of the catalyst were determined.

  5. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  6. Gibbs energy calculation of electrolytic plasma channel with inclusions of copper and copper oxide with Al-base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuvailo, V. M.; Klapkiv, M. D.; Student, M. M.; Sirak, Y. Y.; Pokhmurska, H. V.

    2017-03-01

    The oxide ceramic coating with copper inclusions was synthesized by the method of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Calculations of the Gibbs energies of reactions between the plasma channel elements with inclusions of copper and copper oxide were carried out. Two methods of forming the oxide-ceramic coatings on aluminum base in electrolytic plasma with copper inclusions were established. The first method - consist in the introduction of copper into the aluminum matrix, the second - copper oxide. During the synthesis of oxide ceramic coatings plasma channel does not react with copper and copper oxide-ceramic included in the coating. In the second case is reduction of copper oxide in interaction with elements of the plasma channel. The content of oxide-ceramic layer was investigated by X-ray and X-ray microelement analysis. The inclusions of copper, CuAl2, Cu9Al4 in the oxide-ceramic coatings were found. It was established that in the spark plasma channels alongside with the oxidation reaction occurs also the reaction aluminothermic reduction of the metal that allows us to dope the oxide-ceramic coating by metal the isobaric-isothermal potential oxidation of which is less negative than the potential of the aluminum oxide.

  7. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  8. The cell-based L-glutathione protection assays to study endocytosis and recycling of plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihil, Kristine M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka

    2013-12-13

    Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.

  9. A fibre based triature interferometer for measuring rapidly evolving, ablatively driven plasma densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.

  10. Calculation of DC Arc Plasma Torch Voltage- Current Characteristics Based on Steebeck Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedenko, V.G.; Ivanov, A.A.; Pereslavtsev, A.V.; Tresviatsky, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of the determination of plasma torches parameters and power sources parameters (working voltage and current of plasma torch) at the predesigning stage. The sequence of calculation of voltage-current characteristics of DC arc plasma torch is proposed. It is shown that the simple Steenbeck model of arc discharge in cylindrical channel makes it possible to carry out this calculation. The results of the calculation are confirmed by the experiments

  11. Plasma based markers of [11C] PiB-PET brain amyloid burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Kiddle

    Full Text Available Changes in brain amyloid burden have been shown to relate to Alzheimer's disease pathology, and are believed to precede the development of cognitive decline. There is thus a need for inexpensive and non-invasive screening methods that are able to accurately estimate brain amyloid burden as a marker of Alzheimer's disease. One potential method would involve using demographic information and measurements on plasma samples to establish biomarkers of brain amyloid burden; in this study data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was used to explore this possibility. Sixteen of the analytes on the Rules Based Medicine Human Discovery Multi-Analyte Profile 1.0 panel were found to associate with [(11C]-PiB PET measurements. Some of these markers of brain amyloid burden were also found to associate with other AD related phenotypes. Thirteen of these markers of brain amyloid burden--c-peptide, fibrinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, pancreatic polypeptide, complement C3, vitronectin, cortisol, AXL receptor kinase, interleukin-3, interleukin-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9 total, apolipoprotein E and immunoglobulin E--were used along with co-variates in multiple linear regression, and were shown by cross-validation to explain >30% of the variance of brain amyloid burden. When a threshold was used to classify subjects as PiB positive, the regression model was found to predict actual PiB positive individuals with a sensitivity of 0.918 and a specificity of 0.545. The number of APOE [Symbol: see text] 4 alleles and plasma apolipoprotein E level were found to contribute most to this model, and the relationship between these variables and brain amyloid burden was explored.

  12. Synthesis of N-graphene using microwave plasma-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana; Tatarova, Elena; Henriques, Julio; Dias, Francisco; Felizardo, Edgar; Abrashev, Miroslav; Bundaleski, Nenad; Cvelbar, Uros

    2016-09-01

    In this work a microwave atmospheric plasma driven by surface waves is used to produce free-standing graphene sheets (FSG). Carbonaceous precursors are injected into a microwave plasma environment, where decomposition processes take place. The transport of plasma generated gas-phase carbon atoms and molecules into colder zones of plasma reactor results in carbon nuclei formation. The main part of the solid carbon is gradually carried from the ``hot'' plasma zone into the outlet plasma stream where carbon nanostructures assemble and grow. Subsequently, the graphene sheets have been N-doped using a N2-Ar large-scale remote plasma treatment, which consists on placing the FSG on a substrate in a remote zone of the N2-Ar plasma. The samples were treated with different compositions of N2-Ar gas mixtures, while maintaining 1 mbar pressure in the chamber and a power applied of 600 W. The N-doped graphene sheets were characterized by scanning and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Plasma characterization was also performed by optical emission spectroscopy. Work partially funded by Portuguese FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, under grant SFRH/BD/52413/2013 (PD-F APPLAuSE).

  13. Ion source plasma parameters measurement based on Langmuir probe with commercial frequency sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.H.; Hu, C.D.; Liu, S.; Shong, S.H.; Jiang, C.C.; Liu, Z.M.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir probe is one of the main diagnostic tools to measure the plasma parameters in the ion source. In this article, the commercial frequency power, which is sine wave of 50 Hz, was supplied on the Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. The best feature of this probe sweep voltage is that it does not need extra design. The probe I-V characteristic curve can be got in less than 5 ms and the plasma parameters, the electron temperature and the electron density, varying with the time can be got in one plasma discharge of 400 ms.

  14. Discrepancies between N-Acetyl Cysteine Prescription based on Patient’s History and Plasma Acetaminophen Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhreddin Taghaddosi-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatalities from acetaminophen poisoning are common, but they are preventable by timely treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. In many medical centers, NAC is prescribed in keeping with the ingested dose of the drug as revealed through medical history. It seems to significantly differ from the real indications of NAC administration based on plasma level of acetaminophen. Overtreatment increases adverse drug reactions and it is time- consuming and costly. Methods: Acetaminophen plasma level was checked by HPLC method in 170 admitted patients who had history of acute ingestion of more than 7.5 g acetaminophen within 4 to 24 hours prior to hospital admission. Indications for NAC prescription according to patient’s history and adaptation from acetaminophen plasma level in Romack-Mathew nomogram were matched. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Mean age of the patients was 21.8±6.05 years. In 75.8% of the patients, poisoning had occurred after suicidal attempts. Acetaminophen plasma level was between less than 2 and 265 μg/ml (18.7±28.88, mean± SD. Only in 18 (10.6% cases, overtreatment had been performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the number of suicidal attempts, number of ingested pills, and time of referral had positive relationships with acetaminophen plasma level. Conclusion: If NAC is prescribed only based on patient's medical history, overtreatment may take place.

  15. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  16. Severe Hemolysis in a Patient With Erythrocytosis During Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption Therapy Was Prevented by Changing From Membrane-Based Technique to a Centrifuge-Based One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Wu, Buyun; Kong, Ling; Gong, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) usually adopts membrane to separate plasma from blood. Here, we reported a case with erythrocytosis experienced severe hemolysis and membrane rupture during CPFA, which was avoided by changing from membrane-based technique to a centrifuge-based one. A 66-year-old man was to receive CPFA for severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 922 μmol/L, direct bilirubin 638 μmol/L) caused by obstruction of biliary tract. He had erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 230 g/L, hematocrit 0.634) for years because of untreated tetralogy of Fallot. Severe hemolysis and membrane rupture occurred immediately after blood entering into the plasma separator even at a low flow rate (50 mL/min) and persisted after changing a new separator. Finally, centrifugal plasma separation technique was used for CPFA in this patient, and no hemolysis occurred. After 3 sessions of CPFA, total bilirubin level decreased to 199 μmol/L with an average decline by 35% per session. Thereafter, the patient received endoscopic biliary stent implantation, and total bilirubin level returned to nearly normal. Therefore, centrifugal-based plasma separation can also be used in CPFA and may be superior to a membrane-based one in patients with hyperviscosity.

  17. A statistical study on the correlations between plasma sheet and solar wind based on DSP explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Yan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available By using the data of two spacecraft, TC-1 and ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer, a statistical study on the correlations between plasma sheet and solar wind has been carried out. The results obtained show that the plasma sheet at geocentric distances of about 9~13.4 Re has an apparent driving relationship with the solar wind. It is found that (1 there is a positive correlation between the duskward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and the duskward component of the geomagnetic field in the plasma sheet, with a proportionality constant of about 1.09. It indicates that the duskward component of the IMF can effectively penetrate into the near-Earth plasma sheet, and can be amplified by sunward convection in the corresponding region at geocentric distances of about 9~13.4 Re; (2 the increase in the density or the dynamic pressure of the solar wind will generally lead to the increase in the density of the plasma sheet; (3 the ion thermal pressure in the near-Earth plasma sheet is significantly controlled by the dynamic pressure of solar wind; (4 under the northward IMF condition, the ion temperature and ion thermal pressure in the plasma sheet decrease as the solar wind speed increases. This feature indicates that plasmas in the near-Earth plasma sheet can come from the magnetosheath through the LLBL. Northward IMF is one important condition for the transport of the cold plasmas of the magnetosheath into the plasma sheet through the LLBL, and fast solar wind will enhance such a transport process.

  18. Zirconia based ceramic coating on a metal with plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, T.; Kato, T.; Shinoda, Y.; Wakai, F.

    2011-10-01

    We challenge to fabricate a thermal barrier coating (TBC) made of ZrO2 based ceramics on a Ni based single crystal superalloy with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) by incorporating metal species from electrolyte into the coating. The PEO process is carried out on the superalloy galvanized with aluminium for 15min in Na4O7P4 solution for an oxygen barrier coating (OBC) and is followed by PEO in K2[Zr(CO3)2(OH)2] solution for TBC. We obtained the following results; (1) Monoclinic-, tetragonal-, cubic-ZrO2 crystals were detected in TBC. (2) High porosity with large pores was observed near the interface between OBC and TBC. The fine grain structure with a grain size of about 300nm was typically observed. (3) The adhesion strength between PEO coatings and substrate was evaluated to be 26.8±6.6MPa. At the adhesion strength test, PEO coatings fractured around the interface between OBC and TBC. The effect of coating structure on adhesion strength is explained through the change in spark discharge during PEO process.

  19. Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Barabash, V.R.; Matera, R.; Roedig, M.; Smith, J.J.; Janev, R.K.

    1991-03-01

    This Report contains the proceedings, results and conclusions of the work done and the analysis performed during the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on ''Evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties data of carbon-based plasma facing materials'', convened on December 17-21, 1990, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Although the prime objective of the meeting was to critically assess the available thermo-mechanical properties data for certain types of carbon-based fusion relevant materials, the work of the meeting went well beyond this task. The meeting participants discussed in depth the scope and structure of the IAEA material properties database, the format of data presentation, the most appropriate computerized system for data storage, retrieval, exchange and management. The existing IAEA ALADDIN system was adopted as a convenient tool for this purpose and specific ALADDIN labelling schemes and dictionaries were established for the material properties data. An ALADDIN formatted test-file for the thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties of pyrolytic graphite is appended to this Report for illustrative purposes. (author)

  20. Prediction of interindividual variation in drug plasma levels in vivo from individual enzyme kinetic data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, J.J.P.; Hissink, E.M.; Briggs, M.; Weaver, R.; Jochemsen, R.; Jackson, P.; Bertrand, M.; Bladeren, P. van

    2000-01-01

    A strategy is presented to predict interindividual variation in drug plasma levels in vivo by the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and human in vitro metabolic parameters, obtained through the combined use of microsomes containing single cytochrome P450 enzymes and a human liver

  1. New type of discharge-produced plasma source for extreme ultraviolet based on liquid tin jet electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshelev, K.N.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Ivanov, V.; Yakushev, O.; Chekmarev, A.; Koloshnikov, V.; Snegirev, E.; Medvedev, Viacheslav

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for discharge-produced plasma (DPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources based on the usage of two liquid metallic alloy jets as discharge electrodes has been proposed and tested. Discharge was ignited using laser ablation of one of the cathode jets. A system with two jet electrodes was

  2. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  3. Nonrigid, Linear Plasma Response Model Based on Perturbed Equilibria for Axisymmetric Tokamak Control Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welander, A.S.; Deranian, R.D.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Walker, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak control design relies on an accurate linear model of the plasma response, which can often dominate the local field variations in regions under active feedback control. For example, when fluxes at selected points on the plasma boundary are regulated in DIII-D, the plasma response to a change in a coil current gives rise to a flux change which can be larger than and opposite to the flux change caused by the coil alone.In the past, rigid plasma models have been used for linear stability and shape control design. In a rigid model, the plasma current profile is considered fixed and moves rigidly in response to control coils to maintain radial and vertical force balance. In a nonrigid model, however, changes in the plasma shape and current profile are taken into account. Such models are expected to be important for future advanced tokamak control design. The present work describes development of a nonrigid plasma response model for high-accuracy multivariable control design and provides comparisons of model predictions against DIII-D experimental data. The linear perturbed plasma response model is calculated rapidly from an existing equilibrium solution

  4. Characteristics of cold atmospheric plasma source based on low-current pulsed discharge with coaxial electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureyev, O. A.; Surkov, Yu S.; Spirina, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the gas discharge system used to create an atmospheric pressure plasma flow. The plasma jet design with a cylindrical graphite cathode and an anode rod located on the axis of the system allows to realize regularly reproducible spark breakdowns mode with a frequency ∼ 5 kHz and a duration ∼ 40 μs. The device generates a cold atmospheric plasma flame with 1 cm in diameter in the flow of various plasma forming gases including nitrogen and air at about 100 mA average discharge current. In the described construction the cathode spots of individual spark channels randomly move along the inner surface of the graphite electrode creating the secondary plasma stream time-average distributed throughout the whole exit aperture area after the decay of numerous filamentary discharge channels. The results of the spectral diagnostics of plasma in the discharge gap and in the stream coming out of the source are presented. Despite the low temperature of atoms and molecules in plasma stream the cathode spots operation with temperature of ∼ 4000 °C at a graphite electrode inside a discharge system enables to saturate the plasma by CN-radicals and atomic carbon in the case of using nitrogen as the working gas.

  5. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent; Durdu, Salih; Yalçın, Emine; Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin; Usta, Metin

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370A/cm 2 was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292A/cm 2 . The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FPGA based Fuzzy Logic Controller for plasma position control in ADITYA Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratia, Pooja; Patel, Jigneshkumar; Rajpal, Rachana; Kotia, Sorum; Govindarajan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaluation and comparison of the working performance of FLC is done with that of PID Controller. ► FLC is designed using MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, and validated on ADITYA RZIP model. ► FLC was implemented on a FPGA. The close-loop testing is done by interfacing FPGA to MATLAB/Simulink. ► Developed FLC controller is able to maintain the plasma column within required range of ±0.05 m and was found to give robust control against various disturbances and faster and smoother response compared to PID Controller. - Abstract: Tokamaks are the most promising devices for obtaining nuclear fusion energy from high-temperature, ionized gas termed as Plasma. The successful operation of tokamak depends on its ability to confine plasma at the geometric center of vacuum vessel with sufficient stability. The quality of plasma discharge in ADITYA Tokamak is strongly related to the radial position of the plasma column in the vacuum vessel. If the plasma column approaches too near to the wall of vacuum vessel, it leads to minor or complete disruption of plasma. Hence the control of plasma position throughout the entire plasma discharge duration is a fundamental requirement. This paper describes Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) which is designed for radial plasma position control. This controller is tested and evaluated on the ADITYA RZIP control model. The performance of this FLC was compared with that of Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) Controller and the response was found to be faster and smoother. FLC was implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip with the use of a Very High-Speed Integrated-Circuits Hardware Description-Language (VHDL).

  7. Association between arsenic exposure and plasma cholinesterase activity: a population based study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Md Rezaul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a potent pollutant that has caused an environmental catastrophe in certain parts of the world including Bangladesh where millions of people are presently at risk due to drinking water contaminated by arsenic. Chronic arsenic exposure has been scientifically shown as a cause for liver damage, cancers, neurological disorders and several other ailments. The relationship between plasma cholinesterase (PChE activity and arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. However, decreased PChE activity has been found in patients suffering liver dysfunction, heart attack, cancer metastasis and neurotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the PChE activity in individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 141 Bangladeshi residents living in arsenic endemic areas with the mean arsenic exposure of 14.10 ± 3.27 years were selected as study subjects and split into tertile groups based on three water arsenic concentrations: low ( 265 μg/L. Study subjects were further sub-divided into two groups (≤50 μg/L and > 50 μg/L based on the recommended upper limit of water arsenic concentration (50 μg/L in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from the study subjects by venipuncture and arsenic concentrations in drinking water, hair and nail samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS. PChE activity was assayed by spectrophotometer. Results Arsenic concentrations in hair and nails were positively correlated with the arsenic levels in drinking water. Significant decreases in PChE activity were observed with increasing concentrations of arsenic in water, hair and nails. The average levels of PChE activity in low, medium and high arsenic exposure groups were also significantly different between each group. Lower levels of PChE activity were also observed in the > 50 μg/L group compared to the ≤50 μg/L group. Moreover, PChE activity was

  8. Multi-site assessment of the precision and reproducibility of multiple reaction monitoring–based measurements of proteins in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addona, Terri A; Abbatiello, Susan E; Schilling, Birgit; Skates, Steven J; Mani, D R; Bunk, David M; Spiegelman, Clifford H; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Ham, Amy-Joan L; Keshishian, Hasmik; Hall, Steven C; Allen, Simon; Blackman, Ronald K; Borchers, Christoph H; Buck, Charles; Cardasis, Helene L; Cusack, Michael P; Dodder, Nathan G; Gibson, Bradford W; Held, Jason M; Hiltke, Tara; Jackson, Angela; Johansen, Eric B; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Li, Jing; Mesri, Mehdi; Neubert, Thomas A; Niles, Richard K; Pulsipher, Trenton C; Ransohoff, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Rudnick, Paul A; Smith, Derek; Tabb, David L; Tegeler, Tony J; Variyath, Asokan M; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo J; Wahlander, Åsa; Waldemarson, Sofia; Wang, Mu; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Lei; Anderson, N Leigh; Fisher, Susan J; Liebler, Daniel C; Paulovich, Amanda G; Regnier, Fred E; Tempst, Paul; Carr, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Verification of candidate biomarkers relies upon specific, quantitative assays optimized for selective detection of target proteins, and is increasingly viewed as a critical step in the discovery pipeline that bridges unbiased biomarker discovery to preclinical validation. Although individual laboratories have demonstrated that multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry can quantify candidate protein biomarkers in plasma, reproducibility and transferability of these assays between laboratories have not been demonstrated. We describe a multilaboratory study to assess reproducibility, recovery, linear dynamic range and limits of detection and quantification of multiplexed, MRM-based assays, conducted by NCI-CPTAC. Using common materials and standardized protocols, we demonstrate that these assays can be highly reproducible within and across laboratories and instrument platforms, and are sensitive to low µg/ml protein concentrations in unfractionated plasma. We provide data and benchmarks against which individual laboratories can compare their performance and evaluate new technologies for biomarker verification in plasma. PMID:19561596

  9. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  10. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Decomposition mechanism of trichloroethylene based on by-product distribution in the hybrid barrier discharge plasma process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang-Bo [Industry Applications Research Laboratory, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Kyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Oda, Tetsuji [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    The hybrid barrier discharge plasma process combined with ozone decomposition catalysts was studied experimentally for decomposing dilute trichloroethylene (TCE). Based on the fundamental experiment for catalytic activities on ozone decomposition, MnO{sub 2} was selected for application in the main experiments for its higher catalytic abilities than other metal oxides. A lower initial TCE concentration existed in the working gas; the larger ozone concentration was generated from the barrier discharge plasma treatment. Near complete decomposition of dichloro-acetylchloride (DCAC) into Cl{sub 2} and CO{sub x} was observed for an initial TCE concentration of less than 250 ppm. C=C {pi} bond cleavage in TCE gave a carbon single bond of DCAC through oxidation reaction during the barrier discharge plasma treatment. Those DCAC were easily broken in the subsequent catalytic reaction. While changing oxygen concentration in working gas, oxygen radicals in the plasma space strongly reacted with precursors of DCAC compared with those of trichloro-acetaldehyde. A chlorine radical chain reaction is considered as a plausible decomposition mechanism in the barrier discharge plasma treatment. The potential energy of oxygen radicals at the surface of the catalyst is considered as an important factor in causing reactive chemical reactions.

  12. An empirical model of the topside plasma density around 600 km based on ROCSAT-1 and Hinotori observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing

    2015-05-01

    It is an urgent task to improve the ability of ionospheric empirical models to more precisely reproduce the plasma density variations in the topside ionosphere. Based on the Republic of China Satellite 1 (ROCSAT-1) observations, we developed a new empirical model of topside plasma density around 600 km under relatively quiet geomagnetic conditions. The model reproduces the ROCSAT-1 plasma density observations with a root-mean-square-error of 0.125 in units of lg(Ni(cm-3)) and reasonably describes the temporal and spatial variations of plasma density at altitudes in the range from 550 to 660 km. The model results are also in good agreement with observations from Hinotori, Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigations/Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellites and the incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo. Further, we combined ROCSAT-1 and Hinotori data to improve the ROCSAT-1 model and built a new model (R&H model) after the consistency between the two data sets had been confirmed with the original ROCSAT-1 model. In particular, we studied the solar activity dependence of topside plasma density at a fixed altitude by R&H model and find that its feature slightly differs from the case when the orbit altitude evolution is ignored. In addition, the R&H model shows the merging of the two crests of equatorial ionization anomaly above the F2 peak, while the IRI_Nq topside option always produces two separate crests in this range of altitudes.

  13. Degradation of imidazolium-based ionic liquids in aqueous solution using plasma electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.; Chen, L.; He, Y.Y.; Yan, Z.C., E-mail: zcyan@scut.edu.cn; Zheng, X.J.

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • More than 95% of imidazolium-based ILs was degraded within 120 min by means of PE. • The removal efficiency decreased as the order [Cl]{sup −} > [Br]{sup −} > [Ac]{sup −} ≈ [BF{sub 4}]{sup −}. • [C{sub 2}mim]Cl was the most stable compared to [C{sub 4}mim]Cl and [C{sub 6}mim]Cl. • The initial concentration of ILs was found to affect the degradation efficiency. • The imidazole ring was oxidized and then broken to form small molecular compounds. -- Abstract: A novel method of degrading imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) in wastewater using plasma electrolysis (PE) was proposed. The advantage of the PE method was that the ILs acted as both pollutant and electrolyte in the system. Results indicated that ILs with initial concentrations of 1.0–4.0 g/100 mL readily decomposed under an applied voltage of 600 V within 120 min. The anion and alkyl chain lengths of the ILs, discharge time, and post-treatment time were also found to be significant, and the degradation could be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. Moreover, the energy efficiency of PE for degradation was calculated. The energy yield was generally higher than 2.0 g/kWh, which is approximately 100 times that of the degradation of methyl orange. The oxygen atom, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide produced by PE were important in the oxidation and cleavage of the ILs, and the degradation pathway of the imidazolium-based ILs was investigated using IC, FT-IR, NMR, and GC–MS techniques.

  14. Study of crystalline thin films and nanofibers by means of the laser–plasma EUV-source based microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachulak, P.W.; Bartnik, A.; Baranowska-Korczyc, A.; Pánek, D.; Brůža, P.; Kostecki, J.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.; Fronc, K.; Elbaum, D.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2013-01-01

    New developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology require nanometer scale resolution imaging tools and techniques such as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) microscopy, based on Fresnel zone plates. In this paper, we report on applications of a desk-top microscopy using a laser-plasma EUV source based on a gas-puff target for studies of morphology of thin silicon membranes coated with NaCl crystals and samples composed of ZnO nanofibers

  15. Automated Sample Preparation Platform for Mass Spectrometry-Based Plasma Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilém Guryča

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of novel biomarkers from human plasma remains a critical need in order to develop and monitor drug therapies for nearly all disease areas. The discovery of novel plasma biomarkers is, however, significantly hampered by the complexity and dynamic range of proteins within plasma, as well as the inherent variability in composition from patient to patient. In addition, it is widely accepted that most soluble plasma biomarkers for diseases such as cancer will be represented by tissue leakage products, circulating in plasma at low levels. It is therefore necessary to find approaches with the prerequisite level of sensitivity in such a complex biological matrix. Strategies for fractionating the plasma proteome have been suggested, but improvements in sensitivity are often negated by the resultant process variability. Here we describe an approach using multidimensional chromatography and on-line protein derivatization, which allows for higher sensitivity, whilst minimizing the process variability. In order to evaluate this automated process fully, we demonstrate three levels of processing and compare sensitivity, throughput and reproducibility. We demonstrate that high sensitivity analysis of the human plasma proteome is possible down to the low ng/mL or even high pg/mL level with a high degree of technical reproducibility.

  16. Plasma shape reconstruction of merging spherical tokamak based on modified CCS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Itagaki, Masafumi; McNamara, Steven

    2017-10-01

    The merging start-up method is the one of the CS-free start-up schemes that has the advantage of high plasma temperature and density because it involves reconnection heating and compression processes. In order to achieve optimal merging operations, the initial two STs should have identical plasma currents and shapes, and then move symmetrically toward the center of the device with appropriate velocity. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of the compression effect, controlling the plasma major radius is also important. To realize the active feedback control of the plasma currents, the positions, and the shapes of the two initial STs and to optimize the plasma parameters described above, accurate estimation of the plasma boundary shape is highly important. In the present work, the Modified-CCS method is demonstrated to reconstruct the plasma boundary shapes as well as the eddy current profiles in the UTST (The University of Tokyo) and ST40 device (Tokamak Energy Ltd). The present research results demonstrate the effectiveness of the M-CCS method in the reconstruction analyses of ST merging.

