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Sample records for bipolar blocking contacts

  1. Finite element study of contact pressure distribution on inner and outer liner in the bipolar hip prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Eko; Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-04-01

    Wear in the hip prosthesis due to sliding contact as a product of human activity is a phenomenon which cannot be avoided. In general, there are two modelof hip prostheses which are widely used in total hip replacement, i.e. unipolar and bipolar models. Wear in the bipolar model is more complex than the unipolar model due to its contact motion. The bipolar model has two contact mechanisms while the unipolar model has only one contact mechanism. It means that the bipolar model has two wear positions, i.e. wear on inner and outer liner surface. Fortunately, wear phenomena in the hip prosthesis can be predicted by analytical or numerical method. Wear on the inner and outer liner surface in the bipolar model itself can be early predicted by contact pressure distribution that is obtained from contact mechanic analysis.The contact pressure distribution itself is an essential variable in wear equations. This paper is aimed to studythe difference of the contact pressure distribution on the inner and outer liner surface in the bipolar model. To obtain the contact pressure distribution at each surface, contact mechanic analysis on the inner and outer liner surface by analytical and numerical method were performed. Results showedthat there was significant difference of the contact pressure distribution on the inner and outer liner surface in the bipolar model. Therefore, it is expected that there is significant wear difference on the inner and outer liner in the bipolar model.

  2. Tunnel diode collector contact in InP based PNP heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, N.; Ritter, D.; Cytermann, C.

    2002-06-01

    A tunnel diode collector contact to InP based PNP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) is suggested and demonstrated. The additional heavily doped n-type contact layer replaces the thick p-type contact layer required in conventional structures. The thermal and electrical properties of the collector contact layer thus become similar to those of NPN HBTs. A secondary ion mass spectroscopy study explores the maximum tin doping level that can be obtained in the base. Finally, the temperature dependence of the current gain is presented and interpreted.

  3. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Békési

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.

  4. Finite element study of contact pressure distribution on inner and outer liner in the bipolar hip prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saputra, E.; Anwar, I.B.; Ismail, R.; Jamari, J.; Heide, E. van der

    2016-01-01

    Wear in the hip prosthesis due to sliding contact as a product of human activity is a phenomenon which cannot be avoided. In general, there are two modelof hip prostheses which are widely used in total hip replacement, i.e. unipolar and bipolar models. Wear in the bipolar model is more complex than

  5. Minimizing errors in phase change correction measurements for gauge blocks using a spherical contact technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoup, John R.; Faust, Bryon S.; Doiron, Theodore D.

    1998-09-01

    One of the most elusive measurement elements in gage block interferometry is the correction for the phase change on reflection. Techniques used to quantify this correction have improved over the year, but the measurement uncertainty has remained relatively constant because some error sources have proven historically difficult to reduce. The precision engineering division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has recently developed a measurement technique that can quantify the phase change on reflection correction directly for individual gage blocks and eliminates some of the fundamental problems with historical measurement methods. Since only the top surface of the gage block is used in the measurement, wringing film inconsistencies are eliminated with this technique thereby drastically reducing the measurement uncertainty for the correction. However, block geometry and thermal issues still exist. This paper will describe the methods used to minimize the measurement uncertainty of the phase change on reflection evaluation using a spherical contact technique. The work focuses on gage block surface topography and drift eliminating algorithms for the data collection. The extrapolation of the data to an undeformed condition and the failure of these curves to follow theoretical estimates are also discussed. The wavelength dependence of the correction was directly measured for different gage block materials and manufacturers and the data will be presented.

  6. SELF-ALIGNED SINGLE CRYSTAL CONTACTED HIGH-SPEED SILICON BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR UTILIZING SELECTIVE (SEG) AND CONFINED SELECTIVE EPITAXIAL GROWTH (CLSEG)

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen, James W.; Neudeck, Gerold W.

    1992-01-01

    A new high-speed bipolar transistor structure, the ELOBJT-3, is proposed as a novel application of selective epitaxy technology. The new structure is greatly suited to high-speed ECL circuits, where Ccb, C,, and Rbx are of prime importance. The reduction of these parasitics to their nearly theoretical minimums is accomplished through the use of dielectric isolation and concentric contacting. For extremely high speed operation, dimensions can be scaled to sub-micron size due to the completely ...

