WorldWideScience

Sample records for bipolar proto-planetary nebula

  1. ISO Spectroscopy of Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the chemical properties of the dust shells around protoplanetary nebulae (PPNs) through a study of their short-wavelength (6-45 micron) infrared spectra. PPNs are evolved stars in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula stages. Spectral features in the 10 to 20 gm region indicate the chemical nature (oxygen- or carbon-rich), and the strengths of the features relate to the physical properties of the shells. A few bright carbon-rich PPNs have been observed to show PAH features and an unidentified 21 micron emission feature. We used the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to observe a sample of IRAS sources that have the expected properties of PPNs and for which we have accurate positions. Some of these have optical counterparts (proposal SWSPPN01) and some do not (SWSPPN02). We had previously observed these from the ground with near-infrared photometry and, for those with visible counterparts, visible photometry and spectroscopy, which we have combined with these new ISO data in the interpretation of the spectra. We have completed a study of the unidentified emission feature at 21 micron in eight sources. We find the shape of the feature to be the same in all of the sources, with no evidence of any substructure. The ratio of the emission peak to continuum ranges from 0.13 to 1.30. We have completed a study of seven PPNs and two other carbon-rich objects for which we had obtained ISO 2-45 micron observations. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 micron were detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature was resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 micron (the "30 micron" feature) and a narrower feature peaking at 25.5 micron (the "26 micron" feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229+6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified

  2. The Shaping of the Red Rectangle Proto-Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, N

    2004-01-01

    I argue that the slowly expanding biconical structure of the Red Rectangle--a nebula around the post asymptotic giant branch binary stellar system HD 44179--can be formed by intermittent jets blown by the accreting companion. The bright biconical structure of the Red Rectangle nebula can be understood to be composed of a multiple double-ring system. In the proposed shaping process, one among several processes through which a companion can shape the circumbinary gas, the companion accretes mass from the slow wind blown by the evolved mass losing star. An accretion disk is formed, and if mass accretion is larger than a critical value, two jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW) are blown. If the high mass loss rate duration is long, bipolar lobes are formed. If, on the other hand, mass loss rate is intermittent, and during one orbital period the slow wind fills a region which does not extend much beyond the binary system, then only a fraction of the double-lobe structure is formed, namely, rings. This, I propose,...

  3. Pulsational variability in proto-planetary nebulae and other post-AGB objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Light and velocity curves of several classes of pulsating stars have been successfully modeled to determine physical properties of the stars. In this observational study, we review briefly the pulsational variability of the main classes of post-AGB stars. Our attention is focused in particular on proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe), those in the short-lived phase from AGB stars to the planetary nebulae. New light curves and period analyses have been used to determine the following general properties of the PPNe variability: (a) periods range from 35 to 160 days for those of F—G spectral types, with much shorter periods (day) found for those of early-B spectral type; (b) there is a correlation between the pulsation period, maximum amplitude, and temperature of the star, with cooler stars pulsating with longer periods and larger amplitudes; (c) similar correlations are found for carbon-rich, oxygen-rich, and lower-metalicity PPNe; and (d) multiple periods are found for all of them, with P2/P1 = 1.0±0.1. New models are needed to exploit these results.

  4. SHAPING THE RED RECTANGLE PROTO-PLANETARY NEBULA BY A PRECESSING JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations (employing the YGUAZU-A code) of a precessing jet launched by a star in a binary system. Synthetic scattered light intensity maps were generated in order to compare them with images of the Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula (PPN), which contains the binary system HD 44179. Our results show that the angular size, the global biconical or hourglass morphology, and the existence of its 'ladder rungs' features can be explained in terms of a jet precessing with a period 20 times the orbital period of the HD 44179 system, a semi-angle of 30 deg. (of the precession cone), and a velocity of 300 km s-1. In addition, we calculated the flux predicted from the models, which is of the same order of magnitude as the observed flux in the outer regions of the nebula. Finally, the orbital motion was found to have a negligible influence on the large-scale morphology of the PPN.

  5. A Spitzer/IRS spectral study of a sample of galactic carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Hrivnak, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopic observations have shown that proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are sites of active synthesis of organic compounds in the late stages of stellar evolution. This paper presents a study of Spitzer/IRS spectra for a sample of carbon-rich PPNs, all except one of which show the unidentified 21 micron emission feature. The strengths of the aromatic infrared band (AIB), 21 micron, and 30 micron features are obtained by decomposition of the spectra. The observed variations in the strengths and peak wavelengths of the features support the model that the newly synthesized organic compounds gradually change from aliphatic to aromatic characteristics as stars evolve from PPNs to planetary nebulae.

  6. Variability in Proto-Planetary Nebulae: IV. Light Curve Analyses of Four Oxygen-Rich, F Spectral-Type Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnak, Bruce J; Nault, Kristie A

    2015-01-01

    We present new light curves covering 14 to 19 years of observations of four bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs), all O-rich and of F spectral type. They each display cyclical light curves with significant variations in amplitude. All four were previously known to vary in light. Our data were combined with published data and searched for periodicity. The results are as follows: IRAS 19475+3119 (HD 331319; 41.0 days), 17436+5003 (HD 161796; 45.2 days), 19386+0155 (101.8 days), and 18095+2704 (113.3 days). The two longer periods are in agreement with previous studies while the two shorter periods each reveal for the first time reveal a dominant period over these long observing intervals. Multiple periods were also found for each object. The secondary periods were all close to the dominant periods, with P2/P1 ranging from 0.86 to 1.06. The variations in color reveal maximum variations in T(eff) of 400 to 770 K. These variations are due to pulsations in these post-AGB objects. Maximum seasonal light variations a...

  7. A Model For the Formation of High Density Clumps in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Patrick A.; Highberger, J. L.; Arnett, David; Ziurys, L. M.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of NaCl at large radii in the Egg Nebula, CRL 2688, requires densities of 10^7 - 10^8 cm^-3 in a thick shell of r ~ a few X 10^17 cm. To explain these results, a mechanism is needed for producing high densities at a considerable distance from the central star. In two dimensional simulations of the interaction of the fast wind with an ambient medium, the material becomes thermally unstable. The resulting clumps can achieve the requisite conditions for NaCl excitation. We present ...

  8. A Model For the Formation of High Density Clumps in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Young, P A; Arnett, D; Ziurys, L M; Young, Patrick A.; Arnett, David

    2003-01-01

    The detection of NaCl at large radii in the Egg Nebula, CRL 2688, requires densities of 10^7 - 10^8 cm^-3 in a thick shell of r ~ a few X 10^17 cm. To explain these results, a mechanism is needed for producing high densities at a considerable distance from the central star. In two dimensional simulations of the interaction of the fast wind with an ambient medium, the material becomes thermally unstable. The resulting clumps can achieve the requisite conditions for NaCl excitation. We present 2D models with simple physics as proof-of-principle calculations to show that the clumping behavior is robust. Clumping is a natural outcome of cooling in the colliding wind model and comparable to that inferred from observations.

  9. ALMA Observations of the Largest Proto-Planetary Disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426: A CO Silhouette

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, John; Eisner, Josh; Andrews, Sean M; Di Francesco, James; Hughes, Meredith; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Ricci, Luca; Williams, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the largest protoplanetary disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426. Detectable 345 GHz (856 micron) dust continuum is produced only in the 350 AU central region of the ~1000 AU diameter silhouette seen against the bright H-alpha background in HST images. Assuming optically thin dust emission at 345 GHz, a gas-to-dust ratio of 100, and a grain temperature of 20 K, the disk gas-mass is estimated to be 3.1 +/- 0.6 Jupiter masses. If most solids and ices have have been incorporated into large grains, however, this value is a lower limit. The disk is not detected in dense-gas tracers such as HCO+ J=4-3, HCN J=4-3, or CS =7-6. These results may indicate that the 114-426 disk is evolved and depleted in some light organic compounds found in molecular clouds. The CO J=3-2 line is seen in absorption against the bright 50 to 80 K background of the Orion A molecular cloud over the full spatial extent and a little beyond the dust continuum emission. The CO absorption reaches a depth of 27 K below...

  10. Mhd Solutions For Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Segura

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo propone soluciones para el origen de los vientos de estrellas del tipo post-AGB, su aceleración hasta alta velocidad, y la subsecuente formación de nebulosas proto-planetarias altamente colimadas. Se calculan varios modelos de vientos con velocidades terminales desde algunas decenas de km s-1 hasta de 103 km s-1, los cuales producen nebulosas proto-planetarias con momentos lineales en el rango 1036 -1040 g cm s-1 y energías cinéticas en el rango 1042-1047 erg. Estos resultados concuerdan con las observaciones disponibles de nebulosas proto- planetarias. En el esquema simple que se plantea, la presión magnética en la superficie estelar es la única causa de los vientos. En este estudio no se tienen en cuenta otros tipos de fuerzas, excepto la gravedad. La conclusión del estudio es que, tanto las tasas de perdida de masa de las estrellas del tipo post-AGBs como los tiempos de transición entre las fases tardías de estrellas tipo AGB y estrellas centrales de nebulosas planetarias pueden estar directamente ligadas a la producción de campo magnético en los núcleos estelares. Como ejemplo, se predicen tasas de perdida de masa tan altas como 8 x 10-5 M๏ yr-1, y tiempos de transición tan cortos como 5,000 años.

  11. The bipolar structure of the LBV nebula around HR Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, K; Bomans, D J; Chu, Y H; Joner, M D

    1997-01-01

    HR Carinae is one of the few Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) in the Galaxy. It has a nebula that appears bipolar. We have obtained imaging and high-dispersion, long-slit echelle data of the HR Car nebula, and confirmed that it is a bipolar nebula. Its polar axis lies along the position angle of 125 +- 5 degree; each lobe has, at a distance of 5 kpc a diameter of about 0.65 pc and a line-of-sight expansion velocity of 75-150 km/sec. Beside the expanding bipolar lobes, a number of [NII]-bright knots are detected. These knots have lower expansion velocities than the lobes and are detected only within the projected boundary of the lobes. These knots are most likely nitrogen-enriched material ejected by HR Car. On a larger scale, a funnel-shaped nebula is detected at 2.5" northwest of HR Car. The axis of the funnel is roughly aligned with the polar axis of the HR Car nebula, suggesting that HR Car may be responsible for the ionization and shaping of this nebula. Future observations of kinematics and abundances are ...

  12. Kinematical Analysis of a Sample of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrincic, Martina; Villaver, Eva; Guerrero, Martin A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We present the kinematics of a sample of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) which cover a wide range of observed morphologies and collimation degrees, from bipolar PNe with a marked equatorial ring and wide lobes to highly collimated objects. We use an empirical model in order to derive the expansion velocity, collimation degree, and inclination angle of the PN with respect to the plane of the sky. The equatorial expansion velocities measured in the objects in our sample are always in the low to...

  13. O-bearing Molecules in Carbon-rich Proto-Planetary Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Herpin, F

    2000-01-01

    We present ISO LWS observations of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 618, a star evolving very fast to the planetary nebula stage. In addition to the lines of 12CO, 13CO, HCN and HNC, we report on the detection of H2O and OH emission together with the fine structure lines of [OI] at 63 and 145 um. The abundance of the latter three species relative to 12CO are 4 10^{-2}, 8 10^{-4} and 4.5 (approximate value) in the regions where they are produced. We suggest that O-bearing species other than CO are produced in the innermost region of the circumstellar envelope. The UV photons from the central star photodissociate most of the molecular species produced in the AGB phase and allow a chemistry dominated by standard ion-neutral reactions. Not only allow these reactions the formation of O-bearing species, but they also modify the abundances of C-rich molecules like HCN and HNC for which we found an abundance ratio of roughly 1, much lower than in AGB stars. The molecular abundances in the different regions of the circu...

  14. Turbulence in weakly-ionized proto-planetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Flock, M; Klahr, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic properties of self-sustained MRI turbulence in low-ionized proto-planetary disks. We study the transition regime between active and dead-zone, performing 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations of stratified disk covering range of magnetic Reynolds number between 2700 5000 with a strength of alpha ~ 0.01. Below Rm < 5000 the MRI starts to decay at the midplane, having Elsasser numbers below one. We find a transition regime between 3300 < Rm < 5000 where the MRI turbulence is still sustained but damped. At around Rm < 3000 the MRI turbulence decays but could reestablished due to the accumulation of toroidal magnetic field or the radial transport of magnetic field from the active region. Below Rm < 3000 the MRI cannot be sustained and is decaying. Here hydro-dynamical motions, like density waves dominate. We observe anti-cyclonic vortices in the transition between dead-zone and active zone.

  15. The formation of bipolar planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Mellema, Garrelt

    1997-01-01

    Using a radiation-hydrodynamics code I follow the formation of planetary nebulae around stars of different mass. Because a more massive central star evolves much faster than a lower mass one, it is to be expected that this will affect the formation of the PN. For the stars I use the evolutionary tracks for remnants with masses of 0.605 M0 and 0.836 M0, taken from Bloecker (1995). The AGB wind is assumed to be concentrated in a thin disk, which in models without evolving stars leads to the for...

  16. The discovery of a highly polarized bipolar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Ramon D.; Scarrott, S. M.; Menzies, J.

    1989-01-01

    During a search for the optical counterparts of IRAS sources whose flux peaks at 25 microns, a small faint bipolar nebula was discovered in Monoceros at the position of IRAS 07131-0147. The CCD images display the object's considerable structure. The central star seems relatively free of closeby nebulosity: the two lobes have a bow-tie structure with those parts nearest to the star consisting of series of small knots. The outer parts of the lobes seem to be made up of filaments streaming away from knots. On the basis of its optical spectrum, the central star was classified as a M5-6 giant. In the IRAS color classification scheme of Van der Veen and Habing (1988), the central star is VIb which indicates that there are distinct hot and cold components of circumstellar dust and that the mass loss process may have temporarily abated. Therefore, it is proposed that the object is in the post main sequence stage of evolution and is a protoplanetary nebulae. Young protoplanetary nebulae have totally obscured central stars illuminating reflective lobes whereas older ones such as M2-9 have lobes seen in emission from gas ionized by the central hot star which is clearly visible. Since the central object of IRAS07131-0147 is a relatively unobscured late type star and the lobes are seen only by reflection, it is suggested that this nebula is a protoplanetary nebula in an evolutionary stage intermediate between that of CRL2688 and M2-9.

  17. The blue supergiant MN18 and its bipolar circumstellar nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Bestenlehner, J M; Bodensteiner, J; Langer, N; Greiner, J; Grebel, E K; Berdnikov, L N; Beletsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of spectrophotometric observations of the massive star MN18 revealed via discovery of a bipolar nebula around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the optical spectrum obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope, we classify this star as B1 Ia. The evolved status of MN18 is supported by the detection of nitrogen overabundance in the nebula, which implies that it is composed of processed material ejected by the star. We analysed the spectrum of MN18 by using the code CMFGEN, obtaining a stellar effective temperature of \\approx 21 kK. The star is highly reddened, E(B-V)\\approx 2 mag. Adopting an absolute visual magnitude of M_V=-6.8\\pm0.5 (typical of B1 supergiants), MN18 has a luminosity of log L/Lsun \\approx 5.42\\pm0.30, a mass-loss rate of \\approx (2.8-4.5)\\times10^{-7} Msun/yr, and resides at a distance of \\approx 5.6^{+1.5} _{-1.2} kpc. We discuss the origin of the nebula around MN18 and compare it with similar nebulae produced by other blue supergiants in the Galaxy (She...

  18. N-body calculations of cluster growth in proto-planetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated numerically the dust growth driven by Brownian motion in a proto-planetary disc around a solar-type young stellar object. This process is considered as the first stage in the transformation of the initially micron-sized solid particles to a planetary system. In contrast to earlier studies the growth was investigated at the small particle number densities typical for the conditions in a proto-planetary disc. Under such circumstances, the mean particle distance exceeds the typic...

  19. Single Rotating Stars and the Formation of Bipolar Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Segura, G; Langer, N; Yoon, S -C; Manchado, A

    2014-01-01

    We have computed new stellar evolution models that include the effects of rotation and magnetic torques under different hypothesis. The goal is to test if a single star can sustain in the envelope the rotational velocities needed for the magneto hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations to shape bipolar Planetary Nebulae (PNe) when the high mass-loss rates take place. Stellar evolution models with main sequence masses of 2.5 and 5 Mo, and initial rotational velocities of 250 km/s have been followed all the way to the PNe formation phase. We find that stellar cores have to be spun down using magnetic torques in order to reproduce the rotation rates observed for white dwarfs. During the asymptotic giant branch phase and beyond, the magnetic braking of the core has a practically null effect in increasing the rotational velocity of the envelope since the stellar angular momentum is removed efficiently by the wind. We have, as well, tested best possible case scenarios in rather non-physical contexts to give enough angular ...

  20. Disruption of a Proto-Planetary Disk by the Black Hole at the Milky Way Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Murray-Clay, Ruth A

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Gillessen et al. discovered an ionized cloud of gas plunging toward the supermassive black hole, SgrA*, at the centre of the Milky Way. The cloud is being tidally disrupted along its path to closest approach at ~3100 Schwarzschild radii from the black hole. Here, we show that this cloud of gas naturally originates from a proto-planetary disk surrounding a low-mass star, which was scattered a century ago from the observed ring of young stars orbiting Sgr A*. As the young star approaches the black hole, its disk experiences both photo-evaporation and tidal disruption, producing a cloud with the observed properties. Our model implies that planets form in the Galactic centre, and that tidal debris from proto-planetary disks can flag low mass stars which are otherwise too faint to be detected.

  1. From Bipolar to Elliptical: Morphological Changes in the Temporal Evolution of PN

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Martin Huarte; Balick, Bruce; De Marco, Orsola; Kastner, Joel H; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blackman, Eric G

    2010-01-01

    Proto-planetary nebulae (pPN) and planetary nebulae (PN) seem to be formed by interacting winds from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The observational issue that most pPN are bipolar but most older PN are elliptical is addressed. We present 2.5D hydrodynamical numerical simulations of episodic cooling interacting winds to investigate the long term evolution of PN morphologies. We track wind acceleration, decrease in mass-loss and episodic change in wind geometry from spherical (AGB) to collimated (pPN) and back to spherical again (PN). This outflow sequence is found to produce realistic PN dynamics and morphological histories. Effects from different AGB distributions and jet duty cycles are also investigated.

  2. The HST/ACS Atlas of Protoplanetary Disks in the Great Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, Luca; Soderblom, David R

    2008-01-01

    We present the atlas of protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula based on the ACS/WFC images obtained for the HST Treasury Program on the Orion Nebula Cluster. The observations have been carried out in 5 photometric filters nearly equivalent to the standard B, V, Halpha, I, and z passbands. Our master catalog lists 178 externally ionized proto-planetary disks (proplyds), 28 disks seen only in absorption against the bright nebular background (silhouette disks), 8 disks seen only as dark lanes at the midplane of extended polar emission (bipolar nebulae or reflection nebulae) and 5 sources showing jet emission with no evidence of neither external ionized gas emission nor dark silhouette disks. Many of these disks are associated with jets seen in Halpha and circumstellar material detected through reflection emission in our broad-band filters; approximately 2/3 have identified counterparts in x-rays. A total of 47 objects (29 proplyds, 7 silhouette disks, 6 bipolar nebulae, 5 jets with no evidence of proplyd emiss...

  3. Discovery of collimated bipolar outflows in the planetary nebula Th 2-A

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive set of spatially resolved, integral field spectroscopic mapping of the Wolf-Rayet planetary nebula Th 2-A, obtained using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. Velocity-resolved H$\\alpha$ channel maps with a resolution of 20 km s$^{-1}$ allow us to identify different kinematic components within the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the nebula using the interactive kinematic modeling tool SHAPE. These results suggest that Th 2-A has a thick toroidal shell with an expansion velocity of 40 $\\pm$ 10 km s$^{-1}$, and a thin prolate ellipsoid with collimated bipolar outflows toward its axis reaching velocities in the range of 70-110 km s$^{-1}$, with respect to the central star. The relationship between its morpho-kinematic structure and peculiar [WO]-type stellar characteristics deserves further investigation.

  4. 3D pyCloudy modelling of bipolar planetary nebulae: evidence for fast fading of the lobes

    OpenAIRE

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; C. Morisset

    2015-01-01

    We apply an axially symmetric pseudo-3D photoionization model, pyCloudy, to derive the structures of 6 bipolar nebulae and 2 suggested post-bipolars in a quest to constrain the bipolar planetary nebulae evolution. HST images and VLT/UVES spectroscopy are used for the modelling. The targets are located in the direction of the Galactic bulge. A 3D model structure is used as input to the photoionization code, so as to fit the HST images. Line profiles of different ions constrain the velocity fie...

  5. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  6. Hu1-2: a metal-poor bipolar planetary nebula with fast collimated outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xuan; Miranda, Luis F; Riera, Angels; Velazquez, Pablo F; Raga, Alejandro C

    2015-01-01

    We present narrow-band optical and near-IR imaging and optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of Hu1-2, a Galactic planetary nebula (PN) with a pair of [N II]-bright, fast-moving (> 340 km/s) bipolar knots. Intermediate-dispersion spectra are used to derive physical conditions and abundances across the nebula, and high-dispersion spectra to study the spatio-kinematical structure. Generally Hu1-2 has high He/H (~0.14) and N/O ratios (~0.9), typical of Type I PNe. On the other hand, its abundances of O, Ne, S, and Ar are low as compared with the average abundances of Galactic bulge and disc PNe. The position-velocity maps can be generally described as an hour-glass shaped nebula with bipolar expansion, although the morphology and kinematics of the innermost regions cannot be satisfactorily explained with a simple, tilted equatorial torus. The spatio-kinematical study confines the inclination angle of its major axis to be within 10 degrees of the plane of sky. As in the irradiated bow-shocks of IC4634 and ...

  7. Models of polarized infrared emission from bipolar nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, M. S.; Johnson, P.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Many stars with circumstellar dust shells show a high degree of linear polarization (Sato et al. 1985). We are developing a model which assumes that the polarization arises from scattering by circumstellar dust. Our model assumes a geometry in which the star is surrounded by an optically thin spherical dust shell and embedded within an optically thick disk. This geometry is consistent with that proposed for objects with bipolar molecular outflow. This is important because many bipolar flow objects have also been observed to be highly polarized. The high degree of linear polarization is produced because the disk differentially attenuates the light from the star. The light incident from the point source is attenuated by a factor of exp(-tau/cos theta) where theta is the angle between a ray from the point source to the scatterer and a ray normal to the disk; tau is the optical depth at the wavelength of interest. Hence, the light scattered from the regions directly above and below the disk give the largest contribution to the total flux. The scattering angle for light from these regions is near 90 deg., so the light is strongly polarized and, in the Rayleigh scattering regime, is polarized parallel to the disk. The Stokes parameters for the scattered light from each particle in the shell are calculated by using the scattering matrix elements generated by a Mie scattering program. After the Stokes parameters for each particle are computed they are summed to give the Stokes parameters for the entire shell. Two graphs are presented which show the intensity and polarization spectrum generated by our model using the optical constants for astronomical silicates as defined by Draine and Lee (1984).

  8. Why a Single-Star Model Cannot Explain the Bipolar Nebula of Eta Carinae

    OpenAIRE

    Soker, Noam

    2004-01-01

    I examine the angular momentum evolution during the 1837-1856 Great Eruption of the massive star Eta Carinae. I find that the new estimate of the mass blown during that eruption implies that the envelope of Eta Car substantially spun-down during the 20 years eruption. Single-star models, most of which require the envelope to rotate close to the break-up velocity, cannot account for the bipolar nebula (the Homunculus) formed from matter expelled in that eruption. The kinetic energy and momentu...

  9. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, S; Boumis, P; Monteiro, H; Gonçalves, D R; Redman, M P; Williams, S

    2016-01-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of $\\sim$19,400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 $M_{\\odot}$ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] $\\lambda 5200$ and [O I] $\\lambda 6300$ emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme Type-I PNe. The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/H$\\alpha$ vs. [S II]/H$\\alpha$ diagnostic diagram, where sho...

  10. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  11. 3D pyCloudy modelling of bipolar planetary nebulae: Evidence for fast fading of the lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Morisset, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The origin and evolution of the shapes of bipolar planetary nebulae are poorly understood. We postulate that their history can be traced through their internal velocity fields in a procedure similar to the one well established for spherical objects. Such an analysis requires 3D photoionization and kinematical modelling that is computationally very time consuming. We apply an axially symmetric pseudo-3D photoionization model, pyCloudy, to derive the structures of six bipolar nebulae and two suggested post-bipolars in an attempt to constrain the bipolar planetary nebulae evolution. Methods: HST images and VLT/UVES spectroscopy are used for the modelling. The targets are located in the direction of the Galactic bulge. A 3D model structure is used as input to the photoionization code in order to fit the HST images. Line profiles of different ions constrain the velocity field. The model and associated velocity fields allow us to derive masses, velocities, and ages. Results: The 3D models find much lower ionized masses than required in 1D models: ionized masses are reduced by factors of 2-7. The selected bi-lobed planetary nebulae show a narrow range of ages: the averaged radii and velocities result in values between 1300 and 2000 yr. The lobes are fitted well with velocities that increase linearly with radius. These Hubble-type flows have been found before, and suggest that the lobes form at a defined point in time. The lobes appear to be slightly younger, by ~500 yr, than the main (host) nebulae; they seem to form at an early phase of PN evolution and fade after 1-2 kyr. We find that 30-35% of bulge PNe pass through a bipolar phase. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 075.D-0104) and HST (program 9356).

  12. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Bipolar Planetary Nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M W; Davis, J; Livingston, J; Lykou, F; de Buizer, J; Morris, M R; Keller, L; Adams, J; Gull, G; Henderson, C; Herter, T; Schoenwald, J

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 $\\mu m$. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's $\\sim$ 4${''}$-to-5${''}$ beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 $\\mu m$ and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 $\\mu m$ is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small ($$ 1 $\\mu m$) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that co...

  13. Resolving the Multiple Outflows in the Egg Nebula with Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mignant, D Le; Bouchez, A; Campbell, R; van Dam, M; Chin, J; Johansson, E; Hartman, S; Lafon, R; Lyke, J; Stomski, P; Summers, D; Wizinowich, P

    2007-01-01

    The Egg Nebula has been regarded as the archetype of bipolar proto-planetary nebulae, yet we lack a coherent model that can explain the morphology and kinematics of the nebular and dusty components observed at high-spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we report on two sets of observations obtained with the Keck Adaptive Optics Laser Guide Star: H to M-band NIRC2 imaging, and narrow bandpath K-band OSIRIS 3-D imaging-spectroscopy (through the H2 2.121micron emission line). While the central star or engine remains un-detected at all bands, we clearly resolve the dusty components in the central region and confirm that peak A is not a companion star. The spatially-resolved spectral analysis provide kinematic information of the H_2 emission regions in the eastern and central parts of the nebula and show projected velocities for the H_2 emission higher than 100 km/s. We discuss these observations against a possible formation scenario for the nebular components.

  14. 3D pyCloudy modelling of bipolar planetary nebulae: evidence for fast fading of the lobes

    CERN Document Server

    Gesicki, K; Morisset, C

    2016-01-01

    We apply an axially symmetric pseudo-3D photoionization model, pyCloudy, to derive the structures of 6 bipolar nebulae and 2 suggested post-bipolars in a quest to constrain the bipolar planetary nebulae evolution. HST images and VLT/UVES spectroscopy are used for the modelling. The targets are located in the direction of the Galactic bulge. A 3D model structure is used as input to the photoionization code, so as to fit the HST images. Line profiles of different ions constrain the velocity field. The model and associated velocity fields allow us to derive masses, velocities, and ages. The 3D models find much lower ionized masses than required in 1D models: ionized masses are reduced by factors of 2-7. The selected bi-lobed planetary nebulae show a narrow range of ages: the averaged radii and velocities result in values between 1300 and 2000 yr. The lobes are fitted well with velocities linearly increasing with radius. These Hubble-type flows have been found before, and suggest that the lobes form at a defined ...

  15. Rotating Stars and the Formation of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae. II. Tidal Spin-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Segura, G.; Villaver, E.; Manchado, A.; Langer, N.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2016-06-01

    We present new binary stellar evolution models that include the effects of tidal forces, rotation, and magnetic torques with the goal of testing planetary nebulae (PNs) shaping via binary interaction. We explore whether tidal interaction with a companion can spin-up the asymptotic giant brach (AGB) envelope. To do so, we have selected binary systems with main-sequence masses of 2.5 M ⊙ and 0.8 M ⊙ and evolve them allowing initial separations of 5, 6, 7, and 8 au. The binary stellar evolution models have been computed all the way to the PNs formation phase or until Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) is reached, whatever happens first. We show that with initial separations of 7 and 8 au, the binary avoids entering into RLOF, and the AGB star reaches moderate rotational velocities at the surface (∼3.5 and ∼2 km s‑1, respectively) during the inter-pulse phases, but after the thermal pulses it drops to a final rotational velocity of only ∼0.03 km s‑1. For the closest binary separations explored, 5 and 6 au, the AGB star reaches rotational velocities of ∼6 and ∼4 km s‑1, respectively, when the RLOF is initiated. We conclude that the detached binary models that avoid entering the RLOF phase during the AGB will not shape bipolar PNs, since the acquired angular momentum is lost via the wind during the last two thermal pulses. This study rules out tidal spin-up in non-contact binaries as a sufficient condition to form bipolar PNs.

  16. The physical environment around IRAS 17599-2148: infrared dark cloud and bipolar nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, L K; Zinchenko, I; Janardhan, P; Ghosh, S K; Luna, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-scale and multi-wavelength study to investigate the star formation process around IRAS 17599$-$2148 that is part of an elongated filamentary structure (EFS) (extension $\\sim$21 pc) seen in the {\\it Herschel} maps. Using the {\\it Herschel} data analysis, at least six massive clumps (M$_{clump}$ $\\sim$777 -- 7024 M$_{\\odot}$) are found in the EFS with a range of temperature and column density of $\\sim$16--39~K and $\\sim$0.6--11~$\\times$~10$^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ (A$_{V}$ $\\sim$7--117 mag), respectively. The EFS hosts cold gas regions (i.e. infrared dark cloud) without any radio detection and a bipolar nebula (BN) linked with the H\\,{\\sc ii} region IRAS 17599$-$2148, tracing two distinct environments inferred through the temperature distribution and ionized emission. Based on virial analysis and higher values of self-gravitating pressure, the clumps are found unstable against gravitational collapse. We find 474 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region and $\\sim$72\\% of these YSOs are foun...

  17. New observations of the high-velocity outflows of the proto-planetary nebula hen 3-1475

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La nebulosa proto-planetaria Hen 3-1475 presenta un jet optico con un alto grado de colimaci on formado por una serie de condensaciones excitadas por ondas de choque. Las zonas internas del jet muestran alt simas velocidades radiales. En este trabajo presentamos el an alisis detallado de la estructura cinem atica y de las condiciones de excitaci on de las condensaciones en base a datos espectrosc opicos de alta resoluci on espectral y a las im agenes de alta resoluci on espacial obtenidas con el HST. Discutimos las semejanzas entre el jet de Hen 3-1475 y los jets HH. Ambos presentan per les extremadamente anchos con dos picos en emisi on, una disminuci on de las velocidades radiales con la distancia a la fuente central de forma escalonada, y en ambos se hallan velocidades tangenciales altas. La interpretaci on conjunta de estas propiedades apunta a la variabilidad temporal de la velocidad de eyecci on como mecanismo responsable de la formaci on de este jet.

  18. Evidence for a [WR] or WEL-type binary nucleus in the bipolar planetary nebula Vy 1-2

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, S; Meaburn, J; Alikakos, J; López, J A; Gonçalves, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present high-dispersion spectroscopic data of the compact planetary nebula Vy 1-2, where high expansion velocities up to 100 km/s are found in the Ha, [N II] and [O III] emission lines. HST images reveal a bipolar structure. Vy 1-2 displays a bright ring-like structure with a size of 2.4"x3.2" and two faint bipolar lobes in the west-east direction. A faint pair of knots is also found, located almost symmetrically on opposite sides of the nebula at PA=305 degrees. Furthermore, deep low-dispersion spectra are also presented and several emission lines are detected for the first time in this nebula, such as the doublet [Cl III] 5517, 5537 A, [K IV] 6101 A, C II 6461 A, the doublet C IV 5801, 5812 A. By comparison with the solar abundances, we find enhanced N, depleted C and solar O. The central star must have experienced the hot bottom burning (CN-cycle) during the 2nd dredge-up phase, implying a progenitor star of higher than 3 solar masses. The very low C/O and N/O abundance ratios suggest a likely post-comm...

  19. PHR1315-6555: a bipolar planetary nebula in the compact Hyades-age open cluster ESO96-SC04

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Miszalski, Brent; Kovacevic, Anna V; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Dobbie, Paul D; Koppen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a bipolar, possible Type I planetary nebula (PN), PHR1315-6555 (PN G305.3-03.1), that was discovered as part of the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H-alpha planetary nebula project (MASH) and that we considered at the time was an excellent candidate for membership of the distant, compact, intermediate-age open cluster, ESO 96-SC04. The strong evidence for this association is presented here making this the only known example of a PN physically associated with a Galactic open cluster. Cluster membership is extremely important as it allows for very precise estimates of the fundamental properties of the PN as the cluster is at a known distance. The PN was discovered by one of us (QAP) during systematic MASH searches for new Galactic PNe of the AAO/UKST H-alpha survey and had been missed in earlier broadband surveys, including specific CCD studies of the host cluster. We present original discovery images and CTIO 4m MOSAIC-II camera follow-up narrow-band images that reveal its bipolar morph...

  20. Nature vs. Nurture: The influence of OB star environments on proto-planetary disk evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Jeroen; Feigelson, Eric; Getman, Kostantin; Henning, Thomas; Lawson, Warrick; Linz, Hendrik; Luhman, Kevin; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Sicilia Aguilar, Aurora; Townsley, Leisa; Wang, Junfeng

    2006-05-01

    A natural approach for understanding the origin and diversity of planetary systems is to study the birth sites of planetary systems under varying environmental conditions. Dust grains in protoplanetary disks, the building blocks of planets, are structurally and chemically altered, and grow through coagulation into planetesimals. The disk geometry may change from a flaring to a more flattened structure, gaps may develop under the gravitational influence of protoplanets, and eventually the disk will dissipate, terminating the planet formation process. While the infrared properties of disks in quiet cloud environments have been extensively studied, investigations under the conditions of strong UV radiation and stellar winds in the proximity of OB stars have been limited. We propose a combined IRAC/IRS study of a large, well-defined and unbiased X-ray selected sample of pre-main-sequence stars in three OB associations: Pismis 24 in NGC 6357, NGC 2244 in the Rosette Nebula, and IC 1795 in the W3 complex. The samples are based on recent Chandra X-ray Observatory studies which reliably identify hundreds of cluster members and were carefully chosen to avoid high infrared nebular background. A new Chandra exposure of IC 1795 is requested, and an optical followup to characterise the host stars is planned. Modelling the Spitzer findings will provide the composition and size of dust present as well as the geometry, mass, and gaps in the global structure of the disk. As hundreds of cluster members will be covered with IRAC and dozens with IRS, good statistics on the disk evolution and dispersal as a function of location with respect to OB stars will be obtained. Comparison of disk properties within our sample and with existing Spitzer studies of quiescent star-forming regions should significantly advance the aim of characterising the influence of the environment on the evolution of protoplanetary disks. This effort relies on a powerful synergy between the Chandra and Spitzer

  1. Ring Nebula and Bipolar Outflows Associated with the B1.5 Supergiant Sher #25 in NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Brandner, W; Chu, Y H; Weis, K; Brandner, Wolfgang; Grebel, Eva K.; Chu, You-Hua; Weis, Kerstin

    1996-01-01

    We have identified a ring-shaped emission-line nebula and a possible bipolar outflow centered on the B1.5 supergiant Sher #25 in the Galactic giant HII region NGC 3603 (distance 6 kpc). The clumpy ring around Sher #25 appears to be tilted by 64 deg against the plane of the sky. Its semi-major axis (position angle approx. 165 deg) is 6.9" long, which corresponds to a ring diameter of 0.4 pc. The bipolar outflow filaments, presumably located above and below the ring plane on either side of Sher #25, show a separation of approx. 0.5 pc from the central star. High-resolution spectra show that the ring has a systemic velocity of V_LSR = +19 km/s and a de-projected expansion velocity of 20 km/s, and that one of the bipolar filaments has an outflow speed of approx. 83 km/s. The spectra also show high [NII]/Halpha ratio, suggestive of strong N enrichment. Sher #25 must be an evolved blue supergiant (BSG) past the red supergiant (RSG) stage. We find that the ratio of equatorial to polar mass-loss rate during the red s...