  17. Effects of trimethylsilane plasma coating on the hydrophobicity of denture base resin and adhesion of Candida albicans on resin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshuang; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Hottel, Timothy; Babu, Jegdish; Yu, Qingsong

    2017-12-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal lesion among denture wearers. Trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coating may inhibit the growth of Candida albicans on denture surfaces. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate whether TMS plasma coatings can effectively reduce C albicans adhesion on denture base acrylic resin surfaces. Sixty denture base acrylic resin disks with smooth and rough surfaces were prepared and were either left untreated (control group) or coated with TMS monomer (experimental group) by using plasma. Contact angles were measured immediately after TMS plasma coating. The morphology of C albicans adhesion was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to characterize the elemental composition of the specimen surface. An adhesion test was performed by incubating the resin disk specimens in C albicans suspensions (1×10 7 cells/mL) at 37°C for 24 hours and further measuring the optical density of the C albicans by using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay test. One-way ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA were followed by a post hoc test analysis (α=.05). The group with TMS coating exhibited a more hydrophobic surface than the control group. EDS analysis revealed successful TMS plasma coating. The difference in the mean contact angles between the uncoated group and the TMS-coated group was statistically significant (Pcoating than on the surfaces of the experimental group. In the adhesion test, the amount of C albicans adhering to the surface of denture base resin with the TMS coating was significantly less than that on the surfaces without TMS coating (Pcoating significantly reduced the adhesion of C albicans to the denture base resin and may reduce denture stomatitis. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Local and System Level Considerations for Plasma-Based Techniques in Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Charles; Gaitonde, Datta

    2007-01-01

    The harsh environment encountered due to hypersonic flight, particularly when air-breathing propulsion devices are utilized, poses daunting challenges to successful maturation of suitable technologies. This has spurred the quest for revolutionary solutions, particularly those exploiting the fact that air under these conditions can become electrically conducting either naturally or through artificial enhancement. Optimized development of such concepts must emphasize not only the detailed physics by which the fluid interacts with the imposed electromagnetic fields, but must also simultaneously identify system level issues integration and efficiencies that provide the greatest leverage. This paper presents some recent advances at both levels. At the system level, an analysis is summarized that incorporates the interdependencies occurring between weight, power and flow field performance improvements. Cruise performance comparisons highlight how one drag reduction device interacts with the vehicle to improve range. Quantified parameter interactions allow specification of system requirements and energy consuming technologies that affect overall flight vehicle performance. Results based on on the fundamental physics are presented by distilling numerous computational studies into a few guiding principles. These highlight the complex non-intuitive relationships between the various fluid and electromagnetic fields, together with thermodynamic considerations. Generally, energy extraction is an efficient process, while the reverse is accompanied by significant dissipative heating and inefficiency. Velocity distortions can be detrimental to plasma operation, but can be exploited to tailor flows through innovative electromagnetic configurations.

  19. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10 -3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function

  20. Plasma sample based analysis of gastric cancer progression using targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, Sergio; Ramírez-Lázaro, Maria José; Sanjuan-Herráez, Daniel; Brunet-Vega, Anna; Pericay, Carles; Gombau, Lourdes; Junquera, Félix; Quintás, Guillermo; Calvet, Xavier

    2017-12-19

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process described as a stepwise progression from non-active gastritis (NAG), chronic active gastritis (CAG), precursor lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) and gastric adenocarcinoma. Gastric cancer (GC) 5-year survival rate is highly dependent upon stage of disease at diagnosis, which is based on endoscopy, biopsy and pathological examinations. Non-invasive GC biomarkers would facilitate its diagnosis at early stages leading to improved GC prognosis. We analyzed plasma samples collected from 80 patients diagnosed with NAG without H. pylori infection (NAG-), CAG with H. pylori infection (CAG+), PLGC and GC. A panel of 208 metabolites including acylcarnitines, amino acids and biogenic amines, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolites were quantified using two complementary quantitative approaches: Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ®p180 kit and a LC-MS method designed for the analysis of 29 tryptophan pathway and phenylalanine metabolites. Significantly altered metabolic profiles were found in GC patients that allowing discrimination from NAG-, CAG+ and PLGC patients. Pathway analysis showed significantly altered tryptophan and nitrogen metabolic pathways (FDR P < 0.01). Three metabolites (histidine, tryprophan and phenylacetylglutamine) discriminated between non-GC and GC groups. These metabolic signatures open new possibilities to improve surveillance of PLGC patients using a minimally invasive blood analysis.

  1. Assessment of read and write stability for 6T SRAM cell based on charge plasma DLTFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju; Yadav, Shivendra; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2018-03-01

    To overcome the process variations due to random dopant fluctuations (RDFs) and complex annealing techniques a charge plasma based doping less TFET (CP-DLTFET) device has been proposed for designing of 6T SRAM cell. The proposed device also benefited by subthreshold slope, low leakage current, and low power supply. In this paper, to avoid the dependency of stability parameters of SRAM cell to supply voltage (Vdd), here N-curve metrics has been analyzed to determine read and write stability. Because N-curve provides stability analysis in terms of voltage and current as well as it gives combine stability analysis with the facility of an inline tester. Further, analyzing the N-curve metrics for different Vdd, cell ratio, and pull-up ratio assist in designing the configuration of transistors for the better read and write stability. Power metrics of N-curve gives the knowledge about read and write stability instead of using four metrics (SINM, SVNM, WTV, and WTI) of N-curve. Finally, in the 6T CP-DLTFET SRAM cell, read and write stability is tested by the interface trap charges (ITCs). The performance parameter of the 6T CP-DLTFET SRAM cell provides considerable read and write stability with less fabrication complexity.

  2. Microstructure and corrosive wear resistance of plasma sprayed Ni-based coatings after TIG remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianshun, Dong; Xiukai, Zhou; Guolu, Li; Li, Liu; Ran, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Ni based coatings were prepared on steel substrate by means of plasma spraying, and were remelted by TIG (tungsten inert gas arc) method subsequently. The microstructure, microhardness, electrochemical corrosion and corrosive wear resistance under PH = 4, PH = 7 and PH = 10 conditions of the coatings before and after remelting were investigated. The results showed that the TIG remelting obviously reduced the defects and dramatically decreased the coating’s porosity from 7.2% to 0.4%. Metallurgical bonding between the remelted coating and substrate was achieved. Meanwhile, the phase compositions of as-sprayed coating were γ-Ni, Mn5Si2 and Cr2B, while the phase compositions of the remelting coating were Fe3Ni, Cr23C6, Cr2B and Mn5Si2. The microhardness of the coating decreased from 724 HV to 608 HV, but the fracture toughness enhanced from 2.80 MPa m1/2 to 197.3 MPa m1/2 after remelting. After corrosive wear test, the average wear weight loss and 3D morphology of wear scar of two coatings indicated that the wear resistance of the remelted coating was remarkably higher than that of as-sprayed coating. Therefore, TIG remelting treatment was a feasible method to improve the coating’s microstructure and enhance its corrosive wear resistance.

  3. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijun; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Dongbin; Ren, Shubin; Qu, Xuanhui

    Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20-110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process.

  4. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10-3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function.

  5. A development of laser-plasma-based soft x-ray microscope system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyong Woo; Kim, Kyu Gyeom; Kwon, Young Man; Yoon, Kwon Ha [X-ray Microscopy Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Soft x-ray nano-imaging microscopy system for biomedical application with a high resolution about 50 nm has been designed and described, and its integrated techniques also have been studied. The system is mainly composed of soft x-ray generation system, nano-scaled control system, x-ray optical device like a condenser or object mirror, a CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate (MCP) and vacuum system. In the system, soft x-ray is generated from the laser-based plasma by focusing Nd:YAG laser beam on tantalum (Ta) target. In an x-ray optical system, a wolter mirror has been considering condensing the x-ray beam on a biological specimen and zone plate was adapted as an object mirror. A Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was used as specimen holder for keeping a biological sample alive in atmosphere conditions. A back-illuminated-CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate was determined to set up.

  6. X-ray radiation source based on a plasma filled diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar, A S [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    The results are given of studies on a plasma X-ray source providing 2.5 krad of radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm{sup 2} in the quantum energy range between 20 and 500 keV. The pulse duration was 100 ns. The spectral radiation distribution was obtained under various operating conditions of plasma and diode. A Marx generator served as the starting power source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4=10{sup -6} s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10{sup -7} s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  7. 2 D gel based analysis of biological variability of the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, Maria Louise; Jessen, Flemming

    individuals and within an individual changes will also happen over time (e.g. after meal intake). Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the inter-individual variability of plasma protein levels in humans after meal intake. Five subjects consumed three single meals in a randomised order separated...... by one-week interval. Blood samples were drawn before the meal intake and five times during 24 hours for proteome analysis. Plasma was fractionated by use of IgY-12 spin column depleting the 12 highly abundant proteins and further processed for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The plasma proteome...

  8. Surface chemistry of carbon removal from indium tin oxide by base and plasma treatment, with implications on hydroxyl termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, John A.; Koh, Sharon E.; Dulcey, Charles S.; Pehrsson, Pehr E.

    2003-01-01

    The surface chemistry of carbon removal from indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and high-resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HR-ELS). A vibrating Kelvin probe (KP) was used to monitor the work function (PHI) of ITO after cleaning, either by base-cleaning with alcoholic-KOH or by O 2 plasma-cleaning. Base-cleaning lowered PHI ITO as seen in the KP analysis, whereas plasma-cleaning slightly increased PHI ITO by an oxidative process. The degree of PHI ITO depression by base-cleaning was seen to depend on the initial surface, but the PHI depression itself was nonreductive to the ITO, as seen in the In-MNN AES lineshape. The nonreductive depression of PHI ITO by base-cleaning was further supported by a constant charge carrier density, as estimated from the HR-ELS. Base-cleaning was slightly more effective than the oxygen plasma in removing carbon from the ITO surface. However, base-cleaning preferentially removed graphitic carbon while leaving significant hydrocarbon contaminants, as determined by vibrational analysis with HREELS. All other ITO surfaces retained a significant carbon and hydrocarbon contamination as evidenced by AES and HREELS. There was little evidence of the formation of surface hydroxyl species, as expected for such an inherently contaminated surface as ITO

  9. En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators; En Route: Elektronenbeschleuniger der naechsten Generation auf Laser-Plasma-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidding, Bernhard

    2008-05-15

    Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to {approx}50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the {approx}80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10{sup 19}W=cm{sup 2} into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via 'bubble acceleration', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations

  10. Carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of a cancer biomarker in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Marion; Ahmad, Lama; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa; Salmon, Laurent

    2017-10-15

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is a tumor-secreted cytokine that stimulates tumor cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. AMF could be detected in serum or urine of cancer patients with worse prognosis. Reported as a cancer biomarker, AMF secretion into body fluids might be closely related to metastases formation. In this study, a sensitive and specific carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor was designed for the detection and quantification of a protein model of AMF, namely phosphoglucose isomerase from rabbit muscle (RmPGI). Indeed, RmPGI displays high homology with AMF and has been shown to have AMF activity. The biosensor was constructed by covalent binding of the enzyme substrate d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). Immobilization was achieved on a gold surface electrode following a bottom-up approach through an aminated surface obtained by electrochemical patterning of ethylene diamine and terminal amine polyethylene glycol chain to prevent non-specific interactions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions were quantified in a range of 10 fM to 100nM. Complex formation was analyzed through monitoring of the redox couple Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and square wave voltammetry. The F6P-biosensor demonstrates a detection limit of 6.6 fM and high selectivity when compared to other non-specific glycolytic proteins such as d-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Detection of protein in spiked plasma was demonstrated and accuracy of 95% is obtained compared to result obtained in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). F6P-biosensor is a very promising proof of concept required for the design of a carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor using the enzyme substrate as bioreceptor. Such biosensor could be generalized to detect other protein biomarkers of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Traveling magnetopause distortion related to a large-scale magnetosheath plasma jet: THEMIS and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Suvorova, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a case study of THEMIS and ground-based observations of the perturbed dayside magnetopause and the geomagnetic field in relation to the interaction of an interplanetary directional discontinuity (DD) with the magnetosphere on 16 June 2007. The interaction resulted in a large-scale local magnetopause distortion of an "expansion - compression - expansion" (ECE) sequence that lasted for ˜15 min. The compression was caused by a very dense, cold, and fast high-βmagnetosheath plasma flow, a so-called plasma jet, whose kinetic energy was approximately three times higher than the energy of the incident solar wind. The plasma jet resulted in the effective penetration of magnetosheath plasma inside the magnetosphere. A strong distortion of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the ECE sequence generated a tripolar magnetic pulse "decrease - peak- decrease" (DPD) that was observed at low and middle latitudes by some ground-based magnetometers of the INTERMAGNET network. The characteristics of the ECE sequence and the spatial-temporal dynamics of the DPD pulse were found to be very different from any reported patterns of DD interactions with the magnetosphere. The observed features only partially resembled structures such as FTE, hot flow anomalies, and transient density events. Thus, it is difficult to explain them in the context of existing models.

  12. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Tsiolko, V. V.; Pogulay, S. S.; Terent'yeva, A. G.; Bazhenov, V. Yu; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Kuzmichev, A. I.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2 O5 and NO3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm-3. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2O5 and NO3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  13. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloshenko, I A; Tsiolko, V V; Pogulay, S S; Terent'yeva, A G; Bazhenov, V Yu; Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Kuzmichev, A I

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O 3 , HNO 3 , HNO 2 , N 2 O 5 and NO 3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm -3 . It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O 3 , HNO 3 , HNO 2 , N 2 O 5 and NO 3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values

  14. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  15. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolat, Sami; Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N 2 /H 2 PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH 3 PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N 2 :H 2 ambient

  16. Plasma Protein Turnover Rates in Rats Using Stable Isotope Labeling, Global Proteomics, and Activity-Based Protein Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Tyrrell, Kimberly J.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Murphree, Taylor A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Luders, Teresa; Madden, James M.; Li, Yunying; Wright, Aaron T.; Piehowski, Paul D.

    2017-12-06

    Protein turnover is important for general health on cellular and organism scales providing a strategy to replace old, damaged, or dysfunctional proteins. Protein turnover also informs of biomarker kinetics, as a better understanding of synthesis and degradation of proteins increases the clinical utility of biomarkers. Here, turnover rates of plasma proteins in rats were measured in vivo using a pulse-chase stable isotope labeling experiment. During the pulse, rats (n=5) were fed 13C6-labeled lysine (“heavy”) feed for 23 days to label proteins. During the chase, feed was changed to an unlabeled equivalent feed (“light”), and blood was repeatedly sampled from rats over 10 time points for 28 days. Plasma samples were digested with trypsin, and analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MaxQuant was used to identify peptides and proteins, and quantify heavy:light lysine ratios. A system of ordinary differential equations was used to calculate protein turnover rates. Using this approach, 273 proteins were identified, and turnover rates were quantified for 157 plasma proteins with half-lives ranging 0.3-103 days. For the ~70 most abundant proteins, variability in turnover rates among rats was low (median coefficient of variation: 0.09). Activity-based protein profiling was applied to pooled plasma samples to enrich serine hydrolases using a fluorophosphonate (FP2) activity-based probe. This enrichment resulted in turnover rates for an additional 17 proteins. This study is the first to measure global plasma protein turnover rates in rats in vivo, measure variability of protein turnover rates in any animal model, and utilize activity-based protein profiling for enhancing measurements of targeted, low-abundant proteins, such as those commonly used as biomarkers. Measured protein turnover rates will be important for understanding of the role of protein turnover in cellular and organism health as well as increasing the utility of protein

  17. Plasma parameter estimations for the Large Helical Device based on the gyro-reduced Bohm scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masao; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Sugama, Hideo.

    1991-10-01

    A model of gyro-reduced Bohm scaling law is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport code to predict plasma parameters for the Large Helical Device (LHD). The transport code calculations reproduce well the LHD empirical scaling law and basic parameters and profiles of the LHD plasma are calculated. The amounts of toroidal currents (bootstrap current and beam-driven current) are also estimated. (author)

  18. Identification of plasma biomarker candidates in glioblastoma using an antibody-array-based proteomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupancic, Klemen; Blejec, Andrej; Herman, Ana; Veber, Matija; Verbovsek, Urska; Korsic, Marjan; Knezevic, Miomir; Rozman, Primoz; Turnsek, Tamara Lah; Gruden, Kristina; Motaln, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a brain tumour with a very high patient mortality rate, with a median survival of 47 weeks. This might be improved by the identification of novel diagnostic, prognostic and predictive therapy-response biomarkers, preferentially through the monitoring of the patient blood. The aim of this study was to define the impact of GBM in terms of alterations of the plasma protein levels in these patients. We used a commercially available antibody array that includes 656 antibodies to analyse blood plasma samples from 17 healthy volunteers in comparison with 17 blood plasma samples from patients with GBM. We identified 11 plasma proteins that are statistically most strongly associated with the presence of GBM. These proteins belong to three functional signalling pathways: T-cell signalling and immune responses; cell adhesion and migration; and cell-cycle control and apoptosis. Thus, we can consider this identified set of proteins as potential diagnostic biomarker candidates for GBM. In addition, a set of 16 plasma proteins were significantly associated with the overall survival of these patients with GBM. Guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAO1) was associated with both GBM presence and survival of patients with GBM. Antibody array analysis represents a useful tool for the screening of plasma samples for potential cancer biomarker candidates in small-scale exploratory experiments; however, clinical validation of these candidates requires their further evaluation in a larger study on an independent cohort of patients

  19. Fluorescence interference contrast based approach to study real time interaction of melittin with plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Gui, Dong; Zandi, Roya; Gill, Sarjeet; Mohideen, Umar

    2014-03-01

    Melittin is an anti-bacterial and hemolytic toxic peptide found in bee venom. Cell lysis behavior of peptides has been widely investigated, but the exact interaction mechanism of lytic peptides with lipid membranes and its constituents has not been understood completely. In this paper we study the melittin interaction with lipid plasma membranes in real time using non-invasive and non-contact fluorescence interference contrast microscopy (FLIC). Particularly the interaction of melittin with plasma membranes was studied in a controlled molecular environment, where these plasma membrane were composed of saturated lipid, 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) and unsaturated lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(DOPC) with and without cholesterol. We found out that melittin starts to form nanometer size pores in the plasma membranes shortly after interacting with membranes. But the addition of cholesterol in plasma membrane slows down the pore formation process. Our results show that inclusion of cholesterol to the plasma membranes make them more resilient towards pore formation and lysis of membrane.

  20. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B. M.; Hsiao, M. C.; Bardsley, J. N.; Merritt, B. T.; Vogtin, G. E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C. P.; Bayless, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process.There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non- thermal plasma processing of volatile organic compounds. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non-thermal plasma reactors. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiently it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the volatile organic compounds. This paper will present results from basic experimental and theoretical studies aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of volatile organic compounds. (authors)

  1. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L W; Zhang, H Y; Wu, L; Shu, S; Xia, C; Xu, C; Zheng, J S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of plasma samples from cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis. According to clinical signs and 3-hydroxybutyrate plasma levels, 81 multiparous Holstein cows were selected from a dairy farm 7 to 21 d after calving. The cows were divided into 3 groups: cows with clinical ketosis, cows with subclinical ketosis, and healthy control cows. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to assess the plasma metabolic profiles of the 3 groups. The data were analyzed by principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differences in metabolites among the 3 groups were assessed. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model differentiated the 3 groups of plasma samples. The model predicted clinical ketosis with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. In the case of subclinical ketosis, the model had a sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 95.7%. Twenty-five metabolites, including acetoacetate, acetone, lactate, glucose, choline, glutamic acid, and glutamine, were different among the 3 groups. Among the 25 metabolites, 4 were upregulated, 7 were downregulated, and 14 were both upregulated and downregulated. The results indicated that plasma (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics, coupled with pattern recognition analytical methods, not only has the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis from healthy controls, but also has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful diagnostic tool that could contribute to a further understanding of the disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  3. Pilot test and optimization of plasma based DeNO{sub x}. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamate, E.; Chen, W.; Michelsen, P.K. (Risoe DTU. PLF, Roskilde (Denmark)); Joergensen, L.; Jensen, T.K.; Kristensen, P.G.; Tobiasen, L.; Simonsen, P. (Dansk Gasteknisk Center, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-12-15

    A technique for NO{sub x} reduction for combustion processes was examined. The technique is based on injecting ozone into the NO{sub x} containing flue gas where it will react with NO{sub x}, forming an anhydride of nitric acid, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}. N{sub 2}O{sub 5} is easily removed later using a water scrubber. The technique was tested on a gas engine based CHP unit and a CHP unit based on a straw-fired boiler and a steam turbine. It was found that: 1) NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by more than 95 % by adding ozone to the flue gas; 2) The technique is applicable on flue gas from biomass combustion despite the presence of compounds such as SO{sub 2} and HCl; 3) Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions requires approximately half as much O{sub 3} when it is applied to the natural gas fired engine unit compared to the straw-fired boiler unit; 4) The higher O{sub 3} consumption on straw-fired units is due both to higher flue gas temperature and to larger NO{sub x} fluctuations in the flue gas compared to the gas engine unit; 5) For the gas engine unit the formaldehyde emission was reduced by 60%; 6) SO{sub 2} emissions are eliminated by the deNO{sub x} unit. It can be concluded that at present the plasma deNO{sub x} process suffers from too high capital and operating costs and too low plant operating time to be an attractive alternative for gas engine CHP plants. Furthermore, there is only a small gap of approx. 25 % between the specific ozone consumption obtained at the pilot test in Ringsted and the theoretically achievable value. This difference is too small to have a major impact on process economy in case of an optimized deNO{sub x} process. At straw fired plants the technology tends to be more promising for several reasons: 1) Significant potential for optimizing specific ozone consumption. 2) Larger NO{sub x} reduction due to the fact that higher concentration levels in the flue gas generate higher income from e.g. fertilizer sales. 3) Reduced or zero SO{sub 2

  4. Spark plasma sintered bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials incorporating dispersed boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.R., E-mail: hugo.williams@leicester.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chen, K. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Friedman, U. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ning, H.; Reece, M.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Robbins, M.C.; Simpson, K. [European Thermodynamics Ltd., 8 Priory Business Park, Wistow Road, Kibworth LE8 0R (United Kingdom); Stephenson, K. [European Space Agency, ESTEC TEC-EP, Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Nano-B{sub 4}C reinforced Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} p-type thermoelectric produced by SPS. • Addition of B{sub 4}C up to 0.2 vol% to SPS’d material has little effect on zT. • Vickers hardness improved by 27% by adding 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C. • Fracture toughness of SPS material: K{sub IC} = 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by SEVNB. • Mechanical properties much better than commercial directionally solidified material. - Abstract: The mechanical properties of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric materials have received much less attention in the literature than their thermoelectric properties. Polycrystalline p-type Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} materials were produced from powder using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of nano-B{sub 4}C addition on the thermoelectric performance, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured. Addition of 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C was found to have little effect on zT but increased hardness by approximately 27% when compared to polycrystalline material without B{sub 4}C. The K{sub IC} fracture toughness of these compositions was measured as 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by Single-Edge V-Notched Beam (SEVNB). The machinability of polycrystalline materials produced by SPS was significantly better than commercially available directionally solidified materials because the latter is limited by cleavage along the crystallographic plane parallel to the direction of solidification.

  5. Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2015-12-01

    BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.M., E-mail: rogerio@plasma.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, B.B.; Carreri, F.C.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M.M.N.F. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, M.M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Pichon, L. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, University of Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Camargo, E.N.; Otubo, J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very rich nitrogen atomic concentration was achieved on the top surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved tribological and corrosion properties were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A concentration dependent diffusion coefficient was calculated. - Abstract: The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 {mu}s, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

  7. INR calibration of Owren-type prothrombin time based on the relationship between PT% and INR utilizing normal plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Egberg, Nils; Hillarp, Andreas; Ødegaard, Ole R; Edlund, Bror; Svensson, Jan; Sandset, Per M; Rånby, Mats

    2004-06-01

    Prothrombin time (PT) is clinically important and is used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy. To obtain PT results in international normalized ratio (INR), the current standardization procedure is complex and involves reference reagents. The PT of diluted plasma samples can be determined with a combined thromboplastin (the Owren-type procedure), but not necessarily with a plain thromboplastin (the Quick-type procedure). Owren-type PT procedures can therefore, as an alternative to the INR calibration, be calibrated with diluted normal plasma to give PT results in percent of normal PT activity (PT%). The present study explored if a plasma-based calibration of an Owren-type PT procedure can be used to obtain results in INR. The approach was to establish a relationship between PT% and INR by multi-center analysis of 365 samples from healthy individuals and patients on warfarin treatment. INR values were obtained by manual Quick-type reference procedure and PT% values by various automated Owren-type procedures. A relationship INR = (1/PT% + 0.018)/0.028 was found. A calibration procedure, based on the relationship, was investigated. Calibrators were the median PT of 21 normal plasma at dilutions representing 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of normal PT activity. These were assigned INR values of 1.00, 1.36, 2.07, 3.05 and 6.36. Calibration of various Owren-type assays was repeatedly performed by 5 expert laboratories during 3 consecutive years. The INR values of certain lyophilised or frozen control plasmas were determined. The frozen control plasmas had externally assigned INR values according to WHO guide-lines. Within the laboratory, CV was typically below 3%. No appreciable difference among the results of the different laboratories or the three assay occasions was found. Externally assigned and INR values were essentially identical to those found. These and other results indicated that the calibration procedure was reproducible, precise and accurate. Thus, an

  8. Characterization of nickel-based C276 alloy coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on different steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L.S.; Graf, K.; Scheid, A., E-mail: scheid@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nickel-based coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) for protection of components are widely applied to withstand operations under corrosion in different media. This paper characterized Nickel-based C276 alloy coatings obtained by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on two different substrates, AISI 316L and API 5L X70 steels, correlating their features to hardness. Coatings were deposited utilizing three different intensity current levels, 120, 150 and 180 A and were characterized by optical, Laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness profiles on transversal section were carried out. Produced coatings exhibited a microstructure of austenite (FCC) dendrites with interdendritic regions with carbides. Dilution levels from 4,9 to 41,5 % leaded to hardness ranging from 225 to 283 HV{sub 0,5}, showing coatings dependence on intensity current level and substrate. (author)

  9. Characterization of nickel-based C276 alloy coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on different steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.S.; Graf, K.; Scheid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-based coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) for protection of components are widely applied to withstand operations under corrosion in different media. This paper characterized Nickel-based C276 alloy coatings obtained by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on two different substrates, AISI 316L and API 5L X70 steels, correlating their features to hardness. Coatings were deposited utilizing three different intensity current levels, 120, 150 and 180 A and were characterized by optical, Laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness profiles on transversal section were carried out. Produced coatings exhibited a microstructure of austenite (FCC) dendrites with interdendritic regions with carbides. Dilution levels from 4,9 to 41,5 % leaded to hardness ranging from 225 to 283 HV_0_,_5, showing coatings dependence on intensity current level and substrate. (author)

  10. Effects of low pressure plasma treatments on DSSCs based on rutile TiO2 array photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weiqi; Chen, Jiazang; Luo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yuzhi; Gao, Lian; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Plasma treatment effects on rutile nanorod arrays studied. • Dye adsorption amount increased by all plasma treatment. • Flat-band potential positively shifted after NP and OP treatments. • Cell performance improved by NP and OP treatments. - Abstract: In this paper, three types of low pressure plasma including hydrogen (HP), oxygen (OP) and nitrogen (NP) treatments have been utilized for the first time to improve DSSCs based on rutile TiO 2 array photoanodes. Their effects on the photoanodes and the cell performance have been systematically compared by characterizing the dye loading amount, flat-band potential, donor concentration, electron lifetime and the photovoltaic parameters. Experimental results show that all the three plasma treatments increase the dye loading owing to improved hydrophilicity or enhanced surface roughness. It is found that NP and OP treatments significantly increase the TiO 2 donor concentration and decrease trapping sites. By this way, the electron transport is enhanced and the electron recombination is effectively restrained. These comprehensive effects make NP and OP treatments beneficial for the overall performance, by which 13% and 5% increases in efficiency are achieved. However, HP treatment causes obvious reduction in the donor concentration and more severe electron recombination, which decreases the efficiency by about 15%

  11. Chromium-based metal-organic framework MIL-101 as a highly effective catalyst in plasma for toluene removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Xia, Qibin; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Catalytic performance of MIL-101—a type of chromium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)—in a plasma catalysis system for toluene removal was experimentally studied. The MIL-101 was synthesized using a hydrothermal method, and its catalytic performance was compared to two other catalysts, Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Results showed that the presence of a catalyst in plasma changed the voltage and current characteristic substantially, and promoted the performance of the plasma reactor. Among the catalysts, the MIL-101 exhibited a significantly high toluene conversion, which was 20% and 35% higher than Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, respectively, under the same testing conditions, as well as higher carbon balance and CO2 selectivity. The analysis of by-products on the surfaces of the catalysts before and after reaction demonstrated that MIL-101 had better resistance towards by-products accumulation compared to Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. The loading of MnO x on MIL-101 further promoted its catalytic performance. MIL-101 exhibits attractive catalytic properties as a catalyst in a plasma catalysis system for the decomposition of volatile organic compounds.