  7. Placement error in directed self-assembly of block copolymers for contact hole application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouanani, Shayma; Tiron, Raluca; Bos, Sandra; Gharbi, Ahmed; Barros, Patricia Pimenta; Hazart, Jérôme; Robert, Frédéric; Lapeyre, Céline; Ostrovsky, Alain; Monget, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers has shown interesting results for contact hole application, as a vertical interconnection access for CMOS sub-10 nm technology. The control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), defectivity, and placement error (PE) is challenging and depends on multiple processes and material parameters. This paper reports the work done using the 300-mm pilot line available in materials to integrate the DSA process on contact and via level patterning. In the first part, a reliable methodology for PE measurement is defined. By tuning intrinsic edge detection parameters on standard reference images, the working window is determined. The methodology is then implemented to analyze the experimental data. The impact of the planarization process on PE and the importance of PE as a complement of CDU and hole open yield for process window determination are discussed.

  8. Investigation of hole-blocking contacts for high-conversion-gain amorphous selenium detectors for X-ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbaszadeh, S.; Allec, N.; Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Shafique, U.; Karim, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated different organic and inorganic hole-blocking contacts for amorphous selenium (a-Se)-based photodetectors: CeO2, TiO2, perylene tetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI), and polyimide (PI). CeO2 has previously been used as a blocking layer for high-gain a-Se devices. T

  9. Self-Aligned InP/InGaAs Single Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor with Novel Micro-airbridge Structure and Quasi-coplanar Contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李献杰; 蔡道民; 曾庆明; 刘式墉; 梁春广

    2003-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of a self-aligned InP/InGaAs single heterojunction bipolar transistor (SHBT)with a novel micro-airbridge structure and co-planar-contacts are described. The reported structure is based on anisotropy wet, etching of InP and selective wet, etching between InP and InGaAs. The device with a 1.5 × 5 μm2emitter demonstrates a current gain of 30 at collector current Ic = 10 mA and extrapolates the current-gain cutoff frequency Ft of 53 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency Fmax of 72 GHz. Compared with the one using the conventional structure, the maximum oscillation frequency of the device with micro-airbridge is dramatically improved from 45 GHz to 72 GHz. This result reveals that the extrinsic capacitance of small size SHBT can be greatly reduced.

  10. Complete AV-block secondary to lithium-clozapine therapy and relapsing multiple sclerosis in a bipolar patient

    OpenAIRE

    Gabeler, Edward EE; van Miltenburg, Addy JM

    2011-01-01

    A complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) can be a lethal complication when it is not treated directly with isoprenaline and pacemaker therapy. The overall incidence of CAVB varies between 4 to 8 per cent with a mortality OR of 3.2 within 30 days if untreated. Main causes of CAVB are inferior myocardial infarction, congenital AV node malformation, mitral valve insufficiency and valve surgery, metabolic disorders and intoxications. The authors describe a case with a CAVB due to lithium-clozapin...

  11. Complete AV-block secondary to lithium-clozapine therapy and relapsing multiple sclerosis in a bipolar patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabeler, Edward E E; van Miltenburg, Addy J M

    2011-12-01

    A complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) can be a lethal complication when it is not treated directly with isoprenaline and pacemaker therapy. The overall incidence of CAVB varies between 4 to 8 per cent with a mortality OR of 3.2 within 30 days if untreated. Main causes of CAVB are inferior myocardial infarction, congenital AV node malformation, mitral valve insufficiency and valve surgery, metabolic disorders and intoxications. The authors describe a case with a CAVB due to lithium-clozapine therapy and relapsing multiple sclerosis.

  12. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical ...

  14. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Blocking Contacts for Cadmium Telluride Gamma Ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Patrick R. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2010-01-07

    Gamma ray detectors are important in national security applications, medicine, and astronomy. Semiconductor materials with high density and atomic number, such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), offer a small device footprint, but their performance is limited by noise at room temperature; however, improved device design can decrease detector noise by reducing leakage current. This thesis characterizes and models two unique Schottky devices: one with an argon ion sputter etch before Schottky contact deposition and one without. Analysis of current versus voltage characteristics shows that thermionic emission alone does not describe these devices. This analysis points to reverse bias generation current or leakage through an inhomogeneous barrier. Modeling the devices in reverse bias with thermionic field emission and a leaky Schottky barrier yields good agreement with measurements. Also numerical modeling with a finite-element physics-based simulator suggests that reverse bias current is a combination of thermionic emission and generation. This thesis proposes further experiments to determine the correct model for reverse bias conduction. Understanding conduction mechanisms in these devices will help develop more reproducible contacts, reduce leakage current, and ultimately improve detector performance.

  16. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder.METHODS: All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder at least once in a period from 1994 to 2012 at psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contact in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register.RESULTS: Totally, 354 children and adolescents got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once; a minority, 144 patients (40.7%) got the diagnosis...... at the first contact whereas the remaining patients (210; 59.3%) got the diagnosis at later contacts before age 19. For the latter patients, the median time elapsed from first treatment contact with the psychiatric service system to the first diagnosis with a manic episode/bipolar disorder was nearly 1 year...