  2. Adaptive Optics Imaging of IRAS 18276-1431: a bipolar pre-planetary nebula with circumstellar "searchlight beams" and "arcs"

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, C S; Sahai, R; De Paz, A G; Morris, M

    2006-01-01

    We present high-angular resolution images of the post-AGB nebula IRAS18276-1431 (also known as OH17.7-2.0) obtained with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system in its Natural Guide Star (NGS) mode in the Kp, Lp, and Ms near-infrared bands. We also present supporting optical F606W and F814W HST images as well as interferometric observations of the 12CO(J=1-0), 13CO(J=1-0), and 2.6mm continuum emission with OVRO. The envelope of IRAS18276-1431 displays a clear bipolar morphology in our optical and NIR images with two lobes separated by a dark waist and surrounded by a faint 4.5"x3.4" halo. Our Kp-band image reveals two pairs of radial ``searchlight beams'' emerging from the nebula center and several intersecting, arc-like features. From our CO data we derive a mass of M>0.38[D/3kpc]^2 Msun and an expansion velocity v_exp=17km/s for the molecular envelope. The density in the halo follows a radial power-law proportional to r^-3, which is consistent with a mass-loss rate increasing with time. Analysis of the NIR ...

  3. A morpho-kinematic and spectroscopic study of the bipolar nebulae: M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104

    CERN Document Server

    Clyne, Niall; Steffen, Wolfgang; Redman, Matt; Goncalves, Denise R; Harvey, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context. Complex bipolar shapes can be generated either as a planetary nebula or a symbiotic system. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. Aims. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. Methods. Long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the morpho-kinematics of M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104. Near-infrared (NIR) data, as well as optical, spectra are used to separate Galactic symbiotic-type nebulae from genuine planetary nebulae by means of a 2MASS J-H/H-Ks diagram and a {\\lambda}4363/H{\\gamma} vs. {\\lambda}5007/H\\b{eta} diagnostic diagram, respectively. Results. The best-fitted 3-D models for M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104 provide invaluable kinematical information on the expansion velocity of...

  4. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  5. An Extreme High-Velocity Bipolar Outflow in the Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 08005-2356

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R

    2015-01-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 with an angular-resolution of ~1"-5", using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), in the 12CO J=2-1, 3-2, 13CO J=2-1 and SiO J=5-4 (v=0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10-m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J=4-3 and SiO J-6-5 (v=0) lines. The lines profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 Msun), extreme high-velocity outflow (V~200 km/s) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the HST imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad H-alpha emission profile, which we propose results from Ly-beta emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  6. Accumulation of planets into the proto-planetary cloud as a process of occurring an amount of characteristic scales into the nonlinear self organized dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Two characteristic times are significant for evolution the interior of the homogeneous proto-planetary cloud: the time of bodies free fall towards the clouds mass center and the time of sound distribution through the cloud. With the beginning of proto-planetary disk fragmentation and accumulation of the proto-planets from the bodies and particles there are formed matter content heterogeneities of the finite dimension, heterogeneities of temperature, density and values of kinetic coefficients. The system became more and more complicated with interior interconnections. By the growing of the bodies the difference between the values of the characteristic times and dimensions become larger. The dynamical evolution of the system we could observe with use the numerical modeling of the Earth and Moon formation into the 3-D model [1,2]. The fact, that the linear dimensions of the objects during the accumulation process change from the centimeter and meter dimensions to some thousands of kilometers significantly prevent the mathematical description of these processes. The corresponding values of the no dimensional similarity criterions, which are included into the systems of differential equations, which describe the proto-planetary growing, the conditions for entropy and mass on the growing surface, the equations of the impulse balance, energy and mass into the interior parts of the planet change on an orders of values. Therefore we used very detailed space and time grids for solution the problem using the method of finite differences. The additional complications occur according to necessity to take into account the nonlinear dependence of matter viscosity from the temperature, pressure and chemical matter content. At last we took into account the principal random distribution of heterogeneities, stipulated by bodies and particles falling. Only progression towards that direction and constructing corresponding systems of observation and interpretation allow to hope

  7. Morpho-kinematic analysis of the point-symmetric, bipolar planetary nebulae Hb 5 and K 3-17, a pathway to poly-polarity

    CERN Document Server

    López, J A; Steffen, W; Riesgo, H; Richer, M G

    2012-01-01

    The kinematics of the bipolar planetary nebulae Hb~5 and K 3-17 are investigated in detail by means of a comprehensive set of spatially resolved high spectral resolution, long-slit spectra. Both objects share particularly interesting characteristics, such as a complex filamentary, rosette-type nucleus, axial point-symmetry and very fast bipolar outflows. The kinematic information of Hb~5 is combined with {\\it HST} imagery to construct a detailed 3D model of the nebula using the code SHAPE. The model shows that the large scale lobes are growing in a non-homologous way. The filamentary loops in the core are proven to actually be secondary lobes emerging from what appears to be a randomly punctured, dense, gaseous core and the material that forms the point symmetric structure flows within the lobes with a distinct kinematic pattern and its interaction with the lobes has had a shaping effect on them. Hb~5 and K~3-17 may represent a class of fast evolving planetary nebulae that will develop poly-polar characterist...

  8. MORPHO-KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE POINT-SYMMETRIC, BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULAE Hb 5 AND K 3-17, A PATHWAY TO POLY-POLARITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. A.; Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.; Steffen, W.; Riesgo, H.; Richer, M. G., E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: tere@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: hriesgo@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2012-05-10

    The kinematics of the bipolar planetary nebulae Hb 5 and K 3-17 are investigated in detail by means of a comprehensive set of spatially resolved high spectral resolution, long-slit spectra. Both objects share particularly interesting characteristics, such as a complex filamentary, rosette-type nucleus, axial point-symmetry, and very fast bipolar outflows. The kinematic information of Hb 5 is combined with Hubble Space Telescope imagery to construct a detailed three-dimensional model of the nebula using the code SHAPE. The model shows that the large-scale lobes are growing in a non-homologous way. The filamentary loops in the core are proven to actually be secondary lobes emerging from what appears to be a randomly punctured, dense, gaseous core and the material that forms the point-symmetric structure flows within the lobes with a distinct kinematic pattern and its interaction with the lobes has had a shaping effect on them. Hb 5 and K 3-17 may represent a class of fast evolving planetary nebulae that will develop poly-polar characteristics once the nebular core evolves and expands.

  9. Rotating Stars and the Formation of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae II: Tidal Spin-up

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Segura, G; Manchado, A; Langer, N; Yoon, S -C

    2016-01-01

    We present new binary stellar evolution models that include the effects of tidal forces, rotation, and magnetic torques with the goal of testing Planetary Nebulae (PNe) shaping via binary interaction. We explore whether tidal interaction with a companion can spin up the AGB envelope. To do so we have selected binary systems with main sequence masses of 2.5 \\Mo and of 0.8 \\Mo and evolve them allowing initial separations of 5, 6, 7, and 8 AU. The binary stellar evolution models have been computed all the way to the PNe formation phase or until Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) is reached, whatever happens first. We show that with initial separations of 7 and 8 AU, the binary avoids entering into RLOF, and the AGB star reaches moderate rotational velocities at the surface ($\\sim 3.5 $ and $\\sim 2 $ \\kms respectively) during the inter-pulse phases, but after the thermal pulses it drops to a final rotational velocity of only $\\sim 0.03 $ \\kms. For the closest binary separations explored, 5 and 6 AU, the AGB star reaches ...

  10. A dam around the Water Fountain Nebula? The dust shell of IRAS16342-3814 spatially resolved with VISIR/VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Verhoelst, T; Verhoeff, A; Dijkstra, C; Van Winckel, H; Pel, J W; Peletier, R F

    2009-01-01

    Either by collimating a fast stellar wind or by driving a jet via accretion in the central system, dusty torii or stable disks may be crucial ingredients for the shaping of PNe. We study the dust distribution in the very young Proto-Planetary Nebule (PPN) IRAS16342-3814, also known as the Water Fountain Nebula, which is known to show strong bipolar characteristics in the shape of two reflection lobes, and high-velocity collimated molecular outlfows. We use the new Mid-IR (MIR) instrument VISIR on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) both in imaging and spectroscopy mode at wavelengths from 8 to 13 micron. We present the first spatially resolved MIR observations of a dusty evolved star obtained with VISIR and find that the improved spatial resolution contradicts previous claims of an elliptical brightness distribution at the heart of IRAS16342: we find the waist region to be dark even in the MIR. We show that the filling angle of the obscuring dust lane, which is made mostly of amorphous silicates, is very large, po...

  11. A Fast Parallel Simulation Code for Interaction between Proto-Planetary Disk and Embedded Proto-Planets: Implementation for 3D Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    We develop a 3D simulation code for interaction between the proto-planetary disk and embedded proto-planets. The protoplanetary disk is treated as a three-dimensional (3D), self-gravitating gas whose motion is described by the locally isothermal Navier-Stokes equations in a spherical coordinate centered on the star. The differential equations for the disk are similar to those given in Kley et al. (2009) with a different gravitational potential that is defined in Nelson et al. (2000). The equations are solved by directional split Godunov method for the inviscid Euler equations plus operator-split method for the viscous source terms. We use a sub-cycling technique for the azimuthal sweep to alleviate the time step restriction. We also extend the FARGO scheme of Masset (2000) and modified in Li et al. (2001) to our 3D code to accelerate the transport in the azimuthal direction. Furthermore, we have implemented a reduced 2D (r, {theta}) and a fully 3D self-gravity solver on our uniform disk grid, which extends our 2D method (Li, Buoni, & Li 2008) to 3D. This solver uses a mode cut-off strategy and combines FFT in the azimuthal direction and direct summation in the radial and meridional direction. An initial axis-symmetric equilibrium disk is generated via iteration between the disk density profile and the 2D disk-self-gravity. We do not need any softening in the disk self-gravity calculation as we have used a shifted grid method (Li et al. 2008) to calculate the potential. The motion of the planet is limited on the mid-plane and the equations are the same as given in D'Angelo et al. (2005), which we adapted to the polar coordinates with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta solver. The disk gravitational force on the planet is assumed to evolve linearly with time between two hydrodynamics time steps. The Planetary potential acting on the disk is calculated accurately with a small softening given by a cubic-spline form (Kley et al. 2009). Since the torque is extremely

  12. Physical Structure of Planetary Nebulae. I. The Owl Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Manchado, A; Kwitter, K B

    2003-01-01

    The Owl Nebula is a triple-shell planetary nebula with the outermost shell being a faint bow-shaped halo. We have obtained deep narrow-band images and high-dispersion echelle spectra in the H-alpha, [O III], and [N II] emission lines to determine the physical structure of each shell in the nebula. These spatio-kinematic data allow us to rule out hydrodynamic models that can reproduce only the nebular morphology. Our analysis shows that the inner shell of the main nebula is slightly elongated with a bipolar cavity along its major axis, the outer nebula is a filled envelope co-expanding with the inner shell at 40 km/s, and the halo has been braked by the interstellar medium as the Owl Nebula moves through it. To explain the morphology and kinematics of the Owl Nebula, we suggest the following scenario for its formation and evolution. The early mass loss at the TP-AGB phase forms the halo, and the superwind at the end of the AGB phase forms the main nebula. The subsequent fast stellar wind compressed the superwi...

  13. Bipolar Outflows and the Evolution of Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Adam

    1998-01-01

    Hypersonic bipolar outflows are a ubiquitous phenomena associated with both young and highly evolved stars. Observations of Planetary Nebulae, the nebulae surrounding Luminous Blue Variables such as $\\eta$ Carinae, Wolf Rayet bubbles, the circumstellar environment of SN 1987A and Young Stellar Objects all revealed high velocity outflows with a wide range of shapes. In this paper I review the current state of our theoretical understanding of these outflows. Beginning with Planetary Nebulae con...

  14. Have proto-planetary discs formed planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter-masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star-formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few percent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exo-planets is greater than this, there is a `missing mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust-flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multi-planet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion timescale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust-flux as t...

  15. Magnetic fields in planetary nebulae and post-AGB nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, L; Greaves, J S

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an important but largely unknown ingredient of planetary nebulae. They have been detected in oxygen-rich AGB and post-AGB stars, and may play a role in the shaping of their nebulae. Here we present SCUBA sub-millimeter polarimetric observations of four bipolar planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, including two oxygen-rich and two carbon-rich nebulae, to determine the geometry of the magnetic field by dust alignment. Three of the four sources (NGC 7027, NGC 6537 and NGC 6302) present a well-defined toroidal magnetic field oriented along their equatorial torus or disk. NGC 6302 may also show field lines along the bipolar outflow. CRL 2688 shows a complex field structure, where part of the field aligns with the torus, whilst an other part approximately aligns with the polar outflow. It also presents marked asymmetries in its magnetic structure. NGC 7027 shows evidence for a disorganized field in the south-west corner, where the SCUBA shows an indication for an outflow. The findings show a cl...

  16. First Science Observations with SOFIA/FORCAST: 6 to 37 micron Imaging of the Central Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Shuping, R Y; Herter, Terry L; Adams, Joseph D; Gull, G E; Schoenwald, J; Henderson, C P; Becklin, E E; De Buizer, James M; Vacca, William D; Zinnecker, Hans; Megeath, S Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present new mid-infrared images of the central region of the Orion Nebula using the newly commissioned SOFIA airborne telescope and its 5 -- 40 micron camera FORCAST. The 37.1 micron images represent the highest resolution observations (<4") ever obtained of this region at these wavelengths. After BN/KL (which is described in a separate letter in this issue), the dominant source at all wavelengths except 37.1 micron is the Ney-Allen Nebula, a crescent-shaped extended source associated with theta 1D. The morphology of the Ney-Allen nebula in our images is consistent with the interpretation that it is ambient dust swept up by the stellar wind from theta 1D, as suggested by Smith et al. (2005). Our observations also reveal emission from two "proplyds" (proto-planetary disks), and a few embedded young stellar objects (YSOs; IRc9, and OMC1S IRS1, 2, and 10). The spectral energy distribution for IRc9 is presented and fitted with standard YSO models from Robitaille et al. (2007) to constrain the total luminosi...

  17. Butterfly Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this image of the 'butterfly wing'- shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, 1997 as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA shuttle astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles.

  18. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. PMID:27262007

  19. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: 6-37 μm IMAGING OF THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new mid-infrared images of the central region of the Orion Nebula using the newly commissioned Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy airborne telescope and its 5-40 μm camera FORCAST. The 37.1 μm images represent the highest resolution observations (∼1 D Ori. The morphology of the Ney-Allen nebula in our images is consistent with the interpretation that it is ambient dust swept up by the stellar wind from θ1 D Ori, as suggested by Smith et al. in 2005. Our observations also reveal emission from two 'proplyds' (proto-planetary disks), and a few embedded young stellar objects (YSOs; IRc 9, and OMC1-S IRS1, 2, and 10). The spectral energy distribution for IRc 9 is presented and fitted with standard YSO models from Robitaille et al. in 2007 to constrain the total luminosity, disk size, and envelope size. The diffuse, nebular emission we observe at all FORCAST wavelengths is most likely from the background photodissociation region (PDR) and shows structure that coincides roughly with Hα and [N II] emission. We conclude that the spatial variations in the diffuse emission are likely due to undulations in the surface of the background PDR.

  20. Rings and arcs around evolved stars - I. Fingerprints of the last gasps in the formation process of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Santamaría, E.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Sabin, L.; Toalá, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Evolved stars such as asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB), post-AGB stars, proto-planetary nebulae (proto-PNe), and planetary nebulae (PNe) show rings and arcs around them and their nebular shells. We have searched for these morphological features in optical Hubble Space Telescope and mid-infrared Spitzer Space Telescope images of ˜650 proto-PNe and PNe and discovered them in 29 new sources. Adding those to previous detections, we derive a frequency of occurrence ≃8 per cent. All images have been processed to remove the underlying envelope emission and enhance outer faint structures to investigate the spacing between rings and arcs and their number. The averaged time lapse between consecutive rings and arcs is estimated to be in the range 500-1200 yr. The spacing between them is found to be basically constant for each source, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the formation of these structures in the final stages of evolved stars is stable during time periods of the order of the total duration of the ejection. In our sample, this period of time spans ≤4500 yr.

  1. Symmetric vs. asymmetric planetary nebulae: morphology and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J

    2010-01-01

    We analyse a large sample of galactic planetary nebulae based on their chemical composition and morphology. A recent morphological classification system is adopted, and several elements are considered, namely He, N, O, S, Ar, Ne, and C in order to investigate the correlations involving these elements and the different PN types. Special emphasis is given to the differences between symmetric (round or elliptical) nebulae and those that present some degree of asymmetry (bipolars or bipolar core objects). The results are compared with previous findings both for PN in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic Clouds.

  2. Binary hypotheses for bipolar mass loss in transients

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Benedict John Russell; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    We investigate binary hypotheses for the formation of bipolar nebulae using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget-2. In the general case, we present a parameter study of mass loss from very simple common envelope models, which seems to show a strongly bipolar trend for sufficiently oblate envelopes and low enough spiral-in injection energy. The density profiles of the envelopes produce differing structure within the ejecta. We also investigate 3 specific bipolar ma...

  3. Photoionization modeling of the Galactic planetary nebulae Abell 39 and NGC 7027

    OpenAIRE

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Frew, David J.; Parker, Quentin A.; De Marco, Orsola

    2011-01-01

    We estimate distances to the spherical planetary nebula Abell 39 and the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 7027 by interpolating from a wide grid of photoionization models using the 3-D code, MOCASSIN. We find preliminary distances of 1.5 kpc and 0.9 kpc respectively, with uncertainties of about 30%.

  4. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go from ... down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  5. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of psychotherapies. Other Treatment Options Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) : ECT can provide relief for people with severe bipolar ... been able to recover with other treatments. Sometimes ECT is used for bipolar symptoms when other medical ...

  6. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: 6-37 {mu}m IMAGING OF THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuping, R. Y. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Herter, Terry L.; Adams, Joseph D.; Gull, G. E.; Schoenwald, J.; Henderson, C. P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, 208 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, James M.; Vacca, William D.; Zinnecker, Hans [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Thomas Megeath, S., E-mail: rshuping@spacescience.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We present new mid-infrared images of the central region of the Orion Nebula using the newly commissioned Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy airborne telescope and its 5-40 {mu}m camera FORCAST. The 37.1 {mu}m images represent the highest resolution observations ({approx}<4'') ever obtained of this region at these wavelengths. After BN/KL (which is described in a separate paper in this issue), the dominant source at all wavelengths except 37.1 {mu}m is the Ney-Allen Nebula, a crescent-shaped extended source associated with {theta}{sup 1} D Ori. The morphology of the Ney-Allen nebula in our images is consistent with the interpretation that it is ambient dust swept up by the stellar wind from {theta}{sup 1} D Ori, as suggested by Smith et al. in 2005. Our observations also reveal emission from two 'proplyds' (proto-planetary disks), and a few embedded young stellar objects (YSOs; IRc 9, and OMC1-S IRS1, 2, and 10). The spectral energy distribution for IRc 9 is presented and fitted with standard YSO models from Robitaille et al. in 2007 to constrain the total luminosity, disk size, and envelope size. The diffuse, nebular emission we observe at all FORCAST wavelengths is most likely from the background photodissociation region (PDR) and shows structure that coincides roughly with H{alpha} and [N II] emission. We conclude that the spatial variations in the diffuse emission are likely due to undulations in the surface of the background PDR.

  7. Bipolar outflows in OH/IR stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Hekkert, P L; Likkel, L; Comeron, F; Norris, R P; Molster, F J; Cohen, R J; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the development of bipolar outflows during the early post-AGB evolution. A sample of ten OH/IR stars is observed at high angular resolution, including bipolar nebulae (OH231.8+4.2), bright post-AGB stars (HD 101584) and reflection nebulae (e.g. Roberts 22). The IRAS colour--colour diagram separates the sample into different types of objects. One group may contain the progenitors to the (few) extreme bipolar planetary nebulae. Two objects show colours and chemistry very similar to the planetary nebulae with late IR-[WC] stars. One object is a confirmed close binary. A model is presented consisting of an outer AGB wind which is swept up by a faster post-AGB wind, with either wind being non-spherically symetric. The interface of the two winds is shown to exhibit a linear relation between velocity and distance from the star. The OH data confirms the predicted linear velocity gradients, and reveals torus-like, uniformly expanding components. All sources are discussed in detail using optical/HST imag...

  8. Bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529

  9. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lows). These aren't the normal periods of happiness and sadness that everyone experiences from time to ... with long-lasting medical conditions (such as asthma , diabetes , or epilepsy ), teens with bipolar disorder need to ...

  10. Bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Frederick K; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic ...

  11. CRIRES-VLT high-resolution spectro-astrometry as a tool in the search of small structures at the cores of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Cárdenas, Mónica W Blanco; Guerrero, Martín A; Miranda, Luis F; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The onset of the asymmetry in planetary nebulae (PNe) occurs during the short transition between the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and the beginning of the PN phase. Sources in this transition phase are compact and emit intensely in infrared wavelengths, making high spatial resolution observations in the infrared mandatory to investigate the shaping process of PNe. Interferometric VLTI IR observations have revealed compelling evidence of disks at the cores of PNe, but the limited sensitivity, strong observational constraints, and limited spatial coverage place severe limits on the universal use of this technique. Inspired by the successful detection of proto-planetary disks using spectro-astrometric observations, we apply here for the first time this technique to search for sub-arcsecond structures in PNe. Our exploratory study using CRIRES (CRyogenic high-resolution Infra-Red Echelle Spectrograph) commissioning data of the proto-PN IRAS 17516-2525 and the young PN SwSt 1 has revealed small-s...

  12. An atlas of synthetic line profiles of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morisset, C

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a grid of photoionization models of spherical, elliptical and bipolar planetary nebulae. Assuming different velocity fields, we have computed line profiles corresponding to different orientations, slit sizes and positions. The atlas is meant both for didactic purposes and for the interpretation of data on real nebulae. As an application, we have shown that line profiles are often degenerate, and that recovering the geometry and velocity field from observations requires lines from ions with different masses and different ionization potentials. We have also shown that the empirical way to measure mass-weighted expansion velocities from observed line widths is reasonably accurate if considering the HWHM. For distant nebulae, entirely covered by the slit, the unknown geometry and orientation do not alter the measured velocities statistically. The atlas is freely accessible from internet. The Cloudy_3D suite and the associated VISNEB tool are available on request.

  13. A disc in the heart of the Ant nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Lykou, Foteini; Lagadec, Eric; Zijlstra, Albert

    2007-01-01

    We present the discovery of a silicate disc at the centre of the planetary nebula Mz3 (the Ant). The nebula was observed with MIDI on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The visibilities obtained at different orientations clearly indicate the presence of a dusty, nearly edge-on disc in the heart of the nebula. An amorphous silicate absorption feature is clearly seen in our mid-IR spectrum and visibility curves. We used radiative transfer Monte Carlo simulations to constrain the geometrical and physical parameters of the disc. We derive an inner radius of 9 AU (~6mas assuming D=1.4kpc). This disc is perpendicular to, but a factor of 10^{3} smaller than the optical bipolar outflow.

  14. Kn 26, a New Quadrupolar Planetary Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Martin A; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Vazquez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Once classified as an emission line source, the planetary nebula (PN) nature of the source Kn 26 has been only recently recognized in digital sky surveys. To investigate the spectral properties and spatio-kinematical structure of Kn 26, we have obtained high spatial-resolution optical and near-IR narrow-band images, high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectra, and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations. The new data reveal an hourglass morphology typical of bipolar PNe. A detailed analysis of its morphology and kinematics discloses the presence of a second pair of bipolar lobes, making Kn 26 a new member of the subclass of quadrupolar PNe. The time-lap between the ejection of the two pairs of bipolar lobes is much smaller than their dynamical ages, implying a rapid change of the preferential direction of the central engine. The chemical composition of Kn 26 is particularly unusual among PNe, with a low N/O ratio (as of type II PNe) and a high helium abundance (as of type I PNe), although not atypica...

  15. Transtorno bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através d...

  16. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  17. Cool gaseous nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Shaver, P A; Pottasch, S R

    1979-01-01

    The electron temperatures of diffuse gaseous nebulae have long been thought to be close to 10/sup 4/K. Much lower temperatures were derived from some of the early radio continuum and recombination line work, but these were generally considered to be wrong for a variety of reasons. While there is little doubt that the bright nebulae do indeed have temperatures of approximately 8000-9000K, there are strong indications that some nebulae of lower densities have much lower temperatures, nebulae were made in order to determine electron temperatures in the absence of such effects as collisional de-excitation, stimulated emission, and pressure broadening. Several of these nebulae have been found to have temperatures below 5000K and for two of them which are discussed (RCW94 and G339.1-0.2) absolute upper limits of approximately 4700 K are imposed by the line widths alone. (11 refs).

  18. The variable Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable Crab Nebula is powered by an energetic pulsar whose relativistic wind interacts with the inner parts of the Supernova Remnant SN1054. Despite low-intensity optical and X-ray variations in the inner Nebula, the Crab has been considered until now substantially stable at X-ray and gamma-ray energies. This paradigm has been shattered by the AGILE discovery in September 2010 of a very intense transient gamma-ray flare of nebular origin. For the first time, the Crab Nebula was "caught in the act" of accelerating particles up to 10^15 eV within the shortest timescale ever observed in a cosmic nebula (1 day or less). Emission between 50 MeV and a few GeV was detected with a quite hard spectrum within a short timescale. Additional analysis and recent Crab Nebula data lead to identify a total of four major flaring gamma-ray episodes detected by AGILE and Fermi during the period mid-2007/mid-2011. These observations challenge emission models of the pulsar wind interaction and particle acceleration process...

  19. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...

  20. Catalogues of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  1. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, D.; Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Miura, K.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V LSR = -14 km s-1 and +5 km s-1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km s-1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s-1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km s-1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s-1 cloud collided into the -14 km s-1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  2. Weak magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, M; Todt, H; Schöller, M; Hamann, W -R; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D

    2014-01-01

    It is not yet clear whether magnetic fields play an essential role in shaping planetary nebulae (PNe), or whether stellar rotation alone and/or a close binary companion can account for the variety of the observed nebular morphologies. In a quest for empirical evidence verifying or disproving the role of magnetic fields in shaping PNe, we follow up on previous attempts to measure the magnetic field in a representative sample of PN central stars. We obtained low-resolution polarimetric spectra with FORS 2 at VLT for a sample of twelve bright central stars of PNe with different morphology, including two round nebulae, seven elliptical nebulae, and three bipolar nebulae. Two targets are Wolf-Rayet type central stars. For the majority of the observed central stars, we do not find any significant evidence for the existence of surface magnetic fields. However, our measurements may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of the order of 100 Gauss in the central star of the young elliptical pla...

  3. Millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, VLSR = –14 km s–1 and +5 km s–1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado 'head' in the –14 km s–1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s–1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the –14 km s–1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s–1 cloud collided into the –14 km s–1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  4. Alignment of the Angular Momentum Vectors of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, B

    2013-01-01

    We use high-resolution H {\\alpha} images of 130 planetary nebulae (PNe) to investigate whether there is a preferred orientation for PNe within the Galactic Bulge. The orientations of the full sample have an uniform distribution. However, at a significance level of 0.01, there is evidence for a non-uniform distribution for those planetary nebulae with evident bipolar morphology. If we assume that the bipolar PNe have an unimodal distribution of the polar axis in Galactic coordinates, the mean Galactic position angle is consistent with 90{\\deg}, i.e. along the Galactic plane, and the significance level is better than 0.001 (the equivalent of a 3.7{\\sigma} significance level for a Gaussian distribution). The shapes of PNe are related to angular momentum of the original star or stellar system, where the long axis of the nebula measures the angular momentum vector. In old, low-mass stars, the angular momentum is largely in binary orbital motion. Consequently, the alignment of bipolar nebulae that we have found ind...

  5. Suzaku Discovery of Twin Thermal Plasma from the Tornado Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Sawada, Makoto; Koyama, Katsuji; Oka, Tomoharu

    2011-01-01

    The Tornado nebula (G357.7-0.1) is a mysterious radio source with bright "head" and faint "tail" located in the direction of the Galactic center (GC) region. We here report the discovery of two diffuse X-ray sources at the head and tail of the Tornado with the Suzaku satellite. We found emission lines from highly ionized atoms in the two sources. The spectra are reproduced by an optically thin thermal plasma with a common temperature of 0.6-0.7 keV. The interstellar absorption (NH) of these sources are the same and are slightly larger than that of the GC distance. Since the estimated distance using the NH value is consistent with the radio observation of the Tornado, these X-ray sources are likely associated with the Tornado nebula. The twin-plasma morphology at the both ends of the Tornado suggests that the system is a bipolar/outflow source.

  6. The filamentary Multi-Polar Planetary Nebula NGC 5189

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, L; López, J A; García-Díaz, Ma T; Ramos-Larios, G

    2012-01-01

    We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detail so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one) which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC 5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined the complex morphology.

  7. THE FILAMENTARY MULTI-POLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC5189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sabin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of optical and infrared images combined with long-slit, medium and high dispersion spectra of the southern planetary nebula (PN NGC5189. The complex morphology of this PN is puzzling and has not been studied in detailed so far. Our investigation reveals the presence of a new dense and cold infrared torus (alongside the optical one which probably generated one of the two optically seen bipolar outflows and which might be responsible for the twisted appearance of the optical torus via an interaction process. The high-resolution MES-AAT spectra clearly show the presence of filamentary and knotty structures as well as three expanding bubbles. Our findings therefore suggest that NGC5189 is a quadrupolar nebula with multiple sets of symmetrical condensations in which the interaction of outflows has determined its complex morphology.

  8. Differential Proper-Motion Measurements of The Cygnus Egg Nebula: The Presence of Equatorial Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, Toshiya; Ferguson, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of differential proper-motion analyses of the Egg Nebula (RAFGL 2688, V1610 Cyg) based on the archived two-epoch optical data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. First, we determined that the polarization characteristics of the Egg Nebula is influenced by the higher optical depth of the central regions of the nebula (i.e., the "dustsphere" of about 1000 AU radius), causing the nebula illuminated in two steps -- the direct starlight is first channeled into bipolar cavities and then scattered off to the rest of the nebula. We then measured the amount of motion of local structures and the signature concentric arcs by determining their relative shifts over the 7.25 yr interval. Based on our analysis, which does not rely on the single-scattering assumption, we concluded that the lobes have been excavated by a linear expansion along the bipolar axis for the past 400 yr, while the concentric arcs have been generated continuously and moving out radially at about 10 km/s for the past 5,500 yr...

  9. VLT observations of the asymmetric Etched Hourglass Nebula, MyCn 18

    CERN Document Server

    Clyne, N; Lloyd, M; Matsuura, M; Singh, N; Meaburn, J

    2014-01-01

    Context. The mechanisms that form extreme bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear. Aims. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar planetary nebula, MyCn 18, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding the shaping mechanism and evolutionary history of this object. Methods. VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical Echelle spectra are used to investigate MyCn 18. Morpho-kinematic modelling was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. Results. A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central and offset region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Bracket gamma emission are detected from the central regions of MyCn 18. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than ...

  10. New Planetary Nebulae in the Northern Galactic Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Boumis, P; Boumis, Panayotis; Bryce, Myfanwy

    2003-01-01

    We present deep Halpha+[N II] CCD images of selected new Planetary Nebulae (PNe) discovered through an [O III] 5007 A emission line survey in the Galactic Bulge region with l > 0 deg. In total, we detected more than 200 objects, including 45 new PNe. Deep Halpha+[N II] CCD images as well as low resolution spectra were obtained for the new PNe in order to study them in detail. Their first morphological study suggests that most of them are round (60%), while 31% and 9% are elliptical and bipolar, respectively. 63% of the round PNe present ring-like structure while 37% are compact.

  11. Kinematical Properties of Planetary Nebulae with WR-type Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Parker, Quentin A

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy of H$\\alpha$, [N II] and [O III] emission lines for a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and weak emission-line stars (wels). Comparing their spatially-resolved kinematic observations with morpho-kinematic models allowed us to disentangle their three-dimensional gaseous structures. Our results indicate that these PNe have axisymmetric morphologies, either bipolar or elliptical. In many cases the associated kinematic maps for the PNe around hot central stars also reveal the presence of so-called fast low-ionization emission regions.

  12. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  13. Staging Bipolar Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Reinares, M.; Rosa, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder, early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made to apply clinical staging to bipolar disorder. The staging model in bipolar disorder suggests a progression from prodro...

  14. Abell 41: shaping of a planetary nebula by a binary central star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Lloyd, M.; Santander-García, M.; López, J. A.; Meaburn, J.; Mitchell, D. L.; O'Brien, T. J.; Pollacco, D.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.; Vaytet, N. M. H.

    2010-11-01

    We present the first detailed spatiokinematical analysis and modelling of the planetary nebula Abell 41, which is known to contain the well-studied close-binary system MT Ser. This object represents an important test case in the study of the evolution of planetary nebulae with binary central stars as current evolutionary theories predict that the binary plane should be aligned perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the nebula. Deep narrow-band imaging in the light of [NII]6584Å, [OIII]5007 Å and [SII]6717+6731Å, obtained using ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope, has been used to investigate the ionization structure of Abell 41. Long-slit observations of the Hα and [NII]6584Å emission were obtained using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer on the 2.1-m San Pedro Mártir Telescope. These spectra, combined with the narrow-band imagery, were used to develop a spatiokinematical model of [NII]6584Å emission from Abell 41. The best-fitting model reveals Abell 41 to have a waisted, bipolar structure with an expansion velocity of ~40 km s-1 at the waist. The symmetry axis of the model nebula is within 5° of perpendicular to the orbital plane of the central binary system. This provides strong evidence that the close-binary system, MT Ser, has directly affected the shaping of its nebula, Abell 41. Although the theoretical link between bipolar planetary nebulae and binary central stars is long established, this nebula is only the second to have this link, between nebular symmetry axis and binary plane, proved observationally. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. E-mail: david.jones-3@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic models of bipolar knotty jet in henize 2-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Sahai, R.

    2004-01-01

    A remarkably linear, bipolar, knotty jet was recently discovered in Hen 2-90, an object classified as a young planetary nebula. Using two-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate periodic variations in jet density and velocity as the mechanism for producing the jet and its knotty structures.

  16. Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A reflection nebula in the constellation Monoceros, position RA 06 h 39.2 m, dec. +08° 44'. It is small (2' by 1') but of quite high surface brightness. The nebula's average magnitude is 10, but, as Edwin Hubble discovered in 1916, it varies in brightness, mirroring the variability of its illuminating star, R Monocerotis....

  17. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  18. Symmetric and asymmetric planetary nebulae and the time variation of the radial abundance gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, W.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary nebulae (PN) are excellent laboratories to study the chemical evolution of their host galaxies, especially concerning the radial abundance gradients and their time and spatial variations. Current chemical evolution models predict either some steepening or flattening of the abundance gradients with time, and PN can be useful in order to provide observational constraints on this issue. It is generally believed that asymmetrical nebulae, especially bipolars, are formed by younger, more massive progenitor stars, while symmetrical nebulae, such as the round and elliptical objects, are formed by older, less massive stars. As a consequence, if the abundance gradients change with time, some differences are expected between the gradients measured in symmetrical and asymmetrical nebulae. We have considered a large sample of well-studied galactic PN for which accurate abundances of O, S, Ne, and Ar are known, and for which a reliable morphological classification can be made. Average abundances and radial gradients of the ratios O/H, S/H, Ne/H and Ar/H were then determined for the main morphological classes, comprising B, E, R, and P nebulae. It is found that the average abundances of the younger objects are larger than those of the older nebulae, as expected on chemical evolution grounds, but the derived gradients are essentially the same within the uncertainties. It can then be concluded that the radial abundance gradients have not changed appreciably since the older progenitor stars were born, approximately 4 to 5 Gyr ago.

  19. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, A; Olguín, L; Solano, E; Ulla, A

    2016-01-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Halpha imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC with the goal of analyzing its properties. The Halpha image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low-excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H^+, He^+, and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [NII]6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N, and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity ($\\sim$ 92-131 km s$^{-1}$), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 ...