  12. Chromium-based metal-organic framework MIL-101 as a highly effective catalyst in plasma for toluene removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Junliang; Xia, Qibin; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Catalytic performance of MIL-101—a type of chromium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)—in a plasma catalysis system for toluene removal was experimentally studied. The MIL-101 was synthesized using a hydrothermal method, and its catalytic performance was compared to two other catalysts, Cr 2 O 3 / γ -Al 2 O 3 and γ -Al 2 O 3 , in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Results showed that the presence of a catalyst in plasma changed the voltage and current characteristic substantially, and promoted the performance of the plasma reactor. Among the catalysts, the MIL-101 exhibited a significantly high toluene conversion, which was 20% and 35% higher than Cr 2 O 3 / γ -Al 2 O 3 and γ -Al 2 O 3 , respectively, under the same testing conditions, as well as higher carbon balance and CO 2 selectivity. The analysis of by-products on the surfaces of the catalysts before and after reaction demonstrated that MIL-101 had better resistance towards by-products accumulation compared to Cr 2 O 3 / γ -Al 2 O 3 and γ -Al 2 O 3 . The loading of MnO x on MIL-101 further promoted its catalytic performance. MIL-101 exhibits attractive catalytic properties as a catalyst in a plasma catalysis system for the decomposition of volatile organic compounds. (paper)

  13. Ceramic Materials Selection of Fuel Crucibles based on Plasma Spray Coating for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jonghwan; Kim, Hyungtae; Ko, Youngmo; Woo, Yoonmyung; Oh, Seokjin; Kim, Kihwan; Lee, Chanbock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The plasma-sprayed coating can provide the crucible with a denser, more friable coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating, which was used to prevent the interaction between melt and crucibles. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense by the heat applied by the plasma. The increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent re coating and U-Zr melt penetration through the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating. In this study, we used Vacuum Plasma Spray method to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel onto niobium substrates. Niobium was selected as a substrate because of its refractory nature and the coefficient of thermal expansion is similar to that of many of the candidate materials. After the HfC, ZrC, TiC, TaC, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8% YSZ coatings were applied the resulting microstructure and chemical compositions was characterized to find the optimum process conditions for coating. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel, such as the U-Zr alloy proposed for sodium cooled fast reactors.

  14. Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I (Italy); Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania (Italy); Di Donato, L. [Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Isernia, T. [Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.

  15. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merrit, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to apply non-thermal in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non-thermal plasma processing of VOCs. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non-thermal plasma reactor. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiency it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the VOCs. This paper presents results from basic experimental and theoretical studied aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of VOCs. (Authors)

  16. High energy radiation precursors to the collapse of black holes binaries based on resonating plasma modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.

    2018-05-01

    The presence of well organized plasma structures around binary systems of collapsed objects [1,2] (black holes and neutron stars) is proposed in which processes can develop [3] leading to high energy electromagnetic radiation emission immediately before the binary collapse. The formulated theoretical model supporting this argument shows that resonating plasma collective modes can be excited in the relevant magnetized plasma structure. Accordingly, the collapse of the binary approaches, with the loss of angular momentum by emission of gravitational waves [2], the resonance conditions with vertically standing plasma density and magnetic field oscillations are met. Then, secondary plasma modes propagating along the magnetic field are envisioned to be sustained with mode-particle interactions producing the particle populations responsible for the observable electromagnetic radiation emission. Weak evidence for a precursor to the binary collapse reported in Ref. [2], has been offered by the Agile X-γ-ray observatory [4] while the August 17 (2017) event, identified first by the LIGO-Virgo detection of gravitational waves and featuring the inferred collapse of a neutron star binary, improves the evidence of such a precursor. A new set of experimental observations is needed to reassess the presented theory.

  17. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by TEC map based on ground-based GNSS receivers over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Diego; Takahashi, Hisao; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Figueiredo, Cosme Alexandre O. B.

    2018-01-01

    A ground-based network of GNSS receivers has been used to monitor equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) by mapping the total electron content (TEC map). The large coverage of the TEC map allowed us to monitor several EPBs simultaneously and get characteristics of the dynamics, extension and longitudinal distributions of the EPBs from the onset time until their disappearance. These characteristics were obtained by using TEC map analysis and the keogram technique. TEC map databases analyzed were for the period between November 2012 and January 2016. The zonal drift velocities of the EPBs showed a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 123 m s-1 at the Equator to 65 m s-1 for 35° S latitude. Consequently, observed EPBs are inclined against the geomagnetic field lines. Both zonal drift velocity and the inclination of the EPBs were compared to the thermospheric neutral wind, which showed good agreement. Moreover, the large two-dimensional coverage of TEC maps allowed us to study periodic EPBs with a wide longitudinal distance. The averaged values observed for the inter-bubble distances also presented a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 920 km at the Equator to 640 km at 30° S. The latitudinal gradient in the inter-bubble distances seems to be related to the difference in the zonal drift velocity of the EPB from the Equator to middle latitudes and to the difference in the westward movement of the terminator. On several occasions, the distances reached more than 2000 km. Inter-bubble distances greater than 1000 km have not been reported in the literature.

  18. Analysis of human blood plasma cell-free DNA fragment size distribution using EvaGreen chemistry based droplet digital PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2018-04-12

    Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragment size distribution provides important information required for diagnostic assay development. We have developed and optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays that quantify short and long DNA fragments. These assays were used to analyze plasma cfDNA fragment size distribution in human blood. Assays were designed to amplify 76,135, 490 and 905 base pair fragments of human β-actin gene. These assays were used for fragment size analysis of plasma cell-free, exosome and apoptotic body DNA obtained from normal and pregnant donors. The relative percentages for 76, 135, 490 and 905 bp fragments from non-pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 39%, 18%, 5.6% and 100%, 40%, 18%,3.3%, respectively. The relative percentages for pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 34%, 14%, 23%, and 100%, 30%, 12%, 18%, respectively. The relative percentages for non-pregnant plasma pellet (obtained after 2nd centrifugation step) were 100%, 100%, 87% and 83%, respectively. Non-pregnant Plasma cell-free and exosome DNA share a unique fragment distribution pattern which is different from pregnant donor plasma and exosome DNA fragment distribution indicating the effect of physiological status on cfDNA fragment size distribution. Fragment distribution pattern for plasma pellet that includes apoptotic bodies and nuclear DNA was greatly different from plasma cell-free and exosome DNA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaporation of Droplets in Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition Based on Energy Compensation Between Self-Cooling and Plasma Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-10-01

    In the plasma spray-physical vapor deposition process (PS-PVD), there is no obvious heating to the feedstock powders due to the free molecular flow condition of the open plasma jet. However, this is in contrast to recent experiments in which the molten droplets are transformed into vapor atoms in the open plasma jet. In this work, to better understand the heating process of feedstock powders in the open plasma jet of PS-PVD, an evaporation model of molten ZrO2 is established by examining the heat and mass transfer process of molten ZrO2. The results reveal that the heat flux in PS-PVD open plasma jet (about 106 W/m2) is smaller than that in the plasma torch nozzle (about 108 W/m2). However, the flying distance of molten ZrO2 in the open plasma jet is much longer than that in the plasma torch nozzle, so the heating in the open plasma jet cannot be ignored. The results of the evaporation model show that the molten ZrO2 can be partly evaporated by self-cooling, whereas the molten ZrO2 with a diameter <0.28 μm and an initial temperature of 3247 K can be completely evaporated within the axial distance of 450 mm by heat transfer.

  20. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

  1. An $ep$ collider based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, M.; Mete, O.; Aimidula, A.; Welsch, C.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Mandry, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. This scheme could lead to a future $ep$ collider using the LHC for the proton beam and a compact electron accelerator of length 170 m, producing electrons of energy up to 100 GeV. The parameters of such a collider are discussed as well as conceptual layouts within the CERN accelerator complex. The physics of plasma wakefield acceleration will also be introduced, with the AWAKE experiment, a proof of principle demonstration of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration, briefly reviewed, as well as the physics possibilities of such an $ep$ collider.

  2. Interaction of a tin-based capillary porous structure with ITER/DEMO relevant plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.W., E-mail: t.w.morgan@differ.nl; Bekerom, D.C.M. van den; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-08-15

    Sn filled capillary porous structures were exposed to high flux low temperature plasma conditions at the Pilot-PSI linear device. Enhanced erosion above that expected classically was investigated via spectroscopic observation of Sn{sup 0} emission from the plasma in front of the target surface while the surface temperature was monitored by both thermography and pyrometry. An anomalous erosion flux was observed as temperature increases, with onset for this occurrence varying strongly between different ion species. The results appear incompatible with existing ‘adatom’ models for the anomalous erosion flux. Further targets were exposed in turn to increasing heat fluxes and the heat removed determined from cooling water calorimetry, which was then compared to a solid Mo reference target. At high powers the total energy of the cooling water is reduced, indicating a shielding of the surface from the plasma heat flux by the vapour cloud in front.

  3. Unresolved transition array based water window soft x-ray source by laser-produced high-Z plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. At power densities available from 'table-top' solid-state lasers, comparison of emission from a number of targets has shown that 3d-4f UTA in zirconium plasmas have highest overall brightness and in an imaging system based on reflective multilayer mirrors, may, depending on bandwidth, have superior performance than either line or broader-band sources. (author)

  4. Membrane versus centrifuge-based therapeutic plasma exchange: a randomized prospective crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Carsten; Golla, Paulina; Gericke, Marion; Eden, Gabriele; Beutel, Gernot; Schmidt, Julius J; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; De Reys, Stef; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is either performed using a highly permeable filter with standard multifunctional renal replacement equipment (mTPE) or a centrifugation device (cTPE). Although both techniques are well established in clinical practice, performance of these two modes of TPE was never compared in a prospective randomized fashion. Thus we aimed to compare two commercially available therapeutic apheresis systems: mTPE (Octonova with Plasmaflo filter) and cTPE (Spectra Optia apheresis system). Twenty-one patients (age 51.6 ± 13.5 years; 10 F/11 M; BMI 25.1 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, paired, crossover study performed in the Hannover Medical School, Germany. First treatment (either mTPE or cTPE) was chosen by an online randomization list. The primary endpoints were plasma removal efficiency with 1.2× of the total plasma volume exchanged. Secondary endpoints were total amount of plasma substances removed, such as IgG and fibrinogen. Further, the treatment effect on platelet count and complications were evaluated. Despite a comparable volume of the processed plasma, mTPE treatment time was 10.5 % longer than cTPE treatment time (p centrifugal procedures were conducted using flow rates that could easily be obtained using peripheral access, plasma removal efficiency was significantly higher and treatment time was significantly lower in cTPE as compared to mTPE. Despite this lower treatment time, the decline in markers of procedure efficacy was comparable. Especially in centers performing many procedures per year, cTPE in contrast to mTPE can reduce treatment time without compromising treatment efficacy.

  5. Synchrotron radiation based on laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, F.

    2007-12-01

    This work illustrates the experimental characterization of a new compact X-ray source: the Betatron X-ray source. It is the first time that collimated hard X-ray source is produced by laser. Through the focusing of an ultra-intense laser radiation (30 TW, 30 fs) on a helium plasma, the ponderomotive force linked to the light intensity gradient expels the plasma electrons forming an accelerating cavity in the wake of the laser plasma. Some electrons trapped in the back of this structure, are accelerated and oscillate to produce X-radiation. This document is composed of 8 chapters. The first one is a presentation of the topic. The second chapter gives an account of the physics behind the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range and for ultra-short pulses. The third chapter presents the theoretical characteristics of the Betatron X-ray source. This chapter begins with an analogy with current synchrotron radiation and the radiation emitted by an electron undergoing Betatron oscillations is described in terms of power, spectral intensity and photon flux. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the numerical simulation of the Betatron radiation. The trajectories of the electrons are computed from the equation of motion, taking into account longitudinal and transverse forces. The radiation emission term is then computed from the radiation equation detailed in the previous chapter. The fifth chapter presents the experimental setting to produce Betatron X-rays. The sixth chapter gives the experimental characterization of the source (size, divergence and spectrum) on one hand, and on the other hand studies how source flux and spectra vary when laser and plasma parameters change. The seventh chapter presents experimental methods used to characterize the electrons trajectories in the plasma wiggler. The last chapter draws some perspectives on this source in terms of improvement and uses. (A.C.)

  6. Biosensor based on laccase immobilized on plasma polymerized allylamine/carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardhaoui, Malika, E-mail: malika.ardhaoui@ucd.ie [Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et Traitements de Surface, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Laboratoire Charles Friedel, CNRS UMR 7223, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Surface Engineering Research Group, School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bhatt, Sudhir [Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et Traitements de Surface, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Zheng, Meihui [Laboratoire Charles Friedel, CNRS UMR 7223, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dowling, Denis [Surface Engineering Research Group, School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jolivalt, Claude [Laboratoire Charles Friedel, CNRS UMR 7223, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Khonsari, Farzaneh Arefi [Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et Traitements de Surface, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    In this work, a simple and rapid method was used to functionalize carbon electrode in order to efficiently immobilize laccase for biosensor application. A stable allylamine coating was deposited using a low pressure inductively excited RF tubular plasma reactor under mild plasma conditions (low plasma power (10 W), few minutes) to generate high density amine groups (N/C ratio up to 0.18) on rough carbon surface electrodes. The longer was the allylamine plasma deposition time; the better was the surface coverage. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently bound to these allylamine modified carbon surfaces. The laccase activities and current outputs measured in the presence of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) showed that the best efficiency was obtained for electrode plasma coated during 30 min. They showed also that for all the tested electrodes, the activities and current outputs of the covalently immobilized laccases were twice higher than the physically adsorbed ones. The sensitivity of these biocompatible bioelectrodes was evaluated by measuring their catalytic efficiency for oxygen reduction in the presence of ABTS as non-phenolic redox substrate and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) as phenolic one. Sensitivities of around 4.8 μA mg{sup −1} L and 2.7 μA mg{sup −1} L were attained for ABTS and DMP respectively. An excellent stability of this laccase biosensor was observed for over 6 months. - Highlights: • Low pressure plasma was used to generate stable allylamine coating. • Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently immobilized. • Best biosensor efficiency obtained for the covalently immobilized laccases • Sensitivities of 4.8 μA mg{sup −1} L and 2.7 μA mg{sup −1} L for ABTS and DMP respectively.

  7. An ultra-high gain and efficient amplifier based on Raman amplification in plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vieux, Grégory; Cipiccia, S.; Grant, D.W.; Lemos, N.; Grant, P.; Ciocarlan, C.; Ersfeld, B.; Hur, M.S.; Lepipas, P.; Manahan, G.G.; Raj, G.; Reboredo Gil, D.; Subiel, A.; Welsh, G.H.; Wiggins, S.M.; Yoffe, S.R.; Farmer, J.P.; Aniculaesei, C.; Brunetti, E.; Yang, X.; Heathcote, R.; Nersisyan, G.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Pukhov, A.; Dias, J.M.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, May (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 2399. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-pulse amplification * beams * wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  8. Synthetic Plasma Liquid Based Electronic Circuits Realization-A Novel Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Killol V; Kosta, ShivPrasad

    2016-09-01

    Biomedical research is contributing significant role in the field of biomedical engineering and applied science. It brings research and innovations to a different level. This study investigated artificial human blood -synthetic plasma liquid as conductive medium. Keeping in mind the conductivity of synthetic plasma, astable multivibrator as well as differential amplifier circuit were demonstrated. The circuits were given normal input voltages at regular temperature and ideal conditions. The result shows desired response which supports the novel concept. For both the circuits, phase shift of 180° achieved by analysing biological electronic circuits.

  9. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  10. FORMATION AND RESEARCH OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA OXIDE COATINGS BASED ON ELEMENTS OF SCREEN METEROID PTOTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research for influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, plasmasupporting nitrogen gas consumption, fractional composition of an initial powder and cooling degree by compressed air on characteristics of anti-meteorite coatings, subsequent processing modes by pulsed plasma. Properties of the obtained coatings and results of ballistic tests have been given in the paper. The proposed methodology has been based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of anti-meteorite aluminum oxide coating. Optimization of air plasma spraying parameters for NiAl and Al2O3 materials has been carried out in the paper. The spraying parameters optimization has been executed on the basis of obtaining maximum materials utilization factor. Surface treatment of model screen elements with a double-layer composite coating (adhesive metal NiAl layer and hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 layer has been fulfilled while using compression plasma stream. Nitrogen has been used as working gas. Composite hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 coating is represented by porous structure consisting of 10–15 µm-size fused Al2O3 particles. Metallic inclusions formed due to erosion of plasmatron electrodes have been observed in the space between the particles. Surface of bilayer composite coatings has been processed by a compression plasma stream and due to nonsteady processes of melting and recrystallization high strength polycrystalline layer has been formed on their surface. In this context, those areas of the polycrystalline layer which had metal inclusions have appeared to be painted in various colors depending on chemical composition of the inclusions.

  11. Predictive Analysis for the Thermal Diffusion of the Plasma-Assisted Machining of Superalloy Inconel-718 Based on Exponential Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shao-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base and titanium base materials have been widely applied to engines in aerospace industry, and these engines are essential components of airplanes. The machining characteristics of aerospace materials may cause machining cutters to be worn down in a short time and thus reduce the accuracy of processing. The plasma-assisted machining adopted in the research is a kind of the complex machining method. In the cases of nickel base and titanium base alloys, the method can heat workpieces in an extremely short duration to soften the materials for the ease of cutting so that the cutting force, cutter wear, and machining cost will all be reduced. The research adopted plasma heating to soften parts of the materials and aimed to explore the heating of nickel base alloy. The temperature variation of the materials was investigated and measured by adjusting the current and feed velocity. Moreover, Inconel-718 superalloy was adopted for the comparison with nickel base alloy for the observation of the influence and change brought by heat, and the method of exponential smoothing was adopted to conduct the prediction and analysis of thermal diffusion for understanding the influence and change brought by electric current on nickel base materials. Finally, given the current from 20 A to 80 A and feed velocity from 1,000 mm/min to 3,000 mm/min, the influence of thermal diffusion was investigated and the related model was built.

  12. Plasma metabolic changes in Chinese HIV-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir based treatment: Implications for HIV precision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Wu, Tong; Jiang, Yongjun; Zhang, Zining; Han, Xiaoxu; Geng, Wenqing; Ding, Haibo; Kang, Jing; Wang, Qi; Shang, Hong

    2018-05-16

    The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls. Untargeted metabolomics profiling of these plasma samples was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 331 compounds of known identity were detected among these metabolites, a 67-metabolite signature mainly mapping to tryptophan, histidine, acyl carnitine, ketone bodies and fatty acid metabolism distinguished HIV patients from healthy controls. The levels of 19 out of the 67 altered metabolites including histidine, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), recovered after LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy, and histidine was positively correlated with the presence of CD4 + T lymphocytes. Furthermore, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, we discovered that butyrylcarnitine in combination with myristic acid from plasma in treatment-naïve patients could predict dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r with 87% accuracy. Metabolites alterations in treatment-naïve HIV patients may indicate an inflammatory, oxidative state and mitochondrial dysfunction that is permissive for disease progression. Histidine may provide a specific protective function for HIV patients. Besides, elevated fatty acids levels including butyrylcarnitine and myristic acid after infection may indicate patients at risk of suffering from dyslipidemia after LPV/r-based HAART. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet-Assisted Synthesis of Zeolite-Based Low-k Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Yu; Chi, Heng-Yu; Kao, Peng-Kai; Huang, Fei-Hung; Jian, Qi-Ming; Cheng, I-Chun; Lee, Wen-Ya; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Kang, Dun-Yen

    2018-01-10

    Zeolites are ideal low-dielectric constant (low-k) materials. This paper reports on a novel plasma-assisted approach to the synthesis of low-k thin films comprising pure-silica zeolite MFI. The proposed method involves treating the aged solution using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The high reactivity of the resulting nitrogen plasma helps to produce zeolite crystals with high crystallinity and uniform crystal size distribution. The APPJ treatment also remarkably reduces the time for hydrothermal reaction. The zeolite MFI suspensions synthesized with the APPJ treatment are used for the wet deposition to form thin films. The deposited zeolite thin films possessed dense morphology and high crystallinity, which overcome the trade-off between crystallinity and film quality. Zeolite thin films synthesized using the proposed APPJ treatment achieve low leakage current (on the order of 10 -8 A/cm 2 ) and high Young's modulus (12 GPa), outperforming the control sample synthesized without plasma treatment. The dielectric constant of our zeolite thin films was as low as 1.41. The overall performance of the low-k thin films synthesized with the APPJ treatment far exceed existing low-k films comprising pure-silica MFI.

  14. High Temperature Oxidation of Spark Plasma Sintered and Thermally Sprayed FeAl-Based Iron Aluminides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haušild, P.; Karlík, M.; Skiba, T.; Sajdl, P.; Dubský, Jiří; Palm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-468 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials (ISPMA)/12./. Prague, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermal spraying * plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  15. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    patients without a plasma Cbl measurement. Patients treated with Cbl were excluded. Survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Mortality risk ratios (MRR) were computed using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, cancer stage and comorbidity, scored...

  16. Spark plasma-sintered Sn-based intermetallic alloys and their Li-storage studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nithyadharseni, P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, SnSb, SnSb/Fe, SnSb/Co, and SnSb/Ni alloy powders processed by co-precipitation were subjected to spark plasma-sintering (SPS) at 400 °C for 5 min. The compacts were structurally and morphologically characterized by X...

  17. No-moving-part electro/fluidic transducer based on plasma discharge effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 232, August (2015), s. 20-29 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : transducer * fluidic * plasma discharge Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092442471500206X

  18. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  19. An evaluation of multiplex bead-based analysis of cytokines and soluble proteins in archived lithium heparin plasma, EDTA plasma and serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Line; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    -13, and VEGF, LH plasma levels vs. EDTA plasma: IL-2 and IL-4. CONCLUSION: Stored serum, LH plasma, and EDTA plasma from clinical trials can be used for analysis of circulating cytokines and proteins. Variations in measurements occur, but are within reasonable ranges. The optimal type of media...... in plasma and serum from 86 head and neck cancer patients and 33 controls were evaluated: EGFR, leptin, OPN, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, IL-2, IL-13, PDGF-bb, TNF, PAI-1, SDF-1a, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, eotaxin, G-CSF, VEGF, GRO-a, and HGF. RESULTS: The correlation between measurements of the same samples analyzed...... on different dates was reasonable. However, samples run on different dates could exhibit different absolute values. The 75th percentile of the fold differences for samples run on different dates was 2.2. No significant difference was found between one and four freeze-thaw cycles (except for HGF...

  20. The significance and robustness of a plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile-based multiplex function for detecting lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingyoji, Masato; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Kimura, Hideki; Iizasa, Toshihiko; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Daimon, Takashi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported on the changes in plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in lung cancer patients and the efficacy of a PFAA-based, multivariate discrimination index for the early detection of lung cancer. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness and robustness of PFAA profiling for detecting lung cancer using new test samples. Plasma samples were collected from 171 lung cancer patients and 3849 controls without apparent cancer. PFAA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). High reproducibility was observed for both the change in the PFAA profiles in the lung cancer patients and the discriminating performance for lung cancer patients compared to previously reported results. Furthermore, multivariate discriminating functions obtained in previous studies clearly distinguished the lung cancer patients from the controls based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC = 0.731 ~ 0.806), strongly suggesting the robustness of the methodology for clinical use. Moreover, the results suggested that the combinatorial use of this classifier and tumor markers improves the clinical performance of tumor markers. These findings suggest that PFAA profiling, which involves a relatively simple plasma assay and imposes a low physical burden on subjects, has great potential for improving early detection of lung cancer

  1. Modelling of plasma-based dry reforming: how do uncertainties in the input data affect the calculation results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Zhang, Quanzhi; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    One of the main issues in plasma chemistry modeling is that the cross sections and rate coefficients are subject to uncertainties, which yields uncertainties in the modeling results and hence hinders the predictive capabilities. In this paper, we reveal the impact of these uncertainties on the model predictions of plasma-based dry reforming in a dielectric barrier discharge. For this purpose, we performed a detailed uncertainty analysis and sensitivity study. 2000 different combinations of rate coefficients, based on the uncertainty from a log-normal distribution, are used to predict the uncertainties in the model output. The uncertainties in the electron density and electron temperature are around 11% and 8% at the maximum of the power deposition for a 70% confidence level. Still, this can have a major effect on the electron impact rates and hence on the calculated conversions of CO2 and CH4, as well as on the selectivities of CO and H2. For the CO2 and CH4 conversion, we obtain uncertainties of 24% and 33%, respectively. For the CO and H2 selectivity, the corresponding uncertainties are 28% and 14%, respectively. We also identify which reactions contribute most to the uncertainty in the model predictions. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of plasma chemistry models, we recommend using only verified rate coefficients, and we point out the need for dedicated verification experiments.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of NSCL/P Plasma and Urine in Guizhou Province in China Using NMR-Based Metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huang Guang; Hong, Luo; Kun, Song Ju; Hai, Yin Xin; Dong, Wang Ya; Ke, Zhao; Ping, Xu; Hao, Chen

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To assess the feasibility of metabonomics in clinical studies. This is a pilot study introducing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to elucidate and compare the metabolism of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) and children without orofacial clefts. Methods : High-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed on plasma and urine samples obtained from NSCL/P and healthy children. The (1)H NMR spectra were further analyzed with principal component analysis. Results : Compared to the control group, the level of low-molecular-weight metabolites in plasma such as asparagine was higher in NSCL/P patients, while arginine, lysine, acetate, lactate, proline, glutamine, pyruvate, creatinine, choline, and β-glucose were lower. The carnitine, citrate, and formate excretion in urine appeared to be higher in the healthy children, while the NSCL/P group excreted higher concentrations of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in urine. Conclusion : The present study clearly demonstrated the great potential of NMR-based metabonomics in elucidating NSCL/P plasma metabolism and the possible application of this technology in clinical diagnosis and screening.