  17. Electrical engineering. Bipolar power semiconductor components. Part 1; Genie electrique. Composants semi-conducteurs de puissance bipolaires. Partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, Ph. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, INSA, Lab. d' Analyse et d' Architecture des Systemes du CNRS, LAAS, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2001-02-01

    Bipolar semiconductor components involve electrons and holes in their conduction function. Conductivity modulation effects are used to reduce as much as possible the wasted voltage at the passing state. Conductivity modulation applies mainly on the wide and less doped base area which gives to the device its voltage blocking capacity. Its consequence is a storage of carriers which reduces the dynamical performances. These effects are analyzed in this first part and are illustrated with the example of the diode which is the archetype of the power bipolar component: 1 - general principles (scheme of bipolar structures, equation of ambipolar diffusion, equation of charge control, carriers distribution in the storage zone in static regime, carriers dynamics during switching, voltage between end contacts, influence of main non-linearities); 2 - bipolar diodes (type-structure, passing state, direct voltage drop, dynamical behaviour, safety limits). (J.S.)

  18. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor:Ⅶ. The Unipolar Current Mode for Analog-RF Operation(Two-MOS-Gates on Pure-Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Binbin; Sah Chih-Tang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the DC steady-state current-voltage and conductance-voltage characteristics of a Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) under the unipolar (electron) current mode of operation, with bipolar (elec-tron and hole) charge distributions considered. The model BiFET example presented has two MOS-gates on the two surfaces of a thin pure silicon base layer with electron and hole contacts on both edges of the thin base. The hole contacts on both edges of the thin pure base layer are grounded to give zero hole current. This 1-transistor analog-RF Basic Building Block nMOS amplifier circuit, operated in the unipolar current mode, complements the 1-transistor digital Basic Build Block CMOS voltage inverter circuit, operated in the bipolar-current mode just presented by us.

  19. Amorphous silicon germanium carbide photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor with a base-contact and a continuous tunable high current gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablich, A., E-mail: andreas.bablich@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Merfort, C., E-mail: merfort@imt.e-technik.uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Eliasz, J., E-mail: jacek.eliasz@student.uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Schäfer-Eberwein, H., E-mail: heiko.schaefer@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of High Frequency and Quantum Electronics, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Haring-Bolivar, P., E-mail: peter.haring@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of High Frequency and Quantum Electronics, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany); Boehm, M., E-mail: markus.boehm@uni-siegen.de [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Microsystem Technologies, University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of an amorphous silicon germanium carbide (a-SiGeC:H) photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor (PS-BJT) with three terminals are presented. Whereas the current gain of similar transistor devices presented in the past (Wu et al., 1984; Hwang et al., 1993; Nascetti and Caputo, 2002; Chang et al., 1985a,b; Wu et al, 1985; Hong et al., 1990) can only be controlled with photo induced charge generation, the n–i–δp–i–n structure developed features a contacted base to provide the opportunity to adjust the current gain optically and electrically, too. Electron microscope-, current-/voltage- and spectral measurements were performed to study the PS-BJT behavior and calculate the electrical and optical current gain. The spectral response maximum of the base–collector diode has a value of 170 mA/W applying a base–collector voltage of − 1 V and is located at 620 nm. The base–emitter diode reaches a sensitivity of 25.7 mA/W at 530 nm with a base-emitter voltage of − 3 V. The good a-Si:H transport properties are validated in a μτ-product of 4.6 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2} V s, which is sufficient to reach a continuous base- and photo-tunable current gain of up to − 126 at a base current of I{sub B} = + 10 nA and a collector–emitter voltage of V{sub CE} = − 3 V. The transistor obtains a maximum collector current of − 65.5 μA (V{sub CE} = − 3 V) and + 56.2 μA (V{sub CE} = + 3 V) at 10,000 lx 5300 K white-light illumination. At 3300 lx, the electrical current gain reaches a value of + 100 (V{sub CE} = + 2 V) at I{sub B} = 10 nA. With a negative base current of I{sub B} = − 10 nA the electrical gain can be adjusted between 87 (V{sub CE} = + 2 V) and − 106 (V{sub CE} = -3 V), respectively. When no base charge is applied, the transistor is “off” for V{sub CE} > − 3 V. Reducing the base current increases the electrical current gain. Operating with a voltage V{sub CE} of just ± 2 V

  20. Simulation of Myelinated Nerve Conduction Block Induced by Electrical Stimulus of Monopolar and Bipolar Electrodes%不同电极电刺激对有髓神经传导阻断影响的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨; 张旭; 任朝晖; 董谦; 崔南