  20. The Tarantula Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope, formerly known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, has captured in stunning detail the spidery filaments and newborn stars of the Tarantula Nebula, a rich star-forming region also known as 30 Doradus. This cloud of glowing dust and gas is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the nearest galaxy to our own Milky Way, and is visible primarily from the Southern Hemisphere. This image of an interstellar cauldron provides a snapshot of the complex physical processes and chemistry that govern the birth - and death - of stars.At the heart of the nebula is a compact cluster of stars, known as R136, which contains very massive and young stars. The brightest of these blue supergiant stars are up to 100 times more massive than the Sun, and are at least 100,000 times more luminous. These stars will live fast and die young, at least by astronomical standards, exhausting their nuclear fuel in a few million years.The Spitzer Space Telescope image was obtained with an infrared array camera that is sensitive to invisible infrared light at wavelengths that are about ten times longer than visible light. In this four-color composite, emission at 3.6 microns is depicted in blue, 4.5 microns in green, 5.8 microns in orange, and 8.0 microns in red. The image covers a region that is three-quarters the size of the full moon.The Spitzer observations penetrate the dust clouds throughout the Tarantula to reveal previously hidden sites of star formation. Within the luminescent nebula, many holes are also apparent. These voids are produced by highly energetic winds originating from the massive stars in the central star cluster. The structures at the edges of these voids are particularly interesting. Dense pillars of gas and dust, sculpted by the stellar radiation, denote the birthplace of future generations of stars.The Spitzer image provides information about the composition of the material at the edges of the voids. The surface layers closest to the

  1. Neuroimaging in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks, significantly disrupts the functionality of a chronic mental disorder. Although there is growing number of studies on the neurobiological basis of the disorder, the pathophysiology has not yet been clearly understood. Structural and functional imaging techniques present a better understanding of the etiology of bipolar disorder and has contributed significantly to the development of the diagnostic approach. Recent developments in brain imaging modalities have let us learn more about the underlying abnormalities in neural systems of bipolar patients. Identification of objective biomarkers would help to determine the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, a disorder which causes significant deterioration in neurocognitive and emotional areas.

  2. Kn 26, a new quadrupolar planetary nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Vázquez, R.

    2013-03-01

    Once classified as an emission line source, the planetary nebula (PN) nature of the source Kn 26 has only recently been recognized in digital sky surveys. To investigate the spectral properties and spatio-kinematical structure of Kn 26, we have obtained high spatial-resolution optical and near-IR narrow-band images, high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectra, and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations. The new data reveal an hourglass morphology typical of bipolar PNe. A detailed analysis of its morphology and kinematics discloses the presence of a second pair of bipolar lobes, making Kn 26 a new member of the subclass of quadrupolar PNe. The time lapse between the ejection of the two pairs of bipolar lobes is much shorter than their dynamical ages, implying a rapid change in the preferential direction of the central engine. The chemical composition of Kn 26 is particularly unusual among PNe, with a low N/O ratio (as for type II PNe) and a high helium abundance (as for type I PNe), although not atypical among symbiotic stars. Such an anomalous chemical composition may have resulted from the curtailment of the time in the asymptotic giant branch by the evolution of the progenitor star through a common envelope phase. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM), and the 1.5-m telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), Granada, Spain. NOT is operated jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. WHT is operated by the Isaac Newton Group. The 2.1-m telescope at the OAN-SPM is a national facility operated by the Instituto de Astronomía of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. The 1.5-m telescope at the OSN is operated by the

  3. From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Tafoya, D

    2014-01-01

    [abridged] The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar Planetary Nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. We present the results of seven sources observed with the JVLA that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a 'dying' OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH ma...

  4. Management of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

  5. Pulsar Wind Nebulae Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) are ideal astrophysical laboratories where high energy relativistic phenomena can be investigated. They are close, well resolved in our observations, and the knowledge derived in their study has a strong impact in many other fields, from AGNs to GRBs. Yet there are still unresolved issues, that prevent us from a full clear understanding of these objects. The lucky combination of high resolution X-ray imaging and numerical codes to handle the outflow and dynamical properties of relativistic MHD, has opened a new avenue of investigation that has lead to interesting progresses in the last years. Despite all of this, we do not understand yet how particles are accelerated, and the functioning of the pulsar wind and pulsar magnetosphere, that power PWNe. I will review what is now commonly known as the MHD paradigm, and in particular I will focus on various approaches that have been and are currently used to model these systems. For each I will highlight its advantages, limitations, and de...

  6. Revised Diagnostic Diagrams for Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Riesgo, H

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of electron density - excitation for a sample of 613 planetary nebulae are presented. The present extensive sample allows the definition of new statistical limits for the distribution of planetary nebulae in the log [Ha/[SII

  7. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D Kotzalidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation-related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder-related terms. The search produced 310 articles and the number rose to 350 after adding articles from other search engines and reference lists. Twenty papers were included that appropriately tackled the issue of the presence (but not of its pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Of these, 15 were postmortem and 5 were carried out in living humans. Most articles were consistent with the presence of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but factors such as treatment may mask it. All studies were cross-sectional, preventing causality to be inferred. Thus, no inference can be currently made about the role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but a link is likely. The issue remains little investigated, despite an excess of reviews on this topic.

  8. The morphology and kinematics of the Fine Ring Nebula, planetary nebula Sp 1, and the shaping influence of its binary central star

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D; Lloyd, M; Pollacco, D; O'Brien, T J; Meaburn, J; Vaytet, N M H

    2011-01-01

    We present the first detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling of the planetary nebula Shapley 1 (Sp 1), which is known to contain a close-binary central star system. Close-binary central stars have been identified as a likely source of shaping in planetary nebulae, but with little observational support to date. Deep narrowband imaging in the light of [O III] {\\lambda}5007A suggests the presence of a large bow-shock to the west of the nebula, indicating that it is undergoing the first stages of an interaction with the interstellar medium. Further narrowband imaging in the light of H{\\alpha}+[NII] {\\lambda}6584A combined with longslit observations of the H{\\alpha} emission have been used to develop a spatio-kinematical model of Sp 1. The model clearly reveals Sp 1 to be a bipolar, axisymmetric structure viewed almost pole-on. The symmetry axis of the model nebula is within a few degrees of perpendicular to the orbital plane of the central binary system - strong evidence that the central close-binary s...

  9. Contraction of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawal, J.J. (Nehru Planetarium, Bombay (India))

    1984-10-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it.

  10. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...

  11. Observations and 3D Hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with Wolf Rayet type central stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechy-García, J. S.; Velázquez, P. F.; Peña, M.; Raga, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic observations of two planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars located near the galactic bulge, M 1-32 and M 3-15. The observations were obtained with the 2.1-m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir. M 1-32 shows wide wings on the base of its emission lines and M 3-15 has two very faint high-velocity knots. In order to model both PNe we built a three-dimensional model consisting of a jet interacting with an equatorially concentrated slow wind, emulating the presence of a dense torus, using the Yguazú hydrodynamical code. From our hydrodynamical models, we obtained position-velocity (PV) diagrams in the [N II]λ6583 line for comparison with the observations. We find that the spectral characteristics of M 1-32 and M 3-15 can be explained with the same physical model -a jet moving inside an AGB wind- using different parameters (physical conditions and position angles of the jet). In agreement with our model and observations, these objects contain a dense torus seeing pole-on and a bipolar jet escaping thorough the poles. Then we propose to classify this kind of objects as spectroscopic bipolar nebulae, although they have been classified morphologically as compact, round, or elliptical nebulae or with "close collimated lobes".

  12. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, 22860 (Mexico); Edwards, M. L. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Winge, C., E-mail: dmclark@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: medwards@lbto.org, E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  13. The post-common-envelope, binary central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Miszalski, B.; Wesson, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Tyndall, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the central star system of the planetary nebula Hen 2-11, selected for study because of its low-ionisation filaments and bipolar morphology - traits which have been strongly linked with central star binarity. Photometric monitoring with NTT-EFOSC2 reveals a highly irradiated, double-eclipsing, post-common-envelope system with a period of 0.609 d. Modelling of the lightcurve indicates that the nebular progenitor is extremely hot, while the secondary in the system is probably a K-type main sequence star. The chemical composition of the nebula is analysed, showing Hen 2-11 to be a medium-excitation non-Type i nebula. A simple photoionisation model is constructed determining abundance ratios of C/O and N/O which would be consistent with the common-envelope cutting short the AGB evolution of the nebular progenitor. The detection of a post-common-envelope binary system at the heart of Hen 2-11 further strengthens the link between binary progeny and the formation of axisymmetric planetary nebulae with patterns of low-ionisation filaments, clearly demonstrating their use as morphological indicators of central star binarity. Extracted 1D spectra, reduced 2D spectra, and table of photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A89

  14. The planetary nebula nature and properties of IRAS18197-1118

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, L F; Pereira, C B; Vazquez, R

    2014-01-01

    IRAS18197-1118 is a stellar-like object that has been classified as a planetary nebula from its radio continuum emission and high [SIII]9532 to Paschen9 line intensity ratio, as derived from direct images. We present intermediate- and high-resolution, optical spectroscopy, VLA 8.46 GHz radio continuum data, and narrow-band optical images of IRAS18197-1118 aimed at confirming its planetary nebula nature, and analyzing its properties. The optical spectrum shows that IRAS18197-1118 is a medium-excitation planetary nebula suffering a high extinction (c(H_beta) ~3.37). The optical images do not resolve the object but the 8.46 GHz image reveals an elliptical shell of ~2.7x1.6 arcsec^2 in size, a compact central nebular region, and possible bipolar jet-like features, indicating several ejection events. The existence of a compact central nebula makes IRAS18197-1118 singular because this kind of structure is observed in a few PNe only. An expansion velocity ~20 km/s and a systemic velocity (LSR) ~+95 km/s are obtained...

  15. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  16. Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Their Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Young supernova remnants that contain pulsar wind nebulae provide diagnostics for both the inner part of the supernova and the interaction with the surrounding medium, providing an opportunity to relate these objects to supernova types. Among observed young nebulae, there is evidence for a range of supernova types, including Type IIP (Crab Nebula and SN 1054) and Type IIb/IIn/IIL (G292.0+1.8).

  17. Bipolar battery construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  18. Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Kwitter, Karen B.; Henry, Richard B.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present the Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra now available at http://oitwilliams.edu/nebulae. The website offers high-quality, moderate resolution (~7-10 A FWHM) spectra of 128 Galactic planetary nebulae from 3600-9600 A, obtained by Kwitter, Henry, and colleagues with the Goldcam spectrograph at the KPNO 2.1-m or with the RC spectrograph at the CTIO 1.5-m. The master PN table contains atlas data and an image link. A selected object's spectrum is displayed in a zoomable window; line identification templates are provided. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users: researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and...

  19. Stars in the Tarantula Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the most active starburst region in the local universe lies a cluster of brilliant, massive stars, known to astronomers as Hodge 301. Hodge 301, seen in the lower right hand corner of this image, lives inside the Tarantula Nebula in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This star cluster is not the brightest, or youngest, or most populous star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula, that honor goes to the spectacular R136. In fact, Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than the young cluster R136. But age has its advantages; many of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have exploded as supernovae. These exploded stars are blasting material out into the surrounding region at speeds of almost 200 miles per second. This high speed ejecta are plowing into the surrounding Tarantula Nebula, shocking and compressing the gas into a multitude of sheets and filaments, seen in the upper left portion of the picture. Hodge 301 contains three red supergiants - stars that are close to the end of their evolution and are about to go supernova, exploding and sending more shocks into the Tarantula. Also present near the center of the image are small, dense gas globules and dust columns where new stars are being formed today, as part of the overall ongoing star formation throughout the Tarantula region.

  20. Particle Transport in Young Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The model for pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) as the result of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) downstream flow from a shocked, relativistic pulsar wind has been successful in reproducing many features of the nebulae observed close to the central pulsars. However, observations of well-studied young nebulae like the Crab Nebula, 3C 58, and G21.5--0.9 do not show the toroidal magnetic field on a larger scale that might be expected in the MHD flow model; in addition, the radial variation of spectral ind...

  1. When Shape Matters: correcting the ICFs to derive the chemical abundances of bipolar and elliptical PNe

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, D R; Morisset, C; Barlow, M; Ercolano, B

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of chemical abundances of ionised nebulae from a limited spectral range is usually hampered by the lack of emission lines corresponding to certain ionic stages. So far, the missing emission lines have been accounted for by the ionisation correction factors (ICFs), constructed under simplistic assumptions like spherical geometry by using 1-D photoionisation modelling. In this contribution we discuss the results (Goncalves et al. 2011, in prep.) of our ongoing project to find a new set of ICFs to determine total abundances of N, O, Ne, Ar, and S, with optical spectra, in the case of non-spherical PNe. These results are based on a grid of 3-D photoionisation modelling of round, elliptical and bipolar shaped PNe, spanning the typical PN luminosities, effective temperatures and densities. We show that the additional corrections --to the widely used Kingsburgh and Barlow (1994) ICFs-- are always higher for bipolars than for ellipticals. Moreover, these additional corrections are, for bipolars, up to:...

  2. Bipolar Disorder in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kadri Gultekin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of studies related with bipolar disorder in Turkey did not reveal an epidemiologically qualified field study. Most of the studies are hospital based or clinical studies which did not include a systematical scanning and did not aim to collect any epidemiological data and transfer information to health authorities. The generalizability of these studies to our community is far from being valid and reliable. On the other hand, a profile which will be created by reviewing the findings of these studies performed in various regions of Turkey will have a contribution to knowing the and ldquo;unique to us and rdquo; features of bipolar disorder and determining cultural risk factors. All this information can constitute a basis for formation and development of public mental health services related with bipolar disorder. In Turkey, the need for epidemiologically significant, polycentric, public sampled studies with broad participation is indispensable. Although our psychiatric epidemiology and clinical studies include necessary scientific basis, they are not powerful enough to evaluate the authentic and progressional relations such as rapid urbanization and immigration. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss prominent epidemiological findings, deficiencies and possibile future activities related with studies conducted in Turkey about bipolar disorder.. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 199-209

  3. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In recent years mid-and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims. The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are

  4. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  5. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M.; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The Carina Nebula is one of thc youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for approx.30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum. consistent with kT approx.130 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a, approx. 10(exp 6)-year-old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitor of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular (eta)Car, are coeval. This result demonstrates that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star would be responsible for remnants of high energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  6. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M; Strohmayer, Tod; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The Carina Nebula is one of the youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for ~30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with kT ~128 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a ~1e6-year-old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitor of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular Eta Carinae, are coeval. This result suggests that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star may be responsible for remnants of high energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  7. The polarized water maser in Orion: A proto-planetary ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Z.; Vilas Boas, J. W. S.

    1994-10-01

    We present observations of the polarized water maser-flare source in Orion during the last years of its life, when we found low intensity but very high polarization. We also propose a geometrical model in which the maser source is formed in the central part of an edge-on protoplanetary ring. This model explains the linear variation of the maser velocity with position, detected in VLBI observations, as the projection of the Keplerian orbital velocity in the direction of the line of sight. It also explains the high brightness temperatures as the amplification of the radiation emitted by the back part of the ring by the front of it. Variability will be due to inhomogeneities in the ring, strong emission will occur when dense clumps of material are aligned in the observer's direction, the life-time of this strong emission will depend on the size of the clumps and on their relative velocities. Polarization properties are possibly due to both geometry and magnetic fields. From the observed velocity gradient and from saturation considerations we derive a lower limit of 15Msun_ for the central star, a diameter for the ring of 80AU and a width of 1.6AU.

  8. Evaporation of grain-surface species by shock waves in proto-planetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Aota, Takuhiro; Aikawa, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Recent ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) observations of young protostellar objects detected warm SO emission, which could be associated with a forming protostellar disk. In order to investigate if such warm gas can be produced by accretion shock onto the forming disk, we calculate the sputtering and thermal desorption of various grain surface species in one dimensional shock waves. We find that thermal desorption is much more efficient than the sputtering in the post-shock region. While H$_{2}$O can be thermally desorbed, if the accretion velocity is larger than 8 km s$^{-1}$ with the pre-shock gas number density of 10$^{9}$ cm$^{-3}$, SO is desorbed, if the accretion velocity $\\gtrsim$ 2 km s$^{-1}$ and $\\gtrsim$ 4km s$^{-1}$, with the pre-shock density of 10$^{9}$ cm$^{-3}$ and 10$^{8}$ cm$^{-3}$, respectively. We also find that the column density of hydrogen nuclei in warm post-shock gas is $N_{{\\rm warm}} \\sim 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$.

  9. SHORT DISSIPATION TIMES OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS: AN ARTIFACT OF SELECTION EFFECTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfalzner, Susanne; Steinhausen, Manuel; Menten, Karl, E-mail: spfalzner@mpifr.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of disks around young stars, a key parameter for understanding planet formation, is most readily determined in young stellar clusters where many relatively coeval stars are located in close proximity. Observational studies seem to show that the disk frequency decreases rapidly with cluster age with <10% of cluster stars retaining their disks for longer than 2-6 Myr. Given that at least half of all stars in the field seem to harbor one or more planets, this would imply extremely fast disk dispersal and rapid planet growth. Here we question the validity of this constraint by demonstrating that the short disk dissipation times inferred to date might have been heavily underestimated by selection effects. Critically, for ages >3 Myr only stars that originally populated the densest areas of very populous clusters, which are prone to disk erosion, are actually considered. This tiny sample may not be representative of the majority of stars. In fact, the higher disk fractions in co-moving groups indicate that it is likely that over 30% of all field stars retain their disks well beyond 10 Myr, leaving ample time for planet growth. Equally, our solar system, with a likely formation time >10 Myr, need no longer be an exception but in fact typical of planetary systems.

  10. Chemistry in Disks X: The Molecular Content of Proto-planetary Disks in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Guilloteau, S; Dutrey, A; Chapillon, E; Wakelam, V; Piétu, V; Di Folco, E; Semenov, D; Henning, Th

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We used the IRAM 30-m to perform a sensitive wideband survey of 30 protoplanetary disks in the Taurus Auriga region. We simultaneously observed HCO$^+$(3-2), HCN(3-2), C$_2$H(3-2), CS(5-4), and two transitions of SO. We combine the results with a previous survey which observed $^{13}$CO (2-1), CN(2-1), two o-H$_2$CO lines and one of SO. We use available interferometric data to derive excitation temperatures of CN and C$_2$H in several sources. We determine characteristic sizes of the gas disks and column densities of all molecules using a parametric power-law disk model. Our study is mostly sensitive to molecules at 200-400 au from the stars. We compare the derived column densities to the predictions of an extensive gas-grain chemical disk model, under conditions representative of T Tauri disks. This survey provides 20 new detections of HCO$^+$ in disks, 18 in HCN, 11 in C$_2$H, 8 in CS and 4 in SO. HCO$^+$ is detected in almost all sources, and its J=3-2 line is essentially optically thick, provid...

  11. Planet gaps in the dust layer of 3D proto-planetary disks: Observability with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Jean-François; Maddison, Sarah T; Ménard, François

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous known extrasolar planets, only a handful have been imaged directly so far, at large orbital radii and in rather evolved systems. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will have the capacity to observe these wide planetary systems at a younger age, thus bringing a better understanding of the planet formation process. Here we explore the ability of ALMA to detect the gaps carved by planets on wide orbits.

  12. Proto-Planetary Disk Chemistry Recorded by D-Rich Organic Radicals in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ~4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that orga...

  13. Detection of a Proto-planetary Clump in the Habitable Zone of GM Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. P.; Hu, S. C.-L.

    2014-04-01

    GM Cephei is an active T Tauri star in the young open cluster Trumpler 37, showing abrupt UX Orionis type of photometric variability. Its light curves exhibit frequent, sporadic brightening events, each of <0.5 mag and lasting for days, which must have been originated from unsteady circumstellar accretion. In addition, the star undergoes a brightness drop up to ~1 mag lasting for about a month, during which the star became bluer when fainter. Moreover, the brightness drops seem to have a recurrence timescale of about 300 days. It is proposed that the brightness drop arises from obscuration of the central star by an orbiting dust concentration, exemplifying disk inhomogeneity in transition between grain coagulation and planetesimal formation in a young circumstellar disk. GM Cep was found to show a few percent polarization in the optical wavelengths, and an enhanced level of polarization during the occultation phase.

  14. BIPOLAR DISORDER IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Jaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness, which may require life-long treatment. Patients will spend 3-5 times more days in the depressed episode then in the manic phase. Due to this variability in episodes, polypharmacy is used quite frequently in practice, though the evidence to do this remains quite limited. Many positive and negative outcomes can occur from this practice. Bipolar disorder is the 6th leading cause of disability in the developed world among those between the ages 15 and 44 years age groups. Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitter in the brain, and one of that strongly affects the person mood. Clozapine (clozaril, olanzapine (zyperexa, risperidone (Risperdal, and ziprasidone (zeldox and the clozapine may be helpful as mood stabilizer for people who do not respond to lithium and anticonvulsant.

  15. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  16. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  17. Bipolar Disorder and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Kesebir; Arzu Bayrak

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence studies and studies on causation relations have shown that the relation between psychiatric disorders and chronic physical diseases is neglected. For heterogeneous diseases an increasing number of susceptibility variants are being defined. Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder, breast and prostate cancer, coronary artery disease, Chron's disease, systemic lupus eritematosus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are mentioned together with epigenetic concept. In acrocentric zone of chr...

  18. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Geddes, John R.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in t...

  19. Polarization in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, D; Amato, E; Bucciantini, N

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of our present work is to provide, for the first time, a simple computational tool that can be used to compute the brightness, the spectral index, the polarization, the time variability and the spectrum of the non-thermal light (both synchrotron and inverse Compton, IC) associated with the plasma dynamics resulting from given relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) simulations. The proposed method is quite general, and can be applied to any scheme for RMHD and to all non-thermal emitting sources, e.g. pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and in particular to the Crab Nebula (CN) as in the present proceeding. Here only the linear optical and X-ray polarization that characterizes the PWNe synchrotron emission is analyzed in order to infer information on the inner bulk flow structure, to provide a direct investigation of the magnetic field configuration, in particular the presence and the strength of a poloidal component, and to understand the origin of some emitting features, such as the knot, whose origi...

  20. Prophylactic treatment in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eroğlu, Meliha Zengin; Özpoyraz, Nurgül; Tamam, Lut

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prophylactic treatment response and its relationship between clinical variables among the bipolar disorder patient group followed up in the Bipolar Disorder Unit of Psychiatry Department of Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine. Methods: One hundred patients, in euthymic period, diagnosed as bipolar disorder, were included in this study. “Affective Disorders Patient Registry Form” developed by our unit, SCID-I, Young Mani Rating Scale...

  1. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Daugherty, D; Roque-Urrea, T; Urrea-Roque, J; DE TROYER, J; Wirkus, S; Porter, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using ...

  2. The Genetics of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer H Barnett; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression. Twin studies have established that bipolar disorder is among the most heritable of medical disorders and efforts to identify specific susceptibility genes have intensified over the past two decades. The search for genes influencing bipolar disorder has been complicated by a paucity of animal models, limited understanding of pathogenesis, and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the syndrome. L...

  3. Mathematical Models of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Snyder, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Mason A. Porter

    2003-01-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model Bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about one percent of the United States adult population. We consider two nonlinear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individual...

  4. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  5. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  6. Fast, Low-ionization Emission Regions of the Planetary Nebula M2-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Steffen, W.

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2-04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N ii] λ6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s-1 is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80-160 km s-1 with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 ± 125 cm-3, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm-3, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur abundances are about three times higher than those determined from the dense shell. The results indicate that the features of the collimated jets are typical of fast, low-ionization emission regions.

  7. Fast, low-ionization emission regions of the planetary nebula M2-42

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A; Steffen, W

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2-04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N II] $\\lambda$6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s$^{-1}$ is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80-160 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 $\\pm$ 125 cm$^{-3}$, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm$^{-3}$, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  9. Processing NASA Earth Science Data on Nebula Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aijun; Pham, Long; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three applications were successfully migrated to Nebula, including S4PM, AIRS L1/L2 algorithms, and Giovanni MAPSS. Nebula has some advantages compared with local machines (e.g. performance, cost, scalability, bundling, etc.). Nebula still faces some challenges (e.g. stability, object storage, networking, etc.). Migrating applications to Nebula is feasible but time consuming. Lessons learned from our Nebula experience will benefit future Cloud Computing efforts at GES DISC.

  10. High-resolution CO observation of the carbon star CIT 6 revealing the spiral structure and a nascent bipolar outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyosun; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2015-01-01

    CIT 6 is a carbon star in the transitional phase from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebulae (pPN). Observational evidences of two point sources in the optical, circumstellar arc segments in an HC$_3$N line emission, and a bipolar nebula in near-infrared provide strong support for the presence of a binary companion. Hence, CIT 6 is very attractive for studying the role of companions in the AGB-pPN transition. We have carried out high resolution $^{12}$CO $J=2-1$ and $^{13}$CO $J=2-1$ observations of CIT 6 with the Submillimeter Array combined with the Submillimeter Telescope (single-dish) data. The $^{12}$CO channel maps reveal a spiral-shell pattern connecting the HC$_3$N segments in a continuous form, and an asymmetric outflow corresponding to the near-infrared bipolar nebula. Rotation of the $^{12}$CO channel peak position may be related to the inner spiral winding and/or the bipolar outflow. An eccentric orbit binary is suggested for the presences of an anisotropic mass loss to th...

  11. On the 3D structure of the nebula around \\eta-Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, Zaninetti

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric shape of the nebula around $\\eta$-Carinae (Homunculus) can be explained by a spherical expansion in a non-homogeneous medium. Two models are analyzed: an exponential and an inverse power law dependence for the density as a function of distance from the equatorial plane. The presence of a medium with variable density along the polar direction progressively converts the original spherical shell into a bipolar nebula. In the case of the nebula around $\\eta$-Carinae, we know the time elapsed since the great outburst in 1840. An exact match between observed radii and velocities can be obtained by fine tuning the parameters involved, such as initial radius, initial velocity and the typical scale that characterizes the gradient in density. The observed radius and velocity of the Homunculus as a function of the polar angle in spherical coordinates can be compared with the corresponding simulated data by introducing the efficiency in a single or multiple directions. Once the 3D spatial structure of the ...

  12. The post-common-envelope, binary central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-11

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David; Miszalski, Brent; Wesson, Roger; Corradi, Romano L M; Tyndall, Amy A

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the central star system of the planetary nebula Hen 2-11, selected for study because of its low-ionisation filaments and bipolar morphology - traits which have been strongly linked with central star binarity. Photometric monitoring with NTT-EFOSC2 reveals a highly irradiated, double-eclipsing, post-common-envelope system with a period of 0.609 d. Modelling of the lightcurve indicates that the nebular progenitor is extremely hot, while the secondary in the system is probably a K-type main sequence star. The chemical composition of the nebula is analysed, showing Hen 2-11 to be a medium-excitation non-Type I nebula. A simple photoionisation model is constructed determining abundance ratios of C/O and N/O which would be consistent with the common-envelope cutting short the AGB evolution of the nebular progenitor. The detection of a post-common-envelope binary system at the heart of Hen 2-11 further strengthens the link between binary progeny and the formation of axisymm...

  13. Abell 41: shaping of a planetary nebula by a binary central star?

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D; Santander-García, M; López, J A; Meaburn, J; Mitchell, D L; O'Brien, T J; Pollacco, D; Rubio-Díez, M M; Vaytet, N M H

    2010-01-01

    We present the first detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling of the planetary nebula Abell 41, which is known to contain the well-studied close-binary system MT Ser. This object represents an important test case in the study of the evolution of planetary nebulae with binary central stars as current evolutionary theories predict that the binary plane should be aligned perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the nebula. Deep narrowband imaging in the light of [NII], [OIII] and [SII], obtained using ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope, has been used to investigate the ionisation structure of Abell 41. Longslit observations of the H-alpha and [NII] emission were obtained using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer on the 2.1-m San Pedro M\\'artir Telescope. These spectra, combined with the narrowband imagery, were used to develop a spatio-kinematical model of [NII] emission from Abell 41. The best fitting model reveals Abell 41 to have a waisted, bipolar structure with an expansion velocity of ~40km\\s at...

  14. The Magnetic Field Effect on Planetary Nebulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. R. Khesali; K. Kokabi

    2006-01-01

    In our previous work on the 3-dimensional dynamical structure of planetary nebulae the effect of magnetic field was not considered. Recently Jordan et al. have directly detected magnetic fields in the central stars of some planetary nebulae. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the non-spherical shape of most planetary nebulae is caused by magnetic fields in AGB stars. In this study we focus on the role of initially weak toroidal magnetic fields embedded in a stellar wind in altering the shape of the PN. We found that magnetic pressure is probably influential on the observed shape of most PNe.

  15. A Minimum-Mass Extrasolar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, M J

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the minimum-mass solar nebula, we construct a surface-density profile using the orbits of the 26 precise-Doppler planets found in multiple planet systems: Sigma = 2200 grams per square centimeter (a/1 AU)^- beta, where a is the circumstellar radius, and beta = 2.0 plus or minus 0.5. The minimum-mass solar nebula (beta = 1.5) is consistent with this model, but the uniform-alpha accretion disk model (beta ~ 1) is not. In a nebula with beta > 2, the center of the disk is the likely cradle of planet formation.

  16. A Minimum-Mass Extrasolar Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchner, Marc J.

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the minimum-mass solar nebula, we construct a surface-density profile using the orbits of the 26 precise-Doppler planets found in multiple planet systems: Sigma = 2200 grams per square centimeter (a/1 AU)^- beta, where a is the circumstellar radius, and beta = 2.0 plus or minus 0.5. The minimum-mass solar nebula is consistent with this model, but the uniform-alpha accretion disk model is not. In a nebula with beta > 2, the center of the disk is the likely cradle of planet form...

  17. Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Thick Toroidal Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroida...

  18. The collimated outflows of the planetary nebula Hu1-2: proper motion and radial velocity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, L F; Guerrero, M A; Riera, A

    2011-01-01

    Hu\\,1-2 is a planetary nebula that contains an isolated knot located northwestern of the main nebula, which could be related to a collimated outflow. We present a subsarcsecond H$\\alpha$+[N\\,{\\sc ii}] image and a high-resolution, long-slit spectrum of Hu\\,1-2 that allow us to identify the southeastern counterpart of the northwestern knot and to establish their high velocity ($>$ 340 km\\,s$^{-1}$), collimated bipolar outflow nature. The detection of the northwestern knot in POSS red plates allows us to carry out a proper motion analysis by combining three POSS red plates and two narrow-band H$\\alpha$+[N\\,{\\sc ii}] CCD images, with a time baseline of $\\simeq$ 57 yr. A proper motion of 20 $\\pm$ 6\\,mas\\,yr$^{-1}$ along position angle 312$^{\\circ}$ $\\pm$ 15$^{\\circ}$, and a dynamical age of 1375$^{+590}$\\llap{$_{-320}$}\\,yr are obtained for the bipolar outflow. The measured proper motion and the spatio-kinematical properties of the bipolar outflow yield a lower limit of 2.7\\,kpc for the distance to Hu\\,1-2.

  19. Bipolar rings from jet-inflated bubbles around evolved binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We show that a fast wind that expands into a bipolar nebula composed of two opposite jet-inflated bubbles can form a pair of bipolar rings around giant stars. Our model assumes three mass loss episodes: a spherical slow and dense shell, two opposite jets, and a spherical fast wind. We use the FLASH hydrodynamical code in three-dimensions to simulate the flow, and obtain the structure of the nebula. We assume that the jets are launched from an accretion disk around a stellar companion to the giant star. The accretion disk is assumed to be formed when the primary giant star and the secondary star suffer a strong interaction accompanied by a rapid mass transfer process from the primary to the secondary star, mainly a main sequence star. Later in the evolution the primary star is assumed to shrink and blow a fast tenuous wind that interacts with the dense gas on the surface of the bipolar structure. We assume that the dense mass loss episode before the jets are launched is spherically symmetric. Our results might...

  20. From stellar nebula to planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Alibert, Yann; Cabral, Nahuel; Benz, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Solar and extrasolar comets and extrasolar planets are the subject of numerous studies in order to determine their chemical composition and internal structure. In the case of planetesimals, their compositions are important as they govern in part the composition of future planets. The present works aims at determining the chemical composition of icy planetesimals, believed to be similar to present day comets, formed in stellar systems of solar chemical composition. The main objective of this work is to provide valuable theoretical data on chemical composition for models of planetesimals and comets, and models of planet formation and evolution. We have developed a model that calculates the composition of ices formed during the cooling of the stellar nebula. Coupled with a model of refractory element formation, it allows us to determine the chemical composition and mass ratio of ices to rocks in icy planetesimals throughout in the protoplanetary disc. We provide relationships for ice line positions (for differen...

  1. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials.

  2. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  3. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  4. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  5. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  6. Circumstellar Nebulae in Young Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Y.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Supernovae descendent from massive stars explode in media that have been modified by their progenitors' mass loss and UV radiation. The supernova ejecta will first interact with the circumstellar material shed by the progenitors at late evolutionary stages, and then interact with the interstellar material. Circumstellar nebulae in supernova remnants can be diagnosed by their small expansion velocities and high [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratios. The presence of circumstellar nebulae appears ubiquitous a...

  7. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this...

  8. Observations of planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Köppen, J; Acker, A; Stenholm, B

    2000-01-01

    High quality spectrophotometric observations of 30 Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge have been made. Accurate reddenings, plasma parameters, and abundances of He,O,N,S,Ar,Cl are derived. We find the abundances of O,S,Ar in the Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge to be comparable with the abundances of the Planetary Nebulae in the Disk, high abundances being maybe slightly more frequent in the Bulge. The distribution of the N/O ratio does not present in the Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulae the extension to high values that it presents in the Disk Planetary Nebulae. We interpret this as a signature of the greater age of Bulge Planetary Nebulae. We thus find the Bulge Planetary Nebulae to be an old population, slightly more metal-rich than the Disk Planetary Nebulae. The population of the Bulge Planetary Nebulae shows hence the same characteristics than the Bulge stellar population.

  9. Is the central binary system of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428 a Type Ia supernova progenitor?

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    We account for recent observations of the binary system at the center of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428 by the presence of one degenerate core with a low-mass main sequence companion, rather than by two degenerate objects. We argue that the variability of the He II 5412A spectral line can be accounted for by a time-varying broad absorption line from the central star on top of which there is a time-varying narrow emission line from the compact nebula. The two (almost) symmetric broad minima in the light curve are attributed to tidal distortion caused by a companion. We find problems in the recently proposed and competing explanation of two equal-mass degenerate objects that supposedly will eventually merge, possibly leading to a SN Ia. We conclude that Henize 2-428 cannot be claimed yet to support the double-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae.

  10. MHD Disk Winds and Planetary Nebulae I. Existence and Applicability

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A; Blackman, E G

    2002-01-01

    Winds from accretion disks have been proposed as the driving source for precessing jets and extreme bipolar morphologies in Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and proto-PNe (pPNe). In this paper we address the applicability of self-consistent MHD disk wind models to PNe and pPNe. We first review the basic features of magneto-centrifugal launching disk wind models adapting results from previously published non-self similar calculations of Peltier & Pudritz (1992). We then estimate the relevant conditions whichshould occur in PNe and pPNe accretion disks that form via binary interactions. Finally, examining conditions on dimensionless parameters needed for magneto-centrifugal disk wind models we show that such winds can recover the observed momentum and energy input rates for PNe and pPNe. High accretion rates are required in thelatter case (M_a approx 10^{-4} \\mdot) and we find that the observed total energy and momentum in pPNe can be recovered with disk wind models using existing disk formation scenarios

  11. VLT Images the Horsehead Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Summary A new, high-resolution colour image of one of the most photographed celestial objects, the famous "Horsehead Nebula" (IC 434) in Orion, has been produced from data stored in the VLT Science Archive. The original CCD frames were obtained in February 2000 with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal (Chile). The comparatively large field-of-view of the FORS2 camera is optimally suited to show this extended object and its immediate surroundings in impressive detail. PR Photo 02a/02 : View of the full field around the Horsehead Nebula. PR Photo 02b/02 : Enlargement of a smaller area around the Horse's "mouth" A spectacular object ESO PR Photo 02a/02 ESO PR Photo 02a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 485 pix - 63k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 970 pix - 896k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1951 x 2366 pix - 4.7M] ESO PR Photo 02b/02 ESO PR Photo 02b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 501 pix - 91k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1002 pix - 888k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1139 x 1427 pix - 1.9M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/02 is a reproduction of a composite colour image of the Horsehead Nebula and its immediate surroundings. It is based on three exposures in the visual part of the spectrum with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at Paranal. PR Photo 02b/02 is an enlargement of a smaller area. Technical information about these photos is available below. PR Photo 02a/02 shows the famous "Horsehead Nebula" , which is situated in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Its official name is Barnard 33 and it is a dust protrusion in the southern region of the dense dust cloud Lynds 1630 , on the edge of the HII region IC 434 . The distance to the region is about 1400 light-years (430 pc). This beautiful colour image was produced from three images obtained with the multi-mode FORS2 instrument at the second VLT Unit Telescope ( KUEYEN ), some months after it had "First Light", cf. PR 17/99. The image files were extracted from the VLT Science Archive Facility and the

  12. Geometry and velocity structure of HD 44179's bipolar jet

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Joshua D; Aufdenberg, Jason P; Bjorkman, J E; Dahlstrom, Julie A; Hobbs, L M; York, Donald G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a set of 33 optical spectra, which were acquired with the ARCES echelle spectrograph (R = 38,000) on the 3.5-m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. We examine the H{\\alpha} profile in each of these observations in order to determine the geometry and velocity structure of the previously discovered bipolar jet, which originates from the secondary star of HD 44179 located at the centre of the Red Rectangle nebula. Using a 3D geometric model we are able to determine the orbital coverage during which the jet occults the primary star. During the occultation, part of the H{\\alpha} line profile appears in absorption. The velocity structure of the jet was determined by modelling the absorption line profile using the Sobolev approximation for each orbital phase during which we have observations. The results indicate the presence of a wide angle jet, likely responsible for observed biconical structure of the outer nebula. Furthermore, we were able to determine a likely velocity structure a...