  3. A dislocation-based crystal viscoplasticity model with application to micro-engineered plasma-facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, David; Huang, Yue; Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail: ghoniem@ucla.edu

    2017-03-15

    Materials developed with special surface architecture are shown here to be more resilient to the transient thermomechanical environments imposed by intermittent exposures to high heat flux thermal loading typical of long-pulse plasma transients. In an accompanying article, we present experimental results that show the relaxation of residual thermal stresses in micro-engineered W surfaces. A dislocation-based model is extended here within the framework of large deformation crystal plasticity. The model is applied to the deformation of single crystals, polycrystals, and micro-engineered surfaces composed of a uniform density of micro-pillars. The model is utilized to design tapered surface micro-pillar architecture, composed of a Re core and W coatings. Residual stresses generated by cyclic thermomechanical loading of these architectures show that the surface can be in a compressive stress state, following a short shakedown plasma exposure, thus mitigating surface fracture. - • Materials developed with special surface architecture are shown to be more resilient to the transient thermomechanical plasma transients. • A dislocation-based model is extended within the framework of large deformation crystal plasticity. • The model is applied to the deformation of single crystals, polycrystals, and micro-engineered surfaces. • The model is utilized to design tapered surface micro-pillar architecture, composed of a Re core and W coatings. • Residual stresses generated by cyclic thermomechanical loading show that the surface can be in a compressive stress state, thus mitigating surface fracture.

  4. A dislocation-based crystal viscoplasticity model with application to micro-engineered plasma-facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, David; Huang, Yue; Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2017-01-01

    Materials developed with special surface architecture are shown here to be more resilient to the transient thermomechanical environments imposed by intermittent exposures to high heat flux thermal loading typical of long-pulse plasma transients. In an accompanying article, we present experimental results that show the relaxation of residual thermal stresses in micro-engineered W surfaces. A dislocation-based model is extended here within the framework of large deformation crystal plasticity. The model is applied to the deformation of single crystals, polycrystals, and micro-engineered surfaces composed of a uniform density of micro-pillars. The model is utilized to design tapered surface micro-pillar architecture, composed of a Re core and W coatings. Residual stresses generated by cyclic thermomechanical loading of these architectures show that the surface can be in a compressive stress state, following a short shakedown plasma exposure, thus mitigating surface fracture. - • Materials developed with special surface architecture are shown to be more resilient to the transient thermomechanical plasma transients. • A dislocation-based model is extended within the framework of large deformation crystal plasticity. • The model is applied to the deformation of single crystals, polycrystals, and micro-engineered surfaces. • The model is utilized to design tapered surface micro-pillar architecture, composed of a Re core and W coatings. • Residual stresses generated by cyclic thermomechanical loading show that the surface can be in a compressive stress state, thus mitigating surface fracture.

  5. Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shu-Wei; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Interlamellar bonding within plasma-sprayed coatings is one of the most important factors dominating the properties and performance of coatings. The interface bonding between lamellae significantly influences the erosion behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, TiO2 and Al2O3 coatings with different microstructures were deposited at different deposition temperatures based on the critical bonding temperature concept. The erosion behavior of ceramic coatings was investigated. It was revealed that the coatings prepared at room temperature exhibit a typical lamellar structure with numerous unbonded interfaces, whereas the coatings deposited at the temperature above the critical bonding temperature present a dense structure with well-bonded interfaces. The erosion rate decreases sharply with the improvement of interlamellar bonding when the deposition temperature increases to the critical bonding temperature. In addition, the erosion mechanisms of ceramic coatings were examined. The unbonded interfaces in the conventional coatings act as pre-cracks accelerating the erosion of coatings. Thus, controlling interlamellar bonding formation based on the critical bonding temperature is an effective approach to improve the erosion resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings.

  6. Detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag in plasma by a nanoparticle-based bio-barcode-amplification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Stanton, Jennifer; Korber, Bette T M; Krebs, Kendall; Bogdan, Derek; Kunstman, Kevin; Wu, Samuel; Phair, John P; Mirkin, Chad A; Wolinsky, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Detection of HIV-1 in patients is limited by the sensitivity and selectivity of available tests. The nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification method offers an innovative approach to detect specific HIV-1 antigens from diverse HIV-1 subtypes. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting HIV-1 in men enrolled in the Chicago component of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). The method relies on magnetic microparticles with antibodies that specifically bind the HIV-1 p24 Gag protein and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the microparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes (hundreds per target) were identified by a nanoparticle-based detection method that does not rely on PCR. Of 112 plasma samples from HIV-1-infected subjects, 111 were positive for HIV-1 p24 Gag protein (range: 0.11-71.5 ng/ml of plasma) by the bio-barcode-amplification method. HIV-1 p24 Gag protein was detected in only 23 out of 112 men by the conventional ELISA. A total of 34 uninfected subjects were negative by both tests. Thus, the specificity of the bio-barcode-amplification method was 100% and the sensitivity 99%. The bio-barcode-amplification method detected HIV-1 p24 Gag protein in plasma from all study subjects with less than 200 CD4(+) T cells/microl of plasma (100%) and 19 out of 20 (95%) HIV-1-infected men who had less than 50 copies/ml of plasma of HIV-1 RNA. In a separate group of 60 diverse international isolates, representative of clades A, B, C and D and circulating recombinant forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, the bio-barcode-amplification method identified the presence of virus correctly. The bio-barcode-amplification method was superior to the conventional ELISA assay for the detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag protein in plasma with a breadth of coverage for diverse

  7. Development of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for palladium and Rhodium determination in platinum-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, R.; Todorovic, M.; Manojlovic, D.; Mutic, J.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy with internal standardization was applied for the analysis of an in-house reference platinum alloy containing palladium and rhodium (approximately 5% by weight). In order to compensate for variations in signal recovery due to matrix interferences, and therefore to improve the precision, platinum. the major component, was chosen as an internal standard. Quantitative analysis was based on calibration using a set of matrix-matched calibration standards with and without employing the internal standard. These results were compared with those obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results for both techniques were in a good agreement, although the precision was slightly better in the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique, with or without the internal standard

  8. Novel charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET as a biosensor for label-free detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Dey, Prithu; De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET (CP-DIMOSFET) has been proposed for the first time to ease the label free detection of biomolecules. The concept of CP-DIMOSFET is proposed and analyzed on basis of simulated data using SILVACO ATLAS. Low thermal budgeting and thin silicon layer without any dopant implantations make the proposed structure advantageous compared to the existing MOSFET based biosensors. The results show that the proposed device is capable to detect the presence of biomolecules. Simple fabrication schemes, miniaturization, high sensitivity, dominance of dielectric modulation make the proposed biosensor a promising one that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry.

  9. In-situ XPS analysis of oxidized and reduced plasma deposited ruthenium-based thin catalytic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, Jacek; Redzynia, Wiktor; Tyczkowski, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    A novel in-situ study of the surface molecular structure of catalytically active ruthenium-based films subjected to the oxidation (in oxygen) and reduction (in hydrogen) was performed in a Cat-Cell reactor combined with a XPS spectrometer. The films were produced by the plasma deposition method (PEMOCVD). It was found that the films contained ruthenium at different oxidation states: metallic (Ru0), RuO2 (Ru+4), and other RuOx (Ru+x), of which content could be changed by the oxidation or reduction, depending on the process temperature. These results allow to predict the behavior of the Ru-based catalysts in different redox environments.

  10. Extension of frequency-based dissimilarity for retrieving similar plasma waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochin, Teruhisa; Koyama, Katsumasa; Nakanishi, Hideya; Kojima, Mamoru

    2008-01-01

    Some computer-aided assistance in finding the waveforms similar to a waveform has become indispensable for accelerating data analysis in the plasma experiments. For the slowly-varying waveforms and those having time-sectional oscillation patterns, the methods using the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms in calculating the dissimilarity have successfully improved the performance in retrieving similar waveforms. This paper treats severely-varying waveforms, and proposes two extensions to the dissimilarity of waveforms. The first extension is to capture the difference of the importance of the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms against frequency. The second extension is to consider the outlines of waveforms. The correctness of the extended dissimilarity is experimentally evaluated by using the metrics used in evaluating that of the information retrieval, i.e. precision and recall. The experimental results show that the extended dissimilarity could improve the correctness of the similarity retrieval of plasma waveforms

  11. Method of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond using methanol-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Briefly described, methods of forming diamond are described. A representative method, among others, includes: providing a substrate in a reaction chamber in a non-magnetic-field microwave plasma system; introducing, in the absence of a gas stream, a liquid precursor substantially free of water and containing methanol and at least one carbon and oxygen containing compound having a carbon to oxygen ratio greater than one, into an inlet of the reaction chamber; vaporizing the liquid precursor; and subjecting the vaporized precursor, in the absence of a carrier gas and in the absence in a reactive gas, to a plasma under conditions effective to disassociate the vaporized precursor and promote diamond growth on the substrate in a pressure range from about 70 to 130 Torr.

  12. Plasma spraying of hard magnetic coatings based on Sm-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Saunin, V N; KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Telegin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Our research is focused on the formation of hard magnetic coatings by plasma spraying an arc-melted Sm-Co powder. We have studied basic magnetic characteristics depending on the components ratio in the alloy. A sample with a 40 wt.% Sm coating exhibits the highest coercive force (63 kOe) as compared to near-to-zero coercive force in the starting powder. X-ray structure analysis of the starting alloy and the coating reveals that the amount of SmCo 5 phase in the sprayed coating increases occupying up to 2/3 of the sample. We have also studied temperature dependence of the coating and have been able to obtain plasma sprayed permanent magnets operating within the temperature range from -100 to +500 °C. The technique used does not involve any additional thermal treatment and allows a coating to be formed right on the magnetic conductor surface irrespective of the conductor geometry

  13. Application of argon atmospheric cold plasma for indium tin oxide (ITO) based diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Nia, S.; Jalili, Y. Seyed; Salar Elahi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers due to transparency, high conductivity and hole injection capability have attracted a lot of attention. One of these layers is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). ITO due to low resistance, transparency in the visible spectrum and its proper work function is widely used in the manufacture of organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. One way for improving the ITO surface is plasma treatment. In this paper, changes in surface morphology, by applying argon atmospheric pressure cold plasma, was studied through Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) image analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. FTIR analysis showed functional groups were not added or removed, but chemical bond angle and bonds strength on the surface were changed and also AFM images showed that surface roughness was increased. These factors lead to the production of diodes with enhanced Ohmic contact and injection mechanism which are more appropriate in industrial applications.

  14. Composite Coatings of Alumina-based Ceramics and Stainless Steel Manufactured by Plasma Spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Ageorges, H.; Neufuss, Karel; Zahálka, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2009), s. 108-114 ISSN 1392-1320 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cermet * plasma spraying * microstructure * elastic modulus * wear resistance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.299, year: 2009 http://internet.ktu.lt/en/science/journals/medz/medz0-97.html#Composite_Coatings_

  15. Application of Structure-Based Models of Mechanical and Thermal Properties on Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří; Mušálek, Radek; Nohava, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, 3-4 (2012), s. 372-382 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : analytical model * elastic modulus * finite element modeling * image analysis * modeling of properties * thermal conductivity * water stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/3m24812367315142/fulltext. pdf

  16. Electrochemical determination of glutathione in plasma at carbon nanotubes based screen printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunc, Ezgi; Karadeniz, Hakan; Armagan, Guliz; Erdem, Arzum; Yalcin, Ayfer

    2013-11-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is a major endogenous antioxidant highly active in human tissues and plays a key role in controlling cellular thiol redox system, maintaining the immune and detoxification system. The determination of GSH levels in tissue is important to estimate endogenous defenses against oxidative stress. In our study, the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified screen-printed electrodes (MWCNT-SPEs) were used to determine the levels of GSH in trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-treated or untreated samples of rat plasma. It was found that the deproteinization of samples with TCA improved the electrochemical detection of GSH particularly in plasma. The oxidation of GSH was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method in combination with MWCNT-SPE (n=3), and the detection limit of GSH was found to be 0.47 µM (S/N=3). The GSH levels in plasma samples were also measured spectrophotometrically in order to compare the effectiveness of electrochemical method and we obtained a high correlation between the two methods (R(2)=0.976).

  17. Pulsed neutron generators based on plasma focus devices of low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The plasma focus is a pulsed neutron source especially suited for applications because it reduces the danger of contamination of conventional isotopic radioactive sources. As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed neutron generator for industrial applications we constructed two very small plasma focus operating at an energy level of the order of a) tens of joules (PF-50J, 160nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100J, ∼150ns first quarter of period) and b) hundred of joules (PF-400J, 880nF, 20-35kV, 176-539J, ∼300ns first quarter of period). In this article we present results related to design and construction of these small plasma foci (PF-50J and PF-400J). Neutron yield vs. deuterium. pressure has been obtained, a maximum emission of the order of 7x10 4 and 10 6 neutrons per shot has been measured in the PF-50J and PF-400J respectively (author)

  18. Hepatectomy Based on Future Liver Remnant Plasma Clearance Rate of Indocyanine Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Uchida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatectomy, an important treatment modality for liver malignancies, has high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Safe, comprehensive criteria for selecting patients for hepatectomy are needed. Since June 2011, we have used a cut-off value of ≧ 0.05 for future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green as a criterion for hepatectomy. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of this criterion. Methods. From June 2011 to December 2015, 212 hepatectomies were performed in Tenri Yorozu Hospital. Of these 212 patients, 107 who underwent preoperative computed tomography imaging volumetry, indocyanine green clearance test, and hepatectomy (excluding partial resection or enucleation were retrospectively analyzed. Results. There was no postoperative mortality. Posthepatectomy liver failure occurred in 59 patients (55.1% (International Study Group of Liver Surgery Grade A: 43 cases (40.2%, Grade B: 16 cases (15.0%, and Grade C: no cases. Operative morbidity greater than Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 occurred in 23 patients (21.5%. A low future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green was a good predictor for Grade B cases (area under curve = 0.804; 95% confidence interval, 0.712–0.895. Conclusion. Liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green is a valid criterion for hepatectomy.

  19. Dense Plasma Focus-Based Nanofabrication of III-V Semiconductors: Unique Features and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Onkar; Roy, Savita; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-12-29

    The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III-V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III-V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well.

  20. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  1. Redução da hidrofilicidade de filmes biodegradáveis à base de amido por meio de polimerização por plasma Reduction of hydrophilicity of biodegradable starch-based films by plasma polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana M. S. M. Thiré

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao baixo custo de produção e excelente biodegradabilidade, o amido constitui-se em matéria-prima promissora para a produção de plásticos biodegradáveis. No entanto, a grande hidrofilicidade dos filmes à base de amido representa uma séria limitação tecnológica à sua comercialização, uma vez que as propriedades dos filmes são afetadas pela variação da umidade relativa do ar durante a sua estocagem ou o seu uso. Neste trabalho, filmes de amido termoplástico foram recobertos com uma fina camada protetora polimérica gerada por intermédio da tecnologia de plasma frio. 1-Buteno e 1,3-butadieno foram utilizados como monômeros para a polimerização por plasma. Os filmes recobertos apresentaram uma redução de até 80% na absorção de água e aumento do ângulo de contato em relação à água. Estes resultados indicaram uma redução significativa na natureza hidrofílica do material à base de amido após o recobrimento.Due to low cost and excellent biodegradability, the use of starch as a raw material for bioplastic production is growing in interest. However, the properties of starch-based materials are affected by relative humidity during their use and storage due to their hydrophilic character. In this work, thermoplastic cornstarch films were coated by cold plasma technology with a protective thin layer in order to reduce water sensitivity. 1-Butene and 1,3-butadiene were used as monomers for plasma polymerization. Coated films presented a reduction of water absorption up to 80% an increase in contact angle related to water. These results indicated that the coating process reduced significantly the hydrophilic nature of the starch-based materials.

  2. UV–Vis and ATR–FTIR spectroscopic investigations of postmortem interval based on the changes in rabbit plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; He, Haijun; Li, Bing; Lin, Hancheng; Zhang, Yinming; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Estimating PMI is of great importance in forensic investigations. Although many methods are used to estimate the PMI, a few investigations focus on the postmortem redistribution. In this study, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) measurement combined with visual inspection indicated a regular diffusion of hemoglobin into plasma after death showing the redistribution of postmortem components in blood. Thereafter, attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the variations caused by this phenomenon. First, full-spectrum partial least-squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm combined with PLS (GA-PLS) models were constructed to predict the PMI. The performance of GA-PLS model was better than that of full-spectrum PLS model based on its root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.95) and the RMSE of prediction of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.94). The investigation on the similarity of spectra between blood plasma and formed elements also supported the role of redistribution of components in spectral changes in postmortem plasma. These results demonstrated that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with the advanced mathematical methods could serve as a convenient and reliable tool to study the redistribution of postmortem components and estimate the PMI. PMID:28753641

  3. Plasma-based ion implantation: a valuable technology for the elaboration of innovative materials and nanostructured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vempaire, D; Pelletier, J; Lacoste, A; Bechu, S; Sirou, J; Miraglia, S; Fruchart, D

    2005-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII), invented in 1987, can now be considered as a mature technology for thin film modification. After a brief recapitulation of the principle and physics of PBII, its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to conventional ion beam implantation, are listed and discussed. The elaboration of thin films and the modification of their functional properties by PBII have already been achieved in many fields, such as microelectronics (plasma doping/PLAD), biomaterials (surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible materials), plastics (grafting, surface adhesion) and metallurgy (hard coatings, tribology), to name a few. The major advantages of PBII processing lie, on the one hand, in its flexibility in terms of ion implantation energy (from 0 to 100 keV) and operating conditions (plasma density, collisional or non-collisional ion sheath), and, on the other hand, in the easy transferrability of processes from the laboratory to industry. The possibility of modifying the composition and physical nature of the films, or of drastically changing their physical properties over several orders of magnitude makes this technology very attractive for the elaboration of innovative materials, including metastable materials, and the realization of micro- or nanostructures. A review of the state of the art in these domains is presented and illustrated through a few selected examples. The perspectives opened up by PBII processing, as well as its limitations, are discussed

  4. Charge plasma based source/drain engineered Schottky Barrier MOSFET: Ambipolar suppression and improvement of the RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a novel device structure for charge plasma based Schottky Barrier (SB) MOSFET on ultrathin SOI to suppress the ambipolar leakage current and improvement of the radio frequency (RF) performance. In the proposed device, we employ dual material for the source and drain formation. Therefore, source/drain is divided into two parts as main source/drain and source/drain extension. Erbium silicide (ErSi1.7) is used as main source/drain material and Hafnium metal is used as source/drain extension material. The source extension induces the electron plasma in the ultrathin SOI body resulting reduction of SB width at the source side. Similarly, drain extension also induces the electron plasma at the drain side. This significantly increases the SB width due to increased depletion at the drain end. As a result, the ambipolar leakage current can be suppressed. In addition, drain extension also reduces the parasitic capacitances of the proposed device to improve the RF performance. The optimization of length and work function of metal used in the drain extension is performed to achieve improvement in device performance. Moreover, the proposed device makes fabrication simpler, requires low thermal budget and free from random dopant fluctuations.

  5. Modular and efficient ozone systems based on massively parallel chemical processing in microchannel plasma arrays: performance and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-H.; Cho, J. H.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Plasmachemical systems based on the production of a specific molecule (O3) in literally thousands of microchannel plasmas simultaneously have been demonstrated, developed and engineered over the past seven years, and commercialized. At the heart of this new plasma technology is the plasma chip, a flat aluminum strip fabricated by photolithographic and wet chemical processes and comprising 24-48 channels, micromachined into nanoporous aluminum oxide, with embedded electrodes. By integrating 4-6 chips into a module, the mass output of an ozone microplasma system is scaled linearly with the number of modules operating in parallel. A 115 g/hr (2.7 kg/day) ozone system, for example, is realized by the combined output of 18 modules comprising 72 chips and 1,800 microchannels. The implications of this plasma processing architecture for scaling ozone production capability, and reducing capital and service costs when introducing redundancy into the system, are profound. In contrast to conventional ozone generator technology, microplasma systems operate reliably (albeit with reduced output) in ambient air and humidity levels up to 90%, a characteristic attributable to the water adsorption/desorption properties and electrical breakdown strength of nanoporous alumina. Extensive testing has documented chip and system lifetimes (MTBF) beyond 5,000 hours, and efficiencies >130 g/kWh when oxygen is the feedstock gas. Furthermore, the weight and volume of microplasma systems are a factor of 3-10 lower than those for conventional ozone systems of comparable output. Massively-parallel plasmachemical processing offers functionality, performance, and commercial value beyond that afforded by conventional technology, and is currently in operation in more than 30 countries worldwide.

  6. Calculation of the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids and the effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile buffers in plasma for use in the strong ion approach to acid-base balance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sheila M; Constable, Peter D

    2003-08-01

    To determine values for the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (Atot) and effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile weak acids (Ka) in plasma of cats. Convenience plasma samples of 5 male and 5 female healthy adult cats. Cats were sedated, and 20 mL of blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Plasma was tonometered at 37 degrees C to systematically vary PCO2 from 8 to 156 mm Hg, thereby altering plasma pH from 6.90 to 7.97. Plasma pH, PCO2, and concentrations of quantitatively important strong cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+), strong anions (Cl-, lactate), and buffer ions (total protein, albumin, and phosphate) were determined. Strong ion difference was estimated from the measured strong ion concentrations and nonlinear regression used to calculate Atot and Ka from the measured pH and PCO2 and estimated strong ion difference. Mean (+/- SD) values were as follows: Atot = 24.3 +/- 4.6 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.35 mmol/g of protein or 0.76 mmol/g of albumin); Ka = 0.67 +/- 0.40 x 10(-7); and the negative logarithm (base 10) of Ka (pKa) = 7.17. At 37 degrees C, pH of 7.35, and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 30 mm Hg, the calculated venous strong ion difference was 30 mEq/L. These results indicate that at a plasma pH of 7.35, a 1 mEq/L decrease in strong ion difference will decrease pH by 0.020, a 1 mm Hg decrease in PCO2 will increase plasma pH by 0.011, and a 1 g/dL decrease in albumin concentration will increase plasma pH by 0.093.

  7. Plasma-based techniques applied to the determination of metals and metalloids in atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smichowski, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This lecture presents an overview of the research carried out by our group during the last decade on the determination of metals, metalloids, ions and species in atmospheric aerosols and related matrices using plasma-based techniques. In our first studies we explored the application of a size fractionation procedure and the subsequent determination of minor, major and trace elements in samples of deposited particles collected one day after the eruption of the Copahue Volcano, located in the Chile-Argentina border to assess the content of relevant elements with respect of the environment and the local population health. We employed a multi-technique approach (ICP-MS, XRD and NAA) to gain complete information of the characteristics of the sample. In addition to the study of ashes emitted for natural sources we also studied ashes of anthropogenic origin such as those arising from coal combustion in thermal power plants. For estimating the behavior and fate of elements in atmospheric particles and ashes we applied in this case a chemical fractionation procedure in order to establish the distribution of many elements amongst soluble, bound to carbonates, bound to oxides and bound to organic matter and environmental immobile fraction. Studies on the air quality of the mega-city of Buenos Aires were scarce and fragmentary and our objective was, and still is, to contribute to clarify key issues related to levels of crustal, toxic and potentially toxic elements in this air basin. Our findings were compared with average concentrations of metals and metalloids with results reported for other Latin American cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico and Santiago de Chile. In this context, a series of studies were carried out since 2004 considering different sampling strategies to reflect local aspects of air pollution sources. In the last years, our interest was focused on the levels of traffic-related elements in the urban atmosphere. We have contributed with the first data

  8. Plasma-based techniques applied to the determination of metals and metalloids in atmospheric aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smichowski, Patricia, E-mail: smichows@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Pcia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: This lecture presents an overview of the research carried out by our group during the last decade on the determination of metals, metalloids, ions and species in atmospheric aerosols and related matrices using plasma-based techniques. In our first studies we explored the application of a size fractionation procedure and the subsequent determination of minor, major and trace elements in samples of deposited particles collected one day after the eruption of the Copahue Volcano, located in the Chile-Argentina border to assess the content of relevant elements with respect of the environment and the local population health. We employed a multi-technique approach (ICP-MS, XRD and NAA) to gain complete information of the characteristics of the sample. In addition to the study of ashes emitted for natural sources we also studied ashes of anthropogenic origin such as those arising from coal combustion in thermal power plants. For estimating the behavior and fate of elements in atmospheric particles and ashes we applied in this case a chemical fractionation procedure in order to establish the distribution of many elements amongst soluble, bound to carbonates, bound to oxides and bound to organic matter and environmental immobile fraction. Studies on the air quality of the mega-city of Buenos Aires were scarce and fragmentary and our objective was, and still is, to contribute to clarify key issues related to levels of crustal, toxic and potentially toxic elements in this air basin. Our findings were compared with average concentrations of metals and metalloids with results reported for other Latin American cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico and Santiago de Chile. In this context, a series of studies were carried out since 2004 considering different sampling strategies to reflect local aspects of air pollution sources. In the last years, our interest was focused on the levels of traffic-related elements in the urban atmosphere. We have contributed with the first data

  9. X-ray Imaging and preliminary studies of the X-ray self-emission from an innovative plasma-trap based on the Bernstein waves heating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Neri, L.; Altana, C.

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are based on ECR heated plasmas emitting high fluxes of X-rays. Here we illustrate a pilot study of the X-ray emission from a compact plasma-trap in which an off-resonance microwave-plasma interaction has been attempted, highlighting a possible Bernstein-Waves based heating mechanism. EBWs-heating is obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion and enables to reach densities much larger than the cut-off ones. At LNS-INFN, an innovative diagnostic technique based on the design of a Pinhole Camera (PHC) coupled to a CCD device for X-ray Imaging of the plasma (XRI) has been developed, in order to integrate X-ray traditional diagnostics (XRS). The complementary use of electrostatic probes measurements and X-ray diagnostics enabled us to gain knowledge about the high energy electrons density and temperature and about the spatial structure of the source. The combination of the experimental data with appropriate modeling of the plasma-source allowed to estimate the X-ray emission intensity in different energy domains (ranging from EUV up to Hard X-rays). The use of ECRIS as X-ray source for multidisciplinary applications, is now a concrete perspective due to the intense fluxes produced by the new plasma heating mechanism.