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较双电极双向脉冲刺激和单电极双向脉冲刺激在神经纤维传导阻断中的阻断阈值以及对神经纤维的损伤,并通过该研究为电刺激促进脊髓损伤后下尿路功能重建的动物实验选择最优的刺激模式.方法 以有限长单根有髓神经为研究对象,以两栖动物的有髓神经纤维FrankenhaeuserHuxley(F-H)模型为仿真研究基础.结果 比较了单、双电极在双向对称方波以及双向间歇方波作用下的阻断阈值以及单双电极在同样的刺激条件下(包括刺激波形、频率以及电流强度)产生的离子电流强度大小.结论 双电极的阻断阈值大于单电极的阻断阈值.在相同的刺激条件下,双电极双向脉冲刺激对神经的损伤程度小于单电极双向脉冲刺激.%To compare the thresholds and the degrees of axonal injury caused by the impulse stimulations of monopolar and bipolar electrodes in simulation study of nerve conduction block. This study aimed to find an optimal stimulus pattern for the animal experiment of restoring the normal function of lower urinary tract after spinal cord injury through electrical stimulation. We used the myelinated nerve fiber with limited length as the research object, and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley ( F - H) model for mammal' s marrow nerve fiber as the basic system. We simulated the symmetry biphasic pulses and intermittent biphasic pulses to compare the block threshold and ionic current intensity generated by monopolar and bipolar electrodes. The simulating results indicated that the conduction block threshold induced by bipolar electrode is higher than that of monopolar electrode, and monopolar electrode caused greater damage to the axon when the other situations were same.

  1. Thermal contact resistance measurement of conduction cooled binary current lead joint block in cryocooler based self field I-V characterization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Agarwal, Anees Bano Pooja; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-05-01

    In the present study thermal resistance of conduction cooled current lead joint block employing two different interfacial material namely AlN sheet and Kapton Film have been studied in the temperature range 5K-35K. In each case, the performance of different interlayer materials e.g. Indium foil for moderately pressurized contacts (contact pressure <1 MPa), and Apiezon N Grease, GE varnish for low pressurized contact (contact pressure <1 MPa) is studied. The performances of AlN joint with Indium foil and with Apeizon N Grease are studied and it is observed that the contact resistance reduces more with indium foil as compared to greased contact. The contact resistance measurements of Kapton film with Apiezon N grease and with GE varnish were also carried out in the same temperature range. A comparative study of AlN joint with Indium foil and Kapton with GE varnish as filler material is carried out to demonstrate better candidate material among Kapton and AlN for a particular filler material in the same temperature range.

  2. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  3. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  4. Effect of assembly error of bipolar plate on the contact pressure distribution and stress failure of membrane electrode assembly in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong'an; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    In practice, the assembly error of the bipolar plate (BPP) in a PEM fuel cell stack is unavoidable based on the current assembly process. However its effect on the performance of the PEM fuel cell stack is not reported yet. In this study, a methodology based on FEA model, "least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM)" simulation and statistical analysis is developed to investigate the effect of the assembly error of the BPP on the pressure distribution and stress failure of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). At first, a parameterized FEA model of a metallic BPP/MEA assembly is established. Then, the LS-SVM simulation process is conducted based on the FEA model, and datasets for the pressure distribution and Von Mises stress of MEA are obtained, respectively for each assembly error. At last, the effect of the assembly error is obtained by applying the statistical analysis to the LS-SVM results. A regression equation between the stress failure and the assembly error is also built, and the allowed maximum assembly error is calculated based on the equation. The methodology in this study is beneficial to understand the mechanism of the assembly error and can be applied to guide the assembly process for the PEM fuel cell stack.

  5. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  6. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, but they think that biochemical, genetic, and environmental_factors may all be involved. It's believed this condition ... the gene or genes involved in bipolar disorder. Environmental factors may play a role in bipolar disorder. For ...

  7. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same time, which is also known as major depressive disorder with mixed features. Bipolar Disorder and Other Illnesses Some bipolar disorder symptoms are similar to other illnesses, which can make ...

  8. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  9. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  10. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.