  13. Geometry and velocity structure of HD 44179's bipolar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joshua D.; Witt, Adolf N.; Aufdenberg, Jason P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Dahlstrom, Julie A.; Hobbs, L. M.; York, Donald G.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we analyse a set of 33 optical spectra that were acquired with the Astrophysical Research Consortium Echelle Spectrograph (R = 38 000) on the 3.5-m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. We examine the Hα profile in each of these observations in order to determine the geometry and velocity structure of the previously discovered bipolar jet, which originates from the secondary star of HD 44179 located at the centre of the Red Rectangle nebula. Using a 3D geometric model we are able to determine the orbital coverage during which the jet occults the primary star. During the occultation, part of the Hα line profile appears in absorption. The velocity structure of the jet was determined by modelling the absorption line profile using the Sobolev approximation for each orbital phase during which we have observations. The results indicate the presence of a wide angle jet, likely responsible for observed biconical structure of the outer nebula. Furthermore, we were able to determine a likely velocity structure and rule out several others. We find that the jet is composed of low-density, high-velocity central region and a higher density, lower velocity conical shell.

  14. Double Engine for a Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of a field of stars towards the constellation of Carina (the Keel). This striking view is ablaze with a flurry of stars of all colours and brightnesses, some of which are seen against a backdrop of clouds of dust and gas. One unusual star in the middle, HD 87643, has been extensively studied with several ESO telescopes, including the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Surrounded by a complex, extended nebula that is the result of previous violent ejections, the star has been shown to have a companion. Interactions in this double system, surrounded by a dusty disc, may be the engine fuelling the star's remarkable nebula. The new image, showing a very rich field of stars towards the Carina arm of the Milky Way, is centred on the star HD 87643, a member of the exotic class of B[e] stars [1]. It is part of a set of observations that provide astronomers with the best ever picture of a B[e] star. The image was obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the 2400-metre-high La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image shows beautifully the extended nebula of gas and dust that reflects the light from the star. The central star's wind appears to have shaped the nebula, leaving bright, ragged tendrils of gas and dust. A careful investigation of these features seems to indicate that there are regular ejections of matter from the star every 15 to 50 years. A team of astronomers, led by Florentin Millour, has studied the star HD 87643 in great detail, using several of ESO's telescopes. Apart from the WFI, the team also used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal. At the VLT, the astronomers used the NACO adaptive optics instrument, allowing them to obtain an image of the star free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. To probe the object further, the team then obtained an image with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The sheer range of this set of observations

  15. A deep kinematic survey of planetary nebulae in the Andromeda galaxy using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrett, H. R.; Merrifield, M. R.; Douglas, N. G.; Kuijken, K.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Freeman, K. C.; Gerhard, O.; Coccato, L.; Carter, D.; Evans, N. W.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Halliday, C.; Bridges, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a catalogue of positions, magnitudes and velocities for 3300 emission-line objects found by the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph in a survey of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. Of these objects, 2615 are found likely to be planetary nebulae (PNe) associated with M31. The survey area covers the who

  16. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  17. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager

    2015-06-01

    the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  18. The Crab Nebula flaring activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, G., E-mail: giovanni.montani@frascati.enea.it [ENEA – C.R, UTFUS-MAG, via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, p.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Bernardini, M.G. [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2014-12-12

    The discovery made by AGILE and Fermi of a short time scale flaring activity in the gamma-ray energy emission of the Crab Nebula is a puzzling and unexpected feature, challenging particle acceleration theory. In the present work we propose the shock-induced magnetic reconnection as a viable mechanism to explain the Crab flares. We postulate that the emitting region is located at ∼10{sup 15} cm from the central pulsar, well inside the termination shock, which is exactly the emitting region size as estimated by the overall duration of the phenomenon ∼1 day. We find that this location corresponds to the radial distance at which the shock-induced magnetic reconnection process is able to accelerate the electrons up to a Lorentz factor ∼10{sup 9}, as required by the spectral fit of the observed Crab flare spectrum. The main merit of the present analysis is to highlight the relation between the observational constraints to the flare emission and the radius at which the reconnection can trigger the required Lorentz factor. We also discuss different scenarios that can induce the reconnection. We conclude that the existence of a plasma instability affecting the wind itself as the Weibel instability is the privileged scenario in our framework.

  19. Unveiling shocks in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Medina, J J; Luridiana, V; Miranda, L F; Riera, A; Velázquez, P F

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of a shock wave into a medium is expected to heat the material beyond the shock, producing noticeable effects in intensity line ratios such as [O III]/Halpha. To investigate the occurrence of shocks in planetary nebulae (PNe), we have used all narrowband [O III] and Halpha images of PNe available in the HST archive to build their [O III]/Halpha ratio maps and to search for regions where this ratio is enhanced. Regions with enhanced [O III]/Halpha emission ratio can be ascribed to two different types of morphological structures: bow-shock structures produced by fast collimated outflows and thin skins enveloping expanding nebular shells. Both collimated outflows and expanding shells are therefore confirmed to generate shocks in PNe. We also find regions with depressed values of the [O III]/Halpha ratio which are found mostly around density bounded PNe, where the local contribution of [N II] emission into the F656N Halpha filter cannot be neglected.

  20. Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christina L; Dinerstein, Harriet L

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625um for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the VLT. Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionisation correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10% or better for all targets in our sample. The majority of the sample is found to be sub-solar in [Zn/H]. [O/Zn] in half of the sample is found to be consistent with Solar within uncertainties, whereas the remaining half are enhanced in [O/Zn]. [Zn/H] and [O/Zn] as functions of Galactocentric distance have been investigated and there is little evidence to support a trend in either case.

  1. Hydroxyl Emission in the Westbrook Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Angelica; Araya, Esteban; Ghosh, Tapasi; Arce, Hector G.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Salter, Christopher J.; Minchin, Robert F.; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Kurtz, Stan; Hofner, Peter; Olmi, Luca

    2016-06-01

    CRL 618, also known as the Westbrook Nebula, is a carbon-rich pre-planetary nebula. Hydroxyl (OH) transitions are typically not detected in carbon-rich late-type stellar objects, however observations conducted with the 305m Arecibo Telescope in 2008 resulted in the detection of 4765 MHz OH emission in CRL 618. We present results of observations carried out a few months after the original detection that confirm the line. This is the first detection of 4765 MHz OH emission (most likely a maser) in a pre-planetary nebula. Follow up observations conducted in 2015 resulted in non-detection of the 4765 MHz OH transition. This behavior is consistent with the high level of variability of excited OH lines that have been detected toward a handful of other pre-planetary nebulae. Our work supports that excited OH masers are short-lived during the pre-planetary nebula phase. We also conducted a search for other OH transitions from 1612 MHz to 8611 MHz with the Arecibo Telescope; we report no other detections at rms levels of ~5 mJy.This work has made use of the computational facilities donated by Frank Rodeffer to the WIU Astrophysics Research Laboratory. We also acknowledge support from M. & C. Wong RISE scholarships and a grant from the WIU College of Arts and Sciences.

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia Alves Moreira; Pedro Afonso

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder, characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression is associated with sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm disruption. These changes have significant impact on quality of life and in the disease prognosis. Aims: Review of the main sleep disturbances observed in the bipolar disorder, their clinical impact and the hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Methods: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature in English through rese...

  3. : Genetic heterogeneity of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Flavie; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Etain, Bruno; Jamain, Stéphane; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Albus, Margot; Mckeon, Patrick; Roche, Siobhan; Blackwood, Douglas; Muir, Walter,; Henry, Chantal; Malafosse, Alain; Preisig, Martin; Ferrero, François

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has a genetic component, but the mode of inheritance remains unclear. A previous genome scan conducted in 70 European families led to detect eight regions linked to bipolar disease. Here, we present an investigation of whether the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder corresponds to genetic heterogeneity in these regions using additional markers and an extended sample of families. The MLS statistic was used for linkage analyses. The predivided sample test and the maximum l...

  4. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Raymond W. Lam

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed ...

  5. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  6. Monitoring the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, Bo

    The VYSOS (Variable Young Stars Optical Survey) project has at its disposal five small telescopes: a 5-inch and a 20-inch robotic optical imaging telescope in Hawaii funded by the NSF, and a 6-inch robotic optical imaging telescope, a 32-inch robotic infrared imaging telescope, and a 60-inch optical spectroscopic telescope in Chile, funded and operated from Germany. Through an agreement between the leaders of the two sites (B. Reipurth and R. Chini), it has been decided to devote a significant fraction of time on these facilities to a large Key Project, conducting a massive monitoring survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster. The vast data streams are being reduced through automated customized pipelines. The applicant seeks funding to employ a postdoc and an undergraduate assistant to work at the University of Hawaii and collaborate on the analysis of the data. Virtually all young stars are variable, with a wide range of amplitudes and characteristic timescales. This is mainly due to accretion shocks as material from circumstellar disks fall onto the stars along magnetic funnel flows, but also giant star spots, magnetic flares, occultations by orbiting dust condensations, and eclipses by companions can modulate the light from the nascent star. It is increasingly recognized that the rather static view of pre-main sequence evolution that has prevailed for many years is misleading, and that time-dependent phenomena may hold the key to an understanding of the way young stars grow and their circumstellar environments evolve. The VYSOS project is designed to bring sophisticated modern techniques to bear on the long neglected problem of variability in young solar type stars. To interpret the observations they will be compared to sophisticated MHD models of circumstellar disks around young stars. The Orion Nebula Cluster is the nearest rich region of star formation, and numerous, albeit heterogeneous, studies exist of the cluster members. The present study will provide the first

  7. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  8. The nearby AGB star L2 Puppis: the birth of a planetary nebula ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P; Lagadec, E

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics observations in the infrared (VLT/NACO, Kervella et al. 2014) and visible (VLT/SPHERE, Kervella et al. 2015) domains revealed that the nearby AGB star L2 Pup (d=64 pc) is surrounded by a dust disk seen almost edge-on. Thermal emission from a large dust "loop" is detected at 4 microns up to more than 10 AU from the star. We also detect a secondary source at a separation of 32 mas, whose nature is uncertain. L2 Pup is currently a relatively "young" AGB star, so we may witness the formation of a planetary nebula. The mechanism that breaks the spherical symmetry of mass loss is currently uncertain, but we propose that the dust disk and companion are key elements in the shaping of the bipolar structure. L2 Pup emerges as an important system to test this hypothesis.

  9. Simultaneous Production of Disk and Lobes: A Single-Wind MHD Model for the Eta Carinae Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, S

    2004-01-01

    The luminous blue variable Eta Carinae is surrounded by a complex and highly structured nebula of ejected material. The best-studied and axisymmetric components of this outflow consist of bipolar lobes (the ``homunculus'') and an equatorial ``skirt.'' Recent proper motion measurements suggest that the skirt was ejected at the same time as the lobes, contrary to the assumptions of all current theoretical models for the formation of the nebula (which use the skirt to collimate stellar winds into lobes). We present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stellar wind model that produces an outflowing disk and bipolar lobes in a single, steady-state wind. The basic model consists of a wind from a rotating star with a rotation-axis-aligned dipole magnetic field. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field, generated by stellar rotation, compresses the wind toward the equator and also toward the rotation axis, simultaneously producing an outflowing disk and jet. We use numerical MHD simulations to study the wind for various ...

  10. Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Li, Baoman; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-06-01

    Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (that controls metabolism of arachidonic acid) or through Ca(2+) homeostatic and signalling pathways. Sometimes anti-depressant and anti-bipolar drugs exert opposite effects, and some effects on gene expression in drug treated animals are opposite in neurones vs. astrocytes. Changes in the intracellular pH induced by anti-bipolar drugs affect uptake of myo-inositol and thereby signalling via inositoltrisphosphate (InsP3), this being in accord with one of the main theories of mechanism of action for these drugs. PMID:27015045

  11. Particle Transport in Young Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiaping

    2012-01-01

    The model for pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) as the result of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) downstream flow from a shocked, relativistic pulsar wind has been successful in reproducing many features of the nebulae observed close to the central pulsars. However, observations of well-studied young nebulae like the Crab Nebula, 3C 58, and G21.5--0.9 do not show the toroidal magnetic field on a larger scale that might be expected in the MHD flow model; in addition, the radial variation of spectral index due to synchrotron losses is smoother than expected in the MHD flow model. We find that pure diffusion models can reproduce the basic data on nebular size and spectral index variation for the Crab, 3C 58, and G21.5--0.9. Most of our models use an energy independent diffusion coefficient; power law variations of the coefficient with energy are degenerate with variation in the input particle energy distribution index in the steady state, reflecting boundary case. Energy dependent diffusion is a possible reason for the sm...

  12. Argon and neon in Galactic nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Lester, Dan F.; Rank, David M.; Witteborn, F. C.; Wooden, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    KAO observations of the 6.98 micron line of (Ar II), and KAO and ground-based observations of the 8.99 micron line of (Ar III) and the 12.8 micron line of (Ne II) are presented for a number of Galactic H II regions and planetary nebulae.

  13. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beckman, J., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jeb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  14. Planetary Nebulae as Mass Tracers in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary nebula are useful kinematic tracers of the stars in all galaxy types. I review recent observationally-driven developments in the study of galaxy mass profiles. These have yielded surprising results on spiral galaxy disk masses and elliptical galaxy halo masses. A key remaining question is the coupling between PNe and the underlying stellar populations.

  15. Molecular line mapping of (young) planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarrabal, Valentín

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, I will review recent results obtained from high-resolution observations of molecular emission of planetary nebulae in the millimeter and submillimeter waves, stressing the easy interpretation of the data and the great amount of quantitative results obtained from them. Radio interferometers have been shown to be very efficient in the observation of our objects and, particularly since the arrival of ALMA, the amount of results is becoming impressive. We will deal mainly with young planetary nebulae or protoplanetary nebulae, since, as we will see, molecular lines tend to be weak in evolved objects because of photodissociation. In relatively young nebulae, the molecular gas represents most of the nebular material and can be well observed in line emission in mm- and submm-waves. Those observations have yielded many quantitative and accurate results on the structure, dynamics, and physical conditions of this largely dominant nebular component. In more evolved sources, we can follow the evolution of the chemical composition, although the data become rare.

  16. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed; this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidence is presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred in the progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. These progenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 solar masses. This is deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae. Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high mass progenitors which showed oxygen de...

  17. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa; Rodrigo Barreto Huguet; Fernando Silva Neves; Moisés Evandro Bauer; Antônio Lúcio Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. A...

  18. Planetary Nebula Abundances and Morphology: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, L; Cunha, K; Manchado, A; Villaver, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a homogeneous study of abundances in a sample of 79 northern galactic planetary nebulae whose morphological classes have been uniformly determined. Ionic abundances and plasma diagnostics were derived from selected optical line strengths in the literature, and elemental abundances were estimated with the Ionization Correction Factor developed by Kingsbourgh & Barlow (1994). We compare the elemental abundances to the final yields obtained from stellar evolution models of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and we confirm that most Bipolar planetary nebulae have high nitrogen and helium abundance, and are the likely progeny of stars with main-sequence mass larger than 3 solar masses. We derive =0.27, and discuss the implication of such a high ratio in connection with the solar neon abundance. We determine the galactic gradients of oxygen and neon, and found Delta log (O/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc$ and Delta log (Ne/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc. These flat PN gradients do not reconcile with galact...

  19. The new nebula in LDN 1415 - A cry from the cradle of a low-luminosity source

    CERN Document Server

    Stecklum, B; Meusinger, H

    2006-01-01

    A survey for candidate Herbig-Haro objects was performed to search for evidence of star formation in Galactic dark clouds. For this aim true colour images were created from blue, red, and infrared DSS2 plates and inspected. Follow-up I-band, Halpha, and [SII] CCD imaging and long-slit spectroscopy using the Tautenburg 2-m telescope was carried out to verify candidate objects. In the case of LDN 1415, the presence of a Herbig-Haro flow could be revealed which is henceforth named HH 892. In addition, an arcuate nebula was found which is barely seen on the DSS2 infrared plate (epoch 1996) and not detected in archival Kiso Schmidt data (epoch 2001). Thus, this nebula must have brightened by about 3.8mag in recent years.The nebula is associated with IRAS 04376+5413. The 2MASS images show a red counterpart of the IRAS source, designated as L1415-IRS. Its morphology resembles that of a bipolar young object. The luminosity of this source integrated from 0.9micron to 60micron in the low state amounts to 0.13L_sun for ...

  20. High-velocity collimated outflows in planetary nebulae NGC 6337, He 2-186, and K 4-47

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, R L M; Villaver, E; Mampaso, A; Perinotto, M; Schwarz, H E; Zanin, C; Corradi, Romano L.M.; Goncalves, Denise R.; Villaver, Eva; Mampaso, Antonio; Perinotto, Mario; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Zanin, Caterina

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained narrow-band images and high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC 6337, He 2-186, and K 4-47, with the aim of investigating the relation between their main morphological components and several low-ionization features present in these nebulae. The data suggest that NGC 6337 is a bipolar PN seen almost pole on, with polar velocities higher than 200 km/s. The bright inner ring of the nebula is interpreted to be the "equatorial" density enhancement. It contains a number of low-ionization knots and outward tails that we ascribe to dynamical instabilities leading to fragmentation of the ring or transient density enhancements due to the interaction of the ionization front with previous density fluctuations in the ISM. The lobes show a pronounced point-symmetric morphology and two peculiar low-ionization filaments whose nature remains unclear. The most notable characteristic of He 2-186 is the presence of two high-velocity (higher than 135 km/s) knots from which an S-shaped lane of emission...

  1. On the possible wind nebula of magnetar Swift J1834.9–0846: a magnetism-powered synchrotron nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the magnetar Swift J1834.9–0846 has been reported to have a possible wind nebula. It is shown that both the magnetar and its wind nebula are understandable in the wind braking scenario. The magnetar's rotational energy loss rate is not enough to power the particle luminosity. The required particle luminosity should be about 1036 erg s‑1 to 1038 erg s‑1. It is obtained in three different approaches: considering wind braking of Swift J1834.9–0846 the spectral and spatial observations of the wind nebula; and an empirical upper bound on wind nebula X-ray luminosity. The nebula magnetic field is about 10‑4 G. The possible wind nebula of Swift J1834.9–0846 should be a magnetar wind nebula. It is powered by the magnetic energy released from the magnetar.

  2. On the possible wind nebula of magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846: a magnetism-powered synchrotron nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, H

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the magnetar Swift J1834.9$-$0846 is reported to have a possible wind nebula. It is shown that both the magnetar and its wind nebula are understandable in the wind braking scenario. The magnetar's rotational energy loss rate is not enough. The required particle luminosity should be about $10^{36} \\,\\rm erg \\,s^{-1}$ to $10^{38} \\,\\rm erg \\,s^{-1}$. It is obtained in three different approaches: considering wind braking of Swift J1834.9$-$0846; the spectral and spatial observations of the wind nebula; and an empirical upper bound on wind nebula X-ray luminosity. The nebula magnetic field is be about $10^{-4} \\,\\rm G$. The possible wind nebula of Swift J1834.9$-$0846 should be a magnetar wind nebula. It is powered by the magnetic energy release of the magnetar.

  3. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  4. Social support and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Mendonça Studart; Severino Bezerra Filho; Ana Beatriz Didier Studart; Amanda Galvão-de Almeida; Ângela Miranda-Scippa

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the ...

  5. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  6. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup.

  7. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2012-11-01

    Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup. PMID:23325981

  8. Refractory bipolar disorder and neuroprogression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Sabrina C; Passos, Ives C; Lowri, Caroline; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2016-10-01

    Immune activation and failure of physiologic compensatory mechanisms over time have been implicated in the pathophysiology of illness progression in bipolar disorder. Recent evidence suggests that such changes are important contributors to neuroprogression and may mediate the cross-sensitization of episode recurrence, trauma exposure and substance use. The present review aims to discuss the potential factors related to bipolar disorder refractoriness and neuroprogression. In addition, we will discuss the possible impacts of early therapeutic interventions as well as the alternative approaches in late stages of the disorder. PMID:26368941

  9. A BUTTERFLY-SHAPED 'PAPILLON' NEBULA YIELDS SECRETS OF MASSIVE STAR BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope view of a turbulent cauldron of starbirth, called N159, taking place 170,000 light-years away in our satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Torrential stellar winds from hot newborn massive stars within the nebula sculpt ridges, arcs, and filaments in the vast cloud, which is over 150 light-years across. A rare type of compact ionized 'blob' is resolved for the first time to be a butterfly-shaped or 'Papillon' (French for 'butterfly') nebula, buried in the center of the maelstrom of glowing gases and dark dust. The unprecedented details of the structure of the Papillon, itself less than 2 light-years in size (about 2 arcseconds in the sky), are seen in the inset. A possible explanation of this bipolar shape is the outflow of gas from massive stars (over 10 times the mass of our sun) hidden in the central absorption zone. Such stars are so hot that their radiation pressure halts the infall of gas and directs it away from the stars in two opposite directions. Presumably, a dense equatorial disk formed by matter still trying to fall in onto the stars focuses the outstreaming matter into the bipolar directions. This observation is part of a search for young massive stars in the LMC. Rare are the cases where we can see massive stars so early after their birth. The red in this true-color image is from the emission of hydrogen and the yellow from high excitation ionized oxygen. The picture was taken on September 5, 1998 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The Hubble observations of the Papillon nebula were conducted by the European astronomers Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France) and co-investigators Michael Rosa (Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, European Southern Observatory, Germany), Vassilis Charmandaris (Paris Observatory), Lise Deharveng (Marseille Observatory, France), and Hans Zinnecker (Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam, Germany). Their work is submitted for publication in the European

  10. Search for HH objects and emission stars in star formation regions. IV. New HH flows and HH objects related with cometary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the observations in the environments of the five cometary nebulae: MacC H12, MacC sH15, GM 1-14, RNO 33, Pars 17, are presented. This search was performed in the frames of the continuing survey of the new HH-objects in the star formation regions. Nine previously unknown HH-objects were found. Nearly all these objects belong to directed outflows, the sources of which are with high probability the central stars of the listed above nebulae. In the cases of MacC H12 and GM 1-14 the outflows have distinct bipolar structure. The position of the sources on J-H/H-K diagram is discussed

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION CO OBSERVATION OF THE CARBON STAR CIT 6 REVEALING THE SPIRAL STRUCTURE AND A NASCENT BIPOLAR OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie, E-mail: hkim@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    CIT 6 is a carbon star in the transitional phase from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebulae (pPNs). Observational evidences of two point sources in the optical, circumstellar arc segments in an HC{sub 3}N line emission, and a bipolar nebula in near-infrared provide strong support for the presence of a binary companion. Hence, CIT 6 is very attractive for studying the role of companions in the AGB–pPN transition. We have carried out high-resolution {sup 12}CO J = 2–1 and {sup 13}CO J = 2–1 observations of CIT 6 with the Submillimeter Array combined with the Submillimeter Telescope (single-dish) data. The {sup 12}CO channel maps reveal a spiral-shell pattern connecting the HC{sub 3}N segments in a continuous form and an asymmetric outflow corresponding to the near-infrared bipolar nebula. Rotation of the {sup 12}CO channel peak position may be related to the inner spiral winding and/or the bipolar outflow. An eccentric orbit binary is suggested for the presence of an anisotropic mass loss to the west and a double spiral pattern. The lack of interarm emission to the west may indicate a feature corresponding to the periastron passage of a highly eccentric orbit of the binary. Spatially averaged radial and spectral profiles of {sup 12}CO J = 2–1 and {sup 13}CO J = 2–1 are compared with simple spherical radiative transfer models, suggesting a change of {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO abundance ratio from ∼30 to ∼50 inward in the CSE of CIT 6. The millimeter continuum emission is decomposed into extended dust thermal emission (spectral index ∼ −2.4) and compact emission from radio photosphere (spectral index ∼ −2.0)

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Alves Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder, characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression is associated with sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm disruption. These changes have significant impact on quality of life and in the disease prognosis. Aims: Review of the main sleep disturbances observed in the bipolar disorder, their clinical impact and the hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Methods: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature in English through research in PubMed with the keywords “sleep disturbance”, “bipolar disorder”, “polysomnography”. Results and Conclusions: Complaints about sleep pattern changes may occur during any phase of the disease. These in clude frequent night-time awakenings, poor sleep quality, reduction of the total sleeping time and decreased latency and increased density of REM sleep. The treatment of the sleep disturbances observed in bipolar disorder should be considered a priority, since it prevents symptoms recurrence and facilitate the socio-professional integration, thus providing greater success in patient’s rehabilitation and quality of life.

  13. SUTURELESS THYROIDECTOMY WITH BIPOLAR DIATHERMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is one of the most vascular organs in the body and surgical resection mandates meticulous surgical technique and haemostasis. The rate of complications of thyroid surgeries were very high earlier but with the advent of ligasure, harmonic scalpel and bipolar surgical diathermy complications have reduced. In this study, we have used bipolar surgical diathermy. MATERIALS 116 patients with thyroid swelling attending surgical OPD in Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre during the period of 2011-2015 were included in the study. Proper preoperative workup was done and sutureless thyroidectomy surgeries were done using bipolar surgical diathermy. Patients were reviewed for any complications following thyroidectomy like haemorrhage, hypocalcaemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. RESULTS Out of 116 patients who underwent sutureless thyroidectomy none of them had any primary, secondary or reactionary haemorrhage, one patient who underwent total thyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma had transient hypocalcaemia. CONCLUSION Sutureless thyroidectomy is a very good surgical practice with bipolar surgical diathermy and it permits low postoperative complications and cost effectiveness.

  14. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  15. [Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Gabriele; Schaffer, Markus; Winklbaur, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. To date, specific cognitive domains have been found which characterize bipolar affective disorders. However, there is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of the disorder, including the remission phase, in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions (e.g. cognitive flexibility and problem solving). Although their cognitive deficits are comparable the deficits in patients with schizophrenia are more severe than those with bipolar disorder. Recent brain imaging findings indicate structural and functional abnormalities in the cortical and limbic networks of the brain in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls. Mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains (e.g. executive functions and word fluency) and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning. PMID:17640495

  16. Social support and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mendonça Studart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the keywords “social support” or “social networks” and “mood disorders” or “bipolar disorder” or “affective disorder,” with no defined timeline.Results Only 13 studies concerning the topic of social support and BD were found in the search for related articles. Generally speaking, the results show low rates of social support for BD patients.Discussion Despite the growing interest in the overall functioning of patients with bipolar disorder, studies on social support are still rare. Besides, the existing studies on the subject use different methodologies, making it difficult to establish data comparisons.

  17. The new nebula in LDN 1415 - A cry from the cradle of a low-luminosity source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, B.; Melnikov, S. Y.; Meusinger, H.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:A survey for candidate Herbig-Haro objects was performed to search for evidence of star formation in Galactic dark clouds Methods: For this aim true colour images were created from blue, red, and infrared DSS2 plates and inspected. Follow-up I-band, Hα, and [S ii] CCD imaging as well as long-slit spectroscopy using the Tautenburg 2-m telescope was carried out to verify candidate objects. Results: In the case of LDN 1415, the presence of a Herbig-Haro flow could be revealed which is henceforth named HH 892. In addition, an arcuate nebula was found which is barely seen on the DSS2 infrared plate (epoch 1996) and not detected in archival Kiso Schmidt data (epoch 2001). Thus, this nebula must have brightened by about 3.8 mag in recent years. Conclusions: .The nebula is associated with IRAS 04376+5413. The 2MASS images show a red counterpart of the IRAS source, designated as L1415-IRS. Its morphology resembles that of a bipolar young object. The luminosity of this source integrated from 0.9 μm to 60 μm in the low state amounts to 0.13 Lsun for an assumed distance of 170 pc. Thus it seems to be a young very-low mass star or it might even be of substellar mass. The current brightness increase of the nebula is caused by a FUor- or EXor-like outburst as indicated by the presence of a P Cygni profile of the Hα line. L1415-IRS is by far the least luminous member of the sparse sample of FUor and EXor objects. Based on observations performed at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg.

  18. The kinematics of the quadrupolar nebula M 1-75 and the identification of its central star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Hernandez, O.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Jones, D.; Giammanco, C.; Beckman, J. E.; Carignan, C.; Fathi, K.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.; Jiménez-Luján, F.; Benn, C. R.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The link between how bipolar planetary nebulae are shaped and their central stars is still poorly understood. Aims: This paper investigates the kinematics and shaping of the multipolar nebula M 1-75, and briefly discusses the location and nature of its central star. Methods: Fabry-Perot data from GHαFAS on the WHT that samples the Doppler shift of the [Nii] 658.3 nm line are used to study the dynamics of the nebula by means of a detailed 3D spatio-kinematical model. Multi-wavelength images and spectra from the WFC and IDS on the INT, as well as from ACAM on the WHT, allowed us to constrain the parameters of the central star. Results: The two pairs of lobes, angularly separated by ~22°, were ejected simultaneously approx. ~3500-5000 years ago, at the adopted distance range from 3.5 to 5.0 kpc. The larger lobes show a slight degree of point symmetry. The formation of the nebula could be explained by wind interaction in a system consisting of a post-AGB star surrounded by a disc warped by radiative instabilities. This requires the system to be a close binary or a single star that engulfed a planet as it died. On the other hand, we present broad- and narrow-band images and a low S/N optical spectrum of the highly-reddened, previously unnoticed star that is likely the nebular progenitor. Its estimated V-I colour allows us to derive a rough estimate of the parameters and nature of the central star. Based on observations made with the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope and the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, both operated on the island of la Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  19. Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Joana M

    2008-01-01

    M16 (the Eagle Nebula) is a striking star forming region, with a complex morphology of gas and dust sculpted by the massive stars in NGC 6611. Detailed studies of the famous ``elephant trunks'' dramatically increased our understanding of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. A rich young stellar population (2 - 3 Myr) has been identified, from massive O-stars down to substellar masses. Deep into the remnant molecular material, embedded protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and maser sources bear evidence of ongoing star formation in the nebula, possibly triggered by the massive cluster members. M 16 is a excellent template for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. This review aims at providing an observational overview not only of the young stellar population but also of the gas remnant of the star formation process.

  20. The nebulae around LBVs: a multiwavelength approach

    CERN Document Server

    Umana, Grazia; Trigilio, Corrado; Leto, Paolo; Hora, Joseph L; Fazio, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We present first results of our study of a sample of Galactic LBV, aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the LBV phenomenon, by recovering the mass-loss history of the central object from the analysis of its associated nebula. Mass-loss properties have been derived by a synergistic use of different techniques, at different wavelengths, to obtain high-resolution, multi-wavelength maps, tracing the different emitting components coexisting in the stellar ejecta: the ionized/neutral gas and the dust. Evidence for asymmetric mass-loss and observational evidence of possible mutual interaction between gas and dust components have been observed by the comparison of mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC, VLT/VISIR) and radio (VLA) images of the nebulae, while important information on the gas and dust composition have been derived from Spitzer/IRS spectra.

  1. Ring Nebulae: Tracers of the CNO Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa-Delgado, A; García-Rojas, J

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from spectroscopic data in the optical range of the Galactic ring nebulae NGC 6888, G2:4+1:4, RCW 58 and Sh2-308. Deep observations with long exposure times were carried out at the 6.5m Clay Telescope and at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. In NGC 6888, recombination lines of C II, O II and N II are detected with signal-to-noise ratios higher than 8. The chemical content of NGC 6888 is discussed within the chemical enrichment predicted by evolution models of massive stars. For all nebulae, a forthcoming work will content in-depth details about observations, analysis and final results (Esteban et al. 2015, in prep.).

  2. Element Distributions In The Crab Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Satterfield, T. J.; Katz, A. M.; Sibley, A. R.; G. M. MacAlpine; Uomoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters which transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in HI, HeI, HeII, [CI], [NII], [OI], [SII], and [SIII] emission lines. We present both raw and flux-calibrated data. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitro...

  3. Planetary nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Di Criscienzo, M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell'Agli, F.

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the planetary nebulae (PNe) population of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on evolutionary models of stars with metallicities in the range 10-3 ≤ Z ≤ 4 × 10-3 and mass 0.9 M⊙ Magellanic Cloud is explained on the basis of the diverse star formation history and age-metallicity relation of the two galaxies. The implications of this study for some still highly debated points regarding the AGB evolution are also commented.

  4. Dusty globules in the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Grenman, Tiia; Elfgren, Erik

    2016-01-01

    From existing broad-band images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we located 92 globules, for which we derived positions, dimensions, orientations, extinctions, masses, proper motions, and their distributions. The globules have mean radii ranging from 400 to 2000 AU and are not resolved in current infrared images of the nebula. The extinction law for dust grains in these globules matches a normal interstellar extinction law. Derived masses of dust range from 1 to 60 x 10^(-6) solar masses, and the total mass contained in globules constitute a fraction of approximately 2% or less of the total dust content of the nebula. The globules are spread over the outer part of the nebula, and a fraction of them coincide in position with emission filaments, where we find elongated globules that are aligned with these filaments. Only 10% of the globules are coincident in position with the numerous H2-emitting knots found in previous studies. All globules move outwards from the centre with transversal velocities of ...

  5. Shocked molecular hydrogen towards the Tornado nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Lazendic, J S

    2004-01-01

    We present near-infrared and millimetre-line observations of the Tornado nebula (G357.7-0.1). We detected 2.12 micron_m H2 1-0 S(1) line emission towards the suspected site of interaction with a molecular cloud revealed by the presence of an OH(1720 MHz) maser. The distribution of the H2 emission is well correlated with the nonthermal radio continuum emission from the Tornado, and the velocity of the H2 emission spans over 100 km/s, which both imply that the H2 emission is shock excited. We also detected millimetre-lines from 12CO and 13CO transitions at the velocity of the maser, and mapped the distribution of the molecular cloud in a 2 \\times 2 arcmin^2 region around the maser. The peak of the molecular cloud aligns well with an indentation in the nebula's radio continuum distribution, suggesting that the nebula's shock is being decelerated at this location, which is consistent with the presence of the OH(1720 MHz) maser and shocked H2 emission at that location.

  6. Wavelet Technique Applications in Planetary Nebulae Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Ferreira, M. L.; Rabaça, C. R.; Cuisinier, F.; Epitácio Pereira, D. N.

    2009-05-01

    Through the application of the wavelet technique to a planetary nebulae image, we are able to identify different scale sizes structures present in its wavelet coefficient decompositions. In a multiscale vision model, an object is defined as a hierarchical set of these structures. We can then use this model to independently reconstruct the different objects that compose the nebulae. The result is the separation and identification of superposed objects, some of them with very low surface brightness, what makes them, in general, very difficult to be seen in the original images due to the presence of noise. This allows us to make a more detailed analysis of brightness distribution in these sources. In this project, we use this method to perform a detailed morphological study of some planetary nebulae and to investigate whether one of them indeed shows internal temperature fluctuations. We have also conducted a series of tests concerning the reliability of the method and the confidence level of the objects detected. The wavelet code used in this project is called OV_WAV and was developed by the UFRJ's Astronomy Departament team.