  10. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  11. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (α 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device an on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  12. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (≅ 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device and on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  13. Effects caused by thermal shocks in plasma sprayed protective coatings from materials based on Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, L.; Wolski, T.; Gostynski, D.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma sprayed coatings from the materials based on Al 2 O 3 with addition of NiO and TiO 2 have been studied. Thermal shock resistance of these coatings has been tested on special experimental arrangement in the stream of hot and cold gases. Changes in coating microstructure has been determined by light microscopy methods. Phase transition caused by the experiments are revealed by X-ray diffraction methods. The resistance for thermal fatigue processes depends on used coatings materials. (author). 21 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  14. Application of hydrogen-plasma technology for property modification of silicon and producing the silicon-based structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.K.; Mazanik, A.V.; Ul'yashin, A.G.; Dzhob, R; Farner, V.R.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of atomic hydrogen on the properties of Czochralski-grown single crystal silicon as well as polycrystalline shaped silicon have been investigated. It was established that the buried defect layers created by high-energy hydrogen or helium ion implantation act as a good getter centers for hydrogen atoms introduced in silicon in the process of hydrogen plasma hydrogenation. Atomic hydrogen was shown to be active as a catalyzer significantly enhancing the rate of thermal donors formation in p-type single crystal silicon. This effect can be used for n-p- and p-n-p-silicon based device structures producing [ru

  15. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J.P.; Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S.; Nieto-Perez, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Heim, B.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  16. Strong plasma shock structures based on the Navier--Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of a plasma collisional shock wave is examined on the basis of the Navier--Stokes equations and simultaneously on the basis of the Fokker--Planck equation. The resultant structures are compared to check the validity of the Navier--Stokes equations applied to the structures of strong shock waves. The Navier--Stokes equations give quite correct structures for weak shock waves. For the strong shock waves, the detailed structures obtained from the Navier--Stokes equations differ from the results of the Fokker--Planck equation, but the shock thicknesses of the two shock waves are in relatively close agreement

  17. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk; Jäger, Aleš; Matějíček, Jiří; Chernyshova, M.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Gribkov, V. A.; Janata, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 123-127 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : ODS tungsten * yttrium oxide * porosity * phase stability * monoclinic phase * plasma focus * damage * erosion Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.06.004

  18. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vilémová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological, microstructural and phase changes of four types of tungsten materials after exposure to dense deuterium plasma were examined. The microstructures of the prepared materials mutually differ by the porosity, grain size and phase content. It was found that inherent porosity of sintered materials leads to a specific mechanism of erosion and might be a significant source of dust in the case of materials with higher porosity. Further, a preferential erosion of the dispersed particles by melting and evaporation and subsequent formation of thin film on the surface of W-Y2O3 was described as well.

  19. Normal-mode-based analysis of electron plasma waves with second-order Hermitian formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. J.; White, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The classic problem of the dynamic evolution and Landau damping of linear Langmuir electron waves in a collisionless plasma with Maxwellian background is cast as a second-order, self-adjoint problem with a continuum spectrum of real and positive squared frequencies. The corresponding complete basis of singular normal modes is obtained, along with their orthogonality relation. This yields easily the general expression of the time-reversal-invariant solution for any initial-value problem. Examples are given for specific initial conditions that illustrate different behaviors of the Landau-damped macroscopic moments of the perturbations.

  20. Equivalent circuit of a coaxial-line-based nozzleless microwave 915 MHz plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miotk, R; Jasiński, M; Mizeraczyk, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of an equivalent circuit of a microwave plasma source (MPS) used for gas treatment. The novelty of presented investigations is the use of the Weissfloch circuit as equivalent of an area of waveguide discontinuity in the MPS which is a result of entering a coaxial-line structure. Furthermore, in this area the microwave discharge is generated. Verification of the proposed method was carried out. The proposed equivalent circuit enabled calculating the MPS tuning characteristics and comparing them with those measured experimentally. This process allowed us to determine the impedance Z_P ofplasma in the MPS. (paper)

  1. Emission characteristics of plasma based on xenon-rubidium bromide mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Luminescence spectra of a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge in xenon mixture with rubidium bromide vapors (Xe-RbBr) are studied experimentally at low pressures. The conditions leading to the appearance of intense bands of ultraviolet radiation of exciplex XeBr* molecules in the spectral interval between 200 and 400 nm are found. The highest yield of UV radiation of XeBr* molecules is achieved when the temperature of discharge-tube walls is equal to 750°C. A maximum power of UV radiation from the entire plasma volume as high as 4.8 W is obtained.

  2. Plasma-based X-ray laser at 21 nm for multidisciplinary applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Rus, Bedřich; Kozlová, Michaela; Polan, Jiří; Homer, Pavel; Jakubczak, Krzysztof; Stupka, Michal; Snopek, David; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Edwards, M.H.; Whittaker, D.S.; Tallents, G. J.; Mistry, P.; Pert, G. J.; Booth, N.; Zhai, Z.; Fajardo, M.; Zeitoun, P.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 439-444 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA ČR GA202/05/2316; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GC202/07/J008; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08094; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 506350 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : x-ray laser * laser ablation * microstruturing * dense plasma probing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009

  3. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R; Paek, Eunsu; Dai, Fei; Holsen, Thomas M; Bellona, Christopher L; Bohl, Douglas G; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant ( k obs ). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs , a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas–liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas–liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  4. Development of plasma-treated polypropylene nonwoven-based composites for high-performance lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; He, Jinlin; Wu, Dazhao; Zhang, Mingzu; Meng, Juwen; Ni, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A composite separator based on plasma-treated fluorinated polypropylene (PP) nonwoven, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and SiO 2 nanoparticles exhibiting enhanced thermal stability, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Fluorinated segments are introduced on the surface of PP nonwoven through plasma treatment. •The obtained composite separators exhibit better physical and electrochemical properties. •The capacity of half-cell with composite separator keeps above 150 mA h g −1 after 100 charge–discharge cycles. -- Abstract: Separators have drawn substantial attention because of their important role in achieving the safety and good electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, we report a new type of composite membrane prepared by a combination of fluorinated polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabric, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and SiO 2 nanoparticles. 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5-Octafluoropentyl methacrylate (OFPMA) is first grafted on the surface of PP nonwoven by plasma treatment to improve the nonwoven’s adhesion with PVdF-HFP. Two kinds of composite separators have been prepared by using the different PP nonwovens together with PVdF-HFP and SiO 2 nanoparticles. They were separately designated as PHS for commercially raw PP nonwoven system and PHS-n for OFPMA-modified PP nonwoven systems (n means plasma treatment time). The morphology, electrolyte uptake, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of the composite separators have been analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, impedance measurement, charge-discharge cycle and C-rate tests, respectively. The results indicate that PHS-10 composite separator using the modified PP nonwoven treated by plasma for 10 min exhibits much better properties than PHS separator, including an improved mechanical property, thermal stability, electrolyte uptake

  5. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  6. Development of ELISA-based methods to measure the anti-malarial drug chloroquine in plasma and in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronn Anita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Central and South America and Eastern and Southern Africa, Plasmodium vivax infections accounts for 71-81% and 5% of malaria cases, respectively. In these areas, chloroquine (CQ remains the treatment of choice for P. vivax malaria. In addition, CQ has recently proven to be an effective HIV-1 therapeutic agent. There is a dire need to continue monitoring quality of CQ as there is a major influx of substandard and fake formulations into malaria-endemic countries. The use of fake/substandard drugs will result in sub-therapeutic levels endangering the patient and possibly select for parasite resistance. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive, simple antibody-based ELISA to measure CQ concentrations in tablets and in plasma. Methods A monoclonal antibody (MAb that reacts with the N-side chain of the CQ molecule was prepared by use of a CQ analogue. A specific and reliable ELISA for detection of CQ was developed. The developed assay was validated by measuring CQ in tablets sold in Denmark, India and Sudan. Furthermore, kinetics of CQ concentrations in plasma of four volunteers, who ingested two tablets of Malarex® containing, 250 mg CQ base, were measured before drug intake, three hours later and thereafter at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The same plasma samples were simultaneously measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The ELISA proved an easy-to-handle and very sensitive tool for the detection of CQ with a lower limit of detection at 3.9 ng/ml. ELISA levels of CQ in plasma showed high agreement with the levels obtained by HPLC (r = 0.98. The specificity in the negative control group was 100%. Conclusion The developed ELISA can be used for quality screening of CQ in pharmaceutical formulations and for drug monitoring in malaria and in other infectious diseases, such as HIV, where CQ proved to be an effective therapeutic agent. The methodology has been exploited to develop monoclonal

  7. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Cellulose based Fabrics treated with Silver Nitrate Solution using Plasma Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Peran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain antibacterial properties, the possibility of deposition of silver particles from silver nitrate (AgNO3 solutions by plasma deposition process using argon as a carrier gas (PDP-Ar was explored. Hexamethyldisiloxane and acrylic acid were used as precursors and were deposited by plasma enhanced-chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD. The processes were carried out on lyocell and modal fbrics and antimicrobial efficacy was determined on E. coli and S. aureus using time kill assay method. The results of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC show that higher antimicrobial efficacy on E. coli is exhibited by the solution of (AgNO3 in ethylene-glycol (0.066 μg/ml rather than in absolute ethanol (0.265 μg/ml. For S. aureus, minimal inhibitory concentrations of AgNO3 solutions in both absolute ethanol and ethylene-glycol as solvents are obtained at the same value (0.132 μg/ml. Overall, the best antibacterial eff ect for both modal and lyocell samples has been achieved against E. coli using treatments with precursors (AAC and HMDSO and Ag-NO3 in ethylene-glycol as solvent, with prolonged incubation time.

  8. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars ten Bosch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.

  9. Three-dimensional plasma equilibrium model based on the poloidal representation of the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, R.; Degtyarev, L.M.; Kuper, A.; Martynov, A.A.; Medvedev, S.Yu.; Shafranov, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Equations for the three-dimensional equilibrium of a plasma are formulated in the poloidal representation. The magnetic field is expressed in terms of the poloidal magnetic flux Ψ and the poloidal electric current F. As a result, three-dimensional equilibrium configurations are analyzed with the help of a set of equations including the elliptical equation for the poloidal flux, the magnetic differential equation for the parallel current, and the equations for the basis vector field b. To overcome the difficulties associated with peculiarities that can arise in solving the magnetic differential equation at rational toroidal magnetic surfaces, small regulating corrections are introduced into the proposed set of equations. In this case, second-order differential terms with a small parameter appear in the magnetic differential equations. As a result, these equations take the form of elliptical equations. Three versions of regulating corrections are proposed. The equations obtained can be used to develop numerical codes for calculating three-dimensional equilibrium plasma configurations with an island structure

  10. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  11. Design and construction of automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device PLC based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Slamet Santosa; Eko Priyono

    2012-01-01

    The automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device has been done. The system is used for operating double chamber plasma nitriding automatically as according to the standard operating procedure by pressing push button on the human machine interface (HMI). The system consists of hardware and software. The hardware was constructed using main components T100MD1616+ PLC module and supported by temperature signal conditioner module, Wheatstone bridge module, isolated amplifier module and EMS 30A H Bridge motor driver module. A software program that is planted on T100MD1616+ PLC using ladder diagrams and Tbasic program. Test system functions performed by inserting a set values of temperature and pressure by pressing the button on the human machine interface (HMI). The test results show that the temperature control with a set of values 100 °C obtained stable coverage of 98 °C to 102 °C, (Δ ± 2 °C) with a 2% tolerance and the output voltage of the DAC is 2.436 volts to 2.913 volts. The pressure control with a set of values 2.169 x 10 -1 mbar obtained stable coverage of 1.995 x 10 -1 mbar to 2.205 x 10 -1 mbar, (Δ ± 0.105 x 10 -1 mbar) with a 5% tol. (author)

  12. Determination of piroxicam from rat articular tissue and plasma based on LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sol; Cho, Ha Ra; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Yong Seok

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. To manage OA, in general, oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used. Recently, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long-acting NSAID, by intra-articular (IA) administration in OA was reported, and the possibility that PX is distributed in articular tissues at a certain concentration was raised. Thus, herein, novel LC-MS/MS methods to detect PX in rat articular tissue and plasma are presented. For articular tissue, solvent extraction with acetonitrile for 12 h was employed and a protein precipitation method was used for the preparation of a plasma sample. The developed methods were validated by following the FDA guidelines, and the validated methods were successfully applied to a PK study of IA PX. The present study presents, to our knowledge, the first method of determining a drug in articular tissue. Additionally, the level of PX in articular tissue after IA PX administration was experimentally confirmed for the first time using the present methods. Therefore, the present methods provide a new direction for in vivo evaluation for IA PX formulations and contribute to the development of alternative IA PX formulations with better effects for the treatment of OA.

  13. Modelling of plasma processes based on the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazhin, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional applications of the commercial CFD package FLUENT include modelling of gas and liquid flows, combustion processes, thermal radiation exchange, particle dynamics and related processes of industrial interest. Recently, however, the area of applications of this package has been extended to modelling of new processes such as CO 2 laser discharges and the solution of the Boltzmann equation. Results of this modelling were reported at XXI International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized gases in Bochum and were later published in a number of research papers. The aim of this report is to summarize some further latest developments of the FLUENT package aimed to adjust it to the needs of modelling of plasma processes including those in ionized gases. The simplest way to modify this package is to include Amper force into Navier-Stokes equation and Ohm heating term into the enthalpy equation. In most cases, however, electric currents and electric and magnetic fields used in these equations cannot be assumed to be a priori known as they depend on plasma dynamics (distribution of velocities and pressures) and thermodynamics (distribution of temperatures) which implicitly enter into Maxwell or any equivalent electromagnetic equations. This makes it necessary to include these electromagnetic equations into the general iteration loop used in FLUENT

  14. [Analysis of Cr in soil by LIBS based on conical spatial confinement of plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Zeng; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Li, Wen-Bing; Zheng, Mei-Lan; Xu, Xue-Hong; Tu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The present study is to improve the sensitivity of detection and reduce the limit of detection in detecting heavy metal of soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The Cr element of national standard soil was regarded as the research object. In the experiment, a conical cavity with small diameter end of 20 mm and large diameter end of 45 mm respectively was installed below the focusing lens near the experiment sample to mainly confine the signal transmitted by plasma and to some extent to confine the plasma itself in the LIBS setup. In detecting Cr I 425.44 nm, the beast delay time gained from experiment is 1.3 micros, and the relative standard deviation is below 10%. Compared with the setup of non-spatial confinement, the spectral intensity of Cr in the soil sample was enhanced more than 7%. Calibration curve was established in the Cr concentration range from 60 to 400 microg x g(-1). Under the condition of spatial confinement, the liner regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.997 71 and 18.85 microg x g(-1) respectively, however, the regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.991 22 and 36.99 microg x g(-1) without spatial confinement. So, this shows that conical spatial confinement can/improve the sensitivity of detection and enhance the spectral intensity. And it is a good auxiliary function in detecting Cr in the soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  15. SFRP Tumour Suppressor Genes Are Potential Plasma-Based Epigenetic Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Yee Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with asbestos exposure. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation which in turn can lead to silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Wnt signaling pathway can be affected by chronic inflammation and is aberrantly activated in many cancers including colon and MPM. SFRP genes are antagonists of Wnt pathway, and SFRPs are potential tumour suppressors in colon, gastric, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers and mesothelioma. This study investigated the expression and DNA methylation of SFRP genes in MPM cells lines with and without demethylation treatment. Sixty-six patient FFPE samples were analysed and have showed methylation of SFRP2 (56% and SFRP5 (70% in MPM. SFRP2 and SFRP5 tumour-suppressive activity in eleven MPM lines was confirmed, and long-term asbestos exposure led to reduced expression of the SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes in the mesothelium (MeT-5A via epigenetic alterations. Finally, DNA methylation of SFRPs is detectable in MPM patient plasma samples, with methylated SFRP2 and SFRP5 showing a tendency towards greater abundance in patients. These data suggested that SFRP genes have tumour-suppresive activity in MPM and that methylated DNA from SFRP gene promoters has the potential to serve as a biomarker for MPM patient plasma.

  16. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Muller, Edson I. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, 96900-010 Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k—low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g{sup −1} for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g{sup −1} for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO{sub 3} and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb

  17. Understanding of hysteresis behaviors at the L-H-L transitions in tokamak plasma based on bifurcation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatthong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla (Thailand); Onjun, T. [School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    The hysteresis behaviour at the L-H-L transitions in tokamak plasma is investigated based on bifurcation concept. The formation of an edge transport barrier (ETB) is modeled via thermal and particle transport equations with the flow shear suppression effect on anomalous transport included. The anomalous transport is modeled based on critical gradients threshold and the flow shear is calculated from the force balance equation, couples the two transport equations leading to a non-linear behaviour. Analytical investigation reveals that the fluxes versus gradients space exhibits bifurcation behaviour with s -curve soft bifurcation type. Apparently, the backward H-L transition occurs at lower values than that of the forward L-H transition, illustrating hysteresis behaviour. The hysteresis properties, i.e. locations of threshold fluxes, gradients and their ratios are analyzed as a function of neoclassical and anomalous transport values and critical gradients. It is found that the minimum heat flux for maintaining H -mode depends on several plasma parameters including the strength of anomalous transport and neoclassical transport. In particular, the hysteresis depth becomes larger when neoclassical transport decreases or anomalous transport increases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  19. Acid-Base and Plasma Biochemical Changes Using Crystalloid Fluids in Stranded Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Quintana, María Del Pino; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and effects on acid-base and electrolyte status of several crystalloid fluids in 57 stranded juvenile loggerhead turtles. Within a rehabilitation program four different crystalloid fluids were administered (0.9% Na Cl solution; 5% dextrose + 0.9% Na Cl solutions 1:1; 0.9% Na Cl + lactated Ringer's solutions 1:1; lactated Ringer's solution). Crystalloid fluids were intracoelomically administered during three days (20 ml/kg/day). Animals were sampled at three different moments: Upon admission for evaluating the type of acid-base or biochemical disorder, post-fluid therapy treatment for controlling the evolution of the disorder, and post-recovery period for obtaining the baseline values for rehabilitated loggerhead turtles. Each sample was analyzed with a portable electronic blood analyzer for pH, pO2, pCO2, lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and BUN concentration. Admission and post-fluid therapy treatment values were compared with those obtained for each turtle immediately before release. The highest percentage of acid-base recovery and electrolyte balance was observed in turtles treated with mixed saline-lactated Ringer's solution (63.6%), followed by turtles treated with physiological saline solution (55%), lactated Ringer's solution (33.3%), and dextrose-saline solutions (10%). Most turtles treated with lactated Ringer's solution had lower lactate concentrations compared with their initial values; however, 66.6% of turtles treated with lactated Ringer's solution had metabolic alkalosis after therapy. Significant higher concentrations of glucose were detected after saline-dextrose administration compared with all the remaining fluids. This is the first study evaluating the effects of several crystalloid fluids on the acid-base status and plasma biochemical values in stranded loggerhead sea turtles. Reference convalescent venous blood gas, acid-base, and plasma biochemical values, useful for veterinary

  20. Enhanced sensing of dengue virus DNA detection using O{sub 2} plasma treated-silicon nanowire based electrical biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.F.A., E-mail: siti_fatimah0410@yahoo.com [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, N.A., E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, U. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hushiarian, R. [La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Victoria, 3086 (Australia); Nuzaihan, M.N.M. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hamidon, M.N. [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zawawi, R.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Fathil, M.F.M. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-10-26

    Dengue Virus (DENV) has become one of the most serious arthropod-borne viral diseases, causing death globally. The existing methods for DENV detection suffer from the late stage treatment due to antibodies-based detection which is feasible only after five days following the onset of the illness. Here, we demonstrated the highly effective molecular electronic based detection utilizing silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process as a sensing device for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) related to DENV in an early stage diagnosis. To transform the fabricated devices as a functional sensing element, three-step procedure consist of SiNW surface modification, DNA immobilization and DNA hybridization were employed. The detection principle works by detecting the changes in current of SiNW which bridge the source and drain terminal to sense the immobilization of probe DNA and their hybridization with target DNA. The oxygen (O{sub 2}) plasma was proposed as an effective strategy for increasing the binding amounts of target DNA by modified the SiNW surface. It was found that the detection limit of the optimized O{sub 2} plasma treated-SiNW device could be reduced to 1.985 × 10{sup −14} M with a linear detection range of the sequence-specific DNA from 1.0 × 10{sup −9} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −13} M. In addition, the developed biosensor device was able to discriminate between complementary, single mismatch and non-complementary DNA sequences. This highly sensitive assay was then applied to the detection of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product of DENV-DNA, making it as a potential method for disease diagnosis through electrical biosensor. - Highlights: • Molecular electronic detection of Dengue Virus (DENV) DNA using SiNW biosensor is presented. • Oxygen plasma surface treatment as an enhancer technique for device sensitivity is highlighted. • The limit of detection (Lo

  1. Enhanced sensing of dengue virus DNA detection using O_2 plasma treated-silicon nanowire based electrical biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.F.A.; Yusof, N.A.; Hashim, U.; Hushiarian, R.; Nuzaihan, M.N.M.; Hamidon, M.N.; Zawawi, R.M.; Fathil, M.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue Virus (DENV) has become one of the most serious arthropod-borne viral diseases, causing death globally. The existing methods for DENV detection suffer from the late stage treatment due to antibodies-based detection which is feasible only after five days following the onset of the illness. Here, we demonstrated the highly effective molecular electronic based detection utilizing silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process as a sensing device for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) related to DENV in an early stage diagnosis. To transform the fabricated devices as a functional sensing element, three-step procedure consist of SiNW surface modification, DNA immobilization and DNA hybridization were employed. The detection principle works by detecting the changes in current of SiNW which bridge the source and drain terminal to sense the immobilization of probe DNA and their hybridization with target DNA. The oxygen (O_2) plasma was proposed as an effective strategy for increasing the binding amounts of target DNA by modified the SiNW surface. It was found that the detection limit of the optimized O_2 plasma treated-SiNW device could be reduced to 1.985 × 10"−"1"4 M with a linear detection range of the sequence-specific DNA from 1.0 × 10"−"9 M to 1.0 × 10"−"1"3 M. In addition, the developed biosensor device was able to discriminate between complementary, single mismatch and non-complementary DNA sequences. This highly sensitive assay was then applied to the detection of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product of DENV-DNA, making it as a potential method for disease diagnosis through electrical biosensor. - Highlights: • Molecular electronic detection of Dengue Virus (DENV) DNA using SiNW biosensor is presented. • Oxygen plasma surface treatment as an enhancer technique for device sensitivity is highlighted. • The limit of detection (LoD) as low as 1.985

  2. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  3. Study of surface atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma based on ultrathin laminated electrodes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luxiang; Liu, Wenzheng; Li, Zhiyi; Ma, Chuanlong

    2018-05-01

    A method to generate large-area surface plasma in air by micro-discharge is proposed. Two ultrathin laminated electrode structures of non-insulating and insulating types were formed by using the nanoscale ITO conductive layer. The surface glow discharge in atmospheric air is realized in low discharge voltage by constructing the special electric field of two-dimensional unidirectional attenuation. In particular, the insulating electrode structure can avoid the loss of ITO electrodes so that the discharge stability can be increased, and the treated objects can be prevented from metal ion pollution caused by the electrode in the discharge. It has broad application prospects in the fields of aerodynamics and material surface treatment.

  4. Orientation distribution in Bi2Te3-based compound prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.T.; Kim, Y.H.; Lim, C.H.; Cho, D.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 compounds doped with 3wt.% Te were fabricated by spark plasma sintering after mixing large powders(P L ) and small powders(P S ). We could obtained the highest figure of merit(Z C ) of 2.89 x 10 -3 /K in sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20. This resulted from the increase of orientation by large powders(P S ) and the reduce of pores by small powders. The figure of merit(Z C ) of the sintered compound using only small powders(P S ) showed lower value of 2.67 x 10 -3 /K compared with that of sintered compound mixed to P L :P S =80:20 due to the increase of electrical resistivity. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of a plasma-based composite biologic sealant with fibrin glue (Tisseel) for vascular anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doillon, Charles J; Dion, Yves-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Biologic sealants are needed in numerous, more and more demanding, procedures--especially with developments occurring in endovascular and laparoscopic vascular techniques. An initial pilot study in dogs showed that a 4-cm aortotomy closed with a polyester patch sutured in place by a 4-mm-spaced running suture consistently led to massive hemorrhage. We then designed a study using five dogs where two aortotomies were done to compare the effect of Tisseel to that of an autologous sealant prepared in our laboratory. Arterial pressures and heparinization were maintained throughout the surgical procedure. Both biologic sealants prevented hemorrhage from the arteriotomy at unclamping. Macroscopic and histologic assessments were performed. At killing, one week later, the autologous sealant exhibited less blood saturation of the collagen sponge compared with Tisseel. The use of autologous plasma combined with other adhesive components could be an efficient alternative to allogenic fibrin glue. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.

  6. A high-performance channel engineered charge-plasma-based MOSFET with high-κ spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chan; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Bao, Meng-tian; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of graded channel double-gate MOSFET (GC-DGFET) that utilizes the charge-plasma concept and a high-κ spacer is investigated through 2-D device simulations. The results demonstrate that GC-DGFET with high-κ spacer can effectively improve the ON-state driving current (ION) and reduce the OFF-leakage current (IOFF). We find that reduction of the initial energy barrier between the source and channel is the origin of this ION enhancement. The reason for the IOFF reduction is identified to be the extension of the effective channel length owing to the fringing field via high-κ spacers. Consequently, these devices offer enhanced performance by reducing the total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) and decreasing the intrinsic delay (τ).

  7. Research on killing Escherichia Coli by reactive oxygen species based on strong ionization discharging plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y J; Tian, Y P; Zhang, Z T; Li, R H; Cai, L J; Gao, J Y

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species solution produced by strong ionization discharging plasma was used to kill Escherichia coli by spraying. Several effect factors such as pH value, solution temperature, spraying time and exposure time were observed in this study, and their effects on killing rate of Escherichia coli were discussed and analysed. Results show that the treating efficiency of ROS solution for Escherichia coli is higher in alkaline solution than that in acid solution. The killing rate of Escherichia coli increases while the spraying time and exposure time are longer and the temperature is lower. The effects of different factors on killing rate of Escherichia coli are as follows: spraying time > pH value > exposure time > solution temperature.