  11. Back-junction back-contact n-type silicon solar cell with diffused boron emitter locally blocked by implanted phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.mueller@ise.fraunhofer.de; Schrof, Julian; Reichel, Christian; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, Freiburg D-79110 (Germany)

    2014-09-08

    The highest energy conversion efficiencies in the field of silicon-based photovoltaics have been achieved with back-junction back-contact (BJBC) silicon solar cells by several companies and research groups. One of the most complex parts of this cell structure is the fabrication of the locally doped p- and n-type regions, both on the back side of the solar cell. In this work, we introduce a process sequence based on a synergistic use of ion implantation and furnace diffusion. This sequence enables the formation of all doped regions for a BJBC silicon solar cell in only three processing steps. We observed that implanted phosphorus can block the diffusion of boron atoms into the silicon substrate by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, locally implanted phosphorus can be used as an in-situ mask for a subsequent boron diffusion which simultaneously anneals the implanted phosphorus and forms the boron emitter. BJBC silicon solar cells produced with such an easy-to-fabricate process achieved conversion efficiencies of up to 21.7%. An open-circuit voltage of 674 mV and a fill factor of 80.6% prove that there is no significant recombination at the sharp transition between the highly doped emitter and the highly doped back surface field at the device level.

  12. Back-junction back-contact n-type silicon solar cell with diffused boron emitter locally blocked by implanted phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ralph; Schrof, Julian; Reichel, Christian; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The highest energy conversion efficiencies in the field of silicon-based photovoltaics have been achieved with back-junction back-contact (BJBC) silicon solar cells by several companies and research groups. One of the most complex parts of this cell structure is the fabrication of the locally doped p- and n-type regions, both on the back side of the solar cell. In this work, we introduce a process sequence based on a synergistic use of ion implantation and furnace diffusion. This sequence enables the formation of all doped regions for a BJBC silicon solar cell in only three processing steps. We observed that implanted phosphorus can block the diffusion of boron atoms into the silicon substrate by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, locally implanted phosphorus can be used as an in-situ mask for a subsequent boron diffusion which simultaneously anneals the implanted phosphorus and forms the boron emitter. BJBC silicon solar cells produced with such an easy-to-fabricate process achieved conversion efficiencies of up to 21.7%. An open-circuit voltage of 674 mV and a fill factor of 80.6% prove that there is no significant recombination at the sharp transition between the highly doped emitter and the highly doped back surface field at the device level.

  13. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios D. Kotzalidis; Elisa Ambrosi; Alessio Simonetti; Ilaria Cuomo; Antonio Del Casale; Matteo Caloro; Valeria Savoja; Chiara Rapinesi

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuro...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions bipolar disorder bipolar disorder Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme ...

  15. Neuroimaging in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks, significantly disrupts the functionality of a chronic mental disorder. Although there is growing number of studies on the neurobiological basis of the disorder, the pathophysiology has not yet been clearly understood. Structural and functional imaging techniques present a better understanding of the etiology of bipolar disorder and has contributed significantly to the development of the diagnostic approach. Recent developments in brain imaging modalities have let us learn more about the underlying abnormalities in neural systems of bipolar patients. Identification of objective biomarkers would help to determine the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, a disorder which causes significant deterioration in neurocognitive and emotional areas.

  16. Management of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

  17. Magnetic bipolar transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor; Sarma, S. Das

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bipolar transistor is a bipolar junction transistor with one or more magnetic regions, and/or with an externally injected nonequilibrium (source) spin. It is shown that electrical spin injection through the transistor is possible in the forward active regime. It is predicted that the current amplification of the transistor can be tuned by spin.

  18. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: P

  19. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    M. Akram; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  20. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D Kotzalidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation-related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder-related terms. The search produced 310 articles and the number rose to 350 after adding articles from other search engines and reference lists. Twenty papers were included that appropriately tackled the issue of the presence (but not of its pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Of these, 15 were postmortem and 5 were carried out in living humans. Most articles were consistent with the presence of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but factors such as treatment may mask it. All studies were cross-sectional, preventing causality to be inferred. Thus, no inference can be currently made about the role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but a link is likely. The issue remains little investigated, despite an excess of reviews on this topic.

  1. Bipolarity and the relational division

    OpenAIRE

    Tamani, Nouredine; Lietard, Ludovic; Rocacher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A fuzzy bipolar relation is a relation defined by a fuzzy bipolar condition, which could be interpreted as an association of a constraint and a wish. In this context, the extension of the relational division operation to bipolarity is studied in this paper. Firstly, we define a bipolar division when the involved relations are crisp. Then, we define, from the semantic point of view, several forms of bipolar division when the involved relations are defined by fuzzy bipol...