  7. of Planetary Nebulae III. NGC 6781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D structures and accurate distances to Planetary Nebulae (PNe, we present our study of the planetary nebula NGC6781. For this object we construct a 3D photoionization model and, using the constraints provided by observational data from the literature we determine the detailed 3D structure of the nebula, the physical parameters of the ionizing source and the first precise distance. The procedure consists in simultaneously fitting all the observed emission line morphologies, integrated intensities and the two-dimensional (2D density map from the [SII] (sulfur II line ratios to the parameters generated by the model, and in an iterative way obtain the best fit for the central star parameters and the distance to NGC6781, obtaining values of 950±143 pc (parsec – astronomic distance unit and 385 LΘ (solar luminosity for the distance and luminosity of the central star respectively. Using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate and low mass stars, we derive the mass of the central star of NGC6781 and its progenitor to be 0.60±0.03MΘ (solar mass and 1.5±0.5MΘ respectively.

  8. New portrait of Omega Nebula's glistening watercolours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Omega Nebula, sometimes called the Swan Nebula, is a dazzling stellar nursery located about 5500 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). An active star-forming region of gas and dust about 15 light-years across, the nebula has recently spawned a cluster of massive, hot stars. The intense light and strong winds from these hulking infants have carved remarkable filigree structures in the gas and dust. When seen through a small telescope the nebula has a shape that reminds some observers of the final letter of the Greek alphabet, omega, while others see a swan with its distinctive long, curved neck. Yet other nicknames for this evocative cosmic landmark include the Horseshoe and the Lobster Nebula. Swiss astronomer Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux discovered the nebula around 1745. The French comet hunter Charles Messier independently rediscovered it about twenty years later and included it as number 17 in his famous catalogue. In a small telescope, the Omega Nebula appears as an enigmatic ghostly bar of light set against the star fields of the Milky Way. Early observers were unsure whether this curiosity was really a cloud of gas or a remote cluster of stars too faint to be resolved. In 1866, William Huggins settled the debate when he confirmed the Omega Nebula to be a cloud of glowing gas, through the use of a new instrument, the astronomical spectrograph. In recent years, astronomers have discovered that the Omega Nebula is one of the youngest and most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Active star-birth started a few million years ago and continues through today. The brightly shining gas shown in this picture is just a blister erupting from the side of a much larger dark cloud of molecular gas. The dust that is so prominent in this picture comes from the remains of massive hot stars that have ended their brief lives and ejected material back into space, as well as the cosmic detritus from which future suns form. The

  9. The evolution of planetary nebulae VII. Modelling planetary nebulae of distant stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberner, D; Sandin, C; Steffen, M

    2010-01-01

    By means of hydrodynamical models we do the first investigations of how the properties of planetary nebulae are affected by their metal content and what can be learned from spatially unresolved spectrograms of planetary nebulae in distant stellar systems. We computed a new series of 1D radiation-hydrodynamics planetary nebulae model sequences with central stars of 0.595 M_sun surrounded by initial envelope structures that differ only by their metal content. At selected phases along the evolutionary path, the hydrodynamic terms were switched off, allowing the models to relax for fixed radial structure and radiation field into their equilibrium state with respect to energy and ionisation. The analyses of the line spectra emitted from both the dynamical and static models enabled us to systematically study the influence of hydrodynamics as a function of metallicity and evolution. We also recomputed selected sequences already used in previous publications, but now with different metal abundances. These sequences w...

  10. CKVul: evolving nebula and three curious background stars

    OpenAIRE

    Hajduk, M.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Zijlstra, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the remnants of CK Vul (Nova Vul 1670) using optical imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging, obtained between 1991 and 2010, spans 5.6% of the life-time of the nebula. The flux of the nebula decreased during the last 2 decades. The central source still maintains the ionization of the innermost part of the nebula, but recombination proceeds in more distant parts of the nebula. Surprisingly, we discovered two stars located within 10 arcsec of the expansion centre of the radio emission...

  11. Responsabilidade penal no transtorno bipolar Penal responsibility in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma mulher que cometeu delito de assalto e foi avaliada em perícia psiquiátrica para análise da responsabilidade penal. Conclui-se que ela apresentava doença mental, na forma de transtorno bipolar, daí ser inimputável. A avaliação da responsabilidade penal é de extrema importância, para que se possam aplicar medidas de segurança ou sanções penais e correcionais adequadas a cada caso.The authors report a case of a woman who committed the crime of assault and was evaluated in penal imputability exam to assess criminal responsibility. It was concluded that she had a mental illness, bipolar disorder, being inimputable. The evaluation of penal responsibility is extremely important, in order to apply adequate involuntary commitment or correctional and penal sanctions to each case.

  12. Utilitarian models of the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Models of the primitive solar nebula based on a combination of theory, observations of T Tauri stars, and global conservation laws are presented. The models describe the motions of nebular gas, mixing of interstellar material during the formation of the nebula, and evolution of thermal structure in terms of several characteristic parameters. The parameters describe key aspects of the protosolar cloud (its rotation rate and collapse rate) and the nebula (its mass relative to the Sun, decay time, and density distribution). For most applications, the models are heuristic rather than predicted. Their purpose is to provide a realistic context for the interpretation of solar system data, and to distinquish those nebular characteristics that can be specified with confidence, independently of the assumtions of particular models, form those that are poorly constrained. It is demonstrated that nebular gas typically experienced large radial excursions during the evolution of the nebula and that both inward and outward mean radial velocities on the order of meters per second occured in the terrestrial planet region, with inward velocities predominant for most ofthe evolution. However, the time history of disk size, surface density, and radial velocities are sensitive to the total angular momentun of the protosolar cloud, which cannot be constrained by purely theoretical considerations.It is shown that a certain amount of 'formational' mixing of interstellar material was an inevitable consequenc of nebular mass and angular momentum transport during protostellar collapse, regardless of the specific transport mechanisms invloved. Even if the protosolar cloud was initially homogeneous, this mixing was important because it had the effect of mingling presolar material that had experienced different degrees of thermal processing during collapse and passage through the accertion shock. Nebular thermal structure is less sensitive to poorly constrained parameters than is dynamical

  13. Utilitarian models of the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassen, Patrick

    1994-12-01

    Models of the primitive solar nebula based on a combination of theory, observations of T Tauri stars, and global conservation laws are presented. The models describe the motions of nebular gas, mixing of interstellar material during the formation of the nebula, and evolution of thermal structure in terms of several characteristic parameters. The parameters describe key aspects of the protosolar cloud (its rotation rate and collapse rate) and the nebula (its mass relative to the Sun, decay time, and density distribution). For most applications, the models are heuristic rather than predicted. Their purpose is to provide a realistic context for the interpretation of solar system data, and to distinquish those nebular characteristics that can be specified with confidence, independently of the assumtions of particular models, form those that are poorly constrained. It is demonstrated that nebular gas typically experienced large radial excursions during the evolution of the nebula and that both inward and outward mean radial velocities on the order of meters per second occured in the terrestrial planet region, with inward velocities predominant for most ofthe evolution. However, the time history of disk size, surface density, and radial velocities are sensitive to the total angular momentun of the protosolar cloud, which cannot be constrained by purely theoretical considerations.It is shown that a certain amount of 'formational' mixing of interstellar material was an inevitable consequenc of nebular mass and angular momentum transport during protostellar collapse, regardless of the specific transport mechanisms invloved. Even if the protosolar cloud was initially homogeneous, this mixing was important because it had the effect of mingling presolar material that had experienced different degrees of thermal processing during collapse and passage through the accertion shock. Nebular thermal structure is less sensitive to poorly constrained parameters than is dynamical

  14. Circadian rhythms in the neuorbiology of bipolar of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour in mammals are orchestrated by a hierarchical network of cellular oscillators. The master pacemaker that defines local and systemic timing across the brain and body are the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN). Disruption to the timing of sleep and daily behavioural activity can manifest in a range of pathologies including neuropsychiatric disorders. Bipolar disorder (BPD) is once such neurological condition that exhibits profound associat...

  15. THE TRIFID NEBULA: STELLAR SIBLING RIVALRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the Trifid Nebula reveals a stellar nursery being torn apart by radiation from a nearby, massive star. The picture also provides a peek at embryonic stars forming within an ill-fated cloud of dust and gas, which is destined to be eaten away by the glare from the massive neighbor. This stellar activity is a beautiful example of how the life cycles of stars like our Sun is intimately connected with their more powerful siblings. The Hubble image shows a small part of a dense cloud of dust and gas, a stellar nursery full of embryonic stars. This cloud is about 8 light-years away from the nebula's central star, which is beyond the top of this picture. Located about 9,000 light-years from Earth, the Trifid resides in the constellation Sagittarius. A stellar jet [the thin, wispy object pointing to the upper left] protrudes from the head of a dense cloud and extends three-quarters of a light-year into the nebula. The jet's source is a very young stellar object that lies buried within the cloud. Jets such as this are the exhaust gases of star formation. Radiation from the massive star at the center of the nebula is making the gas in the jet glow, just as it causes the rest of the nebula to glow. The jet in the Trifid is a 'ticker tape,' telling the history of one particular young stellar object that is continuing to grow as its gravity draws in gas from its surroundings. But this particular ticker tape will not run for much longer. Within the next 10,000 years the glare from the central, massive star will continue to erode the nebula, overrunning the forming star, and bringing its growth to an abrupt and possibly premature end. Another nearby star may have already faced this fate. The Hubble picture shows a 'stalk' [the finger-like object] pointing from the head of the dense cloud directly toward the star that powers the Trifid. This stalk is a prominent example of the evaporating gaseous globules, or 'EGGs,' that were seen

  16. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Aysegul; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vazquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valenti, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Ozerdem, Aysegul; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations

  17. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha;

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online...... for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage...

  18. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Aline André; Rosa, Adriana R.; Kunz, Maurício; Ascoli, Bruna; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes...

  19. Neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder: a comparison between bipolar I and II disorder and matched controls

    OpenAIRE

    Pålsson, Erik; Figueras, Clara; Johansson, Anette GM; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Hultman, Björn; Östlind, Josefin; Landén, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits have been documented in patients with bipolar disorder. Further, it has been suggested that the degree and type of cognitive impairment differ between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder, but data is conflicting and remains inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the suggested differences in cognitive impairment between patients with bipolar I and II disorder in a relatively large, clinically stable sample while controlling for potential confounders. Methods 67 p...

  20. Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.

  1. Biological rhythm disturbance in remitted bipolar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Adriane R; Comes, Mercè; Torrent, Carla; Solè, Brisa; Reinares, Maria; Pachiarotti, Isabella; Salamero, Manel; Kapczinski, Flávio; Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological rhythm disturbance is common in bipolar patients and seems to affect the course and prognosis of the illness negatively. The main aim of the current study was to assess biological rhythms in remitted bipolar patients. We also assessed whether there was an association between clinical variables or functioning and biological rhythms in remitted bipolar participants. Methods The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) was used to assess biologi...

  2. Bipolar Experiences and Self-Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bipolar II disorder has a prevalence rate of approximately 0.4% in adults and 1.5% in adolescents, with the onset typically around 18 years old (Merikangas & Lamers, 2012). As the age of onset is during adolescent years the impact on identity is of special interest. Although the profound impact bipolar has on an individual’s sense of self has surfaced as a predominant theme in the bipolar literature, there remains a dearth of research directly addressing this impact. ...

  3. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  4. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  5. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  6. [Oxidative stress in bipolar affective disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, E Z; Zelzer, S; Reininghaus, B; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Fellendorf, F T; Kapfhammer, H-P; Mangge, H

    2014-09-01

    The results of mortality studies have indicated that medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are the most important causes of mortality among patients with bipolar disorder. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality are not fully understood. Oxidative stress and an inadequate antioxidative system might be one missing link and could also help to further elucidate the pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder. This article provides a comprehensive review of oxidative stress in general and about the existing data for bipolar disorder. In addition information is given about possible therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress and the use in bipolar disorder. PMID:24441847

  7. The Planetary Nebula Spectrograph : The green light for galaxy kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, NG; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, KC; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Romanowsky, AJ; Taylor, K; Capaccioli, M; Axelrod, T; Gilmozzi, R; Hart, J; Bloxham, G; Jones, D

    2002-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are now well established as probes of galaxy dynamics and as standard candles in distance determinations. Motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of planetary nebulae searches and the speed with which their radial velocities are determined, a dedicated instrument-the

  8. Extreme Particle Acceleration via Magnetic Reconnection in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Benoit; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery by Agile and Fermi of intense day-long synchrotron gamma-ray flares above 100 MeV in the Crab Nebula challenges classical models of pulsar wind nebulae and particle acceleration. We argue that the flares are powered by magnetic reconnection in the nebula. Using relativistic test-particle simulations, we show that particles are naturally focused into a thin fan beam, deep inside the reconnection layer where the magnetic field is small. The particles then suffer less from synchrotron losses and pile up at the maximum energy given by the electric potential drop in the layer. Applying this model to the Crab Nebula, we find that the emerging synchrotron emission spectrum above 100 MeV is consistent with the September 2010 flare observations. No detectable emission is expected at other wavelengths. This scenario provides a viable explanation for the Crab Nebula gamma-ray flares.

  9. X-ray Observations of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R A

    2003-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are an exciting addition to the zoo of X-ray sources. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations have detected diffuse X-ray emission from shocked fast winds in PN interiors as well as bow-shocks of fast collimated outflows impinging on the nebular envelope. Point X-ray sources associated with PN central stars are also detected, with the soft X-ray (>0.5 keV) emission from instability shocks in the fast stellar wind itself or from a low-mass companion's coronal activit...

  10. Kinematic Distance of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, A Y; Zhu, H; Leahy, D A; Wu, D

    2016-01-01

    We construct \\HI~absorption spectra for 18 planetary nebulae (PNe) and their background sources using the data from the International Galactic Plane Survey. We estimate the kinematic distances of these PNe, among which 15 objects' kinematic distances are obtained for the first time. The distance uncertainties of 13 PNe range from 10% to 50%, which is a significant improvement with uncertainties of a factor two or three smaller than most of previous distance measurements. We confirm that PN G030.2-00.1 is not a PN because of its large distance found here.

  11. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  12. The Present and Future of Planetary Nebula Research. A White Paper by the IAU Planetary Nebula Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Peña, M; Stanghellini, L; Corradi, R L M; DeMarco, O; Fang, X; Henry, R B C; Karakas, A I; Liu, X -W; López, J A; Manchado, A; Parker, Q A

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary of current research on planetary nebulae and their central stars, and related subjects such as atomic processes in ionized nebulae, AGB and post-AGB evolution. Future advances are discussed that will be essential to substantial improvements in our knowledge in the field.

  13. Confronting Standard Models of Proto--Planetary Disks With New Mid--Infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Monnier, John D; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Grady, Carol A; Day, Amanda N; Perry, R B; Harries, Tim J; Aarnio, Alicia N; Colavita, Mark M; Wizinowich, Peter L; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present near and mid-infrared interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the IRTF of 11 well known young stellar objects, several observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With AU-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and mid-infrared disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the mid-infrared disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used "star + inner dust rim + flared disk" class of models strongly fails to reproduce the SED and spatially-resolved mid-infrared data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of mid-infrared emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore t...

  14. Confronting Standard Models of Proto-planetary Disks with New Mid-infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Day, Amanda N.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-08-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and MIR disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the MIR disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used “star + inner dust rim + flared disk” class of models strongly fails to reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved MIR data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of MIR emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore the viability of a modification to the model whereby a second dust rim containing smaller dust grains is added, and find that the 2-rim model leads to significantly improved fits in most cases. This complexity is largely missed when carrying out SED modeling alone, although detailed silicate feature fitting by McClure et al. recently came to a similar conclusion. As has been suggested recently by Menu et al., the difficulty in predicting MIR sizes from the SED alone might hint at “transition disk”-like gaps in the inner au; however, the relatively high correlation found in our MIR disk size versus stellar luminosity relation favors layered disk morphologies and points to missing disk model ingredients instead.

  15. Investigating the nature of the Fried Egg nebula: CO mm-line and optical spectroscopy of IRAS 17163-3907

    CERN Document Server

    Wallström, Sofia H J; Lagadec, E; Black, J H; Oudmaijer, R D; Justtanont, K; van Winckel, H; Zijlstra, A A

    2015-01-01

    Through CO mm-line and optical spectroscopy, we investigate the properties of the Fried Egg nebula IRAS 17163-3907, which has recently been proposed to be one of the rare members of the yellow hypergiant class. The CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 emission arises from a region within 20" of the star and is clearly associated with the circumstellar material. The CO lines show a multi-component asymmetrical profile, and an unexpected velocity gradient is resolved in the east-west direction, suggesting a bipolar outflow. This is in contrast with the apparent symmetry of the dust envelope as observed in the infrared. The optical spectrum of IRAS 17163-3907 between 5100 and 9000 {\\AA} was compared with that of the archetypal yellow hypergiant IRC+10420 and was found to be very similar. These results build on previous evidence that IRAS 17163-3907 is a yellow hypergiant.

  16. IUE Tomography of the Rosette Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buren, Dave

    We propose to obtain SWP and LWR spectra of a dozen 8th magnitude O and B stars associated with the Rosette Nebula in Monoceros for the purpose of determining the structure and kinematics of this HII region / stellar wind bubble. The ability to sense along numerous lines of sight will allow us to determine the detailed physical conditions which exist in the nebula, both inside the bubble and in the HII region exterior to it. This picture can then be compared in detail to the theory of stellar wind bubbles, HII region dynamics, photodissociation fronts and shock destruction of grains. The hot gas in the bubble has been detected in the soft x-rays by the Einstein satellite, so we anticipate a structure similar to that found by Castor, McCray and Weaver for adiabatic (non-radiative) stellar wind bubbles. Such adiabatic bubbles are ideal laboratories for the study of thermal conduction on astrophysical scales. While we will probably not be able to detect the conductive interface between the hot bubble interior and the swept up shell, we will be able to determine many properties of the bubble. These properties in turn will point to the Rosette's suitability as a cosmic laboratory for studying conductive interfaces with the Space Telescope. The energetics and mass balance of HII regions and stellar wind bubbles is important for a number of problems: the physical conditions in and near star forming regions; the structure and evolution of "superbubbles"; and galactic "ecology".

  17. FITTING PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS TO PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohigas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good to excellent photoionization models based on the Cloudy code were obtained for 13 out of 19 spectra of planetary nebulae. The two most important assumptions are that the photoionizing continuum is a Rauch model star, with gravity set by the condition that the stellar mass must be 1 M , and density is constant and determined from the observed [S II]6717/6731 ratio. The temperature and luminosity of the central star, the inner radius of the nebula and the abundance of carbon are treated as free parameters in each model run, destined to obtain the best possible t to the relative intensities of He II 4686, [O III]5007 and [N II]6584. Observed and modeled nebular temperatures derived from [N II] (6548+6584 /5755 agree within 10%, but models usually underestimate temperatures found from [O III] (4959+5007 /4363, more so when the slit does not cover the in-depth extent of the ionized region. Helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur and argon model abundances are uncertain at the 15%, 15%, 10%, 7%, 30% and 7% level. It is shown that neon abundance in PNe has been consistently overestimated, and an alternative ionization correction factor is recommended.

  18. A HYPERSPECTRAL VIEW OF THE CRAB NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the Hβ, [O III] λ4959, λ5007, Hα, [N II] λ6548, λ6584, and [S II] λ6717, λ6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Cadez et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [S II] λ6717 /[S II] λ6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  19. Radial velocities of Planetary Nebulae revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto; Ayala, Sandra A.; Wendolyn Blanco Cárdenas, Mónica; Contreras, María E.; Gómez-Muñoz, Marco Antonio; Guillén, Pedro F.; Olguín, Lorenzo; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Sabin, Laurence; Zavala, Saúl A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new determination of radial velocities of a sample of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) using a systematic method and the same instrumental setting: the long-slit high-dispersion Manchester Echelle Spectrograph (MES) on the 2.1-m telescope at the San Pedro Mártir Observatory (OAN-SPM; Mexico). This project was inspired by the work of Schneider et al. (1983, A&AS, 52, 399), which has been an important reference during the last decades. Radial velocities of gaseous nebulae can be obtained using the central wavelength of a Gaussian fit, even when there is an expansion velocity, as expected in PNe, but with not enough resolution to see a spectral line splitting. We have used the software SHAPE, a morpho-kinematic modeling and reconstruction tool for astrophysical objects (Steffen et al. 2011, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics, 17, 454), to prove that non-uniform density or brightness, on an expanding shell, can lead to mistaken conclusions about the radial velocity. To determine radial velocities, we only use the spectral data in which a spectral line-splitting is seen, avoiding thus the problem of the possible biased one-Gaussian fit. Cases when this method is not recommended are discussed.This project has been supported by grant PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM IN107914. MWB is in grateful receipt of a DGAPA-UNAM postdoctoral scholarship. MAG acknowledges CONACYT for his graduate scholarship.

  20. The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity

    CERN Document Server

    Tothill, N F H; Stecklum, B; Kenworthy, M A

    2008-01-01

    The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster a...

  1. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  2. Minimum Mass Solar Nebulae and Planetary Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Crida, A

    2009-01-01

    The Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) is a protoplanetary disk that contains the minimum amount of solids necessary to build the planets of the Solar System. Assuming that the giant planets formed in the compact configuration they have at the beginning of the "Nice model", Desch (2007) built a new MMSN. He finds a decretion disk, about ten times denser than the well-known Hayashi MMSN. The disk profile is almost stationary for about ten million years. However, a planet in a protoplanetary disk migrates. In a massive, long-lived disk, this question has to be addressed. With numerical simulations, we show that the four giant planets of the Solar System could not survive in this disk. In particular, Jupiter enters the type III, runaway regime, and falls into the Sun like a stone. Known planet-planet interaction mechanisms to prevent migration, fail in this nebula, in contrast to the Hayashi MMSN. Planetary migration constrains the construction of a MMSN. We show how this should be done self-consistently.

  3. Planetary nebula progenitors that swallow binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2015-01-01

    I propose that some irregular `messy' planetary nebulae owe their morphologies to triple-stellar evolution where tight binary systems are tidally and frictionally destroyed inside the envelope of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The tight binary system might breakup with one star leaving the system. In an alternative evolution, one of the stars of the brook-up tight binary system falls toward the AGB envelope with low specific angular momentum, and drowns in the envelope. In a different type of destruction process the drag inside the AGB envelope causes the tight binary system to merge. This releases gravitational energy within the AGB envelope, leading to a very asymmetrical envelope ejection, with an irregular and `messy' planetary nebula as a descendant. The evolution of the triple-stellar system before destruction can be in a full common envelope evolution (CEE) or in a grazing envelope evolution (GEE). Both before and after destruction the system might lunch pairs of opposite jets. One pronounced sig...

  4. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  5. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  6. Developmental staging models in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Ives C; Jansen, Karen; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    The previous contribution of Duffy and colleagues suggests that a chain of behavioral events starting during childhood precedes the development of full-blown bipolar disorder. In this vein, the recent contribution of Keown-Stoneman and colleagues brings a new perspective to the study of prodromal symptoms of bipolar disorder.

  7. Modeling "Soft" Errors in Bipolar Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J.; Benumof, R.; Vonroos, O.

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical models represent single-event upset in bipolar memory chips. Physics of single-event upset in integrated circuits discussed in theoretical paper. Pair of companion reports present mathematical models to predict critical charges for producing single-event upset in bipolar randomaccess memory (RAM) chips.

  8. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  9. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2013-05-11

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  10. Thomson semiconductors bipolar IC strategy to 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamussia, J. P.

    1984-04-01

    The strategy to develop and market bipolar integrated circuits through 1986 by thomson semiconductors is discussed. Current technology and future research on prototype microprocessors using bipolar integrated circuits is evaluated. The physical properties of the circuits such as heat dissipation, energy consumption rates and response times are studied.

  11. Forming Planets in the Hostile Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Can protoplanetary disks form and be maintained around low-mass stars in the harsh environment of a highly active, star-forming nebula? A recent study examines the Carina nebula to answer this question.Crowded ClustersStars are often born in clusters that contain both massive and low-mass stars. The most massive stars in these clusters emit far-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet light that irradiates the region around them, turning the surrounding area into a hostile environment for potential planet formation.Planet formation from protoplanetary disks typically requires timescales of at least 12 million years. Could the harsh radiation from massive stars destroy the protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars by photoevaporation before planets even have a chance to form?Artists impression of a protoplanetary disk. Such disks can be photoevaporated by harsh ultraviolet light from nearby massive stars, causing the disk to be destroyed before planets have a chance to form within them. [ESO/L. Calada]Turning ALMA Toward CarinaA perfect case study for exploring hostile environments is the Carina nebula, located about 7500 lightyears away and home to nearly 100 O-type stars as well as tens of thousands of lower-mass young stars. The Carina population is ~14 Myr old: old enough to form planets within protoplanetary disks, but also old enough that photoevaporation could already have wreaked havoc on those disks.Due to the dense stellar populations in Carinas clusters, this is a difficult region to explore, but the Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA) is up to the task. In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Adal Mesa-Delgado (Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) made use of ALMAs high spatial resolution to image four regions spaced throughout Carina, searching for protoplanetary disks.Detections and Non-DetectionsTwo evaporating gas globules in the Carina nebula, 104-593 and 105-600, that each contain a protoplanetary disk. The top panels are

  12. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder.METHODS: All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder at least once in a period from 1994 to 2012 at psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contact in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register.RESULTS: Totally, 354 children and adolescents got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once; a minority, 144 patients (40.7%) got the diagnosis...... at the first contact whereas the remaining patients (210; 59.3%) got the diagnosis at later contacts before age 19. For the latter patients, the median time elapsed from first treatment contact with the psychiatric service system to the first diagnosis with a manic episode/bipolar disorder was nearly 1 year...

  13. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  14. Compact Galactic Planetary Nebulae: A HST/WFC3 Morphological Catalog, and a Study of their Role in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We present the images of a \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\textit{HST}/WFC3) snapshot program of angularly compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), acquired with the aim of studying their size, evolutionary status, and morphology. PNe that are smaller than $\\sim4\\arcsec$ are underrepresented in most morphological studies, and today they are less well studied than their immediate evolutionary predecessors, the pre-planetary nebulae. The images have been acquired in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda5007$, which is commonly used to classify the PN morphology, in the UV continuum with the aim of detecting the central star unambiguously, and in the $I-$band to detect a cool stellar companion, if present. The sample of 51 confirmed PNe exhibits nearly the full range of primary morphological classes, with the distribution more heavily weighted toward bipolar PNe, but with total of aspherical PNe almost identical to that of the general Galactic sample. A large range of microstructures is evident in our sample as w...

  15. Detection of a multi-shell planetary nebula around the hot subdwarf O-type star 2MASS J19310888+4324577

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, A; Ulla, A; Vázquez, R; Guillén, P F; Olguín, L; Rodríguez-López, C; Thejll, P; Oreiro, R; Manteiga, M; Pérez, E

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) The origin of hot subdwarf O-type stars (sdOs) remains unclear since their discovery in 1947. Among others, a post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) origin is possible for a fraction of sdOs. We are involved in a comprehensive ongoing study to search for and to analyze planetary nebulae (PNe) around sdOs with the aim of establishing the fraction and properties of sdOs with a post-AGB origin. We use deep Halpha and [OIII] images of sdOs to detect nebular emission and intermediate resolution, long-slit optical spectroscopy of the detected nebulae and their sdO central stars. These data are complemented with other observations for further analysis of the detected nebulae. We report the detection of an extremely faint, complex PN around 2MASS J19310888+4324577 (2M1931+4324), a star classified as sdO in a binary system. The PN shows a bipolar and an elliptical shell, whose major axes are oriented perpendicular to each other, and high-excitation structures outside the two shells. WISE archive images sho...

  16. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S. C.; Lacy, J. H.; Townes, C. H.; Aller, L. H.; Geballe, T. R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV was detected in approximately 90% of the observed objects, while Ar III was found in about 80%, and Ne II in roughly one-third. It is noted that optical observations typically include only a limited region of the nebula, while the infrared measurements frequently involve integration over the entire nebular image.

  17. X-ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Romani, R W; Yadigaroglu, I A; Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the Pulsar Wind Nebula trailing the high velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the `Guitar Nebula'). This X-ray flux gives evidence of \\gamma~10^7 eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the post-shock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near equipartition values.

  18. The San Pedro M\\'artir Planetary Nebula Kinematic Catalogue: Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G; Díaz-Méndez, E; Riesgo, H; Báez, S -H; García-Díaz, Ma -T; Meaburn, J; Clark, D M; Olvera, R M Calderón; Soto, G López; Rebolo, O Toledano

    2010-01-01

    We present kinematic data for 211 bright planetary nebulae in eleven Local Group galaxies: M31 (137 PNe), M32 (13), M33 (33), Fornax (1), Sagittarius (3), NGC 147 (2), NGC 185 (5), NGC 205 (9), NGC 6822 (5), Leo A (1), and Sextans A (1). The data were acquired at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro M\\'artir using the 2.1m telescope and the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 at a resolution of 11 km/s. A few objects were observed in H$\\alpha$. The internal kinematics of bright planetary nebulae do not depend strongly upon the metallicity or age of their progenitor stellar populations, though small systematic differences exist. The nebular kinematics and H$\\beta$ luminosity require that the nebular shells be accelerated during the early evolution of their central stars. Thus, kinematics provides an additional argument favoring similar stellar progenitors for bright planetary nebulae in all galaxies.

  19. Lepton Acceleration in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G

    2010-01-01

    Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) act as calorimeters for the relativistic pair winds emanating from within the pulsar light cylinder. Their radiative dissipation in various wavebands is significantly different from that of their pulsar central engines: the broadband spectra of PWNe possess characteristics distinct from those of pulsars, thereby demanding a site of lepton acceleration remote from the pulsar magnetosphere. A principal candidate for this locale is the pulsar wind termination shock, a putatively highly-oblique, ultra-relativistic MHD discontinuity. This paper summarizes key characteristics of relativistic shock acceleration germane to PWNe, using predominantly Monte Carlo simulation techniques that compare well with semi-analytic solutions of the diffusion-convection equation. The array of potential spectral indices for the pair distribution function is explored, defining how these depend critically on the parameters of the turbulent plasma in the shock environs. Injection efficiencies into the acceler...

  20. Atlas of monochromatic images of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Weidmann, W A; Valdarenas, R R Vena; Ahumada, J A; Volpe, M G; Mudrik, A

    2016-01-01

    We present an atlas of more than one hundred original images of planetary nebulae (PNe). These images were taken in a narrow-band filter centred on the nebular emission of the [N II] during several observing campaigns using two moderate-aperture telescopes, at the Complejo Astron\\'omico El Leoncito (CASLEO), and the Estaci\\'on Astrof\\'isica de Bosque Alegre (EABA), both in Argentina. The data provided by this atlas represent one of the most extensive image surveys of PNe in [N II]. We compare the new images with those available in the literature, and briefly describe all cases in which our [N II] images reveal new and interesting structures.

  1. Investigating potential planetary nebula/cluster pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Bidin, Christian Moni; Bonatto, Charles; Mauro, Francesco; Turner, David; Geisler, Doug; Chene, Andres-Nicolas; Gormaz-Matamala, Alex C; Borissova, Jura; Kurtev, Radostin G; Minniti, Dante; Carraro, Giovanni; Gieren, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental parameters characterizing the end-state of intermediate-mass stars may be constrained by discovering planetary nebulae (PNe) in open clusters (OCs). Cluster membership may be exploited to establish the distance, luminosity, age, and physical size for PNe, and the intrinsic luminosity and mass of its central star. Four potential PN-OC associations were investigated, to assess the cluster membership for the PNe. Radial velocities were measured from intermediate-resolution optical spectra, complemented with previous estimates in the literature. When the radial velocity study supported the PN/OC association, we analyzed if other parameters (e.g., age, distance, reddening, central star brightness) were consistent with this conclusion. Our measurements imply that the PNe VBe3 and HeFa1 are not members of the OCs NGC5999 and NGC6067, respectively, and likely belong to the background bulge population. Conversely, consistent radial velocities indicate that NGC2452/NGC2453 could be associated, but our resul...

  2. Atlas of monochromatic images of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Schmidt, E. O.; Vena Valdarenas, R. R.; Ahumada, J. A.; Volpe, M. G.; Mudrik, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an atlas of more than one hundred original images of planetary nebulae (PNe). These images were taken in a narrow-band filter centred on the nebular emission of the [N ii] during several observing campaigns using two moderate-aperture telescopes, at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), and the Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre (EABA), both in Argentina. The data provided by this atlas represent one of the most extensive image surveys of PNe in [N ii]. We compare the new images with those available in the literature, and briefly describe all cases in which our [N ii] images reveal new and interesting structures. The reduced images as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A103

  3. MHD models of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N

    2010-01-01

    Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) are bubbles or relativistic plasma that form when the pulsar wind is confined by the SNR or the ISM. Recent observations have shown a richness of emission features that has driven a renewed interest in the theoretical modeling of these objects. In recent years a MHD paradigm has been developed, capable of reproducing almost all of the observed properties of PWNe, shedding new light on many old issues. Given that PWNe are perhaps the nearest systems where processes related to relativistic dynamics can be investigated with high accuracy, a reliable model of their behavior is paramount for a correct understanding of high energy astrophysics in general. I will review the present status of MHD models: what are the key ingredients, their successes, and open questions that still need further investigation.

  4. Element Distributions In The Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Satterfield, T J; Sibley, A R; MacAlpine, G M; Uomoto, A

    2012-01-01

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters which transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in HI, HeI, HeII, [CI], [NII], [OI], [SII], and [SIII] emission lines. We present both raw and flux-calibrated data. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. These maps show distinctive structure, and they illustrate regions of gas in which various stages of nucleosynthesis have apparently occurred, including the CNO-cycle, helium-burning, carbon-burning, and oxygen-burning. It is hoped that the calibrated observations and chemical abundance distribution maps will be useful for developing a better understanding of the precursor star evolution and the supernova explosive process.

  5. Valproate, bipolar disorder and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction with the principal features of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary morphology. A large number of studies conducted on this topic have suggested a possible role of anticonvulsants, particularly valproate, in the pathogenesis or risk factors associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Bipolar treatment guidelines from Canada and the United States of America recommend valproate as the first line strategy in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder. Discussion. Most persons with bipolar disorder require maintenance treatment. Long-term administration of valproate in women with bipolar disorder or epilepsy is believed to result in the increased risk of hyperandro­genism, menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovaries. Valproate may also increase the risk of infertility and other associated symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Therefore, particular caution is indicated in the use of valproate in women of reproductive age. Conclusion. The treatment of the female patients with bipolar disorder presents various challenges for the clinician. Every woman of reproductive age needs to know the risk and benefits of her pharmacologic treatment options. Bipolar disorder should be considered chronic disorder, whose development is largely affected by hormonal changes and reproductive cycle in women. These issues should be researched more thoroughly in order to opt for the most appropriate treatment in women with bipolar disorder.

  6. Watching Young Planetary Nebulae Grow: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    The development of magneto-hydro gas dynamical models is the key to the understanding of both the physics {processes} and astronomy {initial conditions} of astrophysical nebulae of all sorts. The models are reaching their highest degree of accuracy when applied to and compared against pre Planetary Nebulae {pPNe} thanks to the simplicity, relative lack of extinction, and the detail of the imaging and kinematic data that have bcome available for these objects. The primary barrier to progress is inadequate kinematic data of pPNe against which the predictions models can be tested. Unlike PNe, pPNe do not emit emission lines for detailed Doppler measurements. Therefore it is essential to find another way to monitor the morphological evolution. Only HST can uncover the dynamics of the growth patterns by subtracting multi-epoch images spanning a decade or more. We have selected four pPNe with highly collimated outflows in different evolutionary stages for which high-quality first-epoch images were obtained from 1996 to 2002. All of them display regularly shaped thin rims, sharp edges, and symmetric pairs of knots or bowshocks that are ideal for our purposes. We will closely mimic many of the earlier exposures using ACS and to monitor changes in structures. The morphology and its evolution will be compared to 3-D MHD models with adaptive grids in order to build a far clearer picture of the nuclear geometry which shaped the outflows and constrained their propagation to the present. We shall also obtain R, J, and H images for use with a 3-D dust radiative transfer code LELUYA to model the dust distribution deep into the nuclear zones.

  7. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  8. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with bipola

  9. The Lexington Benchmarks for Numerical Simulations of Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Ferland, G; Contini, M; Harrington, J; Kallman, T; Netzer, H; Péquignot, D; Raymond, J; Rubin, R; Shields, G; Sutherland, R; Viegas, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a meeting on numerical simulations of ionized nebulae held at the University of Kentucky in conjunction with the celebration of the 70th birthdays of Profs. Donald Osterbrock and Michael Seaton.