  8. Transient performance estimation of charge plasma based negative capacitance junctionless tunnel FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Kondekar, P. N.; Pal, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transient behavior of an n-type double gate negative capacitance junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (NC-JLTFET). The structure is realized by using the work-function engineering of metal electrodes over a heavily doped n + silicon channel and a ferroelectric gate stack to get negative capacitance behavior. The positive feedback in the electric dipoles of ferroelectric materials results in applied gate bias boosting. Various device transient parameters viz. transconductance, output resistance, output conductance, intrinsic gain, intrinsic gate delay, transconductance generation factor and unity gain frequency are analyzed using ac analysis of the device. To study the impact of the work-function variation of control and source gate on device performance, sensitivity analysis of the device has been carried out by varying these parameters. Simulation study reveals that it preserves inherent advantages of charge-plasma junctionless structure and exhibits improved transient behavior as well. (paper)

  9. Control of Laser Plasma Based Accelerators up to 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kei [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation documents the development of a broadband electron spectrometer (ESM) for GeV class Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), the production of high quality GeV electron beams (e-beams) for the first time in a LWFA by using a capillary discharge guide (CDG), and a statistical analysis of CDG-LWFAs. An ESM specialized for CDG-LWFAs with an unprecedented wide momentum acceptance, from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, has been developed. Simultaneous measurement of e-beam spectra and output laser properties as well as a large angular acceptance (> ± 10 mrad) were realized by employing a slitless scheme. A scintillating screen (LANEX Fast back, LANEX-FB)--camera system allowed faster than 1 Hz operation and evaluation of the spatial properties of e-beams. The design provided sufficient resolution for the whole range of the ESM (below 5% for beams with 2 mrad divergence). The calibration between light yield from LANEX-FB and total charge, and a study on the electron energy dependence (0.071 to 1.23 GeV) of LANEX-FB were performed at the Advanced light source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Using this calibration data, the developed ESM provided a charge measurement as well. The production of high quality electron beams up to 1 GeV from a centimeter-scale accelerator was demonstrated. The experiment used a 310 μm diameter gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide that channeled relativistically-intense laser pulses (42 TW, 4.5 x 1018 W/cm2) over 3.3 centimeters of sufficiently low density (≃ 4.3 x 1018/cm3) plasma. Also demonstrated was stable self-injection and acceleration at a beam energy of ≃ 0.5 GeV by using a 225 μm diameter capillary. Relativistically-intense laser pulses (12 TW, 1.3 x 1018W/cm2) were guided over 3.3 centimeters of low density (≃ 3.5 x 1018/cm3) plasma in this experiment. A statistical analysis of the CDG

  10. Fractionation separation of human plasma proteins using HPLC with a homemade iron porphyrin based monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Doudou; Zhao, Yu; Lan, Dandan; Pang, Xiaomin; Bai, Ligai; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Hongyuan

    2017-11-15

    In this work a polymer monolithic column was fabricated within the confines of a stainless steel column (50×4.6mm i.d.) via radical polymerization by using iron porphyrin and butyl methacrylate as co-monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol and N, N-dimethylformamide as tri-porogens, benzoyl peroxide and N,N-dimethylaniline as initiators. The resulting monolithic column was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption BET surface area, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Results showed that the homemade monolith occupied relatively uniform pore structure, low back pressure, and enhanced selectivity for proteins in complex bio-samples. The present work described a simple and efficient method for "fractionation separation" of human plasma proteins, and it is a promising separation method for complex bio-samples in proteomic research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidation Behavior of TiAl-Based Alloy Modified by Double-Glow Plasma Surface Alloying with Cr-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Zhang, Pingze; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Dongbo; Chen, Xiaohu

    2017-07-01

    A Cr-Mo alloyed layer was prepared on a TiAl-based alloy using plasma surface alloying technique. The isothermal oxidation kinetics of the untreated and treated samples was examined at 850 °C. The microstructure and phase composition of the alloyed layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphology and constituent of the oxide scales were also analyzed. The results indicated that the oxidation resistance of TiAl was improved significantly after the alloying treatment. The oxide scale eventually became a mixture of Al2O3, Cr2O3 and TiO2. The oxide scale was dense and integrated throughout the oxidation process. The improvement was mainly owing to the enhancing of scale adhesion and the preferential oxidation of aluminum brought by the alloying effect for TiAl-based alloy.

  12. Effects of adenotonsillectomy on plasma inflammatory biomarkers in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea: A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, L; Gileles-Hillel, A; Alonso-Álvarez, M L; Peris, E; Bhattacharjee, R; Terán-Santos, J; Duran-Cantolla, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are highly prevalent and frequently overlapping conditions in children that lead to systemic inflammation, the latter being implicated in the various end-organ morbidities associated with these conditions. To examine the effects of adenotonsillectomy (T&A) on plasma levels of inflammatory markers in obese children with polysomnographically diagnosed OSA who were prospectively recruited from the community. Obese children prospectively diagnosed with OSA, underwent T&A and a second overnight polysomnogram (PSG) after surgery. Plasma fasting morning samples obtained after each of the two PSGs were assayed for multiple inflammatory and metabolic markers including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), adiponectin, apelin C, leptin and osteocrin. Out of 122 potential candidates, 100 obese children with OSA completed the study with only one-third exhibiting normalization of their PSG after T&A (that is, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≤1/hour total sleep time). However, overall significant decreases in MCP-1, PAI-1, MMP-9, IL-18 and IL-6, and increases in adropin and osteocrin plasma concentrations occurred after T&A. Several of the T&A-responsive biomarkers exhibited excellent sensitivity and moderate specificity to predict residual OSA (that is, AHI⩾5/hTST). A defined subset of systemic inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers is reversibly altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children, further reinforcing the concept on the interactive pro-inflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA and obesity contributing to downstream end-organ morbidities.

  13. The pharmacokinetic study of rutin in rat plasma based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical method based on a directly electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO film coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE was developed for the rapid and convenient determination of rutin in plasma. ERGO was modified on the surface of GCE by one-step electro-deposition method. Electrochemical behavior of rutin on ERGO/GCE indicated that rutin underwent a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process and the electrochemical parameters such as charge transfer coefficient (α, electron transfer number (n and electrode reaction standard rate constant (ks were 0.53, 2 and 3.4 s−1, respectively. The electrochemical sensor for rutin in plasma provided a wide linear response range of 4.70×10−7−1.25×10−5 M with the detection limit (s/n=3 of 1.84×10−8 M. The assay was successfully used to the pharmacokinetic study of rutin. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as elimination rate half-life (t1/2, area under curve (AUC, and plasma clearance (CL were calculated to be 3.345±0.647 min, 5750±656.0 µg min/mL, and 5.891±0.458 mL/min/kg, respectively. The proposed method utilized a small sample volume of 10 μL and had no complicated sample pretreatment (without deproteinization, which was simple, eco-friendly, and time- and cost-efficient for rutin pharmacokinetic studies.

  14. An Adaptable Spectrin/Ankyrin-Based Mechanism for Long-Range Organization of Plasma Membranes in Vertebrate Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vann; Lorenzo, Damaris N

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrins are membrane-associated proteins that together with their spectrin partners are responsible for micron-scale organization of vertebrate plasma membranes, including those of erythrocytes, excitable membranes of neurons and heart, lateral membrane domains of columnar epithelial cells, and striated muscle. Ankyrins coordinate functionally related membrane transporters and cell adhesion proteins (15 protein families identified so far) within plasma membrane compartments through independently evolved interactions of intrinsically disordered sequences with a highly conserved peptide-binding groove formed by the ANK repeat solenoid. Ankyrins are coupled to spectrins, which are elongated organelle-sized proteins that form mechanically resilient arrays through cross-linking by specialized actin filaments. In addition to protein interactions, cellular targeting and assembly of spectrin/ankyrin domains also critically depend on palmitoylation of ankyrin-G by aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine 5/8 palmitoyltransferases, as well as interaction of beta-2 spectrin with phosphoinositide lipids. These lipid-dependent spectrin/ankyrin domains are not static but are locally dynamic and determine membrane identity through opposing endocytosis of bulk lipids as well as specific proteins. A partnership between spectrin, ankyrin, and cell adhesion molecules first emerged in bilaterians over 500 million years ago. Ankyrin and spectrin may have been recruited to plasma membranes from more ancient roles in organelle transport. The basic bilaterian spectrin-ankyrin toolkit markedly expanded in vertebrates through gene duplications combined with variation in unstructured intramolecular regulatory sequences as well as independent evolution of ankyrin-binding activity by ion transporters involved in action potentials and calcium homeostasis. In addition, giant vertebrate ankyrins with specialized roles in axons acquired new coding sequences by exon shuffling. We speculate that

  15. Chemical interaction and adhesion characteristics at the interface of metals (Cu, Ta) and low-k cyclohexane-based plasma polymer (CHexPP) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, N.-E.; Choi, J.; Jung, D.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical interaction and adhesion characteristics between metals (Cu, Ta) and low-k plasma-treated cyclohexane-based plasma polymer (CHexPP) films were studied. In order to generate new functional groups that may contribute to the improvement of adhesion between metal and plasma polymer, we performed O 2 , N 2 , and H 2 /He mixture plasma treatment on the surfaces of CHexPP films. Chemical interactions at the interface between metals (Cu, Ta) and plasma-treated CHexPP films were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of plasma treatment and thermal annealing on the adhesion characteristics was measured by a tape test and scratch test. The formation of new binding states on the surface of plasma-treated CHexPP films improved adhesion characteristics between metals and CHexPP films. Thermal annealing improves the adhesion property of Cu/CHexPP films, but degrades the adhesion property of Ta/CHexPP films

  16. Ultra-sensitive quantification of lysozyme based on element chelate labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, MingWei; Wu, WeiHua; Ruan, YaJuan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Cai, Yong; Fu, FengFu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An ultra-sensitive method for the determination of lysozyme was developed based on the Gd 3+ chelate labeling and CE–ICP–MS. The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole and has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva sample, showing excellent reliability. The success of the present method provides a new possibility for biological assays and clinical diagnoses. -- Highlights: •An ultra-sensitive method for detecting lysozyme based on CE–ICP–MS was described. •The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole. •It can be used to detect trace lysozyme in saliva sample with a satisfied recovery. •The method provides a new potential for sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins. -- Abstract: In this study, an ultra-sensitive method for the quantification of lysozyme based on the Gd 3+ diethylenetriamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetic acid labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE–ICP–MS) was described. The Gd 3+ -tagged lysozyme was effectively separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and sensitively determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Based on the gadolinium-tagging and CE–ICP–MS, the lysozyme was determined within 12 min with an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole (3.89 × 10 −11 mol L −1 for 100 nL of sample injection) and a RSD < 6% (n = 5). The proposed method has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva samples with a recovery of 91–106%, suggesting that our method is sensitive and reliable. The success of the present method provides a new potential for the biological assays and sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins

  17. Study on the interaction of plasma protein binding rate between edaravone and taurine in human plasma based on HPLC analysis coupled with ultrafiltration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dao-quan; Li, Yin-jie; Li, Zheng; Bian, Ting-ting; Chen, Kai; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Yu, Yan-yan; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2015-08-01

    In this work, two high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays were developed and validated for the independent determination of edaravone and taurine using 3-methyl-1-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and L-glutamine as internal standards. In in vitro experiments, human plasma was separately spiked with a mixture of edaravone and taurine, edaravone or taurine alone. Plasma was precipitated with acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Ultrafiltration was employed to obtain the unbound ingredients of the two drugs. The factors that might influence the ultrafiltration effiency were elaborately optimized. Plasma supernatant and ultrafiltrate containing taurine were derivated with o-phthalaldehyde and ethanethiol in the presence of 40 mmol/L sodium borate buffer (pH 10.2) at room temperature within 1 min. Chromatographic separations were achieved on an InertSustain C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). Isocratic 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile and gradient 50 mmol/L sodium acetate (pH 5.3)-methanol were respectively selected as the mobile phase for the determination of edaravone and taurine. All of the validation data including linearity, extraction recovery, precision, accuracy and stability conformed to the requirements. Results showed that there were no significant alterations in the plasma protein binding rate of taurine and edaravone, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically feasible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  19. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  20. Coupling between chip based isotachophoresis and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for separation and measurement of lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, Laurent; Cretier, Gerard; Rocca, Jean-Louis; Chartier, Frederic; Geertsen, Valerie; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Isnard, Helene; Morin, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the conception and fabrication of a micro-system for lanthanides separation and its coupling with a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for isotope ratio measurements. The lanthanides separation is based on the isotachophoresis technique and the micro-system conception has been adapted in order to fit with glove box limitations in view of future spent nuclear fuels analysis. The micro-device was tested by using a mixture of standard solutions of natural elements and the separation of 13 lanthanides was successfully performed. The micro-device was then coupled to a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the on-line measurements of Nd and Sm isotope ratios. The isotopes of Nd and Sm were acquired online in multi-collection mode after separation of the two elements with an injection amount of 5 ng. Results obtained on the Nd and Sm isotope ratio measurements on transient signals are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Design and construction the identification of nitriding plasma process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frida Iswinning Diah; Slamet Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Design and construction the identification of process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication PLC M-series has been done. The function of this device is to identify the process parameters of a system (plan), to which then be analyzed and conducted a follow-up given to the plan by the user. The main component of this device is the M-Series T100MD1616 PLC and personal computer (PC). In this device the data plan parameters obtained from the corresponding sensor outputs in the form of voltage or current. While the analog parameter data is adjusted to the ADC analog input of the PLC using a signal conditioning system. Then, as the parameter is processed by the PLC then sent to a PC via RS232 to be displayed in the form of graphs or tables and stored in the database. Software to program the database is created using Visual Basic Programming V-6. The device operation test is performed for the measurement of temperature parameter and vacuum level on the plasma nitriding machine. The results indicate that the device has functioning as an identification device parameters process of plasma nitriding machine. (author)

  2. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict the Pharmacokinetics of Highly Protein-Bound Drugs and Impact of Errors in Plasma Protein Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Min; Nagar, Swati; Korzekwa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data was often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding, and blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for terminal elimination half-life (t1/2, 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax, 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–t, 95.4%), clearance (CLh, 95.4%), mean retention time (MRT, 95.4%), and steady state volume (Vss, 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. PMID:26531057

  3. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to predict the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs and the impact of errors in plasma protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Min; Nagar, Swati; Korzekwa, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of fluorine-based plasma treatment and thermal annealing on high-Al content AlGaN Schottky contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Qin Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Fluorine plasma treatment was used prior to the Schottky metal deposition on the undoped Al 0.45 Ga 0.55 N, which aimed at the solar-blind wavelength. After fluorine plasma treatment and before depositing the Ni/Au Schottky, the samples were thermal annealed in the N 2 gas at 400 °C. The reverse leakage current density of Al 0.45 Ga 0.55 N Schottky diode was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude at −10 V. The reverse leakage current density was reduced by 3 orders of magnitude after thermal annealing. Further capacitance–frequency analysis revealed that the fluorine-based plasma treatment reduces the surface states of AlGaN by one order of magnitude at different surface state energies. The capacitance–frequency analysis also proved that the concentration of carriers in AlGaN top is reduced through fluorine plasma treatment. (paper)

  5. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Suli; Huang Chengdu; Lv Jing; Li Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N 2 -physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500° C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/SiO 2 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C 5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO 2 catalyst.

  6. NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR EVALUATION OF SEVERITY AND PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE BASED ON N-TERMINAL PRO-BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PLASMA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Galjavich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-proBNP in evaluation of severity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis.Material and methods. 77 patients (60 men and 17 women; 59,4±10,7 y.o. with CHF of ischemic genesis were included in the study. All patients had sinus rhythm and history of Q wave myocardial infarction. Standard examination was performed to all patients. Besides N-proBNP plasma level and patients yearly survival were evaluated.Results. N-proBNP plasma level had direct correlation with clinical indices (exercise tolerance, blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic heart sizes. N-proBNP plasma level had relationship with prognosis of CHF patients. Baseline N-proBNP level was more than 2 times higher in died patients in comparison with survived patients. The yearly survival rate of CHF patients was 51,3% if N-proBNP level had been more than 400 fmol/ml (>15% of normal value. The clinico-laboratory index (based on N-proBNP plasma level of severity and prognosis in CHF patients was developed.Conclusion. The clinico-laboratory index based on N-proBNP plasma level is easy to use and can improve medical practice.

  7. NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR EVALUATION OF SEVERITY AND PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE BASED ON N-TERMINAL PRO-BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PLASMA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Galjavich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-proBNP in evaluation of severity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis.Material and methods. 77 patients (60 men and 17 women; 59,4±10,7 y.o. with CHF of ischemic genesis were included in the study. All patients had sinus rhythm and history of Q wave myocardial infarction. Standard examination was performed to all patients. Besides N-proBNP plasma level and patients yearly survival were evaluated.Results. N-proBNP plasma level had direct correlation with clinical indices (exercise tolerance, blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic heart sizes. N-proBNP plasma level had relationship with prognosis of CHF patients. Baseline N-proBNP level was more than 2 times higher in died patients in comparison with survived patients. The yearly survival rate of CHF patients was 51,3% if N-proBNP level had been more than 400 fmol/ml (>15% of normal value. The clinico-laboratory index (based on N-proBNP plasma level of severity and prognosis in CHF patients was developed.Conclusion. The clinico-laboratory index based on N-proBNP plasma level is easy to use and can improve medical practice.

  8. Carbon-based micro-ball and micro-crystal deposition using filamentary pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thin plasma filaments are produced by the propagation of ionization waves from a spiked driven electrode in a quartz tube in an argon/methane gas mixture (2400 sccm/2 sccm) at atmospheric pressure. The position of the touch point of filaments on the substrate surface is controlled in our experiment by applying various suitable substrate configurations and geometries of the grounded electrode. The gas conditions at the touch point are varied from argon to ambient air. Based on microphotography and discharge current waveforms, the duration of the filament touching the substrate is estimated to be about one microsecond. Carbon-based materials are deposited during this time at the touch points on the substrate surface. Micro-balls are produced if the filament touch points are saved from ambient air by the argon flow. Under an air admixture, micro-crystals are formed. The dimension of both materials is approximately one micrometre (0.5–2 µm) and corresponds to about 10 10 –10 12 carbon atoms. Neither the diffusion of neutral species nor drift of ions can be reason for the formation of such a big micro-material during this short period of filament–substrate interaction. It is possible that charged carbon-based materials are formed in the plasma channel and transported to the surface of the substrate. The mechanism of this transport and characterization of micro-materials, which are formed under different gas conditions in our experiment, will be studied in the future. (paper)

  9. Simultaneous determination of ribavirin and ribavirin base in monkey plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkui; Luo, Suyi; Li, Shaoyong; Athill, Lawrence; Wu, Amy; Ray, Tapan; Zhou, Wei; Ke, June; Smith, Harold T; Tse, Francis L S

    2007-02-01

    For the first time, a liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of ribavirin and rabavirin base was developed and validated over the concentration range of 10-5,000 ng/ml, respectively, using a 0.025 ml monkey plasma sample. Ribavirin, ribavirin base, and the internal standards were extracted from monkey plasma via protein precipitation. After evaporation of the supernatant, the extract was reconstituted with 5% methanol (containing 0.1% formic acid) and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Atlantis dc18 (150 mm x 2.1mm, 5 microm) column with mobile phase run in gradient with 100% water containing 0.5% formic acid (A) and 90% acetonitrile (containing 0.5% formic acid (B). The flow rate was 0.4-0.6 ml/min with total cycle time of approximately 7.0 min. Post-column addition of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) at 0.3 ml/min was used to increase the ionization efficiency in the MS source. The method was validated for sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. Lack of adverse matrix effect and carry-over was also demonstrated. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control (QC) samples were <9.0% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and 10.8% bias for ribavirin, and 10.3% R.S.D. and 11.3% bias for ribavirin base. The current specific, accurate and precise assay is useful in support of the toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies of these compounds.

  10. Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels in rainbow trout fed a complete plant ingredient based diet and the effect of supplemental di-calcium phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Mariojouls, C.; Godin, S.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Geurden, I.; Surget, A.; Bouyssiere, B.; Kaushik, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels and utilisation of minerals in rainbow trout fed complete plant ingredient based diets with or without supplemental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) were studied over an 8 week period. Three diets were used: diet M was FM and fish oil (FO) based diet

  11. Distributed mass data acquisition system based on PCs and windows NT for LHD fusion plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, H.; Kojima, M.; Ohsuna, M.; Komada, S.; Emoto, M.; Sugisaki, H.; Sudo, S.

    2000-12-01

    A new data acquisition and management system has been developed for the LHD experiment. It has the capability to process 100 MB - 1 GB raw data within a few tens seconds after every plasma discharge. It employs wholly distributed and loosely-tied parallel tasking structure through a fast network, and the cluster of the distributed database severs seems to be a virtual macro-machine as a whole. A PC/Windows NT computer is installed for each diagnostics data acquisition of about 30 kinds, and it controls CAMAC digitizers through the optical SCSI extenders. The diagnostic timing system consists of some kinds of VME modules that are installed to remotely control the diagnostic devices in real-time. They can, as a whole system, distribute the synchronous sampling clocks and programmable triggers for measurement digitizers. The data retrieving terminals can access database as application service clients, and are functionally separated from the data acquisition severs by way of the switching Ethernet. (author)

  12. Low Damage, High Anisotropy Inductively Coupled Plasma for Gallium Nitride based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Youssef H.

    2013-05-27

    Group III-nitride semiconductors possess unique properties, which make them versatile materials for suiting many applications. Structuring vertical and exceptionally smooth GaN profiles is crucial for efficient optical device operation. The processing requirements for laser devices and ridge waveguides are stringent as compared to LEDs and other electronic devices. Due to the strong bonding and chemically inert nature of GaN, dry etching becomes a critical fabrication step. The surface morphology and facet etch angle are analyzed using SEM and AFM measurements. The influence of different mask materials is also studied including Ni as well as a SiO2 and resist bilayer. The high selectivity Ni Mask is found to produce high sidewall angles ~79°. Processing parameters are optimized for both the mask material and GaN in order to achieve a highly anisotropic, smooth profile, without resorting to additional surface treatment steps. An optimizing a SF6/O2 plasma etch process resulted in smooth SiO2 mask sidewalls. The etch rate and GaN surface roughness dependence on the RF power was also examined. Under a low 2mTorr pressure, the RF and ICP power were optimized to 150W and 300W respectively, such that a smooth GaN morphology and sidewalls was achieved with reduced ion damage. The The AFM measurements of the etched GaN surface indicate a low RMS roughness ranging from 4.75 nm to 7.66 nm.

  13. Oxygen plasma effects on zero resistance behavior of Yb,Er-doped YBCO (123) based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Helmut; Rathmann, Dirk [Department of Physics, Biophysics, and Photosynthesis, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Banko, Franziska; Steinhart, Martin [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Nordmann, Joerg; Voss, Benjamin [Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Walder, Lorenz [Organic Chemistry, Molecular Electrochemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Rare-earth doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples were synthesized starting from the corresponding oxides Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO as well as Ba(OH){sub 2} by heating to 950 C under air. The doping concentrations were adjusted to 15 % Yb, 7 % Er and 20 % Yb, 15 % Er, respectively, with respect to the yttrium content. The orthogonal phased (123) YBCO ceramics were exposed to an oxygen plasma for 140 and 380 min. Zero resistance temperature (T{sub c,0}) was determined by measuring the resistivity-temperature dependence using a classical four point measurement approach. Under optimal conditions with respect to the material composition and the oxygen treatment an unusual high zero resistance temperature of 97.5 K (T{sub c,onset} ∼ 101 K) was achieved. This represents an increase of T{sub c,0} by 7.5 K. The oxygen treatment could not be monitored by IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results showed good reproducibility. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. LXCat: A web-based, community-wide project on data for modeling low temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, L. C.

    2014-10-01

    LXCat is an open-access website (www.lxcat.net) for exchanging data related to ion and electron transport and scattering cross sections in cold, neutral gases. At present 30 people from 12 countries have contributed to the LXCat project. This presentation will focus on the status of the data available for electrons on LXCat. These data are primarily in the form of ``complete'' sets of cross sections, compiled or calculated by different contributors, covering a range of energies from thermal up to about 1 keV. The cross section data can be used directly in Monte Carlo simulations and can also be used as input to Boltzmann equation solvers. Solution of the homogeneous, steady-state Boltzmann equation yields electron energy distribution functions (edf) as a function of reduced electric field strength, E/N, integrals over which yield electron transport and rate coefficients. The transport and rate coefficient data are required input for fluid models of low temperature plasmas. Evaluation of the cross section data sets available on LXCat is a key issue. To this end, the LXCat team has been making systematic intercomparisons of cross section data and comparisons of calculated and measured transport and rate coefficients. Our evaluations have been reported previously for noble gases and for common atmospheric gases. The LXCat team is now evaluating data for more complex molecules.

  15. Prediction of Drug-Plasma Protein Binding Using Artificial Intelligence Based Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Sharma, Anju; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Plasma protein binding (PPB) has vital importance in the characterization of drug distribution in the systemic circulation. Unfavorable PPB can pose a negative effect on clinical development of promising drug candidates. The drug distribution properties should be considered at the initial phases of the drug design and development. Therefore, PPB prediction models are receiving an increased attention. In the current study, we present a systematic approach using Support vector machine, Artificial neural network, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis to relate various in vitro and in silico molecular descriptors to a diverse dataset of 736 drugs/drug-like compounds. The overall accuracy of Support vector machine with Radial basis function kernel came out to be comparatively better than the rest of the applied algorithms. The training set accuracy, validation set accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity and F1 score for the Suprort vector machine was found to be 89.73%, 89.97%, 92.56%, 87.26%, 91.97% and 0.898, respectively. This model can potentially be useful in screening of relevant drug candidates at the preliminary stages of drug design and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Gas Sensors Based on Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from a Mini-Arc Plasma Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganhua Lu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas sensors or electronic noses to rapidly detect and differentiate trace amount of chemical agents are extremely attractive. In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a functional tin oxide nanoparticle gas sensor. Tin oxide nanoparticles are first synthesized using a convenient and low-cost mini-arc plasma source. The nanoparticle size distribution is measured online using a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS. The product nanoparticles are analyzed ex-situ by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for morphology and defects, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy for elemental composition, electron diffraction for crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for surface composition. Nonagglomerated rutile tin oxide (SnO2 nanoparticles as small as a few nm have been produced. Larger particles bear a core-shell structure with a metallic core and an oxide shell. The nanoparticles are then assembled onto an e-beam lithographically patterned interdigitated electrode using electrostatic force to fabricate the gas sensor. The nanoparticle sensor exhibits a fast response and a good sensitivity when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol vapor in air.

  17. C_1_8-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of anti-diabetic drug from human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wan; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wong, Y.-L. Elaine; Hung, Y.-L. Winnie; Wang, Ze; Deng, Liulin; Dominic Chan, T.-W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, sorbent-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry was explored for quantitative analysis of anti-diabetic drugs spiked in human plasma. C_1_8-attached membrane funnel was fabricated for in situ extraction and clean-up to alleviate matrix suppression effect in the ionization process. Repaglinide was used as a target analyte of anti-diabetic drugs. Under optimal working conditions, good linearity (R"2 > 0.99) was obtained in the concentration range of 1–100 ng mL"−"1. The method detection limit of target drugs spiked in the human plasma was around 0.30 ng mL"−"1. Through the application of an isotope-labeled internal standard, the signal fluctuation caused by residual background matrices was largely alleviated and the precision of measurement (RSD) was below 15%. The recovery of repaglinide for 5, 25, and 100 ng mL"−"1 of spiked human plasma matrixes ranged from 87% to 112%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers who orally received a dose of drug association. Our results demonstrated that membrane funnel-based spray is a simple and sensitive method for rapid screening analysis of complex biological samples. - Highlights: • Sorbent attached membrane funnel based spray platform was used for drug determination in human plasma. • The matrix suppression effect of human plasma was largely eliminated. • The method was applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers. • Membrane funnel-based spray is promising for analysis of biological samples.