  2. Evidence for genetic association of RORB with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorder, particularly in children, is characterized by rapid cycling and switching, making circadian clock genes plausible molecular underpinnings for bipolar disorder. We previously reported work establishing mice lacking the clock gene D-box binding protein (DBP as a stress-reactive genetic animal model of bipolar disorder. Microarray studies revealed that expression of two closely related clock genes, RAR-related orphan receptors alpha (RORA and beta (RORB, was altered in these mice. These retinoid-related receptors are involved in a number of pathways including neurogenesis, stress response, and modulation of circadian rhythms. Here we report association studies between bipolar disorder and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in RORA and RORB. Methods We genotyped 355 RORA and RORB SNPs in a pediatric cohort consisting of a family-based sample of 153 trios and an independent, non-overlapping case-control sample of 152 cases and 140 controls. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is characterized by increased stress reactivity and frequent episodes of shorter duration; thus our cohort provides a potentially enriched sample for identifying genes involved in cycling and switching. Results We report that four intronic RORB SNPs showed positive associations with the pediatric bipolar phenotype that survived Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons in the case-control sample. Three RORB haplotype blocks implicating an additional 11 SNPs were also associated with the disease in the case-control sample. However, these significant associations were not replicated in the sample of trios. There was no evidence for association between pediatric bipolar disorder and any RORA SNPs or haplotype blocks after multiple-test correction. In addition, we found no strong evidence for association between the age-at-onset of bipolar disorder with any RORA or RORB SNPs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that clock genes in

  3. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  4. The prevalence of mixed episodes during the course of illness in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mixed episodes during the course of illness in bipolar disorder. Method: A total of 1620 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder at the first psychiatric contact were identified in a period from 1994 to 2003 in Denmark...

  5. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  6. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  7. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  8. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  9. Memantine: New prospective in bipolar disorder treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Demontis, Francesca; Serra, Francesca; De Chiara, Lavinia; Spoto, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer’s dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy. Thus, research and development of more effective mood stabilizer drugs is a leading challenge for modern psychopharmacology. We have demonstrated that 21 d administration of imipramine causes a behavioural syndrome similar to a cycle of bipolar disorder, i.e., a mania followed by a depression, in rats. Indeed, such treatment causes a behavioural supersensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor agonists associated with an increase sexual activity and aggressivity (mania). The dopamine receptor sensitization is followed, after imipramine discontinuation, by an opposite phenomenon (dopamine receptor desensitization) and an increased immobility time (depression) in the forced swimming test of depression. Memantine blocks the development of the supersensitivity and the ensuing desensitization associated with the depressive like behavior. On the basis of these observations we have suggested the use of memantine in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. To test this hypothesis we performed several naturalistic studies that showed an acute antimanic effect and a long-lasting and progressive mood-stabilizing action (at least 3 years), without clinically relevant side effects. To confirm the observations of our naturalistic trials we are now performing a randomized controlled clinical trial. Finally we described the studies reporting the efficacy of memantine in manic-like symptoms occurring in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar. Limitations: A randomized controlled

  10. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  11. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS ON WATER DISSOCIATION IN BIPOLAR MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldeshov N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses results of experimental research of the influence of aprotic and proton solvents on reaction rate of water molecules dissociation in the bipolar membrane MB-1 by the method of electrochemical impedance frequency spectrum. It was discovered, that addition of organic component in aqueous solutions results in significant influence on the parameters of water dissociation in a bipolar region of the membrane. The reason for this influence is the reduction of the mass fraction of water in solution and, consequently, in a bipolar region of the membrane, which itself reduces the rate of the dissociation reaction. Another reason for the influence of the organic solvent is its effect on the network of hydrogen bonds existing in water and aqueous solutions. Depending on the nature of organic solvent and its concentration, the network of hydrogen bonds may be strengthened, or destroyed, thus facilitating removal of the proton involved in the reactions between water molecules and catalytic centers in cation-exchange and anion-exchange layer of bipolar membrane, or retarding removal of proton. This leads respectively to speed up or slow down the rate of dissociation in the bipolar region of the membrane, as well as changing the constants of the dissociation reaction of water. Introduction of organic solvent in solutions, which are in the contact with bipolar membrane, is a convenient method of investigating the role of solution composition on the rate of proton transfer between water molecules and catalytic centers in the membranes

  12. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties. 

  13. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  14. Molecules in Bipolar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Tafalla, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar outflows constitute some of the best laboratories to study shock chemistry in the interstellar medium. A number of molecular species have their abundance enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the outflow gas, likely as a combined result of dust mantle disruption and high temperature gas chemistry, and therefore become sensitive indicators of the physical changes taking place in the shock. Identifying these species and understanding their chemical behavior is therefore of high interest both to chemical studies and to our understanding of the star-formation process. Here we review some of the recent progress in the study of the molecular composition of bipolar outflows, with emphasis in the tracers most relevant for shock chemistry. As we discuss, there has been rapid progress both in characterizing the molecular composition of certain outflows as well as in modeling the chemical processes likely involved. However, a number of limitations still affect our understanding of outflow chemistry. These i...