  10. The Spectroscopic Properties of Bright Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G

    2006-01-01

    The properties of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae are reviewed based upon the results of low and high resolution spectroscopy. It is argued that bright extragalactic planetary nebulae from galaxies (or subsystems) with and without star formation have different distributions of central star temperature and ionization structure. As regards the chemical compositions, oxygen and neon are generally found to be unchanged as a result of the evolution of the stellar progenitors. Nitrogen enrichment may occur as a result of the evolution of the progenitors of bright planetary nebulae in all stellar populations, though this enrichment may be (more) random in old stellar populations. Helium abundances appear to be influenced by the chemical evolution of the host galaxy, with planetary nebulae in dwarf spheroidals having systematically elevated abundances. Neither the age nor the metallicity of the progenitor stellar population has a strong effect upon the kinematics observed for nebular shells. Both the range of ...

  11. Chemical composition of planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA; Henney, WJ; Franco, J; Martos, M; Pena, M

    2002-01-01

    The method of determining abundances using Infrared Space Observatory spectra is discussed. The results for seven planetary nebula are given. Using these data, a preliminary discussion of their evolution is given.

  12. Radiation Transfer in the Cavity and Shell of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, M D; Zijlstra, A A

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approximate analytical solution for the transfer of line-averaged radiation in the hydrogen recombination lines for the ionized cavity and molecular shell of a spherically symmetric planetary nebula. The scattering problem is treated as a perturbation, using a mean intensity derived from a scattering-free solution. The analytical function was fitted to Halpha and Hbeta data from the planetary nebula NGC6537. The position of the maximum in the intensity profile produced consistent values for the radius of the cavity as a fraction of the radius of the dusty nebula: 0.21 for Halpha and 0.20 for Hbeta. Recovered optical depths were broadly consistent with observed optical extinction in the nebula, but the range of fit parameters in this case is evidence for a clumpy distribution of dust.

  13. Planetary Nebulae with H2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacemos una revisión de la emisión en hidrogeno molecular (H2 de las nebulosas planetarias (NPs. Vemos como esta emisión se encuentra asociada a objetos de forma bipolar. Describimos los niveles de energía de la molécula de hidrogeno, los principales mecanismos para poblarlos (choques y fluorescencia y las formas en que se puede discriminar que mecanismo opera. Proponemos que la cinemática del H2 también puede ser usada para discriminar el mecanismo de excitación de sus líneas de emisión. Presentamos resultados preliminares sobre el estudio de la cinemática del H2 que estamos realizando para una muestra de cinco NPs bipolares. Este estudio nos ha permitido determinar que los choques son el principal agente en la excitación del H2 y que las masas de los progenitores de estos objetos son mayores que las de los progenitores de NPs típicas.

  14. Vacuum interface flashover with bipolar electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy, compact, particle accelerators require accelerating cavities that have large gradients and operate with high efficiency. The bipolar electric fields necessary in these efficient accelerating cavities place severe requirements on the insulator-vacuum interface. A new interface has been designed and 50 gv/cm bipolar flashover field achieved for a waveform train that lasted 1 μs. This paper discusses the design of this vacuum interface and the evaluation of various materials that led to achieving bipolar flashover fields 50% greater than the authors had previously obtained

  15. Stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2000-01-01

    We compare the populations of Red Giant stars and Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge, in the light of recent determinations of their abundances patterns. We find both populations to be compatible. From the planetary nebulae, we find evidences that the Bulge did not form stars recently. The whole abundances pattern remains however puzzling, some elements favoring a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge (Mg and Ti), and others a much slower one (He, O, Si, S, Ar and Ca).

  16. New results on planetary nebula shaping and stellar binarity

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, Orsola

    2010-01-01

    The question of what physical mechanisms shape planetary nebulae into their observed morphologies remains open. However, intensified efforts since the last meeting in this series, Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae IV, in July 2007 have yielded some excellent results. In this review we concentrate on those developments that have taken place in the last three years, with emphasis on results obtained since the review by De Marco (2009).

  17. Recombination Lines of CII in the Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2010-01-01

    The current report presents the work to investigate the recombination lines of CII in the spectra of planetary nebulae. Two CIII targets were prepared and used to generate theoretical data required in the investigation of recombination lines that arise from collisions between electrons and ions in thin plasma found in planetary nebulae and other astrophysical objects. One of these targets contains 9 atomic terms while the other contains 26 terms. For each one of these targets, theoretical dat...

  18. Ly(alpha) Photolysis in the Primitive Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for the third year of work on this project. Our proposal was to quantitatively investigate the importance of photochemistry in the solar nebula. In the generally accepted theory for the chemical evolution of the primitive solar nebula, Prinn and Fegley argued that photochemistry is unimportant, and that thermochemistry controls the relative abundances of molecular species throughout the planet-forming region. They provided useful estimates of the chemical energy available to the solar nebula from a variety of sources, and established that even the small photolysis rate due to starlight is more important than the photolysis rate from direct sunlight (although small, the UV flux from starlight could have processed a non-negligible fraction of the solar nebula. The reason for this is that the opacity of the disk was so large that direct sunlight could only penetrate to 0.1 AU or so, despite the expectation that the protosun, if comparable to a T-Tauri star, would be emitting up to 104 more H I Ly(alpha) photons than the current sun. We developed a Monte Carlo resonance fine radiative transfer code, capable of accurately calculating the radiation field of H I Ly(alpha), He I 584 A, and He II 304 A emissions throughout the nebula and the nearby interstellar medium in which it is embedded. We applied the code to two appropriate models of the primitive solar nebula. Our model provided the photolysis rates of various species over the entire surface layer of the nebula, and from this we evaluated the importance of UV photochemistry due to backscattered solar UV resonance line emissions on different parts of the nebula. The results discussed below were presented.

  19. The spatial structure of planetary nebulae with binary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the spatial structure of planetary nebulae with binary central stars is considered. It is shown that the main structure (the enhanced density area) has the form of an hour-glass or a toroid. The peripheral structure (a relatively fainter shell around the main structure) has the form of an ablate spheroid. If a planetary nebula is ionised incompletely, the observed form a peripheral structure can differ from the real form of an envelope

  20. Probing the Rosette Nebula Stellar Bubble with Faraday Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Allison H; Fischer, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of Faraday rotation measurements of 23 background radio sources whose lines of sight pass through or close to the Rosette Nebula. The Rosette Nebula is an excellent candidate for studies of super bubbles associated with young star clusters. We made linear polarization measurements with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at frequencies of 4.4GHz, 4.9GHz, and 7.7GHz. We are able to establish a background rotation measure in this part of the sky due to the Galaxy of +147 rad m^-2. Sources whose lines of sight pass through the nebula have an excess rotation measure of 50-750 rad m^-2, which we attribute to the plasma shell of the Rosette Nebula. We consider two simple plasma shell models and how they reproduce the magnitude and sign of the rotation measure, and its dependence on distance from the center of the nebula. These two models represent different modes of interaction of the Rosette Nebula star cluster with the surrounding interstellar medium. Both can reproduce the magnitude ...

  1. Comorbidade com transtornos de ansiedade em transtorno bipolar Anxiety disorders comorbidity in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilly Klüger Issler

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidade elevada de transtornos de ansiedade em bipolares é freqüentemente relatada em estudos epidemiológicos e clínicos. A associação tem implicações importantes no diagnóstico, evolução clínica, tratamento e prognóstico do transtorno bipolar, que são apresentadas nesta revisão.High comorbidity between bipolar and anxiety disorders is frequently described in epidemiological and clinical studies. This association has important implications for diagnoses, clinical outcome, therapeutic intervention and prognoses of bipolar disorder that are presented in this review.

  2. Overview of patient care issues and treatment in bipolar spectrum and bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Joseph R

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies have reported lifetime prevalence estimates of 1.0% for bipolar I disorder, 1.1% for bipolar II disorder, and 2.4% to 4.7% for subthreshold bipolar disorder, illustrating the need for consensus definitions of bipolar spectrum disorders. These definitions will aid researchers in studying viable treatments options, as well as help clinicians in the differential diagnosis of patients. Broader definitions of bipolar spectrum disorders would also allow clinicians to more accurately diagnose patients, rather than placing them in the catchall category of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Bipolar symptoms that are currently labeled as subthreshold symptoms are becoming increasingly recognized as having relevant clinical implications. Despite diagnostic controversy, screening for the presence of mania in patients who present with depressive symptoms is a critical step in the appropriate treatment of bipolar spectrum disorders. Identifying the early onset of bipolar symptoms as manifested in prodromal disorders such as childhood major depressive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also important for possible early intervention and improved outcomes.

  3. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 3N9Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC and temporal pole (TP structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.Keywords: bipolar disorder, diffusion tensor imaging, white matter tractography, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, mood dysphoria, creativity, ventral semantic stream, writing ability, artistic aptitude

  4. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-García, M; Corradi, R L M; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Boffin, H M J; Rubio-Díez, M M; Kotze, M M

    2016-01-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) stage is the ultimate fate of stars with mass 1 to 8 solar masses (M$_\\odot$). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as it expands during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. The excess material ends up forming a common-envelope (CE) surrounding both stars. Drag forces would then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar PN whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and evolve towards the white dwarf (WD) stage are called double-degenerates. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass unambiguously above the Chandrasekhar limit of 1.4 M$_\\odot$. According to its short orbital period (4.2 hours) and total mass (1.76 M$_\\odot$), the system shoul...

  5. The creation of the Helix planetary nebula (NGC 7293) by multiple events

    CERN Document Server

    Meaburn, J; López, J A; Harman, D J; Bryce, M; Redman, M P; Mavromatakis, F

    2005-01-01

    A deep, continuum-subtracted, image of NGC 7293 has been obtained in the light of the Halpha+[N II] emission lines. New images of two filamentary halo stuctures have been obtained and the possible detection of a collimated outflow made. Spatially resolved, longslit profiles of the Halpha+[N II] lines have been observed across several of these features with the MES combined with the SPM 2.1m telescope; these are compared with the [N II]6584, [O III]5007, HeII 6560 and Halpha profiles obtained over the nebular core. The central HeII emission is originating in a ~0.34pc diameter spherical volume expanding at <=12km/s which is surrounded, and partially coincident with an [O III] emitting inner shell expanding at 12km/s. The bright helical structure surrounding this inner region is modelled as a bi-polar nebula with lobe expansions of 25km/s whose axis is tilted at 37deg to the sight line but with a toroidal waist itself expanding at 14 km/s. These observations are compared with the expectations of the interact...

  6. A principal component analysis approach to the morphology of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, Stavros

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a well-known technique used to decorrelate a set of vectors. It has been applied to explore the star formation history of galaxies or to determine distances of mass-lossing stars. Here we apply PCA to the optical data of Planetary Nebulae (PNe) with the aim of extracting information about their morphological differences. Preliminary analysis of a sample of 55 PNe with known abundances and morphology shows that the second component (PC2), which results from a relation produced by the parameters log(N/O), initial and final mass of PNe, is depending on the morphology of PNe. It has been found that when log(N/O) < -0.18 the PNe's nitrogen is low independently on the oxygen abundance for either Bipolar (B), Elliptical (E) or Round (R) PNe. An interesting result is that both E and R PNe have log(N/O) < 0 while only B PNe show negative and positive values. Consequently, B PNe are expected to have higher nitrogen values than the E and R PNe. Following that and a second samp...

  7. Sculpting a Pre-Planetary Nebula with a Precessing Jet: IRAS 16342-3814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Le Mignant, D.; Sanchez Contreras, C.; Campbell, R. D.; Chaffee, F. H.

    2005-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 16342-3814 with the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system in four near-infrared bands in the 1.6-4.7 (micro)m range. The lobes, which showed smoothly varying brightness distributions in previous optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, have a limb-brightened appearance in the AO images, with a remarkable corkscrew structure inscribed on the lobe walls. A well-collimated, precessing jet with a diameter less than or approximately equal to 100 AU and a precession period less than or approximately equal to 50 yr, interacting with ambient circumstellar material, is most likely responsible for the corkscrew structure and the lobes, as indicated by a detailed comparison of our observations with published numerical simulations. The very red colors of the lobes in the near-infrared, coupled with their visibility at optical wavelengths, require that at least half, but not all, of the light of the central star be trapped by a compact circumstellar dust cloud heated to approximately 600-700 K and reradiated in the infrared. The lobes are thus illuminated both by the infrared light from this dust cloud as well as by the optical light from the central star.

  8. The Central Star Candidate of the Planetary Nebula Sh2-71: Photometric and Spectroscopic Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Močnik, Teo; Pollacco, Don; Street, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of several newly obtained and archived photometric and spectroscopic datasets of the intriguing and yet poorly understood 13.5-mag central star candidate of the bipolar planetary nebula Sh2-71. Photometric observations confirmed the previously determined quasi-sinusoidal lightcurve with a period of 68 days and also indicated periodic sharp brightness dips, possibly eclipses, with a period of 17.2 days. In addition, the comparison between U and V lightcurves revealed that the 68-day brightness variations are accompanied by a variable reddening effect of $\\Delta E(U-V)=0.38$. Spectroscopic datasets demonstrated pronounced variations in spectral profiles of Balmer, helium and singly ionised metal lines and indicated that these variations occur on a time-scale of a few days. The most accurate verification to date revealed that spectral variability is not correlated with the 68-day brightness variations. The mean radial velocity of the observed star was measured to be $\\sim$26 km/s with an ...

  9. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  10. White matter microstructure alterations in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Marcella; Perlini, Cinzia; Ferro, Adele; Cerruti, Stefania; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Isola, Miriam; Cerini, Roberto; Dusi, Nicola; Andreone, Nicola; Balestrieri, Matteo; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Tansella, Michele; Brambilla, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Genetic, neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings support the presence of diffuse white matter cytoarchitectural disruption in bipolar disorder. In this study, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was applied to study cortical white matter microstructure organisation in 24 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder and 35 matched normal controls. DWI images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined over regions of interest placed, bilaterally, in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter. Significantly increased ADC values were found in bipolar patients with respect to normal controls in the right temporal lobe, left parietal lobe and bilateral occipital lobes. ADC values did not associate significantly with age or with clinical variables (p>0.05). Diffuse cortical white matter alterations on DWI in bipolar disorder denote widespread disruption of white matter integrity and may be due to altered myelination and/or axonal integrity. PMID:22687164

  11. [Bipolar patients, structured psychotherapeutic treatment and approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Thierry; Mazouni, Rabbah; Rivallan, Armel; Lassignardie, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    The current development of structured psychotherapy has brought gradual improvements to the treatment provided to bipolar patients. This psychotherapy may be either carried out individually or in a group. In this context, psychotherapeutic meditation seems beneficial.

  12. The Orion Nebula: Still Full of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This ethereal-looking image of the Orion Nebula was captured using the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory, Chile. This nebula is much more than just a pretty face, offering astronomers a close-up view of a massive star-forming region to help advance our understanding of stellar birth and evolution. The data used for this image were selected by Igor Chekalin (Russia), who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition. Igor's composition of the Orion Nebula was the seventh highest ranked entry in the competition, although another of Igor's images was the eventual overall winner. The Orion Nebula, also known as Messier 42, is one of the most easily recognisable and best-studied celestial objects. It is a huge complex of gas and dust where massive stars are forming and is the closest such region to the Earth. The glowing gas is so bright that it can be seen with the unaided eye and is a fascinating sight through a telescope. Despite its familiarity and closeness there is still much to learn about this stellar nursery. It was only in 2007, for instance, that the nebula was shown to be closer to us than previously thought: 1350 light-years, rather than about 1500 light-years. Astronomers have used the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile to observe the stars within Messier 42. They found that the faint red dwarfs in the star cluster associated with the glowing gas radiate much more light than had previously been thought, giving us further insights into this famous object and the stars that it hosts. The data collected for this science project, with no original intention to make a colour image, have now been reused to create the richly detailed picture of Messier 42 shown here. The image is a composite of several exposures taken through a total of five different filters. Light that passed through a red filter as well as light from a filter that

  13. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  14. Bipolar Saline TURP for Large Prostate Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, David S.; Shawn Beck; Szabo, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate ( TURP) in patients with very large prostate glands and significant comorbidities. Four patients with prostate glands > 160 cc on preoperative volume measurement and ASA class three or higher underwent bipolar TURP with the Gyrus PlasmaKinetic system. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative parameters were studied. The results showed an average ASA class 3.25 (range: 3-4). The ave...

  15. Bipolar Harmonic encoding of CMB correlation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Nidhi; Jhingan, Sanjay; Souradeep, Tarun; Hajian, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Deviations from statistical isotropy can be modeled in various ways, for instance, anisotropic cosmological models (Bianchi models), compact topologies and presence of primordial magnetic field. Signature of anisotropy manifests itself in CMB correlation patterns. Here we explore the symmetries of the correlation function and its implications on the observable measures constructed within the Bipolar harmonic formalism for these variety of models. Different quantifiers within the Bipolar harmo...

  16. Integrating Bipolar Disorder Management in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; O’Donnell, Allison N.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care ma...

  17. Homocysteine and cognitive functions in bipolar depression

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Permoda-Osip; Jacek Kisielewski; Jolanta Dorszewska; Janusz Rybakowski

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate a relationship between concentrations of hoocysteine (HCY), vitamin B12 and folic acid and disturbances of cognitive functions during acute episode of bipolar depression. Methods 116 patients were studied (93 women, 23 men), aged 20-78 (mean 51±13) years during acute episode of bipolar depression. Depression was evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton’s Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The following tests measuring cognitive functions were ap...

  18. Optimising the management of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MsAbda Mahmood; Ebmeler, Klaus R

    2015-05-01

    NICE recommends that when adults present in primary care with depression, they should be asked about previous periods of overactivity or disinhibited behaviour. If this behaviour lasted for four or more days referral for a specialist mental health assessment should be considered. Although depressive episodes are not necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, they are common and dominate the lifetime pattern of the condition: 50% of the time is spent in a euthymic (well) state, 38% in a depressed and 12% in a manic state. If there have only been depressive symptoms, it is not possible to exclude bipolar disorder. A diagnosis of bipolar disorder is supported by diagnostic criteria and usually confirmed by a psychiatrist. If the GP suspects mania or severe depression, or if patients are a danger to themselves or others, an urgent referral should be made for a specialist mental health assessment. If a manic episode has been present during the history the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder, while a hypomanic episode is indicative of bipolar disorder. The patient's care plan should include current health status, social situation, social support, co-ordination arrangements with secondary care, details of early warning signs, and the patient's preferred course of action in the event of a clinical relapse. Physical health checks should focus on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and respiratory disease given the heightened risk for these illnesses in bipolar disorder. PMID:27254890

  19. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  20. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaznavi Sharmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder.

  1. ETHOS 1: a high-latitude planetary nebula with jets forged by a post-common-envelope binary central star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jones, D.; Sabin, L.; Santander-García, M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the discovery of ETHOS 1 (PN G068.1+11.0), the first spectroscopically confirmed planetary nebula (PN) from a survey of the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive for high-latitude PNe. ETHOS 1 stands out as one of the few PNe to have both polar outflows (jets) travelling at 120 ± 10 km s-1 and a close binary central star. The light curve observed with the Mercator Telescope reveals an orbital period of 0.535 d and an extremely large amplitude (0.816 mag) due to irradiation of the companion by a very hot pre-white dwarf. ETHOS 1 further strengthens the long-suspected link between binary central stars of PNe (CSPN) and jets. The Isaac Newton Telescope/Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and Very Large Telescope (VLT) FORS spectroscopy of the CSPN reveals weak N III, C III and C IV emission lines seen in other close binary CSPN and suggests that many CSPN with these weak emission lines are misclassified close binaries. We present VLT FORS imaging and Manchester Echelle Spectrometer long-slit observations from which a kinematic model of the nebula is built. An unusual combination of bipolar outflows and a spherical nebula conspires to produce an X-shaped appearance. The kinematic age of the jets (1750 ± 250 yr kpc-1) is found to be more than that of the inner nebula (900 ± 100 yr kpc-1), consistent with previous studies of similar PNe. Emission-line ratios of the jets are found to be consistent with that of reverse-shock models for fast low-ionization emitting regions (FLIERs) in PNe. Further large-scale surveys for close binary CSPN will be required to securely establish whether FLIERs are launched by close binaries. Based on observations made with the Flemish Mercator Telescope and Isaac Newton Telescope of the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos and the VLT at the Paranal Observatory under programs 083.D-0654(A) and 085.D-0629(A).

  2. Temporal order of bipolar cell genesis in the neural retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C-M Amy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal bipolar cells comprise a diverse group of neurons. Cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells are so named for their connections with cone and rod photoreceptors, respectively. Morphological criteria have been established that distinguish nine types of cone bipolar cells and one type of rod bipolar cell in mouse and rat. While anatomical and physiological aspects of bipolar types have been actively studied, little is known about the sequence of events that leads to bipolar cell type specification and the potential relationship this process may have with synapse formation in the outer plexiform layer. In this study, we have examined the birth order of rod and cone bipolar cells in the developing mouse and rat in vivo. Results Using retroviral lineage analysis with the histochemical marker alkaline phosphatase, the percentage of cone and rod bipolar cells born on postnatal day 0 (P0, P4, and P6 were determined, based upon the well characterized morphology of these cells in the adult rat retina. In this in vivo experiment, we have demonstrated that cone bipolar genesis clearly precedes rod bipolar genesis. In addition, in the postnatal mouse retina, using a combination of tritiated-thymidine birthdating and immunohistochemistry to distinguish bipolar types, we have similarly found that cone bipolar genesis precedes rod bipolar genesis. The tritiated-thymidine birthdating studies also included quantification of the birth of all postnatally generated retinal cell types in the mouse. Conclusion Using two independent in vivo methodologies in rat and mouse retina, we have demonstrated that there are distinct waves of genesis of the two major bipolar cell types, with cone bipolar genesis preceding rod bipolar genesis. These waves of bipolar genesis correspond to the order of genesis of the presynaptic photoreceptor cell types.

  3. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  4. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  5. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  6. The Distance Scale of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bensby, T

    2001-01-01

    By collecting distances from the literature, a set of 73 planetary nebulae with mean distances of high accuracy is derived. This sample is used for recalibration of the mass-radius relationship, used by many statistical distance methods. An attempt to correct for a statistical peculiarity, where errors in the distances influences the mass--radius relationship by increasing its slope, has been made for the first time. Distances to PNe in the Galactic Bulge, derived by this new method as well as other statistical methods from the last decade, are then used for the evaluation of these methods as distance indicators. In order of achieving a Bulge sample that is free from outliers we derive new criteria for Bulge membership. These criteria are much more stringent than those used hitherto, in the sense that they also discriminate against background objects. By splitting our Bulge sample in two, one with optically thick (small) PNe and one with optically thin (large) PNe, we find that our calibration is of higher ac...

  7. ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters that transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in He II λ4686, Hβ, He I λ5876, [O I] λλ6300, 6364, [N II] λλ6548, 6583, [S II] λλ6716, 6731, [S III] λ9069, and [C I] λλ9823, 9850. We present both raw and flux-calibrated emission-line images. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. These maps show distinctive structure, and they illustrate regions of gas in which various stages of nucleosynthesis have apparently occurred, including the CNO cycle, helium burning, carbon burning, and oxygen burning. It is hoped that the calibrated observations and chemical abundance distribution maps will be useful for developing a better understanding of the precursor star evolution and the supernova explosive process.

  8. The chemistry of compact planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Josselin, E

    2003-01-01

    We report high-sensitivity millimetre observations of several molecular species (13CO, HCN, HNC, CN, HCO+ and N2H+) in a sample of compact planetary nebulae. Some species such as HCO+ and CN are particularly abundant compared to envelopes around AGB stars or even interstellar clouds. We have estimated the following average values for the column densities ratios: CN/HCN~2.6, HCO+/HCN~0.5, and HNC/HCN~0.4. Thus, the chemical composition of the molecular envelopes in these compact PNe appears somewhat intermediate between the composition of proto-PNe (such as CRL 2688 or CRL 618) and well evolved PNe (such as the Ring, M4--9, or the Helix). From observations of the CO isotopomers, we have estimated that the 12C/13C ratio is in the range 10 ~< 12C/13C ~< 40. These values are below those expected from standard asymptotic giant branch models and suggest non-standard mixing processes. The observed molecular abundances are compared to very recent modelling work, and we conclude that the observations are well ex...

  9. The Crab Nebula's Moving Wisps in Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, M F; Hester, J J

    2001-01-01

    We present three high resolution radio images of the Crab nebula, taken in 1998.6, 1998.8 and 2000.1 with the VLA. These are the best radio images of the Crab to date. We show that, near the pulsar, there are significant changes between our three observing epochs. These changes have an elliptical geometry very similar to that of the optical wisps. One radio wisp in particular can be unambiguously identified between two of our observing epochs, and moves outward with an apparent velocity of ~0.24. The similarity in both morphology and behavior of the present radio wisps to the optical wisps suggests that they are associated. This implies that the radio wisps, like the optical ones, are likely manifestations of the shock in the Crab pulsar's wind. This suggests that the radio emitting electrons are accelerated in the same region as the ones responsible for the optical to X-ray emission, contrary to most current models.

  10. Embedded Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, R I; Hester, J J; Thompson, Rodger I.; Smith, Bradford A.

    2002-01-01

    M16=NGC 6611, the Eagle Nebula, is a well studied region of star formation and the source of a widely recognized Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. High spatial resolution infrared observations with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on HST reveal the detailed morphology of two embedded star formation regions that are heavily obscured at optical wavelengths. It is striking that only limited portions of the visually obscured areas are opaque at 2.2 microns. Although the optical images imply substantial columns of material, the infrared images show only isolated clumps of dense gas and dust. Rather than being an active factory of star production, only a few regions are capable of sustaining current star formation. Most of the volume in the columns may be molecular gas and dust, protected by capstones of dense dust. Two active regions of star formation are located at the tips of the optical northern and central large ``elephant trunk'' features shown in the WFPC2 images. They are em...

  11. Planetary Nebula Kinematics in M101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Look at a spiral; what do you see? Stars zooming `round in the galaxy! Their motions indicate total mass, but how much is DM, stars, and gas? Study motions in and out; first find monochromatic stars- that's my kind. Find us, get our velocities, then: determine disk mass! I'm a PN! Rotation curves indicate the total mass of spirals, but halo mass profiles cannot be decoupled from the visible disk mass using rotation curves alone. To break this disk-halo degeneracy, we have been using planetary nebulae (PNe) to measure the z-component of the stellar velocity dispersion in the disks of face-on spirals. These measurements of σ_z, coupled with straightforward assumptions, have yielded disk surface mass estimates over several scale lengths (h_R) in 6 spirals. We find that in the inner regions of galaxies (R galaxy, M101, to R > 8 h_R. Last year we imaged M101 with the wide-field Mosaic camera on the KPNO 4-m telescope. This proposal is to perform follow-up spectroscopy on ~240 PNe in M101 with WIYN/Hydra.

  12. Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Di Criscienzo, M; García-Hernández, D A; Dell'Agli, F

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the planetary nebulae (PNe) population of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on evolutionary models of stars with metallicities in the range $10^{-3} \\leq Z \\leq 4\\times 10^{-3}$ and mass $0.9 M\\odot < M < 8M\\odot$, evolved through the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. The models used account for dust formation in the circumstellar envelope. To characterise the PNe sample of the SMC, we compare the observed abundances of the various species with the final chemical composition of the AGB models: this study allows us to identify the progenitors of the PNe observed, in terms of mass and chemical composition. According to our interpretation, most of the PNe descend from low-mass ($M < 2 M\\odot$) stars, which become carbon rich, after experiencing repeated third dredge-up episodes, during the AGB phase. A fraction of the PNe showing the signature of advanced CNO processing are interpreted as the progeny of massive AGB stars, with mass above $\\sim 6 M\\odot$, undergoing strong hot bottom ...

  13. Planetary Nebulae and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what is it they are observing. This is the basis of the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Planetary Nebulae and How to Observe Them is intended for amateur astronomers who want to concentrate on one of the most beautiful classes of astronomical objects in the sky. This book will help the observer to see these celestial phenomena using telescopes of various apertures. As a Sun-like star reaches the end of its life, its hydrogen fuel starts to run out. It collapses until helium nuclei begin nuclear fusion, whereupon the star begins to pulsate, each pulsation throwing off a layer of the star's atmosphere. Eventually the atmosphere has all been ejected as an expanding cloud of gas, the star's core is exposed and ultraviolet photons cause the shell of gas to glow brilliantly - that's planetary ...

  14. Edwin Hubble. Mariner of the nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, G. E.

    This biography of Edwin Hubble has been acclaimed by professionals and laymen alike. It is both the biography of an extraordinary human being and the story of the greatest quest in the history of astronomy since the Copernican revolution. Born in 1889 and reared in the village of Marshfield, Missouri, Edwin Powell Hubble became one of the towering figures in 20th century science. Hubble worked with the great 100 inch Hooker telescope at California's Mount Wilson Observatory and made a series of discoveries that revolutionized humanity's vision of the cosmos. In 1923 he was able to confirm the existence of other nebulae beyond our own Milky Way. By the end of the decade, he had proven that the universe is expanding, thus laying the very cornerstone of the "Big Bang" theory of creation. It was Hubble who developed the elegant scheme by which the galaxies are classified as ellipticals and spirals, and it was Hubble who first provided reliable evidence that the universe is homogeneous, the same in all directions as far as the telescope can see.

  15. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar Cognitive "Theory of Mind" processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais, no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatura sobre possíveis alterações do processamento Teoria da Mente no transtorno afetivo bipolar. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline por trabalhos publicados em língua inglesa, alemã, espanhola ou portuguesa nos últimos 20 anos, utilizando a frase de busca "Bipolar Disorder"[Mesh] AND "Theory of Mind". Foram procurados por estudos clínicos envolvendo indivíduos bipolares e que empregaram uma ou mais tarefas cognitivas desenvolvidas para a avaliação de habilidades Teoria da Mente. Foram excluídos os relatos de caso e cartas ao editor. A busca inicial resultou em cinco artigos, sendo selecionados quatro. Outros quatro foram também selecionados a partir da leitura dos artigos acima. DISCUSSÃO: Os artigos selecionados avaliaram populações de bipolares adultos e pediátricos, incluindo indivíduos eutímicos, maníacos e deprimidos. A maioria dos trabalhos avaliados sugere que existam prejuízos no processamento Teoria da Mente em portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar e que estes podem estar por trás dos sintomas e dos déficits funcionais do transtorno afetivo bipolar. CONCLUSÃO: Pesquisas futuras a respeito do tema em questão poderão esclarecer muito acerca do papel das alterações sociocognitivas no surgimento dos sintomas do transtorno afetivo bipolar, bem como ajudar no desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas do mesmo.OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is associated to persistent functional

  16. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  17. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  18. The Radio Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, M F; Frail, D A; Perley, R A; Erickson, W C; Hajian, A R

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a new, comprehensive investigation of the radio spectral index of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant. New data at 74 MHz are combined with data at 327 MHz, 1.5 GHz and 5 GHz. In contrast to previous claims, little spatial variation in the spectral index is seen. In particular, between 327 MHz and 5 GHz we see no evidence of spectral steepening near the edge of the nebula, the ``jet'' or the ionized filaments. The rms limits on any spectral index variations in these regions amount to no more than 0.01. We believe that earlier reports of large steepening were the result of correlator bias and image registration problems. An elongated feature was detected wisp-like structures seen closer to the center of the nebula. At 74 MHz, we see for the first time evidence of free-free absorption by the thermal material in the Crab Nebula's filaments. Apart from some possible renewed acceleration occurring in the wisps, the dominant accelerator of relativistic electrons in the Crab Nebula is the pul...

  19. Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula and its Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Lazendic, J S; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Green, A; Whiteoak, J

    2003-01-01

    We present millimetre and NIR molecular-line observations of the Tornado nebula and its Eye. The observations were motivated by the presence of OH(1720 MHz) maser emission towards the nebula, believed to be an indicator of interaction between a supernova remnant and a molecular cloud. We found that the distribution of molecular gas around the Tornado complements its radio morphology, implying that the nebula's appearance has been influenced by the structure of the surrounding molecular gas. Our NIR H$_2$ observations revealed the presence of shocked molecular gas at the location where the nebula is expanding into the surrounding molecular cloud. It has been suggested that the Eye of the Tornado is related to the nebula on the basis of their apparent proximity. Our NIR and millimetre-line observations show that the two objects are not spatially related. Br $\\gamma$ line emission, in conjuction with IR data at longer wavelengths and high-resolution radio continuum observations, suggests that the Eye is a massiv...

  20. Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae Passing Through Density Discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Doosoo

    2016-01-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae are a subset of pulsar wind nebulae that form when the pulsar has high velocity due to the natal kick during the supernova explosion. The interaction between the relativistic wind from the fast-moving pulsar and the interstellar medium produces a bow-shock and a trail, which are detectable in H$_{\\alpha}$ emission. Among such bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae, the Guitar Nebula stands out for its peculiar morphology, which consists of a prominent bow-shock head and a series of bubbles further behind. We present a scenario in which multiple bubbles can be produced when the pulsar encounters a series of density discontinuities in the ISM. We tested the scenario using 2-D and 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. The shape of the guitar nebula can be reproduced if the pulsar traversed a region of declining low density. We also show that if a pulsar encounters an inclined density discontinuity, it produces an asymmetric bow-shock head, consistent with observations of the bow-shock of the millise...

  1. HUBBLE HERITAGE PROJECT'S FIRST ANNIVERSARY HUBBLE'S VARIABLE NEBULA (NGC 2261)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble's variable nebula is named (like the Hubble telescope itself) after the American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble, who carried out some of the early studies of this object. It is a fan-shaped cloud of gas and dust which is illuminated by R Monocerotis (R Mon), the bright star at the bottom end of the nebula. Dense condensations of dust near the star cast shadows out into the nebula, and as they move the illumination changes, giving rise to the variations first noted by Hubble. The star itself, lying about 2,500 light-years from Earth, cannot be seen directly, but only through light scattered off of dust particles in the surrounding nebula. R Mon is believed to have a mass of about 10 times that of the Sun, and to have an age of only 300,000 years. There is probably a symmetrical counterpart of the fan-shaped nebula on the southern side of the star, but it is heavily obscured from view by dust lying between this lobe and our line of sight. The Hubble Heritage team made this image from observations of R Mon acquired by William Sparks (STScI), Sylvia Baggett (STScI) and collaborators. Image Credit: NASA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI).

  2. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  3. Herschel spectral mapping of the Helix nebula (NGC 7293): Extended CO photodissociation and OH+ emission

    OpenAIRE

    Etxaluze, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Van de Steene, G. C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Swinyard, B. M.; Barlow, M.J.; Matsuura, M.; Lim, T. L.; Pearson, C.; Polehampton, E. T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Lique, F.; Royer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The Helix nebula (NGC 7293) is our closest planetary nebulae. Therefore, it is an ideal template for photochemical studies at small spatial scales in planetary nebulae. Aims. We aim to study the spatial distribution of the atomic and the molecular gas, and the structure of the photodissociation region along the western rims of the Helix nebula as seen in the submillimeter range with Herschel. Methods. We used five SPIRE FTS pointing observations to make atomic and molecular spectral ...

  4. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  5. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  6. QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieznańska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the consequences of bipolar disorder there i s a decreased quality of life, including the deterioration of patients’ social functioning. Material: The paper contains an analysis of 24 major publica tions from the years 2009 to 2014, including 17 related to the assessment of quality of life and 7 articles on the bipolar patients’ social functioning. Results: There were selected 8 factors which are related with the assessment of the quality of life of persons with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder: the presence of depressive symptoms, substance use, sleep deficit, religious activity and social support, internalized stigma, suicide attempts in the past, the perception of emotions and impulsivity. It was defined that social functioning of bipolar patients is dependent on the emotional state of patients, and in particular the presence of depressive symptoms. It is dependent also on patients’ cognitive performance and internalized stigma. Conclusions: Assistance in mastering the first symptoms of a depressive phase can help bipolar patients in their smooth social functioning and quality of life. Taking into account the implementation of appropriate therapy with cognitive exercise and which is aimed at reducing internalized stigma, may contribute to improving the quality of life and improve the patients’ social functioning.