  18. Profiling plasma extracellular vesicle by pluronic block-copolymer based enrichment method unveils features associated with breast cancer aggression, metastasis and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhenyu; Rosenow, Matthew; Xiao, Nick; Spetzler, David

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicle (EV)-based liquid biopsies have been proposed to be a readily obtainable biological substrate recently for both profiling and diagnostics purposes. Development of a fast and reliable preparation protocol to enrich such small particles could accelerate the discovery of informative, disease-related biomarkers. Though multiple EV enrichment protocols are available, in terms of efficiency, reproducibility and simplicity, precipitation-based methods are most amenable to studies with large numbers of subjects. However, the selectivity of the precipitation becomes critical. Here, we present a simple plasma EV enrichment protocol based on pluronic block copolymer. The enriched plasma EV was able to be verified by multiple platforms. Our results showed that the particles enriched from plasma by the copolymer were EV size vesicles with membrane structure; proteomic profiling showed that EV-related proteins were significantly enriched, while high-abundant plasma proteins were significantly reduced in comparison to other precipitation-based enrichment methods. Next-generation sequencing confirmed the existence of various RNA species that have been observed in EVs from previous studies. Small RNA sequencing showed enriched species compared to the corresponding plasma. Moreover, plasma EVs enriched from 20 advanced breast cancer patients and 20 age-matched non-cancer controls were profiled by semi-quantitative mass spectrometry. Protein features were further screened by EV proteomic profiles generated from four breast cancer cell lines, and then selected in cross-validation models. A total of 60 protein features that highly contributed in model prediction were identified. Interestingly, a large portion of these features were associated with breast cancer aggression, metastasis as well as invasion, consistent with the advanced clinical stage of the patients. In summary, we have developed a plasma EV enrichment method with improved precipitation selectivity

  19. C{sub 18}-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of anti-diabetic drug from human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wan [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Chen, Xiangfeng, E-mail: xiangfchensdas@163.com [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Shandong Analysis and Test Centre, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wong, Y.-L. Elaine; Hung, Y.-L. Winnie; Wang, Ze; Deng, Liulin [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Dominic Chan, T.-W., E-mail: twdchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2016-08-24

    In this work, sorbent-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry was explored for quantitative analysis of anti-diabetic drugs spiked in human plasma. C{sub 18}-attached membrane funnel was fabricated for in situ extraction and clean-up to alleviate matrix suppression effect in the ionization process. Repaglinide was used as a target analyte of anti-diabetic drugs. Under optimal working conditions, good linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99) was obtained in the concentration range of 1–100 ng mL{sup −1}. The method detection limit of target drugs spiked in the human plasma was around 0.30 ng mL{sup −1}. Through the application of an isotope-labeled internal standard, the signal fluctuation caused by residual background matrices was largely alleviated and the precision of measurement (RSD) was below 15%. The recovery of repaglinide for 5, 25, and 100 ng mL{sup −1} of spiked human plasma matrixes ranged from 87% to 112%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers who orally received a dose of drug association. Our results demonstrated that membrane funnel-based spray is a simple and sensitive method for rapid screening analysis of complex biological samples. - Highlights: • Sorbent attached membrane funnel based spray platform was used for drug determination in human plasma. • The matrix suppression effect of human plasma was largely eliminated. • The method was applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers. • Membrane funnel-based spray is promising for analysis of biological samples.

  20. Silver nanoparticles plasmon resonance-based method for the determination of uric acid in human plasma and urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjadi, M.; Rahimpour, E.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive colorimetric procedure for the quantification of trace amounts of uric acid. It is based on the finding that uric acid in a medium containing ammonia and sodium hydroxide at 65 0 C can reduce silver ions to form yellow silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). These are stabilized in solution by using poly(vinyl alcohol) as a capping agent. The yellow color of the solution that results from the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag NPs can be observed by the bare eye. The absorbance at 415 nm is proportional to the concentration of uric acid which therefore can be determined quantitatively. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range from 10 to 200 nM, with a limit of detection of 3.3 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of uric acid in human plasma and urine samples. (author)

  1. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Stoermer, M.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation process in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes using a pulsed DC power source. The microstructure and composition of the PEO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. It was found that the electrolyte composition has a significant effect on the coating evolution and on the resulting coating characteristics, such as microstructure, composition, coating thickness, roughness and thus on the corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating formed in silicate electrolyte was found to be superior to that formed in phosphate electrolyte in both the short-term and long-term electrochemical corrosion tests.

  2. Extraction of a long-pulsed intense electron beam from a pulsed plasma based on hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Johshin.

    1977-05-01

    An intense electron beam (up to 1.0 kV, 0.8 kA in 0.8 cm phi) is extracted along a uniform magnetic field with a long decay time (up to 2 msec) from a pulsed high density plasma source which is produced with a fast rise time (< 100 μsec) by a secondary discharge based on a dc hollow cathode discharge. Through a back stream of ionized ions from a beam-extracting anode region where a neutral gas is fed, a space charge limit of the electron beam is so reduced that the beam current is determined by an initially injected electron flux and concentrated in a central aperture of the extracting anode. Moreover, the beam pulse width is much extended by the neutral gas feed into the anode space. (auth.)

  3. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Wojeński, A.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Vezinet, D.; Herrmann, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, D.; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  4. Comparative study on decontamination treatment of paper-based materials in corona discharge and HF cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanid, E. G.; Dunca, S.; Rusu, D.; Tǎnase, C.

    2012-04-01

    Documents decontamination using dry methods, less invasive than the wet ones implying toxic nocuous substances for cellulose-based materials, has been the object of numerous studies. In recent years mixed researchers teams have been studying the possibility of one-step document decontamination performed by a dry treatment, the risks of repeated wet manipulation thus being reduced. Among physical methods appropriate to this end, high-frequency cold plasma and corona effect can be mentioned. Our studies were carried out on samples taken from ancient books with no cultural heritage value. The decontamination efficiency and the impact on paper of the two types of treatments were determined by: microbiological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, chromatic alterations and gloss determination. The above-mentioned procedures eliminate the use of chemical conservation substances, nocuous for the paper support. At the same time the health risk for conservators, restorers, archivists or archive's users is removed.

  5. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: dybyun@skku.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  6. A coverslip-based technique for evaluating Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Walker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, to form biofilms is increasingly being viewed as an important contributor to chronic infections. In vitro methods for analyzing S. aureus biofilm formation have focused on bacterial attachment and accumulation on abiotic surfaces, such as in microtiter plate and flow cell assays. Microtiter plates provide a rapid measure of relative biomass levels, while flow cells have limited experimental throughput but are superior for confocal microscopy biofilm visualization. Although these assays have proven effective at identifying mechanisms involved in cell attachment and biofilm accumulation, the significance of these assays in vivo remains unclear. Studies have shown that when medical devices are implanted they are coated with host factors, such as matrix proteins, that facilitate S. aureus attachment and biofilm formation. To address the challenge of integrating existing biofilm assay features with a biotic surface, we have established an in vitro biofilm technique utilizing UV-sterilized coverslips coated with human plasma. The substratum more closely resembles the in vivo state and provides a platform for S. aureus to establish a robust biofilm. Importantly, these coverslips are amenable to confocal microscopy imaging to provide a visual reference of the biofilm growth stage, effectively merging the benefits of the microtiter and flow cell assays. We confirmed the approach using clinical S. aureus isolates and mutants with known biofilm phenotypes. Altogether, this new biofilm assay can be used to assess the function of S. aureus virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and for monitoring the efficacy of biofilm treatment modalities.

  7. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  8. Electric wind produced by surface plasma actuators: a new dielectric barrier discharge based on a three-electrode geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Eric; Sosa, Roberto; Artana, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Active flow control is a rapidly developing topic because the associated industrial applications are of immense importance, particularly for aeronautics. Among all the flow control methods, such as the use of mechanical flaps or wall jets, plasma-based devices are very promising devices. The main advantages of such systems are their robustness, their simplicity, their low-power consumption and that they allow a real-time control at high frequency. This paper deals with an experimental study about the electric wind produced by a surface discharge based on a three-electrode geometry. This new device is composed of a typical two-electrode surface barrier discharge excited by an AC high voltage, plus a third electrode at which a DC high voltage is applied in order to extend the discharge region and to accelerate the ion drift velocity. In the first part the electrical current of these different surface discharges is presented and discussed. This shows that the current behaviour depends on the DC component polarity. The second part is dedicated to analysing the electric wind characteristics through Schlieren visualizations and to measuring its time-averaged velocity with a Pitot tube sensor. The results show that an excitation of the electrodes with an AC voltage plus a positive DC component can significantly modify the topology of the electric wind produced by a single DBD. In practice, this DC component allows us to increase the value of the maximum induced velocity (up to +150% at a few centimetres downstream of the discharge) and the plasma extension, to enhance the depression occurring above the discharge region and to increase the discharge-induced mass flow rate (up to +100%), without increasing the electrical power consumption

  9. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) based affinity membranes for in vitro removal of anti-dsDNA antibodies from SLE plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Lokman; Yavuz, Handan; Osman, Bilgen; Celik, Hamdi; Denizli, Adil

    2010-07-01

    The preparation of polymeric membrane using affinity technology for application in blood filtration devices is described here. DNA attached poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based microporous affinity membrane was prepared for selective removal of anti-dsDNA antibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient plasma in in vitro. In order to further increase blood-compatibility of affinity membrane, aminoacid based comonomer N-methacryloyl-L-alanine (MAAL) was included in the polymerization recipe. PHEMAAL membrane was produced by a photopolymerization technique and then characterized by swelling tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. Blood-compatibility tests were also performed. The water swelling ratio of PHEMAAL membrane increased significantly (133.2%) compared with PHEMA (58%). PHEMAAL membrane has large pores around in the range of 5-10 microm. All the clotting times increased when compared with PHEMA membrane. Loss of platelets and leukocytes was very low. DNA loading was 7.8 mg/g. There was a very low anti-dsDNA-antibody adsorption onto the plain PHEMAAL membrane, about 78 IU/g. The PHEMAAL-DNA membrane adsorbed anti-dsDNA-antibody in the range of 10-68 x 10(3)IU/g from SLE plasma. Anti-dsDNA-antibody concentration decreased significantly from 875 to 144 IU/ml with the time. Anti-dsDNA-antibodies could be repeatedly adsorbed and eluted without noticeable loss in the anti-dsDNA-antibody adsorption amount. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Healthy Balance of Plasma Cholesterol by a Novel Annurca Apple-Based Nutraceutical Formulation: Results of a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are nowadays preferential targets of preventive medicine through a straightforward therapy on lipid profile. However, statins, the first-line lipid-lowering drug therapy, specifically act on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), having a modest effect on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Today, a number of novel HDL-targeted therapies are emerging, along with unexpected side effects. Thus, novel and possibly safe substances, able to correct impaired lipid profile in humans, are still in great demand. Herein, based on encouraging clinical data, we formulated a nutraceutical product (AppleMetS ® , AMS), based on a polyphenolic extract from Annurca apple, and demonstrated that two capsules a day of AMS, after one month, have a LDL-C lowering outcome equivalent to 40 mg of simvastatin or 10 mg of atorvastatin. Nevertheless, different from statin-based therapy, AMS exerted a notable effect on HDL (+49.2%). Based on the trial results, we can assert that AMS formulation could effectively integrate the current therapeutic arsenal to correct impaired lipid profile in humans. Specifically, AMS may be considered a complementary and/or alternative safe substance suitable for the treatment of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects who do not present occurrence of atheromatous plaques yet.

  11. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  12. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)-Based Untargeted Quantitative Proteomic Approach To Identify Change of the Plasma Proteins by Salbutamol Abuse in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Tang, Chaohua; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Junmin

    2018-01-10

    Salbutamol, a selective β 2 -agonist, endangers the safety of animal products as a result of illegal use in food animals. In this study, an iTRAQ-based untargeted quantitative proteomic approach was applied to screen potential protein biomarkers in plasma of cattle before and after treatment with salbutamol for 21 days. A total of 62 plasma proteins were significantly affected by salbutamol treatment, which can be used as potential biomarkers to screen for the illegal use of salbutamol in beef cattle. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements of five selected proteins demonstrated the reliability of iTRAQ-based proteomics in screening of candidate biomarkers among the plasma proteins. The plasma samples collected before and after salbutamol treatment were well-separated by principal component analysis (PCA) using the differentially expressed proteins. These results suggested that an iTRAQ-based untargeted quantitative proteomic strategy combined with PCA pattern recognition methods can discriminate differences in plasma protein profiles collected before and after salbutamol treatment.

  13. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  14. Omnidirectional photonic band gap enlarged by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu Shaobin [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210096 (China); Kong Xiangkun; Bian Borui; Dai Yi [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, an omnidirectional photonic band gap realized by one-dimensional ternary unmagnetized plasma photonic crystals based on a new Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure, which is composed of homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and two kinds of isotropic dielectric, is theoretically studied by the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that such an omnidirectional photonic band gap originates from Bragg gap in contrast to zero-n gap or single negative (negative permittivity or negative permeability) gap, and it is insensitive to the incidence angle and the polarization of electromagnetic wave. From the numerical results, the frequency range and central frequency of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be tuned by the thickness and density of the plasma but cease to change with increasing Fibonacci order. The bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap can be notably enlarged. Moreover, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the bandwidth of omnidirectional photonic band gap. It is shown that such new structure Fibonacci quasiperiodic one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals have a superior feature in the enhancement of frequency range of omnidirectional photonic band gap compared with the conventional ternary and conventional Fibonacci quasiperiodic ternary plasma photonic crystals.

  15. Liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The article reviews the theory of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys, within the framework of linear screening theory for the electron-ion interactions. (author)

  16. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  17. Access and scientific exploitation of planetary plasma datasets with the CDPP/AMDA web-based tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    The field of planetary sciences has greatly expanded in recent years with space missions orbiting around most of the planets of our Solar System. The growing amount and wealth of data available make it difficult for scientists to exploit data coming from many sources that can initially be heterogeneous in their organization, description and format. It is an important objective of the Europlanet-RI (supported by EU within FP7) to add value to space missions by significantly contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data; to enable space researchers to take full advantage of the potential value of data sets. To this end and to enhance the science return from space missions, innovative tools have to be developed and offered to the community. AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis, http://cdpp-amda.cesr.fr/) is a web-based facility developed at CDPP Toulouse in France (http://cdpp.cesr.fr) for on line analysis of space physics data (heliosphere, magnetospheres, planetary environments) coming from either its local database or distant ones. AMDA has been recently integrated as a service to the scientific community for the Plasma Physics thematic node of the Europlanet-RI IDIS (Integrated and Distributed Information Service, http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/) activities, in close cooperation with IWF Graz (http://europlanet-plasmanode.oeaw.ac.at/index.php?id=9). We will report the status of our current technical and scientific efforts to integrate in the local database of AMDA various planetary plasma datasets (at Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth and Moon, Jupiter, Saturn) from heterogeneous sources, including NASA/Planetary Data System (http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/). We will also present our prototype Virtual Observatory activities to connect the AMDA tool to the IVOA Aladin astrophysical tool to enable pluridisciplinary studies of giant planet auroral emissions. This presentation will be done on behalf of the CDPP Team and Europlanet-RI IDIS plasma node

  18. Non equilibrium atomic processes and plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takako

    2003-01-01

    Along with the technical progress in plasma spectroscopy, non equilibrium ionization processes have been recently observed. We study non local thermodynamic equilibrium and non ionization equilibrium for various kinds of plasmas. Specifically we discuss non equilibrium atomic processes in magnetically confined plasmas, solar flares and laser produced plasmas using a collisional radiative model based on plasma spectroscopic data. (author)

  19. Plasma metabonomics study of the patients with acute anterior uveitis based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junguo; Yan, Tingqin; Bi, Hongsheng; Xie, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xingrong; Guo, Dadong; Jiang, Haiqiang

    2014-06-01

    The identification of the biomarkers of patients with acute anterior uveitis (AAU) may allow for a less invasive and more accurate diagnosis, as well as serving as a predictor in AAU progression and treatment response. The aim of this study was to identify the potential biomarkers and the metabolic pathways from plasma in patients with AAU. Both plasma metabolic biomarkers and metabolic pathways in the AAU patients versus healthy volunteers were investigated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and a metabonomics approach. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to separate AAU patients from healthy volunteers as well as to identify the different biomarkers between the two groups. Metabolic compounds were matched to the KEGG, METLIN, and HMDB databases, and metabolic pathways associated with AAU were identified. The PCA for UPLC-MS data shows that the metabolites in AAU patients were significantly different from those of healthy volunteers. Of the 4,396 total features detected by UPLC-MS, 102 features were significantly different between AAU patients and healthy volunteers according to the variable importance plot (VIP) values (greater than two) of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). Thirty-three metabolic compounds were identified and were considered as potential biomarkers. Meanwhile, ten metabolic pathways were found that were related to the AAU according to the identified biomarkers. These data suggest that metabolomics study can identify potential metabolites that differ between AAU patients and healthy volunteers. Based on the PCA, PLS-DA, several potential metabolic biomarkers and pathways in AAU patients were found and identified. In addition, the UPLC-MS technique combined with metabonomics could be a suitable systematic biology tool in research in clinical problems in ophthalmology, and can provide further insight into the pathophysiology of AAU.

  20. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  1. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrochemical performance of the rayon and polyacrylonitrile based carbon felt for the vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D.; Babu, D. J.; Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Pfaffmann, L.; Bhaskar, A.; Schneider, J. J.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment was applied on commercially available graphite felt electrodes based on rayon (GFA) and polyacrylonitrile (GFD). The formation of functional groups on the surface of the felt was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The BET studies of the plasma treated electrodes showed no significant increase in surface area for both the rayon as well as the PAN based felts. Both plasma treated electrodes showed significantly enhanced V3+/V2+ redox activity compared to the pristine electrodes. Since an increase of the surface area has been ruled out for plasma treated electrode the enhanced activity could be attributed to surface functional groups. Interestingly, plasma treated GFD felts showed less electrochemical activity towards V5+/V4+ compared to the pristine electrode. Nevertheless, an overall increase of the single cell performance was still observed as the negative electrode is known to be the performance limiting electrode. Thus, to a great extent the present work helps to preferentially understand the importance of functional groups on the electrochemical activity of negative and positive redox reaction. The study emphasizes the need of highly active electrodes especially at the negative electrode side as inactive electrodes can still facilitate hydrogen evolution and degrade the electrolyte in VRFBs.

  2. Alternative electro-chemically based processing routes for joining of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.krauss@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Materials Research III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lorenz, Julia; Holstein, Nils; Konys, Juergen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Materials Research III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Tungsten is considered in fusion technology as functional and structural material in the area of blanket and divertor for future application in DEMO. The KIT design of a He-cooled divertor includes joints between W and W-alloys as well as of W with Eurofer-steel. The main challenges range from expansion mismatch problem for tungsten/steel joints over metallurgical reactions with brittle phase formation to crack stopping ability and excellent surface wetting. These requirements were only met partly and insufficiently in the past e.g. by direct Cu-casting of tungsten onto steel. Both, the joining needs and the observed failure scenarios of conventionally joined components initiated the development of improved joining technologies based on electro-chemical processing routes. As electrolytes aqueous and aprotic, water free, system are integrated into this development line. In the first step principle requirements are presented to guarantee a reproducible and adherent deposition of scales based on Ni and Cu acting as inter layers and filler, respectively, to generate a real metallurgical bonding as demonstrate by 1100 deg. C joining tests. The development field aprotic systems based on ionic liquids is discussed with respect to enable development of refractory metal based fillers with focus high temperature W-W brazing.

  3. Predicting volume of distribution with decision tree-based regression methods using predicted tissue:plasma partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alex A; Limbu, Kriti; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-01

    Volume of distribution is an important pharmacokinetic property that indicates the extent of a drug's distribution in the body tissues. This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of chemical compounds in the human body using decision tree-based regression methods from the area of data mining (or machine learning). Hence, the pros and cons of several different types of decision tree-based regression methods have been discussed. The regression methods predict Vss using, as predictive features, both the compounds' molecular descriptors and the compounds' tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) - often used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetics. Therefore, this work has assessed whether the data mining-based prediction of Vss can be made more accurate by using as input not only the compounds' molecular descriptors but also (a subset of) their predicted Kt:p values. Comparison of the models that used only molecular descriptors, in particular, the Bagging decision tree (mean fold error of 2.33), with those employing predicted Kt:p values in addition to the molecular descriptors, such as the Bagging decision tree using adipose Kt:p (mean fold error of 2.29), indicated that the use of predicted Kt:p values as descriptors may be beneficial for accurate prediction of Vss using decision trees if prior feature selection is applied. Decision tree based models presented in this work have an accuracy that is reasonable and similar to the accuracy of reported Vss inter-species extrapolations in the literature. The estimation of Vss for new compounds in drug discovery will benefit from methods that are able to integrate large and varied sources of data and flexible non-linear data mining methods such as decision trees, which can produce interpretable models. Graphical AbstractDecision trees for the prediction of tissue partition coefficient and volume of distribution of drugs.

  4. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  5. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  6. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a randomized population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Jie Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS, but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples were collected from 476 male AAA patients and 200 age-matched male controls to determine CatS and cystatin C levels by ELISA. Student's t test demonstrated higher plasma levels of total, active, and pro-CatS in AAA patients than in controls (P<0.001. ROC curve analysis confirmed higher plasma total, active, and pro-CatS levels in AAA patients than in controls (P<0.001. Logistic regression suggested that plasma total (odds ratio [OR] = 1.332, active (OR = 1.21, and pro-CatS (OR = 1.25 levels were independent AAA risk factors that associated positively with AAA (P<0.001. Plasma cystatin C levels associated significantly, but negatively, with AAA (OR = 0.356, P<0.001. Univariate correlation demonstrated that plasma total and active CatS levels correlated positively with body-mass index, diastolic blood pressure, and aortic diameter, but negatively with the lowest ankle-brachial index (ABI. Plasma cystatin C levels also correlated negatively with the lowest ABI. Multivariate linear regression showed that plasma total, active, and pro-CatS levels correlated positively with aortic diameter and negatively with the lowest ABI, whereas plasma cystatin C levels correlated negatively with aortic diameter and the lowest ABI, after adjusting for common AAA risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Correlation of plasma CatS and cystatin C with aortic diameter and the lowest ABI suggest these serological parameters as biomarkers for human peripheral arterial diseases and AAA.

  7. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  8. Pulsed plasma sources for the production of intense ion beams based on catalytic resonance ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, B.A.; Mel'nikov, P.I.; Bluhm, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a technique to produce planar and volumetric ion sources of nearly every element. This technique is based on a generalization of the LIBORS-process (Laser Ionization Based On Resonant Saturation) which because of its similarity to chemical catalytic reactions has been called CATRION (CATalytic Resonance IONization). A vapor containing the desired atomic species is doped with a suitable element processing resonance transitions that can be pumped ro saturation with a laser. By superelastic collisions with the excited atoms and by simulated bremsstrahlung absorption seed electrons are heated. It is the heated electron component which then by collisional processes ionizes the desired atomic species and are multiplied. 41 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. First experience with particle-in-cell plasma physics code on ARM-based HPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Xavier; Soba, Alejandro; Sánchez, Edilberto; Mantsinen, Mervi; Mateo, Sergi; Cela, José M.; Castejón, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we will explore the feasibility of porting a Particle-in-cell code (EUTERPE) to an ARM multi-core platform from the Mont-Blanc project. The used prototype is based on a system-on-chip Samsung Exynos 5 with an integrated GPU. It is the first prototype that could be used for High-Performance Computing (HPC), since it supports double precision and parallel programming languages.

  10. Direct current insulator based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) integrated microfluidics has been a powerful tool for new developments in analytical chemistry. These microfluidic systems enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of complex biochemical assays through the reduction of reagent use and enabling portability.Cell and particle separation in microfluidic systems has recently gained significant attention in many sample preparations for clinical procedures. Direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) ...