  15. Bipolar intimal tacking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C E; Williams, G

    1984-09-01

    A bipolar electrocoagulating device has been designed to thermally tack arterial intimal flaps to the artery wall. The device was tested on intimal flaps created in the rabbit descending aorta. The vascular segments were tested for patency and the thermal tack points were examined on a scanning electron microscope. The tack points were shown to be of sufficient tensile strength and to have minimal thrombogenicity.

  16. Electrochemical Device Comprising Composite Bipolar Plate and Method of Using the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Braff, William A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical device and methods of using the same. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device may be used as a fuel cell and/or as an electrolyzer and includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, chemically-inert, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, as well as a fluid chamber and a non-porous an electrically-conductive plate.

  17. Electrochemical Device Comprising Composite Bipolar Plate and Method of Using the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Braff, William A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical device and methods of using the same. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device may be used as a fuel cell and/or as an electrolyzer and includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, chemically-inert, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, as well as a fluid chamber and a non-porous an electrically-conductive plate.

  18. Observation of negative differential transconductance in tunneling emitter bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenhuizen, Marc J.; Locatelli, Nicolas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Chang, Joonyeon

    2009-08-01

    We report on measurement of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) of iron (Fe)/magnesium-oxide (MgO)/silicon tunneling emitter NPN bipolar transistors. Device simulations reveal that the NDTC is a consequence of an inversion layer at the tunneling-oxide/P-silicon interface for low base voltages. Electrons travel laterally through the inversion layer into the base and give rise to an increase in collector current. The NDTC results from the recombination of those electrons at the interface between emitter and base contact which is dependent on the base voltage. For larger base voltages, the inversion layer disappears marking the onset of normal bipolar transistor behavior.

  19. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  20. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  1. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  2. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association between bipolar ...

  3. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  4. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  5. Balanced Activity of Three Mitotic Motors Is Required for Bipolar Spindle Assembly and Chromosome Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy G.H.P. van Heesbeen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar spindle assembly requires force to organize the microtubule network. Here, we show that three motor proteins, namely Eg5, Kif15, and dynein, act together to produce the right force balance in the spindle. Excessive inward force results in monopolar spindle formation, while excessive outward force generation results in unstable spindles with splayed spindle poles. Blocking activity of all three motors prevents bipolar spindle formation, but established bipolar spindles are refractory to loss of all motor activity. Further analysis shows that although these preformed spindles remain bipolar, outward force generation is required to establish sufficient tension on kinetochores and to accomplish successful chromosome segregation. Together, these results show how Eg5, Kif15, and dynein work together to build a bipolar spindle and reveal an important role for antagonistic motors in chromosome segregation.

  6. Contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents , ...

  7. Bipolar cell pathways for color and luminance vision in a dichromatic mammalian retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; DeVries, Steven H

    2006-05-01

    The mammalian retina is fundamentally dichromatic, with trichromacy only recently emerging in some primates. In dichromats, an array of short wavelength-sensitive (S, blue) and middle wavelength-sensitive (M, green) cones is sampled by approximately ten bipolar cell types, and the sampling pattern determines how retinal ganglion cells and ultimately higher visual centers encode color and luminance. By recording from cone-bipolar cell pairs in the retina of the ground squirrel, we show that the bipolar cell types sample cone signals in three ways: one type receives input exclusively from S-cones, two types receive mixed S/M-cone input and the remaining types receive an almost pure M-cone signal. Bipolar cells that carry S- or M-cone signals can have a role in color discrimination and may contact color-opponent ganglion cells. Bipolar cells that sum signals from S- and M-cones may signal to ganglion cells that encode luminance.

  8. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials.

  9. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  10. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  11. [Treatment of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Michael; Bellivier, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic pathology whose management must lead to limit the social, professional and family impacts as well as suicidal risk. The treatment of acute episodes and prophylaxis is based on mood stabilizer treatments whose lithium is a leader. They will be chosen according to the background and history of the disease. Anti-depressants must be used with care to minimize the risk of manic episode and the induction of rapid cycles. The prognosis is not solving major episodes but avoiding major mood episodes. The management of residual symptoms (especially neuro-cognitive) is also a major challenge prognosis and justifies the implementation of adjuvant psychotherapeutic strategies.

  12. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  13. Epidemiology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Mutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder diagnosis has been increasing recently. Since studies evaluating attempted suicide rates in children and adolescents have shown bipolarity to be a significant risk factor, diagnosis and treatment of bipolarity has become a very important issue. Since there is a lack of specific diagnostic criteria for especially preadolescent samples and evaluations are made mostly symptomatically, suspicions about false true diagnosis and increased prevalence rates have emerged. This situation leads to controversial data about the prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. The aim of this article is to review the prevalence of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder in community, inpatient and outpatient based samples in literature.