  7. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  8. [Pseudocholinesterase activity in type 1 bipolar patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the variation of pseudocholinesterase activity (BuChE) in bipolar patients and to explore its relation to the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this disease. Our study included 105 patients with bipolar disorder and 100 control subjects aged 38.7 ± 12.2 and 36.4 ± 15.7 y, respectively. BuChE was determined by kinetic methods on Cobas Integra 400 plus™. Compared with controls, patients had a significantly higher pseudocholinesterase activity. Moreover, this increase was significantly associated (p = 0.001) with bipolar disorder with sensibility of 58% and specificity of 62% at threshold of 7392 IU/L. There was no significant change in pseudocholinesterase activity in relation to illness episodes and treatment, whereas the lowest values of this activity were seen in euthymic patients and those taking psychotics. Therefore, this activity is a real interest in the biological monitoring of patients as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases associated with bipolar disorder. But it would be most useful to evaluate their interest as a predictor of bipolar disorder in patients at risk. PMID:22294139

  9. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  10. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V;

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  11. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  12. Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder and Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder &Fibromyalgia: Choosing What’sRight for You What are anticonvulsant drugs? Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures. They are also used to treat bipolar ...

  13. Lithium Beats Newer Meds for Bipolar Disorder, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Treatment and Research of Bipolar Disorder at Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, N.Y., and ... Center for Treatment and Research of Bipolar Disorder, Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, N.Y.; May 11, ...

  14. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And those who also have conduct disorder ... with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and drugs may increase as they get older, ...

  15. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  16. A minimum thermodynamic model for the bipolar seesaw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar seesaw, synchronization of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Dansgaard-Oeschger events, north-south connection......Bipolar seesaw, synchronization of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Dansgaard-Oeschger events, north-south connection...

  17. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  18. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as ‘the Crab’) have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae. (review article)

  19. The Phases of Water Ice in the Solar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the phases of water ice that were present in the solar nebula has implications for understanding cometary and planetary compositions as well as internal evolution of these bodies. Here we show that amorphous ice formed more readily than previously recognized, with formation at temperatures <70 K being possible under protoplanetary disk conditions. We further argue that photodesorption and freeze-out of water molecules near the surface layers of the solar nebula would have provided the conditions needed for amorphous ice to form. This processing would be a natural consequence of ice dynamics, and would allow for the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles in water ice in the outer solar nebula.

  20. Recombination Lines of CII in the Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2010-01-01

    The current report presents the work carried out by the author to investigate the recombination lines of CII in the spectra of planetary nebulae. Two CIII targets were prepared and used to generate theoretical data required in the investigation of recombination lines that arise from collisions between electrons and ions in thin plasma found in planetary nebulae and other astrophysical objects. One of these targets contains 9 atomic terms while the other contains 26 terms. For each one of these targets, theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate coupling approximation by R-matrix and Autostructure codes and compared to experimental data. The comparison revealed very good agreement. These theoretical data were then used to generate emissivity data and compare it to the carbon recombination lines found in the observational line list of Zhang et al [2005] on the planetary nebula NGC 7027. The main tool used in this analysis is the `Emissivity' code which is a prog...

  1. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar. A fraction of interstellar neutrals penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of both non-relativistic and relativistic flow, and focusing on scales much larger than the stand-off distance, we find that a relatively small density of neutrals, as low as $n_{\\rm ISM}=10^{-4}\\,\\text{cm}^{-3}$, is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  2. Gamma-rays from pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Karl; Elsässer, Dominik; Tibolla, Omar

    2012-07-01

    Recently, gamma-ray emission at TeV energies has been detected from the starburst galaxies NGC253 (Acero et al., 2009) [1] and M82 (Acciari et al., 2009) [2]. It has been claimed that pion production due to cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants interacting with the interstellar gas is responsible for the observed gamma rays. Here, we show that the gamma-ray pulsar wind nebulae left behind by the supernovae contribute to the TeV luminosity in a major way. A single pulsar wind nebula produces about ten times the total luminosity of the Sun at energies above 1 TeV during a lifetime of 105 years. A large number of 3 × 104 pulsar wind nebulae expected in a typical starburst galaxy at a distance of 4 Mpc can readily produce the observed TeV gamma rays.

  3. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar medium. A fraction of interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of relativistic flow we find that if a relatively small density of neutral hydrogen, as low as $10^{-4}$ cm$^{-3}$, penetrate inside the pulsar wind, this is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  4. An Interactive Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitter, K. B.; Henry, R. B. C.

    2002-12-01

    We have created a website containing high-quality moderate-resolution spectra of 88 planetary nebulae (PNe) from 3600 to 9600 Å, obtained at KPNO and CTIO. Spectra are displayed in a zoomable window, and there are templates available that show wavelength and ion identifications. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution, and a table with atlas information for each object along with a link to an image. This table can be re-ordered by object name, galactic or equatorial coordinates, distance from the sun, the galactic center, or the galactic plane. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users. PN researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and finally, teachers of introductory astronomy can use this database to illustrate basic principles of atomic physics and radiation. To encourage such use, we have written two simple exercises at a basic level to introduce beginning astronomy students to the wealth of information that PN spectra contain. We are grateful to Adam Wang of the Williams College OIT and to his summer student teams who worked on various apects of the implementation of this website. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-9819123 and by Williams College and the University of Oklahoma.

  5. Immunocytochemical Evidence that Monkey Rod Bipolar Cells Use GABA

    OpenAIRE

    Lassová, Luisa; Fina, Marie; Sulaiman, Pyroja; Vard, Noga

    2010-01-01

    Certain bipolar cells in most species immunostain for GABA or its synthesizing enzyme, GAD. However it is unknown whether they actually release GABA, and if so, from which cellular compartment, and by what release mechanism. We investigated these questions in monkey retina where rod bipolar cells immunostain for GABA. We found that rod bipolar cells immunostain for one isoform of GAD, GAD65, in their somas, dendrites, and axon terminals. Near the fovea, the somatic stain of rod bipolar cells ...

  6. Experience of Subjective Symptoms in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Soohyun; Joo,YeonHo; Kim, Seongyoon

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar patients often experience subjective symptoms even if they do not have active psychotic symptoms in their euthymic state. Most studies about subjective symptoms are conducted in schizophrenia, and there are few studies involving bipolar patients. We examined the nature of the subjective symptoms of bipolar patients in their euthymic state, and we also compared it to that of schizophrenia and normal control. Thirty bipolar patients, 25 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 normal control...

  7. A Review of MR Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, D.G.; Hellem, T.L.; Shi, X.-F.; Sung, Y.H.; Prescot, A.P.; Kim, T.S.; Huber, R.S.; Forrest, L.N.; Renshaw, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness whose pathophysiology is poorly understood and for which there is an urgent need for improved diagnosis and treatment. MR spectroscopy is a neuroimaging method capable of in vivo measurement of neurochemicals relevant to bipolar disorder neurobiology. MR spectroscopy studies of adult bipolar disorder provide consistent evidence for alterations in the glutamate system and mitochondrial function. In bipolar disorder, these 2 phenomena may be...

  8. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi Sharmin; Deckersbach Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  9. A radio search for planetary nebulae near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of galactic center is a hostile environment, and because planetaries are weak radio emitters, it is not clear a priori that one expects to detect any planetary nebulae at all in the nuclear region of the Galaxy. Therefore the expected lifetime and flux density distribution of galactic center nebulae is considered. The principal observational results from the Westerbork data, and the results of some pilot observations with the Very Large Array, which were intended to distinguish planetaries from other radio sources on an individual basis are given. (Auth.)

  10. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frédéric Zagury

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a series of spectra in the Red Rectangle nebula. Only the reddest part of the spectra can safely be attributed to light from the nebula, and indicates Rayleigh scattering by the gas, in conformity with the large angles of scattering involved and the proximity of the star. In the blue, light from HD 44179, refracted or scattered in the atmosphere, dominates the spectra. This paper questions the reliability of ground-based broad-band spectra of extended objects in the blue.

  11. A radio nebula associated with Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R. F.; Komesaroff, M. M.; Jauncey, D. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Milne, D. K.; Kesteven, M. J.; Wellington, K. J.; Preston, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the variable source Circinus X-1 is reported that reveals that this eccentric double-star system is embedded in a nebula of steady radio emission extending over several parsecs, orders of magnitude larger than the binary stellar system responsible for the fluctuating component of emission. This is in marked constrast to most X-ray binaries, where an envelope of radio emission in conspicuously absent. There are difficulties in explaining the emission, but analogies with SS433 and the Crab nebula suggest possible models.

  12. s-process Enrichment in the Planetary Nebula NGC 3918

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C

    2014-01-01

    We present deep, high-resolution (R~40000) UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data of the planetary nebula NGC 3918. This is one of the deepest spectra ever taken of a planetary nebula. We have identified and measured more than 700 emission lines and, in particular, we have detected very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (s-process elements: Kr, Xe and Rb) that enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up.

  13. Planetary nebulae in 2014: A review of research

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Planetary nebulae had a double anniversary in 2014, 250 year since their discovery and 150 year since the correct spectroscopic identification. This paper gives an overview of planetary nebula research published in 2014. Topics include surveys, central stars, abundances, morphologies, magnetic fields, stellar population and galactic dynamics. An important continuing controversy is the discrepancy between recombination-line and forbidden-line abundances. A new controversy is the relation between symbiotic stars and [WC] stars. PN of the year is undoubtedly CRL 618, with papers on its binary symbiotic/[WC] nucleus, rapid stellar evolution, expanding jets and magnetic fields.

  14. Observing by hand sketching the nebulae in the nineteenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Nasim, Omar W

    2014-01-01

    Today we are all familiar with the iconic pictures of the nebulae produced by the Hubble Space Telescope's digital cameras. But there was a time, before the successful application of photography to the heavens, in which scientists had to rely on handmade drawings of these mysterious phenomena.           Observing by Hand sheds entirely new light on the ways in which the production and reception of handdrawn images of the nebulae in the nineteenth century contributed to astronomical observation. Omar W. Nasim investigates hundreds of unpublished observing books and paper records from six ninete

  15. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long; Chen, Aijun; Kempler, Steven; Lynnes, Christopher; Theobald, Michael; Asghar, Esfandiari; Campino, Jane; Vollmer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Cloud Computing has been implemented in several commercial arenas. The NASA Nebula Cloud Computing platform is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) built in 2008 at NASA Ames Research Center and 2010 at GSFC. Nebula is an open source Cloud platform intended to: a) Make NASA realize significant cost savings through efficient resource utilization, reduced energy consumption, and reduced labor costs. b) Provide an easier way for NASA scientists and researchers to efficiently explore and share large and complex data sets. c) Allow customers to provision, manage, and decommission computing capabilities on an as-needed bases

  16. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo;

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...... which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, the key issue consists in identifying the semantic opposition characterizing the meaning of concepts...

  17. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  18. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  19. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar Cognitive "Theory of Mind" processing in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais), no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatu...

  20. Transtorno bipolar do humor e gênero Bipolar affective disorder and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Silva Dias; Florence Kerr-Corrêa; Ricardo Cezar Torresan; Carlos Henrique R. dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Embora o transtorno bipolar (TB) ocorra quase igualmente em ambos os sexos, a fenomenologia e o curso da doença diferem no homem e na mulher. No entanto, há evidências de que mulheres bipolares, mais que os homens, apresentariam início mais tardio (em especial na quinta década de vida), ciclagem rápida, mais episódios depressivos, mais mania disfórica que eufórica, estados mistos e evolução do tipo bipolar II, ainda que os achados nem sempre sejam consistentes. Embora o risco de comorbidades ...

  1. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  2. [Bipolar disorders and self-stigma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Lepouriel, H

    2015-09-16

    Despite wide media coverage in recent years, the stigmatization of people with bipolar disorder still exists. Bipolar people also have their own tendency to self-stigmatize that is to integrate their beliefs, prejudices and stigmatizing behaviors. The consequences are important: shame, guilt, withdrawal and renunciation to lead one's own life according to personal values increasing therefore the risk of mood relapses. Self-stigma is rarely assessed in clinical practice and few strategies have been designed to face them efficiently. Recognizing self-stigmatizing beliefs and challenging them are the first steps of this vast endeavour. PMID:26591079

  3. Bipolar effects in unipolar junctionless transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Ghosh, Dipankar; Armstrong, G. Alastair; Yu, Ran; Razavi, Pedram; Kranti, Abhinav

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we analyze hysteresis and bipolar effects in unipolar junctionless transistors. A change in subthreshold drain current by 5 orders of magnitude is demonstrated at a drain voltage of 2.25 V in silicon junctionless transistor. Contrary to the conventional theory, increasing gate oxide thickness results in (i) a reduction of subthreshold slope (S-slope) and (ii) an increase in drain current, due to bipolar effects. The high sensitivity to film thickness in junctionless devices will be most crucial factor in achieving steep transition from ON to OFF state.

  4. Rumination in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Érico de M. Silveira Jr.; Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD).Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review...

  5. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were c

  6. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHO...

  7. Sleep disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder: A comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelinda eBaroni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS. In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD NOS and BD I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD I and BD NOS youth using KSADS-PL interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8±3.6 years old including 24 BP-I and 46 BP-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD I in our sample.

  8. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  9. On the carbonaceous carriers of IR plateau and continuum emission

    CERN Document Server

    Papoular, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the molecular origins of plateaus and continuum underlying IR and FIR bands emitted by compact nebulae, especially proto-planetary nebulae. Computational organic chemistry codes are used to deliver the vibrational integrated band intensities of various large, typical carbonaceous structures. These spectra are composed of a rather continuous distribution of weak modes from which emerge the fingerprints. The 6 to 18-mu region is interspersed with a great many weak lines, to which the plateaus are assigned. Similarly, the far IR spectrum is ascribed to the phonon (skeletal) spectrum which is readily identified beyond 18 mu. The absorptivities and absorption cross-sections per interstellar H atom deduced from these spectra are comparable with those of laboratory dust analogs and astronomical measurements, respectively. Moreover, the 5-35 mu spectra of two typical Proto-Planetary Nebula were reasonably well simulated with combinations of molecules containing functional groups which carry the 21...

  10. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Miura, Kodai; Takekawa, Shunya

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7--0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic Center region. A 15'x15' area was mapped in the J=1--0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope. The VLA archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V_LSR=-14 km/s and +5 km/s. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km/s cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km/s cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km/s cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km/s cloud collided into the -14...

  11. The Galactic Bulge The Stellar and Planetary Nebulae Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Cuisinier, F; Acker, A; Maciel, W J

    2001-01-01

    We compare abundances patterns in the Bulge for elements observed in stars and in planetary nebulae. Some alpha elements, like Mg and Ti, are overabundant respect to Fe, and others are not, like He, O, Si, S, Ar, Ca. The first ones favor a quick evolution of the Galactic Bulge, and the seconds a much slower one.

  12. Digital Libraries, Conceptual Knowledge Systems, and the Nebula Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Concept Analysis provides a principled approach to effective management of wide area information systems, such as the Nebula File System and Interface. This not only offers evidence to support the assertion that a digital library is a bounded collection of incommensurate information sources in a logical space, but also sheds light on techniques for collaboration through coordinated access to the shared organization of knowledge.

  13. Local space density and formation rate of planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Individual distances of 50 nearby planetary nebulae are determined using a variety of methods, but excluding statistical methods or distance scales. These distances, together with a discussion of the sample completeness, are used to determine local PN formation rate. Together with the brightness of

  14. Particle acceleration and radiation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Pulsar Wind Nebulae are the astrophysical sources that host the most relativistic shocks in Nature and the only Galactic sources in which we have direct evidence of PeV particles. These facts make them very interesting from the point of view of particle acceleration physics, and their proximity and brightness make them a place where fundamental processes common to different classes of relativistic sources have a better chance to be understood. I will discuss how well we understand the physics of Pulsar Wind Nebulae, describing recent progress and highlighting the main open questions. I will be mostly concerned with the subject of particle acceleration, but, as we will see, in order to clarify the physics of this process, it is important to determine the conditions of the plasma in the nebula. These in turn can only be constrained through detailed modelling of the PWN dynamics and radiation. The shock in the Crab Nebula is probably the most efficient accelerator known, both in terms of conversion of the flow e...

  15. Stellar X-ray Sources in the Rosette Nebula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. P. Chen; P. S. Chiang; J. Z. Li

    2004-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic studies of ROSAT X-ray stellar sources in the Rosette Nebula star-forming region. The brightest Xray sources are either massive stars or active T Tauri stars associated with the open cluster NGC 2244, or are foreground stars. Some of the spectra of the young stars newly identified in the region are presented.

  16. A Hot Gap Around Jupiter's Orbit in the Solar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Castillo-Rogez, J; Bryden, G

    2011-01-01

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the Solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically-thin gap in the nebula. We show using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Ju...

  17. Rule or exception? Planetary nebulae around hot subdwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, A; Ulla, A; Oreiro, R; Manteiga, M; Pérez, E; Rodríguez-López, C; 10.1017/S174392131201647X

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first results of an ongoing survey to search for planetary nebulae (PNe) around hot subdwarf stars (sdOs). Deep images and intermediate-resolution long-slit spectra of RWT 152, the only confirmed PN+sdO system in the northern hemisphere, as well as preliminary results for other sdO+PN candidate are presented.

  18. Why convective heat transport in the solar nebula was inefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The radial distributions of the effective temperatures of circumstellar disks associated with pre-main sequence (T Tauri) stars are relatively well-constrained by ground-based and spacecraft infrared photometry and radio continuum observations. If the mechanisms by which energy is transported vertically in the disks are understood, these data can be used to constrain models of the thermal structure and evolution of solar nebula. Several studies of the evolution of the solar nebula have included the calculation of the vertical transport of heat by convection. Such calculations rely on a mixing length theory of transport and some assumption regarding the vertical distribution of internal dissipation. In all cases, the results of these calculations indicate that transport by radiation dominates that by convection, even when the nebula is convectively unstable. A simple argument that demonstrates the generality (and limits) of this result, regardless of the details of mixing length theory or the precise distribution of internal heating is presented. It is based on the idea that the radiative gradient in an optically thick nebula generally does not greatly exceed the adiabatic gradient.

  19. FORMING CHONDRITES IN A SOLAR NEBULA WITH MAGNETICALLY INDUCED TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Turner, Neal J.; Masiero, Joseph [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi, E-mail: yasuhiro@caltech.edu [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    Chondritic meteorites provide valuable opportunities to investigate the origins of the solar system. We explore impact jetting as a mechanism of chondrule formation and subsequent pebble accretion as a mechanism of accreting chondrules onto parent bodies of chondrites, and investigate how these two processes can account for the currently available meteoritic data. We find that when the solar nebula is ≤5 times more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula at a ≃ 2–3 au and parent bodies of chondrites are ≤10{sup 24} g (≤500 km in radius) in the solar nebula, impact jetting and subsequent pebble accretion can reproduce a number of properties of the meteoritic data. The properties include the present asteroid belt mass, the formation timescale of chondrules, and the magnetic field strength of the nebula derived from chondrules in Semarkona. Since this scenario requires a first generation of planetesimals that trigger impact jetting and serve as parent bodies to accrete chondrules, the upper limit of parent bodies’ masses leads to the following implications: primordial asteroids that were originally ≥10{sup 24} g in mass were unlikely to contain chondrules, while less massive primordial asteroids likely had a chondrule-rich surface layer. The scenario developed from impact jetting and pebble accretion can therefore provide new insights into the origins of the solar system.

  20. A HOT GAP AROUND JUPITER'S ORBIT IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  1. An ISO and IUE study of planetary nebula NGC 2440

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, JB; Pottasch, [No Value; Feibelman, WA; Wesselius, PR

    2002-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebula NGC2440 are presented. The observations were made by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). These data, in conjunction with published optical observations have been used to derive electron temper

  2. The dark secrets of gaseous nebulae -- highlights from deep spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, I will briefly review the development of the theory of photoionized gaseous nebulae, highlighting some of the key events. I will then present some recent developments of deep spectroscopy of planetary nebulae (PNe) and H II regions, concentrating on observations of faint heavy element optical recombination lines (ORLs). I will show that there is strong evidence that nebulae contain another previously unknown component of cold (about 1,000 K), high-metallicity plasma, probably in the form of H-deficient inclusions embedded in the warm (about 10,000 K) diffuse nebula of "normal (i.e. near solar) composition". This cold gas emits essentially all the observed fluxes of heavy element ORLs, but is too cool to excite any significant optical or ultraviolet collisionally excited lines (CELs) and thus invisible via the latter. The existence of H-deficient gas in PNe and probably also in H II regions, not predicted by the current stellar evolution theory, provides a natural solution to the long-sta...

  3. Binarity and the abundance discrepancy problem in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Romano; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. We show here that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. This is illustrated by deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou5 have O++/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, but still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to "standard" hot (Te~10000 K) gas, a colder (Te~1000 K) ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements also exists. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 0.001 and 0.1 solar masses depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red-giant envelo...

  4. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  5. Properties of massive stars in the Tarantula Nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Ramírez Agudelo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the quantitative analysis of massive O-type stars in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The data have been collected in the context of VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of 800 OB-type st

  6. The jet-powered optical nebula of Cygnus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Russell; R.P. Fender; E. Gallo; C.R. Kaiser

    2007-01-01

    We present Halpha and [OIII] (5007 Å) images of the nebula powered by the jet of the black hole candidate and microquasar Cygnus X-1, observed with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The ring-like structure is luminous in [OIII] and there exists a thin outer shell with a high [OIII]/Halpha flux

  7. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  8. Commentary on N. Ghaemi's “Hippocratic Psychopharmacology of Bipolar Disorder” Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tohen, Mauricio; Lin, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic recurring condition that is associated with high mortality and severe functional and psychosocial impairments. Treatment strategies that prolong recovery from a mood episode and delay relapse into a new mood episode are essential for long-term improvements in outcomes. Maintenance treatments for bipolar disorder should be evaluated on the strength of the empirical evidence and with the recognition that some treatments may be more effective in preventing relapse i...

  9. Clinical variables and implications of the personality on the outcome of bipolar illness: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Barquero, Nieves; García-López, Olga; Fernández-Argüelles, Pedro; Camacho-Laraña, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients is affected by comorbidity. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. This pilot study examined a series of 40 euthymic bipolar patients (DSM-IV criteria) (bipolar I disorder 31, bipolar II disorder 9) to assess the effect of clinical variables and the influence of comorbid personality on the clinical course of bipolar illness. Bipolar patients with a diagnosis of comorbid personality disorder (n = 30) were compar...

  10. Heritability of cognitive functions in families with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Mervi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Soronen, Pia; Palo, Outi M; Paunio, Tiina; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2007-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is highly heritable. Cognitive dysfunctions often observed in bipolar patients and their unaffected relatives implicate that these impairments may be associated with genetic predisposition to bipolar disorder and thus fulfill the criteria of a valid endophenotype for the disorder. However, the most fundamental criterion, their heritability, has not been directly studied in any bipolar population. This population-based study estimated the heritability of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to a population-based sample of 110 individuals from 52 families with bipolar disorder. Heritability of cognitive functions as assessed with neuropsychological test scores were estimated using the Solar package. Significant additive heritabilities were found in verbal ability, executive functioning, and psychomotor processing speed. Genetic contribution was low to verbal learning functions. High heritability, in executive functioning and psychomotor processing speed suggest that these may be valid endophenotypic traits for genetic studies of bipolar disorder.

  11. Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, André F; Vieta, Eduard;

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging treatment target in bipolar disorder (BD). Several trials have assessed the efficacy of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments on cognition in BD but the findings are contradictory and unclear. A systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines...

  12. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed...

  13. Designing Mobile Health Technology for Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, JE; Frost, Mads; Szántó, Károly;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of pervasive healthcare systems are being designed, that allow people to monitor and get feedback on their health and wellness. To address the challenges of self-management of mental illnesses, we have developed the MONARCA system - a personal monitoring system for bipolar...

  14. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  15. Homocysteine and cognitive functions in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Permoda-Osip

    2014-12-01

    The results obtained show higher HCY concentration in considerable proportion of patients with bipolar depression, especially in men. They also confirm a connect between high homocysteine concentration and worse performance in some neuropsychological tests. Such relationship was more marked in men.

  16. Electrostatic Changes Observed with Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathne, S.; Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathna, N.

    2015-12-01

    Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) or compact intracloud discharges are impulsive discharges that are considered to be the strongest natural emitters in the HF radio band; they usually occur at high altitudes in some thunderstorms. In the summer of 2011, we collected E-change data with wideband flat-plate antennas (0.16 Hz - 2.5 MHz) at ten stations covering an area of nearly 70 km x 100 km in and around Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. On one thunderstorm day, 14 August 2011, we detected 226 positive NBPs, and some observations of these pulses were published in Karunarathne et al. [2015, JGR-atmospheres]. Of these 226 NBPs, 50 (22.1 %) occurred within 10 km horizontally of at least one sensor. All of these closer sensors show electrostatic changes associated with corresponding NBPs, with a net electrostatic change in the main bipolar pulse and with a slower electrostatic change after the bipolar pulse that seems similar to short continuing current immediately after some cloud-to-ground return strokes. Although NBPs have been considered as short duration pulses (10 - 20 microseconds), the electrostatic changes after the main bipolar pulse ranged from 0.7 ms to 34 ms and associated charge moments were calculated. The total duration of the electrostatic E-change was strongly dependent on the distance to the sensors. In this presentation, we will present data for these electrostatic changes, some statistics, and physical background and reasoning for the electrostatic changes.

  17. Unraveling Psychomotor Slowing in Bipolar Disorde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsel, A.M.; Temmerman, A.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Morrens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In addition to affective and cognitive symptomatology, psychomotor deficits are known to be present in bipolar disorder (BD). Psychomotor functioning includes all of the processes necessary for completing a movement, from planning to initiation and execution. While these psychomotor

  18. Bipolar disorder: from genes to behavior pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Martinowich, Keri; Schloesser, Robert J; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a devastating illness that is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. In addition to these cyclic episodes, individuals with BPD exhibit changes in psychovegetative function, cognitive performance, and general health and well being. In this article we draw from neuroimaging findings in humans, postmortem data, and human genetic and pharmacological studies as well as ...

  19. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  20. Vacuum interface flashover with bipolar electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, W.K.; Anderson, R.A.; Hasti, D.E.; Jones, E.E.; Bennett, L.F.

    1985-05-01

    High energy, compact, particle accelerators require accelerating cavities that have large gradients and operate with high efficiency. The bipolar electric fields required in these efficient accelerating cavities place severe requirements on the vacuum interface. Experimentally, we have found that the bipolar flashover field varies as t/sup -1/2/ for times out to 300 ns and then remains essentially constant at 33 kV/cm for longer duration waveforms, whereas materials subjected to unipolar electric fields follow a t/sup -1/6/ relationship. Furthermore, specific accelerating cavities offer enhancements that may be employed to achieve highly uniform electric fields across the vacuum interface. Using these results and the results of a previously developed theory of unipolar flashover, a new interface has been designed and 50 kV/cm bipolar flashover field achieved for a waveform train that lasted 1 ..mu..s. This paper will discuss the design of this vacuum interface and the evaluation of various materials that led to achieving bipolar flashover fields 50% greater than we had previously obtained for long duration waveforms. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Vacuum interface flashover with bipolar electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy, compact, particle accelerators require accelerating cavities that have large gradients and operate with high efficiency. The bipolar electric fields required in these efficient accelerating cavities place severe requirements on the vacuum interface. Experimentally, we have found that the bipolar flashover field varies as t/sup -1/2/ for times out to 300 ns and then remains essentially constant at 33 kV/cm for longer duration waveforms, whereas materials subjected to unipolar electric fields follow a t/sup -1/6/ relationship. Furthermore, specific accelerating cavities offer enhancements that may be employed to achieve highly uniform electric fields across the vacuum interface. Using these results and the results of a previously developed theory of unipolar flashover, a new interface has been designed and 50 kV/cm bipolar flashover field achieved for a waveform train that lasted 1 μs. This paper will discuss the design of this vacuum interface and the evaluation of various materials that led to achieving bipolar flashover fields 50% greater than we had previously obtained for long duration waveforms. 10 refs., 6 figs

  2. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  3. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Super-Acceleration in the Flaring Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, Marco, E-mail: marco.tavani@inaf.it

    2013-10-15

    The Crab Nebula continues to surprise us. The Crab system (energized by a very powerful pulsar at the center of the Supernova Remnant SN1054) is known to be a very efficient particle “accelerator” which can reach PeV energies. Today, new surprising data concerning the gamma-ray flares produced by the Crab Nebula challenge models of particle acceleration. The total energy flux from the Crab has been considered for many decades substantially stable at X-ray and gamma-ray energies. However, this paradigm was shattered by the AGILE discovery and Fermi confirmation in September 2010 of transient gamma-ray emission from the Crab. Indeed, we can state that four major flaring gamma-ray episodes have been detected by AGILE and Fermi during the period mid-2007/2012. During these events, transient particle acceleration occurs in a regime which apparently violates the MHD conditions and synchrotron cooling constraints. This fact justifies calling “super-acceleration” the mechanism which produces the “flaring Crab phenomenon”. Radiation between 50 MeV and a few GeV is emitted with a quite hard spectrum within a short timescale (hours-days), with no obvious relation with simultaneous optical and X-ray emissions in the inner Nebula. “Super-acceleration” implies overcoming synchrotron cooling by strong (and “parallel”) electric fields most likely produced by magnetic field reconnection within the pulsar wind outflow. This acceleration appears to be very efficient and, remarkably, limited by radiation reaction. It is not clear at the moment where in the Nebula this phenomenon occurs. An intense observational program is now focused on the Crab Nebula to resolve its most challenging mystery.

  5. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajda M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Hajda,1 Jan Prasko,1 Klara Latalova,1 Radovan Hruby,2 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Barbora Mainerova1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Outpatient Psychiatric Department, Martin, Slovak Republic; 3Department of Psychiatry, Regional Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background: Bipolar disorder (BD is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods: A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results: Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion: Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. Keywords: bipolar disorder, unmet needs, stigma, treatment, medication, quality of life, family, psychotherapy

  6. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  7. The circumstellar disk, envelope, and bi-polar outflow of the Massive Young Stellar Object W33A

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Hoare, Melvin G; Oudmaijer, Rene D; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Young Stellar Object (YSO) W33A is one of the best known examples of a massive star still in the process of forming. Here we present Gemini North ALTAIR/NIFS laser-guide star adaptive-optics assisted K-band integral-field spectroscopy of W33A and its inner reflection nebula. In our data we make the first detections of a rotationally-flattened outer envelope and fast bi-polar jet of a massive YSO at near-infrared wavelengths. The predominant spectral features observed are Br-gamma, H_2, and a combination of emission and absorption from CO gas. We perform a 3-D spectro-astrometric analysis of the line emission, the first study of its kind. We find that the object's Br-gamma emission reveals evidence for a fast bi-polar jet on sub-milliarcsecond scales, which is aligned with the larger-scale outflow. The hybrid CO features can be explained as a combination of hot CO emission arising in a disk close to the central star, while cold CO absorption originates in the cooler outer envelope. Kinematic analysis of th...

  8. The planetary nebula system and dynamics of NGC 5128. I - Planetary nebulae as standard candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaohui; Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.

    1993-01-01

    We present the result of a planetary nebula (PN) survey of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 performed with CCD cameras at the prime focus of the CTIO 4 m telescope. By comparing CCD images centered on the characteristic emission line forbidden O III 5007 A and on the adjacent continuum, we identify a total of 785 PNs in areas extending 20 kpc along the photometric major axis and covering the whole galaxy to 10 kpc. From these data, we form a complete sample of 224 PNs extending to a dereddened limiting magnitude of m5007 = 24.8, which extends 1.5 mag down the PN luminosity function (PNLF). Adopting a foreground extinction of E(B-V) = 0.1, we derive a distance to the galaxy of 3.5 +/- 0.2 Mpc, in excellent agreement with the surface brightness fluctuation method. No population effect on the bright cutoff of PNLF is observed in the isophotal radius range of 2-16 kpc, but the luminosity specific PN density seems to increase with radius inside of 7 kpc, in agreement with the alpha(2.5)-color relation observed for other galaxies.

  9. Abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar Psychoterapeutic approach in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o tratamento farmacológico seja essencial para o tratamento do transtorno bipolar, apenas 40% de todos os pacientes que aderem às medicações permanecem assintomáticos durante o período de seguimento, o que tem levado ao desenvolvimento de intervenções psicoterápicas associadas. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar as evidências atuais da eficácia de intervenções psicoterápicas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica por meio do MedLine, PsychoINFO, Lilacs e Cochrane Data Bank, até o ano de 2004, em que foram procurados artigos originais e revisões sobre as abordagens psicoterápicas utilizadas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Há várias abordagens que podem se mostrar úteis no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. A psicoeducação e a terapia cognitivo-comportamental apresentam as evidências mais consistentes e são as técnicas mais amplamente estudadas. As intervenções envolvendo familiares e a terapia interpessoal e de ritmo social se mostram tratamentos eficazes em determinadas situações. Há alguns estudos empregando a terapia psicodinâmica no transtorno bipolar, mas são estudos com limitações metodológicas. Apesar de haver evidências demonstrando a eficácia de determinadas abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar, ainda é necessária a realização de estudos posteriores que comprovem tais dados e que desenvolvam tratamentos baseados em modelos etiológicos e que identifiquem tratamentos específicos para as diferentes fases e tipos de transtorno bipolar.Although pharmacological treatment is essential for treating bipolar disorder, less than half of all medication compliant patients are non-symptomatic during follow-up, which has led to developments of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. This paper examines the current evidence for effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Searches were undertaken through Med

  10. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  11. Long-term Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Zengin Eroglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of long-term prophylactic treatment is certain in bipolar disorder, there is stil debate on how to which patients and evaluate the treatment response. Efficacious long-term treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality significantly and improve quality of life of bipolar patients. The concept of ideal response should also be defined very clearly in order to discuss the difficulties of measuring the effectiveness of the prophylactic treatment. The aims of this paper are to determine whether our currently methods and criteria are valid, reliable and sensitive evaluating the efficacy of the treatment response and to briefly inform the clinicians about the drugs used in pharmacologic prophylaxis in accordance with relevant data.

  12. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzoni Antonella

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD. Methods The paper describes three patients affected by AS and bipolar spectrum disorders. Results and conclusion Mood stabilizers and 2nd generation antipsychotics were effective in the treatment of these AS patients with comorbid BD, while the use of antidepressants was associated with worsening of the mood disorder. It is of importance to recognize both the psychiatric diagnoses in order to arrange an exhaustive therapeutic program and to define specific and realistic goals of treatment.

  13. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  14. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  15. Diagnostic features, prevalence, and impact of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketter, Terrence A

    2010-06-01

    Bipolar disorder shares depressive symptoms with unipolar major depressive disorder but is defined by episodes of mania or hypomania. Bipolar disorder in its broadest sense has a community lifetime prevalence of 4% and is a severely impairing illness that impacts several aspects of patients' lives. Race, ethnicity, and gender have no effect on prevalence rates, but women are more likely to experience rapid cycling, mixed states, depressive episodes, and bipolar II disorder than men. Patients with bipolar disorder have high rates of disability and higher rates of mortality than individuals without bipolar disorder. Natural causes such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as suicide and other "unnatural" causes are key contributors to the high mortality rate. The costs associated with bipolar disorder include not only the direct costs of treatment, but also the much greater indirect costs of decreased productivity, excess unemployment, and excess mortality. PMID:20573324

  16. Planetary Nebulae: Exposing the Top Polluters of the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Joseph L; Smith, Howard A; Cerrigone, Luciano; Latter, William B

    2008-01-01

    The high mass loss rates of stars in their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage of evolution is one of the most important pathways for mass return from stars to the ISM. In the planetary nebulae (PNe) phase, the ejected material is illuminated and can be altered by the UV radiation from the central star. PNe therefore play a significant role in the ISM recycling process and in changing the environment around them. We show some highlights of the results of observations that have been carried out using the Spitzer instruments to study the gas and dust emission from PNe in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Spitzer is especially sensitive to the cool dust and molecules in the PNe shell and halos. We present new results from our program on Galactic PNe, including IRAC and IRS observations of NGC 6720 in the ring and halo of that nebula.

  17. Spectroscopy and 3D imaging of the Crab nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Cadez, A; Vidrih, S

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy of the Crab nebula along different slit directions reveals the 3 dimensional structure of the optical nebula. On the basis of the linear radial expansion result first discovered by Trimble (1968), we make a 3D model of the optical emission. Results from a limited number of slit directions suggest that optical lines originate from a complicated array of wisps that are located in a rather thin shell, pierced by a jet. The jet is certainly not prominent in optical emission lines, but the direction of the piercing is consistent with the direction of the X-ray and radio jet. The shell's effective radius is ~ 79 seconds of arc, its thickness about a third of the radius and it is moving out with an average velocity 1160 km/s.