  11. Controlling chaos based on a novel intelligent integral terminal sliding mode control in a rod-type plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khari, Safa; Rahmani, Zahra; Rezaie, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    An integral terminal sliding mode controller is proposed in order to control chaos in a rod-type plasma torch system. In this method, a new sliding surface is defined based on a combination of the conventional sliding surface in terminal sliding mode control and a nonlinear function of the integral of the system states. It is assumed that the dynamics of a chaotic system are unknown and also the system is exposed to disturbance and unstructured uncertainty. To achieve a chattering-free and high-speed response for such an unknown system, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized in the next step to approximate the unknown part of the nonlinear dynamics. Then, the proposed integral terminal sliding mode controller stabilizes the approximated system based on Lyapunov’s stability theory. In addition, a Bee algorithm is used to select the coefficients of integral terminal sliding mode controller to improve the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the response speed, chattering rejection, transient response, and robustness against uncertainties. (paper)

  12. Bioengineering a human plasma-based epidermal substitute with efficient grafting capacity and high content in clonogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexaline, Maia M; Trouillas, Marina; Nivet, Muriel; Bourreau, Emilie; Leclerc, Thomas; Duhamel, Patrick; Martin, Michele T; Doucet, Christelle; Fortunel, Nicolas O; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs) produced from a small, healthy skin biopsy represent a lifesaving surgical technique in cases of full-thickness skin burn covering >50% of total body surface area. CEAs also present numerous drawbacks, among them the use of animal proteins and cells, the high fragility of keratinocyte sheets, and the immaturity of the dermal-epidermal junction, leading to heavy cosmetic and functional sequelae. To overcome these weaknesses, we developed a human plasma-based epidermal substitute (hPBES) for epidermal coverage in cases of massive burn, as an alternative to traditional CEA, and set up critical quality controls for preclinical and clinical studies. In this study, phenotypical analyses in conjunction with functional assays (clonal analysis, long-term culture, or in vivo graft) showed that our new substitute fulfills the biological requirements for epidermal regeneration. hPBES keratinocytes showed high potential for cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation similar to healthy skin compared with a well-known reference material, as ascertained by a combination of quality controls. This work highlights the importance of integrating relevant multiparameter quality controls into the bioengineering of new skin substitutes before they reach clinical development. This work involves the development of a new bioengineered epidermal substitute with pertinent functional quality controls. The novelty of this work is based on this quality approach. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. Monte Carlo application based on GEANT4 toolkit to simulate a laser–plasma electron beam line for radiobiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, D., E-mail: debora.lamia@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology IBFM CNR – LATO, Cefalù (Italy); Russo, G., E-mail: giorgio.russo@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology IBFM CNR – LATO, Cefalù (Italy); Casarino, C.; Gagliano, L.; Candiano, G.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology IBFM CNR – LATO, Cefalù (Italy); Labate, L. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL) – National Institute of Optics INO CNR, Pisa (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics INFN, Pisa Section and Frascati National Laboratories LNF (Italy); Baffigi, F.; Fulgentini, L.; Giulietti, A.; Koester, P.; Palla, D. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL) – National Institute of Optics INO CNR, Pisa (Italy); Gizzi, L.A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL) – National Institute of Optics INO CNR, Pisa (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics INFN, Pisa Section and Frascati National Laboratories LNF (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology IBFM CNR, Segrate (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-21

    We report on the development of a Monte Carlo application, based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the characterization and optimization of electron beams for clinical applications produced by a laser-driven plasma source. The GEANT4 application is conceived so as to represent in the most general way the physical and geometrical features of a typical laser-driven accelerator. It is designed to provide standard dosimetric figures such as percentage dose depth curves, two-dimensional dose distributions and 3D dose profiles at different positions both inside and outside the interaction chamber. The application was validated by comparing its predictions to experimental measurements carried out on a real laser-driven accelerator. The work is aimed at optimizing the source, by using this novel application, for radiobiological studies and, in perspective, for medical applications. - Highlights: • Development of a Monte Carlo application based on GEANT4 toolkit. • Experimental measurements carried out with a laser-driven acceleration system. • Validation of Geant4 application comparing experimental data with the simulated ones. • Dosimetric characterization of the acceleration system.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  15. Application of a microwave-based desolvation system for multi-elemental analysis of wine by inductively coupled plasma based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindlay, Guillermo [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: guillermo.grindlay@ua.es; Mora, Juan; Maestre, Salvador; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    Elemental wine analysis is often required from a nutritional, toxicological, origin and authenticity point of view. Inductively coupled plasma based techniques are usually employed for this analysis because of their multi-elemental capabilities and good limits of detection. However, the accurate analysis of wine samples strongly depends on their matrix composition (i.e. salts, ethanol, organic acids) since they lead to both spectral and non-spectral interferences. To mitigate ethanol (up to 10% w/w) related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), a microwave-based desolvation system (MWDS) can be successfully employed. This finding suggests that the MWDS could be employed for elemental wine analysis. The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the MWDS for elemental wine analysis in ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For the sake of comparison a conventional sample introduction system (i.e. pneumatic nebulizer attached to a spray chamber) was employed. Matrix effects, precision, accuracy and analysis throughput have been selected as comparison criteria. For ICP-AES measurements, wine samples can be directly analyzed without any sample treatment (i.e. sample dilution or digestion) using pure aqueous standards although internal standardization (IS) (i.e. Sc) is required. The behaviour of the MWDS operating with organic solutions in ICP-MS has been characterized for the first time. In this technique the MWDS has shown its efficiency to mitigate ethanol related matrix effects up to concentrations of 1% (w/w). Therefore, wine samples must be diluted to reduce the ethanol concentration up to this value. The results obtained have shown that the MWDS is a powerful device for the elemental analysis of wine samples in both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In general, the MWDS has some attractive advantages for elemental wine analysis when compared to a conventional sample introduction system such

  16. Application of a microwave-based desolvation system for multi-elemental analysis of wine by inductively coupled plasma based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Mora, Juan; Maestre, Salvador; Gras, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Elemental wine analysis is often required from a nutritional, toxicological, origin and authenticity point of view. Inductively coupled plasma based techniques are usually employed for this analysis because of their multi-elemental capabilities and good limits of detection. However, the accurate analysis of wine samples strongly depends on their matrix composition (i.e. salts, ethanol, organic acids) since they lead to both spectral and non-spectral interferences. To mitigate ethanol (up to 10% w/w) related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), a microwave-based desolvation system (MWDS) can be successfully employed. This finding suggests that the MWDS could be employed for elemental wine analysis. The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the MWDS for elemental wine analysis in ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For the sake of comparison a conventional sample introduction system (i.e. pneumatic nebulizer attached to a spray chamber) was employed. Matrix effects, precision, accuracy and analysis throughput have been selected as comparison criteria. For ICP-AES measurements, wine samples can be directly analyzed without any sample treatment (i.e. sample dilution or digestion) using pure aqueous standards although internal standardization (IS) (i.e. Sc) is required. The behaviour of the MWDS operating with organic solutions in ICP-MS has been characterized for the first time. In this technique the MWDS has shown its efficiency to mitigate ethanol related matrix effects up to concentrations of 1% (w/w). Therefore, wine samples must be diluted to reduce the ethanol concentration up to this value. The results obtained have shown that the MWDS is a powerful device for the elemental analysis of wine samples in both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In general, the MWDS has some attractive advantages for elemental wine analysis when compared to a conventional sample introduction system such

  17. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  18. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  19. Integrated modelling of the edge plasma and plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, D.P.; Bonnin, X.; Mutzke, A.; Schneider, R.; Warrier, M.

    2007-01-01

    Modelling of the interaction between the edge plasma and plasma facing components (PFCs) has tended to place more emphasis on either the plasma or the PFCs. Either the PFCs do not change with time and the plasma evolution is studied, or the plasma is assumed to remain static and the detailed interaction of the plasma and the PFCs are examined, with no back-reaction on the plasma taken into consideration. Recent changes to the edge simulation code, SOLPS, now allow for changes in both the plasma and the PFCs to be considered. This has been done by augmenting the code to track the time-development of the properties of plasma facing components (PFCs). Results of standard mixed-materials scenarios (base and redeposited C; Be) are presented

  20. First experience with particle-in-cell plasma physics code on ARM-based HPC systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, Xavier; Soba, Alejandro; Sánchez, Edilberto; Mantsinen, Mervi; Mateo, Sergio; Cela, José M.; Castejón, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we will explore the feasibility of porting a Particle-in-cell code (EUTERPE) to an ARM multi-core platform from the Mont-Blanc project. The used prototype is based on a system-on-chip Samsung Exynos 5 with an integrated GPU. It is the first prototype that could be used for High-Performance Computing (HPC), since it supports double precision and parallel programming languages. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Com- munity's Seventh...

  1. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  2. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... diet (WGD)) and non-wholegrain wheat (non-wholegrain diet (NWD)) and fed to four pigs in a crossover design. Plasma samples were collected after 7 d on each diet, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on spectra obtained for plasma...

  3. SDS-binding assay based on tyrosine fluorescence as a tool to determine binding properties of human serum albumin in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Nadezda; Shirshin, Evgeny; Fadeev, Victor; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among all plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) is the most studied one as it is the main transport protein and can bind a wide variety of ligands especially fatty acids (FAs). The concentration of FAs bound to HSA in human blood plasma differs by three times under abnormal conditions (fasting, physical exercises or in case of social important diseases). In the present study a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to simulate FAs binding to HSA. It was shown that the increase of Tyr fluorescence of human blood plasma due to SDS addition can be completely explained by HSA-SDS complex formation. Binding parameters of SDS-HSA complex (average number of sites and apparent constant of complex formation) were determined from titration curves based on tyrosine (Tyr) fluorescence.

  4. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    suitable for larger screenings. Based on confirmed antibody binding characteristics and the resultant reactivity in this multiplex assay, a classification of the c-aAb levels was suggested. The screening results of the recipients who received blood transfusions indicate that more studies are needed...... plasma samples and pooled normal immunoglobulin preparations were used to validate the assay. Plasma samples from 98 transfusion recipients, half of whom presented with febrile reactions, were tested by the assay. RESULTS: The assay detected specific and saturable immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to each...... cytokine autoantibodies quantities in the negative plasma samples ranged between 80% and 125%. The analytical intra- and inter-assay variations were 4% and 11%, respectively. Varying c-aAb levels were detectable in the transfusion recipients. There was no difference in c-aAb frequency between the patients...

  5. Relationship Between Ebola Virus Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Threshold Cycle Value and Virus Isolation From Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; McElroy, Anita K; Harmon, Jessica R; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2015-10-01

    We performed a longitudinal analysis of plasma samples obtained from 4 patients with Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) to determine the relationship between the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)-based threshold cycle (Ct) value and the presence of infectious EBOV. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples with a Ct value of >35.5 or >12 days after onset of symptoms. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples in which anti-EBOV nucleoprotein immunoglobulin G was detected. These data demonstrate the utility of interpreting qRT-PCR results in the context of the course of EBOV infection and associated serological responses for patient-management decisions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Radial evolution of the finite-width plasma sheet in a z-pinch: A parametric analysis based on conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A simple method that allows to estimate the macroscopic variables (width, temperature, density, radial velocity, etc.) of the plasma sheet in the first compression of a z-pinch, is presented. Following the snow-plow model, the radial compression is assumed as a process in which the mass is swept by a sheet of finite width. Very high pressures can be reached inside the sheet due to magnetic compression, higher than the filling gas pressure. A quasi-equilibrium hypothesis for the pressure of the layer is defined. From this assumption the thickness of the dense plasma sheet can be estimated. A set of MHD equations that include a term to compute total energy losses is used. The system of equations is written in the interface reference system in which the internal boundary of the sheet is at rest. In this early stage of the compression, the plasma temperature is mainly due to heavy particles. The results obtained using this model can explain ionic temperatures measured in cold plasmas which cannot be explained from electron-ion collisions. From an analytical study of the formation solution, a well-defined range of validity for each parameter of the model has been found. Based on physical conditions, these ranges of validity give a criterion to understanding the necessary conditions to build and maintain a moving plasma sheet. Using this model, other geometries besides the cylindrical one can be analyzed in the future

  7. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.

    2011-01-01

    AimThis study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. MethodsIn a population-based study of 6784......% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738...... participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10...

  8. TK Modeler version 1.0, a Microsoft® Excel®-based modeling software for the prediction of diurnal blood/plasma concentration for toxicokinetic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Alene T; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; Saghir, Shakil A

    2012-07-01

    TK Modeler 1.0 is a Microsoft® Excel®-based pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling program created to aid in the design of toxicokinetic (TK) studies. TK Modeler 1.0 predicts the diurnal blood/plasma concentrations of a test material after single, multiple bolus or dietary dosing using known PK information. Fluctuations in blood/plasma concentrations based on test material kinetics are calculated using one- or two-compartment PK model equations and the principle of superposition. This information can be utilized for the determination of appropriate dosing regimens based on reaching a specific desired C(max), maintaining steady-state blood/plasma concentrations, or other exposure target. This program can also aid in the selection of sampling times for accurate calculation of AUC(24h) (diurnal area under the blood concentration time curve) using sparse-sampling methodologies (one, two or three samples). This paper describes the construction, use and validation of TK Modeler. TK Modeler accurately predicted blood/plasma concentrations of test materials and provided optimal sampling times for the calculation of AUC(24h) with improved accuracy using sparse-sampling methods. TK Modeler is therefore a validated, unique and simple modeling program that can aid in the design of toxicokinetic studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Method validation for preparing serum and plasma samples from human blood for downstream proteomic, metabolomic, and circulating nucleic acid-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerlaan, Wim; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Lescuyer, Pierre; Mathay, Conny; Hiller, Karsten; Betsou, Fay

    2014-08-01

    Formal method validation for biospecimen processing in the context of accreditation in laboratories and biobanks is lacking. Serum and plasma processing protocols were validated for fitness-for-purpose in terms of key downstream endpoints, and this article demonstrates methodology for biospecimen processing method validation. Serum and plasma preparation from human blood was optimized for centrifugation conditions with respect to microparticle counts. Optimal protocols were validated for methodology and reproducibility in terms of acceptance criteria based on microparticle counts, DNA and hemoglobin concentration, and metabolomic and proteomic profiles. These parameters were also used to evaluate robustness for centrifugation temperature (4°C versus room temperature [RT]), deceleration (low, medium, high) and blood stability (after a 2-hour delay). Optimal protocols were 10-min centrifugation for serum and 20-min for plasma at 2000 g, medium brake, RT. Methodology and reproducibility acceptance criteria were met for both protocols except for reproducibility of plasma metabolomics. Overall, neither protocol was robust for centrifugation at 4°C versus RT. RT gave higher microparticles and free DNA yields in serum, and fewer microparticles with less hemolysis in plasma. Overall, both protocols were robust for fast, medium, and low deceleration, with a medium brake considered optimal. Pre-centrifugation stability after a 2-hour delay was seen at both temperatures for hemoglobin concentration and proteomics, but not for microparticle counts. We validated serum and plasma collection methods suitable for downstream protein, metabolite, or free nucleic acid-based applications. Temperature and pre-centrifugation delay can influence analytic results, and laboratories and biobanks should systematically record these conditions in the scope of accreditation.

  10. Plasma treatment of ITO films for the formation of nanoparticles toward scalable production of novel nanostructure-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cigang; Bailey, Louise R.; Proudfoot, Gary; Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Eisenhawer, Bjoern; Jia, Guobin; Bergmann, Joachim; Falk, Fritz [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Ulyashin, Alexander [Department of Industrial Processes, SINTEF, Oslo (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Plasma treatment of indium tin oxide (ITO) has been studied to form metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for nanostructure-based solar cells. It is demonstrated that NPs can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 C, and the size of NPs increases with temperature. An ITO layer treated at 100 C has higher transmission than that treated at 200 C for the same time. It is suggested that such NPs can be used for the conversion efficiency enhancement of ITO/Si heterojunction solar cells. It is also shown that NPs can be produced on different substrates covered by an ITO layer, such as ITO/Al foil, ITO/glass, ITO/stainless steel, and ITO/Si, where the resulting NPs were used for catalytic growth of Si nanowires (NWs). The morphology and density of Si NWs depend on a substrate. It is established that p-doped Si NWs show larger diameters, and n-doped Si NWs do not show obvious change of diameters compared to undoped Si NWs. New types of solar cell structures with combined radial and axial junctions have been proposed. As an example, p-n junction-based 3D structures using the NPs obtained from treatment of ITO film are presented. Finally, a potentially scalable process flow for fabrication of nanostructure-based solar cells is discussed. Schematic illustration of fabrication steps to produce the proposed novel solar cell with combined radial and axial junctions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Seo

    Full Text Available The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ, elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air, to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in

  12. A portable blood plasma clot micro-elastometry device based on resonant acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, C R; Li, Ling; Wolberg, Alisa S; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal blood clot stiffness is an important indicator of coagulation disorders arising from a variety of cardiovascular diseases and drug treatments. Here, we present a portable instrument for elastometry of microliter volume blood samples based upon the principle of resonant acoustic spectroscopy, where a sample of well-defined dimensions exhibits a fundamental longitudinal resonance mode proportional to the square root of the Young's modulus. In contrast to commercial thromboelastography, the resonant acoustic method offers improved repeatability and accuracy due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the resonant vibration. We review the measurement principles and the design of a magnetically actuated microbead force transducer applying between 23 pN and 6.7 nN, providing a wide dynamic range of elastic moduli (3 Pa-27 kPa) appropriate for measurement of clot elastic modulus (CEM). An automated and portable device, the CEMport, is introduced and implemented using a 2 nm resolution displacement sensor with demonstrated accuracy and precision of 3% and 2%, respectively, of CEM in biogels. Importantly, the small strains (diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring.

  13. Oral cancer detection based on fluorescence polarization of blood plasma at excitation wavelength 405 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Manoharan, Yuvaraj; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    During metabolism the metabolites such as hormones, proteins and enzymes were released in to the blood stream by the cells. These metabolites reflect any change that occurs due to any disturbances in normal metabolic function of the human system. This was well observed with the altered spectral signatures observed with fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Previously many have reported on the significance of native fluorescence spectroscopic method in the diagnosis of cancer. As fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive and simple, it has complementary techniques such as excitation-emission matrix, synchronous and polarization. The fluorescence polarization measurement provides details about any association or binding reactions and denaturing effects that occurs due to change in the micro environment of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt in the diagnosis of oral cancer at 405 nm excitation using fluorescence polarization measurement. The fluorescence anisotropic values calculated from polarized fluorescence spectral data of normal and oral cancer subjects yielded a good accuracy when analyzed with linear discriminant analysis based artificial neural network. The results will be discussed in detail.

  14. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of two bovine hemoglobin-based plasma expanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, C.L.; DeLoach, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier was successfully transfused into rats. An ultrapure lipid-free bovine Hb was prepared by hypotonic dialysis and ultrafiltration. The Hb was polymerized with glutaraldehyde and the P50 was 24.3 mm Hg. On the basis of immunological analysis, immuno blot, the Hb preparations were not antigenic. A second transfusion produced no adverse immunological side effects. A right shift in P50 was obtained by further treatment of polymerized Hb with inositol hexaphosphate; however, this Hb preparation was unsuitable for transfusion as all animals died within a few minutes. A 30% exchange transfusion in rats with the polymerized bovine Hb resulted in a 100% survival of all animals. P50 values of treated animals were reduced by about 2 mm Hg for 14 days. The Hb product circulated for 14 days as determined by 51 Cr labeling. Ultrapure bovine Hb has the potential to circulate and carry oxygen in rats and causes no immunological side effects

  15. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  16. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  17. Quantification of menadione from plasma and urine by a novel cysteamine-derivatization based UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Teng-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ting; Li, Yan

    2017-09-15

    Menadione, as the crucial component of vitamin Ks, possessed significant nutritional and clinical values. However, there was still lack of favourable quantification strategies for it to date. For improvement, a novel cysteamine derivatization based UPLC-MS/MS method was presented in this work. The derivatizating reaction was proved non-toxic, easy-handling and high-efficient, which realized the MS detection of menadione under positive mode. Benefitting from the excellent sensitivity of the derivatizating product as well as the introduction of the stable isotope dilution technique, the quantification could be achieved in the range of 0.05-50.0ng/mL for plasma and urine matrixes with satisfied accuracy and precision. After analysis of the samples from healthy volunteers after oral administration of menadione sodium bisulfite tablets, the urinary free menadione was quantified for the very first time. We believe the progress in this work could largely promote the exploration of the metabolic mechanism of vitamin K in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma Treatment of Agave Fiber Powder and Its Effect on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Composites Based on Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Soriano Corral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE were prepared with Agave fiber powder (AFP that was coated by plasma polymerization process using ethylene gas. Treated and pristine AFP were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and contact water angle for the assessment of surface properties. The polymer composites were prepared by melt mixing using 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% of AFP and their mechanical and thermal properties were measured. Dispersion evaluation in water confirmed that the AFP treated changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic behavior and it was also corroborated with water contact angle tests. The addition of treated and untreated AFP (200 mesh at 20 wt% promotes an increase of Young’s modulus of the composites of up to 60% and 32%, respectively, in relation to the neat matrix. Also, an increase of crystallinity of LDPE was observed by the addition of treated and untreated AFP; however no significant effect on the crystallization temperature was observed in LDPE containing AFP.

  19. Microarray-based analysis of plasma cirDNA epigenetic modification profiling in xenografted mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Cortese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep is one of the major abnormalities occurring in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, a highly prevalent disorder affecting 6–15% of the general population, particularly among obese people. IH has been proposed as a major determinant of oncogenetically-related processes such as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. During the growth and expansion of tumors, fragmented DNA is released into the bloodstream and enters the circulation. Circulating tumor DNA (cirDNA conserves the genetic and epigenetic profiles from the tumor of origin and can be isolated from the plasma fraction. Here we report a microarray-based epigenetic profiling of cirDNA isolated from blood samples of mice engrafted with TC1 epithelial lung cancer cells and controls, which were exposed to IH during sleep (XenoIH group, n = 3 or control conditions, (i.e., room air (RA; XenoRA group, n = 3 conditions. To prepare the targets for microarray hybridization, we applied a previously developed method that enriches the modified fraction of the cirDNA without amplification of genomic DNA. Regions of differential cirDNA modification between the two groups were identified by hybridizing the enriched fractions for each sample to Affymetrix GeneChip Human Promoter Arrays 1.0R. Microarray raw and processed data were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (accession number: GSE61070.

  20. Isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB-based magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.W.; Huang, Y.L.; Huang, H.Y.; Zhong, X.C.; Yu, Y.H.; Zeng, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB permanent magnets were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and SPS followed hot deformation (HD), respectively, using melt spun NdFeB ribbons with various compositions as starting materials. It is found that, based on RE-rich composition, SPSed magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, a distinct two-zone (coarse grain and fine grain zones) structure was formed in the SPSed magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the grain structure, which led to the variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. For single phase NdFeB alloy, because of the deficiency of Nd-rich phases, it is relatively difficult to consolidate micro-sized melt spun powders into high density bulk magnet, but generally a larger particle size is beneficial to achieve better magnetic properties. Anisotropic magnets with a maximum energy product of approx. equal to 38 MGOe were produced by the SPS+HD process. HD did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes. (author)

  1. Verification of Radicals Formation in Ethanol-Water Mixture Based Solution Plasma and Their Relation to the Rate of Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudare, Tomohito; Ueno, Tomonaga; Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Saito, Nagahiro

    2015-12-03

    Our previous research demonstrated that using ethanol-water mixture as a liquid medium for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the solution plasma process (SPP) could lead to an increment of the reaction rate of ∼35.2 times faster than that in pure water. This drastic change was observed when a small amount of ethanol, that is, at an ethanol mole fraction (χethanol) of 0.089, was added in the system. After this composition, the reaction rate decreased continuously. To better understand what happens in the ethanol-water mixture-based SPP, in this study, effect of the ethanol content on the radical formation in the system was verified. We focused on detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins using electron spin resonance spectroscopy to determine the type and quantity of the generated radicals at each χethanol. Results indicated that ethanol radicals were generated in the ethanol-water mixtures and exhibited maximum quantity at the xethanol of 0.089. Relationship between the ethanol radical yield and the rate of reaction, along with possible mechanism responsible for the observed phenomenon, is discussed in this paper.

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of Paper-Based SERS Substrate for Potential Label-Free Raman Analysis of Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and optimization of paper SERS substrate were performed in detail, in which morphologies and distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the paper substrate pretreated with different concentrations of NaCl and the subsequent soaking with colloidal AgNPs for different period of time were evaluated. Our results show that both NaCl concentration and soaking time with AgNPs have a significant influence on SERS enhancement, showing that an optimal EF of 2.27 × 107 was achieved when the paper substrate was treated with 20 mM NaCl and one-hour soak with AgNPs. Moreover, seminal plasma (SP was specifically selected to evaluate the performance of paper-based SERS substrate for potential clinical detection and diagnosis. The optimization of the paper SERS substrate demonstrates potential applications in reliable on-site detection of SP and clinical diagnosis of fertility-related diseases as well.

  3. An evidence-based evaluation on the use of platelet rich plasma in orthopedics – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within orthopedics, the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been rapidly increasing in popularity, however, its true effectiveness has yet to be fully established. Several studies find that injecting PRP to the site of injury does not provide any significant benefit with respect to clinical outcomes; however, many others report the contrary. Due to the conflicting evidence and multiple meta-analyses conducted on the topic, a literature review of high-quality evidence on the use of PRP for common orthopaedic conditions was performed. Thus far, the evidence appears to suggest that PRP may provide some benefit in patients who present with knee osteoarthritis or lateral epicondylitis. On the other hand, evidence appears to be inconsistent or shows a minimal benefit for PRP usage in rotator cuff repair, patellar and Achilles tendinopathies, hamstring injuries, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL repair, and medial epicondylitis. There is limited confidence in the conclusions from the published meta-analyses due to issues with statistical pooling, and limited subgroup analyses exploring the substantial heterogeneity across studies. Evidence-based clinicians considering the use of PRP in their patients with musculoskeletal injuries should be weary that the literature appears to be inconsistent and thus far, inconclusive.

  4. Investigation of positive roles of hydrogen plasma treatment for interface passivation based on silicon heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Liu, Wenzhu; Liu, Jinning; Shi, Jianhua; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Zhengxin; Guo, Wanwu; Bao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The positive roles of H 2 -plasma treatment (HPT) have been investigated by using different treatment procedures in view of the distinctly improved passivation performance of amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions (SHJs). It has been found that a hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film and crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface with a high stretching mode (HSM) is detrimental to passivation. A moderate pre-HPT introduces atomic H, which plays an effective tuning role in decreasing the interfacial HSM; unfortunately, an epitaxial layer is formed. Further improvement in passivation can be achieved in terms of increasing the HSM of a-Si:H film treated by appropriate post-HPT based on the a-Si:H thickness. The minority carrier lifetime of crystalline wafers can be improved by treated films containing a certain quantity of crystallites. The microstructure factor R and the maximum intensity of the dielectric function ε 2max have been found to be critical microstructure parameters that describe high-quality a-Si:H passivation layers, which are associated with the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition phase induced by multi-step HPT. Finally, the open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency of the SHJ solar cell can be improved by implementing an effective HPT process. (paper)

  5. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  6. Conceptual design of a permanent ring magnet based helicon plasma source module intended to be used in a large size fusion grade ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Arun; Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-15

    A conceptual design of a permanent magnet based single driver helicon plasma source module along with its design approach is described in this paper. The module unit is intended to be used in a large size ion source. The conceptual design of the helicon source module has been carried out using a computer code, HELIC. The magnetic field topology for the ring magnet is simulated with another code, BFieldM and the magnetic field values obtained from the calculation are further used as input in HELIC calculation for the conceptual design. The module is conceptualized based on a cylindrical glass vessel to produce plasma of diameter ∼50 mm, height ∼50 mm. The inner diameter of the permanent ring magnets is also of the same dimension with thickness ∼10 mm each, placed slightly above the backplate to maintain the required magnetic field. The simulated results show that for hydrogen gas, expected plasma density can be achieved as high as ∼10{sup 12}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} in the proposed helicon source configuration using 1 kW 13.56 MHz RF generator. An experimental setup to characterize a Helicon source module unit, consisting of a cylindrical glass (plasma) chamber along with the vacuum system, RF power supplies, probes and data acquisition system is being installed.

  7. Mapping plasma structures in the high-latitude ionosphere using beacon satellite, incoherent scatter radar and ground-based magnetometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neubert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of the year 2000, four radio receivers capable of tracking various beacon satellites were set up along the southwestern coast of Greenland. They are used to reconstruct images of the ionospheric plasma density distribution via the tomographic method. In order to test and validate tomographic imaging under the highly variable conditions often prevailing in the high-latitude ionosphere, a time interval was selected when the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar conducted measurements of the ionospheric plasma density while the radio receivers tracked a number of beacon satellites. A comparison between two-dimensional images of the plasma density distribution obtained from the radar and the satellite receivers revealed generally good agreement between radar measurements and tomographic images. Observed discrepancies can be attributed to F region plasma patches moving through the field of view with a speed of several hundred meters per second, thereby smearing out the tomographic image. A notable mismatch occurred around local magnetic midnight when a magnetospheric substorm breakup occurred in the vicinity of southwest Greenland (identified from ground-based magnetometer observations. The breakup was associated with a sudden intensification of the westward auroral electrojet which was centered at about 69 and extended up to some 73 corrected geomagnetic latitude. Ground-based magnetometer data may thus have the potential of indicating when the tomographic method is at risk and may fail. We finally outline the application of tomographic imaging, when combined with magnetic field data, to estimate ionospheric Joule heating rates.

  8. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dyna