  18. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (1015 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 * 10-2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory. (authors)

  19. Volatile inventories in clathrate hydrates formed in the primordial nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Picaud, S; Cordier, D

    2010-01-01

    Examination of ambient thermodynamic conditions suggest that clathrate hydrates could exist in the martian permafrost, on the surface and in the interior of Titan, as well as in other icy satellites. Clathrate hydrates probably formed in a significant fraction of planetesimals in the solar system. Thus, these crystalline solids may have been accreted in comets, in the forming giant planets and in their surrounding satellite systems. In this work, we use a statistical thermodynamic model to investigate the composition of clathrate hydrates that may have formed in the primordial nebula. In our approach, we consider the formation sequence of the different ices occurring during the cooling of the nebula, a reasonable idealization of the process by which volatiles are trapped in planetesimals. We then determine the fractional occupancies of guests in each clathrate hydrate formed at given temperature. The major ingredient of our model is the description of the guest-clathrate hydrate interaction by a spherically a...

  20. Modeling Gamma-ray Flares in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yajie; Blandford, R. D.; Simeon, P.

    2013-04-01

    The gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula shows variations on a wide range of time scales, with the most dramatic events being the flares observed by Fermi and AGILE: the flux can increase by a factor of ~10 within ~10 hours; the spectrum is characterized by a peak energy ~300 MeV, while no variation in other wavebands was detected. These variations present a great challenge to particle acceleration mechanisms. We consider two possible explanations of these flares. Firstly, we consider emission from a moving relativistic shock terminating the pulsar wind. Secondly, we treat the pulsar and its wind as a current generator and suppose that the current filaments into individual pinches that can undergo radial collapse and become strongly dissipative when the electric field becomes as strong as the magnetic field and Larmor radius of the highest energy particles becomes comparable with the radius. The application of these models to pulsar wind nebulae and relativistic jets will be outlined.

  1. External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula: Jupiter's Noble Gas Enrichments

    CERN Document Server

    Monga, Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    We present a model explaining elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments ($\\sim$3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from ${\\rm H}_{2}$. We argue that external photoevaporation by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed ${\\rm H}_{2}$, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough ($\\lt 30$ K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot \\& Hueso (2006). We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production also is necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water va...

  2. Unraveling the Geometry of the Crab Nebula's "Inner Ring"

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J; O'Dell, Stephen L; Tennant, Allyn F

    2011-01-01

    Chandra images of the Crab Nebula resolve the detailed structure of its "inner ring", possibly a termination shock where pulsar-accelerated relativistic particles begin to emit X radiation. Analysis of these images finds that the center of the ellipse-presumably a circular ring in projection-lies about 0.9" (10 light-days at 2 kpc) from the pulsar's image, at a position angle of about 300{\\deg} (East of North). This analysis also measures properties of the ellipse: The position angle of the semi-major axis is about 210{\\deg} (East of North); the aspect ratio, 0.49. In a simple-albeit, not unique-de-projection of the observed geometry, a circular ring is centered on the axis of symmetry of the pulsar wind nebula. This ring is not equatorial but rather lies near +4.5{\\deg} latitude in pulsar-centered coordinates. Alternative geometries are briefly discussed.

  3. Probing Shocks of the Young Planetary Nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    The rapid evolution of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 provides a rare glimpse at the evolution of the shocks. We propose a detailed spatial and spectroscopic study of the shock conditions in NGC 7027 that will enhance and bridge our understanding of the shocks seen in other planetary nebula. Comparison between the Cycle 1 observation and a new Cycle 15 observation will (i) confirm the presence of the two components in the extended X-ray emission, (ii) measure the changes (spatial and spectral) in the components, and, (iii) provide a valuable trove of tests and inputs for shock conditions and hydrodynamical simulations. We rely on the unprecedented spatial resolution and soft-sensitivity of Chandra.

  4. Kinematic ages of central stars of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J; Costa, R D D

    2011-01-01

    The age distribution of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) is estimated using two methods based on their kinematic properties. First, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae at their Galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars. Adopting the relation between the ages and the velocity dispersions determined by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey, the age distribution can be derived. Second, the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars are determined, and the corresponding age-velocity dispersion relations are used to infer the age distribution. These methods have been applied to two samples of PN in the Galaxy. The results are similar for both samples, and show that the age distribution of the PN central stars concentrates in ages lower than 5 Gyr, peaking at about 1 to 3 Gyr.

  5. Super Star Cluster Nebula in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 660

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Turner, J. L.; Tsai, C.-W.; Beck, S. C.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2004-12-01

    We have mapped the starburst galaxy NGC 660 at 100mas resolution at K band (1.3 cm) with the NRAO Very Large Array. A peculiar galaxy at a distance of 13 Mpc, NGC 660 contains concentrated central star formation of power ˜ 2 x 1010 Lsun. Our 1.3 cm continuum image reveals a bright, compact source of less than 10 pc extent with a rising spectral index. We infer that this is optically thick free-free emission from a super star cluster nebula. The nebula is less than 10 pc in size, comparable in luminosity to the ``supernebula" in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. We estimate that there are a few thousand O stars contained in this single young cluster. There are a number of other weaker continuum sources, either slightly smaller or more evolved clusters of similar size within the central 300 parsecs of the galaxy. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  6. A wind-shell interaction model for multipolar planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, W; Esquivel, A; Garcia-Segura, G; Garcia-Diaz, Ma T; Lopez, J A; Magnor, M

    2013-01-01

    We explore the formation of multipolar structures in planetary and pre-planetary nebulae from the interaction of a fast post-AGB wind with a highly inhomogeneous and filamentary shell structure assumed to form during the final phase of the high density wind. The simulations were performed with a new hydrodynamics code integrated in the interactive framework of the astrophysical modeling package SHAPE. In contrast to conventional astrophysical hydrodynamics software, the new code does not require any programming intervention by the user for setting up or controlling the code. Visualization and analysis of the simulation data has been done in SHAPE without external software. The key conclusion from the simulations is that secondary lobes in planetary nebulae, such as Hubble 5 and K3-17, can be formed through the interaction of a fast low-density wind with a complex high density environment, such as a filamentary circumstellar shell. The more complicated alternative explanation of intermittent collimated outflow...

  7. Can solid body destruction explain abundance discrepancies in planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, William J

    2010-01-01

    In planetary nebulae, abundances of oxygen and other heavy elements derived from optical recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. We investigate the hypothesis that the destruction of solid bodies may produce pockets of cool, high-metallicity gas that could explain these abundance discrepancies. Under the assumption of maximally efficient radiative ablation, we derive two fundamental constraints that the solid bodies must satisfy in order that their evaporation during the planetary nebula phase should generate a high enough gas phase metallicity. A local constraint implies that the bodies must be larger than tens of meters, while a global constraint implies that the total mass of the solid body reservoir must exceed a few hundredths of a solar mass. This mass greatly exceeds the mass of any population of comets or large debris particles expected to be found orbiting evolved low- to intermediate-mass stars. We therefore conclude that contemporaneous sol...

  8. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hajda M; Prasko J; Latalova K; Hruby R; Ociskova M; Holubova M; Kamaradova D; Mainerova B

    2016-01-01

    Miroslav Hajda,1 Jan Prasko,1 Klara Latalova,1 Radovan Hruby,2 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Barbora Mainerova1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Outpatient Psychiatric Department, Martin, Slovak Republic; 3Department of Psychiatry, Regional Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with advers...

  9. The Bipolar Quantum Drift-diffusion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Qing CHEN; Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A fourth order parabolic system, the bipolar quantum drift-diffusion model in semiconductor simulation, with physically motivated Dirichlet-Neumann boundary condition is studied in this paper. By semidiscretization in time and compactness argument, the global existence and semiclassical limit are obtained, in which semiclassical limit describes the relation between quantum and classical drift-diffusion models. Furthermore, in the case of constant doping, we prove the weak solution exponentially approaches its constant steady state as time increases to infinity.

  10. Partial Rodent Genetic Models for Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guang; Henter, Ioline D.; Manji, Husseini K

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a complex clinical phenomenon. This episodic illness comprises at least four features/components: depression, mania, vulnerability to mood swings in euthymic BPD patients, and spontaneous cyclicity in at least some BPD patients. Currently, there is no rodent genetic model capable of encompassing the whole phenotype of BPD exists; however, recent genetic-behavioral studies have delineated partial models for some components of BPD, namely, depression, mania, and vulner...

  11. Bipolar electrochemistry for high throughput screening applications

    OpenAIRE

    Munktell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar electrochemistry is an interesting concept for high throughput screening techniques due to the ability to induce gradients in a range of materials and their properties, such as composition, particle size, or dopant levels, among many others. One of the key advantages of the method is the ability to test, create or modify materials without the need for a direct electrical connection. In this thesis, the viability of this method has been explored for a range of possible applications, su...

  12. Bipolar Transistor Tester for Physics Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Baddi, Raju

    2012-01-01

    A very simple low cost bipolar transistor tester for physics lab is given. The proposed circuit not only indicates the type of transistor(NPN/PNP) but also indicates the terminals(emitter, base and collector) using simple dual colored(Red/Green) LEDs. Color diagrams of testing procedure have been given for easy following. This article describes the construction of this apparatus in all detail with schematic circuit diagram, circuit layout and constructional illustration.

  13. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goa...

  14. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, H.; Franco, C.; Rodríguez, Juan Tinguaro; Gómez, Daniel; Pagola, Miguel; Fernandez, Javier; Barrenechea, Edurne

    2014-01-01

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, ...

  15. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Azzoni Antonella; Raja Michele

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD). Methods The paper describes three pati...

  16. The dust and gas content of the Crab Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, P.; Barlow, M.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed MOCASSIN photoionization plus dust radiative transfer models for the Crab Nebula core-collapse supernova (CCSN) remnant, using either smooth or clumped mass distributions, in order to determine the chemical composition and masses of the nebular gas and dust. We computed models for several different geometries suggested for the nebular matter distribution but found that the observed gas and dust spectra are relatively insensitive to these geometries, being determined mainly...

  17. The first published chart of the Andromeda Nebula, 1667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2014-06-01

    The Parisian astronomer Ismaél Bullialdus (1605-1694) is known for his planetary tables (Astronomia philolaica, 1645) based on a geometrical approximation to the Keplerian ellipse, and for his long correspondence with the Danzig astronomer Johannes Hevelius and with Christiaan Huygens. Bullialdus became interested in the nascent study of variable stars, and in 1667 published a small pamphlet with two contributions, one on Mira Ceti and the other on the nebula in Andromeda. He found a manuscript portraying the nebula with the date 1428, and because Tycho Brahe never mentioned a nebula in Andromeda, Bullialdus conjectured that this object was a variable that had disappeared in the intervening era. “We conclude this since this conglomeration was observed neither by Hipparchus nor anyone else in antiquity, nor in the previous age by Tycho, nor in the age of our forefathers like Bayer.” His publication included a handsome engraving of the image of Andromeda and the position of the nebula, its first printed chart. I recently acquired a copy of this rare pamphlet, Ad astronomos monita duo, and realized that the image matched a manuscript now in the Gotha Research Library, a 15th-century Latin version based on the work of the tenth-century Islamic astronomer, al-Sufi. The manuscript does not carry the name of al-Sufi, and hence Bullialdus had no real clue about its origin or its date of composition. Paul Kunitzsch (The Arabs and the Stars, 1989, Article XI, “The Astronomer Abu ’l-Husayn al-Sufi”) has identified a group of eight “Latin al-Sufi” manuscripts from this period, scattered in European libraries, but only the one now in Gotha is an exact match to Bullialdus’ engraving. The al-Sufi manuscript was given to the Gotha Library in 1798 by Duke Ernst II of Saxonia-Gotha-Altenburg, who must have acquired it from France sometime in the 18th century.

  18. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pipe Nebula is a massive, nearby dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency which makes it a good laboratory in which to study the very early stages of the star formation process. The Pipe Nebula is largely filamentary and appears to be threaded by a uniform magnetic field at scales of a few parsecs, perpendicular to its main axis. The field is only locally perturbed in a few regions, such as the only active cluster-forming core B59. The aim of this study is to investigate primordial conditions in low-mass pre-stellar cores and how they relate to the local magnetic field in the cloud. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to carry out a continuum and molecular survey at 3 and 1 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward four selected starless cores inside the Pipe Nebula. We found that the dust continuum emission maps trace the densest regions better than previous Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) extinction maps, while 2MASS extinction maps trace the diffuse gas better. The properties of the cores derived from dust emission show average radii of ∼0.09 pc, densities of ∼1.3x105 cm-3, and core masses of ∼2.5 Msun. Our results confirm that the Pipe Nebula starless cores studied are in a very early evolutionary stage and present a very young chemistry with different properties that allow us to propose an evolutionary sequence. All of the cores present early-time molecular emission with CS detections in the whole sample. Two of them, cores 40 and 109, present strong late-time molecular emission. There seems to be a correlation between the chemical evolutionary stage of the cores and the local magnetic properties that suggests that the evolution of the cores is ruled by a local competition between the magnetic energy and other mechanisms, such as turbulence.

  19. Photophoretic transport of hot minerals in the solar nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Moudens, A.; Mousis, O.; Petit, J.-M.; Wurm, G.; Cordier, D.; Charnoz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot temperature minerals have been detected in a large number of comets and were also identified in the samples of Comet Wild 2 that were returned by the Stardust mission. Meanwhile, observations of the distribution of hot minerals in young stellar systems suggest that these materials were produced in the inner part of the primordial nebula and have been transported outward in the formation zone of comets. We investigate the possibility that photophoresis provides a viable mechanism to transp...

  20. Planetary Nebulae Scientific Production in Mexico: 1900-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Fragozo, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Research on Planetary Nebulae (PN) has a longstanding tradition in the Mexican astronomical community. A study about the bibliometric behavior of the scientific production of Mexico in PN is investigated using the ISI Web of Knowledge Science Citation Index Expanded® database from 1900 to 2013. Indicators and mathematical models are used for the study that involves 630 documents, 22138 references and 8615 citations, revealing authors characteristics, tendency of co-authorship, collaborati...

  1. Molecular evolution from AGB stars to planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, S

    2011-01-01

    The late stages of stellar evolution from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to planetary nebulae represent the most active phase of molecular synthesis in a star's life. Over 60 molecular species, including inorganics, organics, radicals, chains, rings, and molecular ions have been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Most interestingly, complex organic compounds of aromatic and aliphatic structures are synthesized over very short time intervals after the end of the AGB. ...

  2. Simulating the Outer Nebula of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ben; Morris, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    As has been shown previously, the triple-ring nebula around SN 1987A can be understood as a direct consequence of the merger of two stars, some 20,000 yr before the explosion. Here we present new SPH simulations that also include the pre-merger mass loss and show that this may be able to explain other structures observed around SN 1987A, such as Napoleon's hat and various light echoes.

  3. A Broadband Emission Model of Magnetar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2016-08-01

    Angular momentum loss by the plasma wind is considered as a universal feature of isolated neutron stars including magnetars. The wind nebulae that are powered by magnetars allow us to compare the wind properties and the spin evolution of magnetars with those of rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs). In this paper, we construct a broadband emission model of magnetar wind nebulae (MWNe). This model is similar to past studies of young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) around RPPs, but is modified for the application to MWNe that have far less observational information than the young PWNe. We apply the model to the MWN around the youngest (˜1 kyr) magnetar, 1E 1547.0-5408, which has the largest spin-down power L spin among all the magnetars. However, the MWN is faint because of the low L spin of 1E 1547.0-5408 when compared to the young RPPs. Since most parameters are not well constrained by only an X-ray flux upper limit of the MWN, we adopt the model’s parameters from the young PWN Kes 75 around PSR J1846-0258, which is a peculiar RPP showing magnetar-like behaviors. The model predicts that γ-ray flux will be detected in a future TeV γ-ray observation by CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array). The MWN spectrum does not allow us to test the hypothesis that 1E 1547.0-5408 had a period of milliseconds at its birth because the particles injected during the early phase of evolution suffered from severe adiabatic and synchrotron losses. Furthermore, both observational and theoretical studies of the wind nebulae around magnetars are required to constrain the wind and the spin-down properties of magnetars.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Image: Planetary Nebula IC 4406

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image reveals a rainbow of colors in this dying star, called IC 446. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry. The nebula's left and right halves are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC 446 in a spaceship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. We do not see the donut shape in this photograph because we are viewing IC 4406 from the Earth-orbiting HST. From this vantage point, we are seeing the side of the donut. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of material that have been compared to the eye's retina. In fact, IC 4406 is dubbed the 'Retina Nebula.' The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. This image is a composite of data taken by HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 and in January 2002 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators, and in January by the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object.

  5. Planetary nebulae and their mimics: The MASH-MEN Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissay, Rozenn; Parker, Quentin A.; Frew, David J.; Bojicic, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The total number of true, likely and possible planetary nebulae (PN) now known in the Milky Way is about 3000, approximately twice the number known a decade ago. The new discoveries are a legacy of the recent availability of wide-field, narrowband imaging surveys, primarily in the light of Hα. The two most important are the AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS Hα survey SHS and the Isaac Newton photometric Hα survey IPHAS, which are responsible for most of the new discoveries. A serious problem with previous PN catalogs is that several different kinds of astrophysical objects are able to mimic PN in some of their observed properties leading to significant contamination. These objects include H~II regions and Strömgren zones around young O/B stars, reflection nebulae, Wolf-Rayet ejecta, supernova remnants, Herbig-Haro objects, young stellar objects, B[e] stars, symbiotic stars and outflows, late-type stars, cataclysmic variables, low redshift emission-line galaxies, and even image/detector flaws. PN catalogs such as the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Hα Planetary Nebula catalog (MASH) have been carefully vetted to remove these mimics using the wealth of new wide-field multi-wavelength data and our 100% follow-up spectroscopy to produce a compilation of new PN discoveries of high purity. During this process significant numbers of PN mimics have been identified. The aim of this project is to compile these MASH rejects into a catalog of Miscellaneous Emission Nebulae (MEN) and to highlight the most unusual and interesting examples. A new global analysis of these MEN objects is underway before publishing the MEN catalog online categorizing objects by type together with their spectra and multi-wavelength images.

  6. Olanzapine discontinuation emergent recurrence in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of atypical antipsychotics including olanzapine in acute treatment of manic episode has been established, whereas its role in maintenance treatment is not clear. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients of bipolar disorder who were on regular treatment with mood stabilizer and subsequently relapsed into mania or depressive episode after discontinuation of olanzapine were studied for various socio-demographic and clinical factors using retrospective chart review. Results: There was no correlation found between the period of tapering olanzapine, time to recurrence of episode after discontinuation, and the dosage of olanzapine at the time of discontinuation. The predominant early signs of relapse after discontinuation of olanzapine included sleep disturbance (72.7%, lack of insight for change in behavior (72.7%, irritability (54.5%, and elevated mood (45.5%. Conclusion: Mood stabilizer alone as a maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder may be inadequate for long-term management. A low dose of olanzapine along with mood stabilizers might be useful for prevention of recurrence in bipolar disorder.

  7. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  8. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  9. Recurrence and Relapse in Bipolar Mood Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gh Mousavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in acute phase of bipolar mood disorder, patients often experience relapses or recurrent episodes. Hospitalization of patients need a great deal of financial and humanistic resources which can be saved through understanding more about the rate of relapse and factors affecting this rate. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 380 patients with bipolar disorder who were hospitalized in psychiatric emergency ward of Noor hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were followed. Each patient was considered for; the frequency of relapse and recurrence, kind of pharmachotherapy, presence of psychotherapeutic treatments, frequency of visits by psychiatrist and the rank of present episode. Results: The overall prevalence of recurrence was 42.2%. Recurrence was lower in patients using lithium carbonate or sodium valproate or combined therapy (about 40%, compared to those using carbamazepine (80%. Recurrence was higher in patients treated with only pharmacotherapy (44.5% compared to those treated with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (22.2%. Patients who were visited monthy by psychiatrist had lower rate of recurrence compared to those who had irregular visits. Conclusion: The higher rate of recurrence observed in carbamazepine therapy may be due to its adverse reactions and consequently poor compliance to this drug. Lower rates of recurrence with psychotherapy and regular visits may be related to the preventive effects of these procedures and especially to the effective management of stress. Keywords: Bipolar Mood Disorder, Recurrence, Relapse.

  10. Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds: Probing Stellar Evolution and Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Stanghellini, Letizia

    2002-01-01

    This review contains: (1) the scientific motivations for studying Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds; (2) a review of this field of study, from the origins to the most recent results, focusing on the papers that have been published since the last IAU Symposium on Planetary Nebulae; (3) a review of the Hubble contribution to the field, from the early results to our own Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebula program.

  11. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berkol, Tonguç D.; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition...

  12. Undiagnosed Bipolar Disorder: New Syndromes and New Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Ira D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bipolar disorder is more common than previously believed. The socioeconomic and personal burdens of this illness are significant, and the lifetime risk of suicide attempts by patients with bipolar II disorder is high. It is not uncommon for patients with bipolar disorder, especially those presenting with depression, to be seen first in a primary care setting; therefore, primary care physicians need to be ready to diagnose and manage patients with these menta...

  13. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Suwalska; Dorota Łojko

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls ...

  14. Commercialization of Fuel Cell Bipolar Plate Manufacturing by Electromagnetic Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, G. S.; Hatkevich, S.; Shang, J.; Wilkerson, L.

    2010-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing bipolar plates is a major component to the overall cost structure of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. To achieve the commercialization of PEM fuel cells, a high volume and low cost manufacturing process for the bipolar plate must be developed. American Trim has identified high velocity electromagnetic forming as a suitable technology to manufacture metallic fuel cell bipolar plates, because of its low capital cost, flexible tooling and rapid prototyp...

  15. Perturbed reward processing in pediatric bipolar disorder: an antisaccade study

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Sven C; Ng, Pamela; Temple, Veronica; Hardin, Michael G.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a severe and impairing illness. Characterizing the impact of pediatric bipolar disorder on cognitive function might aid in understanding the phenomenology of the disorder. While previous studies of pediatric bipolar disorder have reported deficits in cognitive control and reward behavior, little is understood about how affective processes influence behavioral control. Relative to prior studies using manual-response paradigms, eye movement tasks provide a more pre...

  16. Bipolar Bozukluk Obsesif Kompulsif Bozukluk Birlikteliği

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Keskin; Lut Tamam

    2014-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bip...

  17. Quetiapine: A Pharmacoeconomic Review of its Use in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Greg L. Plosker

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the burden of bipolar disorder and the clinical profile of quetiapine (Seroquel) in the management of bipolar disorder, followed by a detailed review of pharmacoeconomic analyses. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is available in numerous countries as immediate-release and extended-release tablets for the treatment of major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with quetiapine have demo...

  18. Cognitive impairment in manic bipolar patients: important, understated, significant aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabie, Mădălina; Marinescu, Victor; Talaşman, Anca; Tăutu, Oana; Drima, Eduard; Micluţia, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic mood disorder with episodic progress and high relapse rate. Growing evidence suggests that individuals with bipolar disorder display cognitive impairment which persists even throughout periods of symptom's remission. Method 137 bipolar patients met the inclusion criteria (depressive episode: DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive episode, HAMD score ≥17; manic/hypomanic episode: DSM-IV-TR criteria for manic/hypomanic episode, YMRS score ≥12, euthymic:...

  19. Symptom severity of bipolar disorder during the menopausal transition

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Wendy K.; Gershenson, Bernice; Rothschild, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the mood symptom experience of women with bipolar disorder during the menopausal transition (MT). Yet times of rapid hormonal decline, such as the postpartum, are associated with increased risk of severe mood episodes in bipolar disorder, and the MT is a time of increased risk for unipolar depression in women with or without a history of depression. Methods Enrollment included 56 women 40–60 years old diagnosed in the bipolar spectrum who were experiencing men...

  20. Altered Neurochemical Ingredient of Hippocampus in Patients with Bipolar Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Murad Atmaca; Hanefi Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Background. In a number of investigations, hippocampal neurochemicals were evaluated in the patients with bipolar disorder who were on their first episode or euthymic periods. However, we did not meet any investigation in which only patients with bipolar depression were examined. As a consequence, the objective of the present study was to examine both sides of hippocampus of patients with bipolar disorder in depressive episode and healthy controls using 1H-MRS. Methods. Thirteen patients with...

  1. Treating bipolar disorder. Evidence-based guidelines for family medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Roger S; Mancini, Deborah A.; Lin, Peter; Jordan, John

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based summary of medications commonly used for bipolar disorders and a practical approach to managing bipolar disorders in the office. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles from 1990 to 2003 were selected from MEDLINE using the key words "bipolar disorder," "antiepileptics," "antipsychotics," "antidepressants," and "mood stabilizers." Good-quality evidence for many of these treatments comes from randomized trials. Lithium, divalproex, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxca...

  2. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  3. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 201...

  4. Broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: benefits vs. risks

    OpenAIRE

    Strakowski, Stephen M.; Fleck, David E.; MAJ, MARIO

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether bipolar and related disorders that share common signs and symptoms, but are currently defined as distinct clinical entities in DSM-IV and ICD-10, may be better characterized as falling within a more broadly defined “bipolar spectrum”. With a spectrum view in mind, the possibility of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder has been proposed. This paper discusses some of the rationale for an expanded diagnostic scheme from both cl...

  5. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED) study: trial design and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Ian; Craddock Nick; Cohen David; Hood Kerry; Griffiths Emily; Barnes Emma; Simpson Sharon; Smith Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design...

  6. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Bai

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  7. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Kiyama, Takae; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  8. Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Celik, O

    2007-01-01

    Observations of the Crab Nebula have proven to be the best tool to calibrate and to characterize the performance of a Cherenkov telescope. Scientifically, it is interesting to measure the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula close to the inverse-Compton peak where a deviation is expected from the power law seen at energies above 300 GeV. Additionally, it is important to search for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar at energies beyond the 10 GeV upper limit of the EGRET pulsar detection. Since current models predict a cut-off in pulsed emission between 10 and 100 GeV, measurements at energies close to this range may help to discriminate between them. We observed the Crab extensively in the 2006-2007 season during the VERITAS 2- and 3-telescope commissioning phases. Using this data set we reconstructed a preliminary energy spectrum of the signal from the Crab Nebula. We also measured the optical pulsed signal to validate our GPS time-stamping and barycentering techniques and obtained an upper limit for the puls...

  9. A Broadband Emission Model of Magnetar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Shuta J

    2016-01-01

    Angular momentum loss by the plasma wind is considered as a universal feature of isolated neutron stars including magnetars. The wind nebulae powered by magnetars allow us to compare the wind properties and the spin-evolution of magnetars with those of rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs). In this paper, we construct a broadband emission model of magnetar wind nebulae (MWNe). The model is similar to past studies of young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) around RPPs, but is modified for the application to MWNe that have far less observational information than the young PWNe. We apply the model to the MWN around the youngest ($\\sim$ 1kyr) magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 that has the largest spin-down power $L_{\\rm spin}$ among all the magnetars. However, the MWN is faint because of low $L_{\\rm spin}$ of 1E 1547.0-5408 compared with the young RPPs. Since most of parameters are not well constrained only by an X-ray flux upper limit of the MWN, we adopt the model parameters from young PWN Kes 75 around PSR J1846-0258 that is a pecul...

  10. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    CERN Document Server

    Arzoumanian, Z; Landecker, T L; Kothes, R; Camilo, F

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nonthermal nebula 40'' in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.6+/-0.3, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. The implied spin-down luminosity of the neutron star, assuming a conversion efficiency to nebular flux appropriate to Vela-like pulsars, is ~10^{35} ergs/s, again typical of objects a few tens of kyr old. Morphologically, the nebular flux is slightly enhanced along a direction, in projection on the sky, independently demonstrated to be of significance in radio polarization observations; we argue that this represents the orientation o...

  11. The Formation of Graphite Whiskers in the Primitive Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Kimura, Yuki; Lucas, Christopher; Ferguson, Frank; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbonaceous grains are efficiently destroyed in the interstellar medium and must either reform in situ at very low pressures and temperatures or in an alternative environment more conducive to grain growth. Graphite whiskers have been discovered associated with high-temperature phases in meteorites such as calcium aluminum inclusions and chondrules, and it has been suggested that the expulsion of such material from proto stellar nebulae could significantly affect the optical properties of the average interstellar grain population. We have experimentally studied the potential for Fischer-Tropsch and Haber-Bosch type reactions to produce organic materials in protostellar systems from the abundant H2, CO, and N2 reacting on the surfaces of available silicate grains. When graphite grains are repeatedly exposed to H2, CO, and N2 at 875 K abundant graphite whiskers are observed to form on or from the surfaces of the graphite grains. In a dense, turbulent nebula, such extended whiskers are very likely to be broken off, and fragments could be ejected either in polar jets or by photon pressure after transport to the outer reaches of the nebula.

  12. Global X-ray properties of the Orion Nebula region

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, E D; Townsley, L; Garmire, G; Preibisch, T; Grosso, N; Montmerle, T; Münch, A; McCaughrean, M; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin; Townsley, Leisa; Garmire, Gordon; Preibisch, Thomas; Grosso, Nicolas; Montmerle, Thierry; Muench, Augustus; Caughrean, Mark Mc

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) observation, we establish the global X-ray properties of the stellar population associated with the Orion Nebula. Three components contribute roughly equally to the integrated COUP luminosity in the hard (2-8 keV) X-ray band: several OB stars, 822 lightly obscured cool stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), and 559 heavily obscured stars. ONC stars 0.5-2 pc from the center show a spatial asymmetry consistent with violent relaxation in the stellar dynamics. The obscured COUP sources concentrate around both OMC-1 molecular cores; these small-scale structures indicate ages t < 0.1 Myr. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of the lightly obscured sample is roughly lognormal in shape. The obscured population is deficient in lower-luminosity stars, perhaps due to localized circumstellar material. Mass-stratified XLFs show that one-third of the Orion Nebula region hard-band emission is produced by the bright O6 star theta-1 Ori C and half is produced by lower m...

  13. The dust and gas content of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, P J

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed MOCASSIN photoionization plus dust radiative transfer models for the Crab Nebula core-collapse supernova (CCSN) remnant, using either smooth or clumped mass distributions, in order to determine the chemical composition and masses of the nebular gas and dust. We computed models for several different geometries suggested for the nebular matter distribution but found that the observed gas and dust spectra are relatively insensitive to these geometries, being determined mainly by the spectrum of the pulsar wind nebula which ionizes and heats the nebula. Smooth distribution models are ruled out since they require 16-49 Msun of gas to fit the integrated optical nebular line fluxes, whereas our clumped models require 7.0 Msun of gas. neither of which can be matched by current CCSN yield predictions. A global gas-phase C/O ratio of 1.65 by number is derived, along with a He/H number ratio of 1.85, A carbonaceous dust composition is favoured by the observed gas-phase C/O ratio: amorphous carbon clu...

  14. Kinematic study of planetary nebulae in NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-Durán, S N; Hernández-Martínez, L; García-Rojas, J; Ruiz, M T

    2014-01-01

    By measuring precise radial velocities of planetary nebulae (which belong to the intermediate age population), H II regions, and A-type supergiant stars (which are members of the young population) in NGC 6822, we aim to determine if both types of population share the kinematics of the disk of H I found in this galaxy. Spectroscopic data for four planetary nebulae were obtained with the high spectral resolution spectrograph Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Data for other three PNe and one H II region were obtained from the SPM Catalog of Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae which employed the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer attached to the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional, M\\'exico. In the wavelength calibrated spectra, the heliocentric radial velocities were measured with a precision better than 5-6 km s$^{-1}$. Data for three additional H II regions and a couple of A-type supergiant stars were collected from the literature. The...

  15. Unusual Dust Emission from Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Sloan, G C; Gutenkunst, S; Matsuura, M; Tielens, A G G M; Zijlstra, A A; Houck, J R

    2009-01-01

    We present a Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic study of a sample of 25 planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds. The low-resolution modules are used to analyze the dust features present in the infrared spectra. This study complements a previous work by the same authors where the same sample was analyzed in terms of neon and sulfur abundances. Over half of the objects (14) show emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, typical of carbon-rich dust environments. We compare the hydrocarbon emission in our objects to those of Galactic HII regions and planetary nebulae, and LMC/SMC HII regions. Amorphous silicates are seen in just two objects, enforcing the now well-known-fact that oxygen-rich dust is less common at low metallicities. Besides these common features, some planetary nebulae show very unusual dust. Nine objects show a strong silicon carbide feature at 11um and twelve of them show magnesium sulfide emission starting at 25um. The high percentage of spectra with silicon carbide in the Magellanic...

  16. The enigmatic central star of the planetary nebula PRTM 1

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J; Jones, David

    2012-01-01

    The central star of the planetary nebula PRTM 1 (PN G243.8-37.1) was previously found to be variable by M. Pena and colleagues. As part of a larger programme aimed towards finding post common-envelope binary central stars we have monitored the central star of PRTM 1 spectroscopically and photometrically for signs of variability. Over a period of ~3 months we find minimal radial velocity (<10 km/s) and photometric (< 0.2 mag) variability. The data suggest a close binary nucleus can be ruled out at all but the lowest orbital inclinations, especially considering the spherical morphology of the nebula which we reveal for the first time. Although the current data strongly support the single star hypothesis, the true nature of the central star of PRTM 1 remains enigmatic and will require further radial velocity monitoring at higher resolution to rule out a close binary. If in the odd case that it is a close binary, it would be the first such case in a spherical planetary nebula, in contradiction to current th...

  17. Mc Neil's Nebula in Orion: The Outburst History

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, C; Hernández, J; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L; Megeath, T; Calkins, P BerlindM; Hoyer, S

    2004-01-01

    We present a sequence of I-band images obtained at the Venezuela 1m Schmidt telescope during the outburst of the nebula recently discovered by J.W. McNeil in the Orion L1630 molecular cloud. We derive photometry spanning the pre-outburst state and the brightening itself, a unique record including 14 epochs and spanning a time scale of ~5 years. We constrain the beginning of the outburst at some time between Oct. 28 and Nov. 15, 2003. The light curve of the object at the vertex of the nebula, the likely exciting source of the outburst, reveals that it has brightened ~5 magnitudes in about 4 months. The time scale for the nebula to develop is consistent with the light travel time, indicating that we are observing light from the central source scattered by the ambient cloud into the line of sight. We also show recent FLWO optical spectroscopy of the exciting source and of the nearby HH 22. The spectrum of the source is highly reddened; in contrast, the spectrum of HH 22 shows a shock spectrum superimposed on a c...

  18. MULTIPLE GENERATIONS OF STARS IN THE TARANTULA NEBULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the most active starburst region in the local universe lies a cluster of brilliant, massive stars, known to astronomers as Hodge 301. Hodge 301, seen in the lower right hand corner of this image, lives inside the Tarantula Nebula in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This star cluster is not the brightest, or youngest, or most populous star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula -- that honor goes to the spectacular R136. In fact, Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than the young cluster R136. But age has its advantages; many of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have exploded as supernovae. These exploded stars are blasting material out into the surrounding region at speeds of almost 200 miles per second. This high speed ejecta are plowing into the surrounding Tarantula Nebula, shocking and compressing the gas into a multitude of sheets and filaments, seen in the upper left portion of the picture. Note for your calendar; Hodge 301 contains three red supergiants - stars that are close to the end of their evolution and are about to go supernova, exploding and sending more shocks into the Tarantula. Also present near the center of the image are small, dense gas globules and dust columns where new stars are being formed today, as part of the overall ongoing star formation throughout the Tarantula region. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  19. Young starless cores embedded in the magnetically dominated Pipe Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Frau, Pau; Beltran, Maria T; Morata, Oscar; Masque, Josep Maria; Busquet, Gemma; Alves, Felipe O; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Estalella, Robert; Franco, Gabriel A P

    2010-01-01

    The Pipe Nebula is a massive, nearby dark molecular cloud with a low star-formation efficiency which makes it a good laboratory to study the very early stages of the star formation process. The Pipe Nebula is largely filamentary, and appears to be threaded by a uniform magnetic field at scales of few parsecs, perpendicular to its main axis. The field is only locally perturbed in a few regions, such as the only active cluster forming core B59. The aim of this study is to investigate primordial conditions in low-mass pre-stellar cores and how they relate to the local magnetic field in the cloud. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to carry out a continuum and molecular survey at 3 and 1 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward four selected starless cores inside the Pipe Nebula. We found that the dust continuum emission maps trace better the densest regions than previous 2MASS extinction maps, while 2MASS extinction maps trace better the diffuse gas. The properties of the cores derived from dust emission show av...

  20. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A total of 17...