  14. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  15. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.  

  16. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  17. Connectivity between the OFF bipolar type DB3a and six types of ganglion cell in the marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Rania A; Percival, Kumiko A; Koizumi, Amane; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2016-06-15

    Parallel visual pathways originate at the first synapse in the retina, where cones make connections with cone bipolar cells that in turn contact ganglion cells. There are more ganglion cell types than bipolar types, suggesting that there must be divergence from bipolar to ganglion cells. Here we analyze the contacts between an OFF bipolar type (DB3a) and six ganglion cell types in the retina of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were transfected via particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP), and DB3a cells were labeled via immunohistochemistry. Ganglion cell types that fully or partially costratified with DB3a cells included OFF parasol, OFF midget, broad thorny, recursive bistratified, small bistratified, and large bistratified cells. On average, the number of DB3a contacts to parasol cells (18 contacts per axon terminal) is higher than that to other ganglion cell types (between four and seven contacts). We estimate that the DB3a output to OFF parasol cells accounts for at least 30% of the total DB3a output. Furthermore, we found that OFF parasol cells receive approximately 20% of their total bipolar input from DB3a cells, suggesting that other diffuse bipolar types also provide input to OFF parasol cells. We conclude that DB3a cells preferentially contact OFF parasol cells but also provide input to other ganglion cell types.

  18. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  19. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  20. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager

    2015-06-01

    the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  1. 基于分块和偏最小二乘的非接触式手掌静脉生物特征识别%Non-contact palm vein biometric recognition based on block and partial least squares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑玮琦; 吴微; 林森; 宋辉; 张洪涛

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies a palm vein recognition subspace method suitable for non-contact image acquisition.The problems that traditional contact palm vein image acquisition is subject to infecting diseases,and non-contact palm vein image acquisition increases the dissimilarity in intra-class and leads to low recognition ratio are solved.The image block algorithm is used to rapidly reduce the dimension firstly.Then,the partial least squares algorithm is used to extract some directions,in which the gray level in the palm vein image varies obviously and classical information correlation is maximal,to compose the classification subspace.The position coordinates of the image in this subspace are used to carry out classification and recognition.A self-built palm vein image database and the image database developed by Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation (CASIA) were used to carry out experimental analysis.The experiment results show that compared with traditional palm vein recognition method,the proposed method effectively increases the Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and decreases the false rejection rate (FRR).In these two image databases,using this method and selecting the block size of 4 ×4,the CRR reaches 99.98% and 99.34% ;the false accept rate (FAR) reaches 0.02% and 0.66% ;the FRR reaches 0.13% and 0.60%,respectively; and the recognition time is within 0.03s and 0.04s,respectively.The system is applicable in security and attendance management occasions,and has practical value.%研究了一种适用于非接触式图像采集的手掌静脉识别的子空间方法,解决了传统接触式采集容易传染疾病,非接触采集使同类图像差别增大导致识别性能不佳的问题.先采用分块算法对图像进行快速降维,再用偏最小二乘算法提取掌脉图像中灰度值变异大,且类别信息相关性最大的若干方向组成分类子空间,然后依据图像在此空间中的位置进行分类识别.应用自建掌

  2. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  3. [Unipolar versus bipolar depression: clues toward predicting bipolarity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abla, T; Ellouze, F; Amri, H; Krid, G; Zouari, A; M'Rad, M F

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar and unipolar disorders share a common depressive clinical manifestation. It is important to distinguish between these two forms of depression for several reasons. First, prescribing antidepressors in monotherapy indubitably worsens the prognosis of bipolarity disorders. Second, postponing the prescription of a mood stabilizer reduces the efficacy of the treatment and multiplies the suicidal risks by two. The object of this study is to reveal the factors that distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression. This is a retrospective study on patients' files. It includes 186 patients divided according to DSM IV criteria into two groups: patients with bipolar disorder type I or II with a recent depressive episode (123 patients) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (63 patients). A medical record card was filled-in for every patient. It included socio-demographic data, information about the disorder, family antecedents, CGI score (global clinical impressions), physical comorbidity, substance abuse and personality disorder. In order to sort out the categorization variables, the two groups were compared using chi2 test or Fischer's test. With regard to the quantitative variables, the two groups were compared using Krostal Wallis's test or Ancova. Our study has revealed that bipolar disorder differs significantly from unipolar disorder in the following respects: bipolar disorder is prevalent among men (sex-ratio 2) while unipolar disorder is prevailing among women (sex-ratio 0.8); patients with bipolar disorder are younger than patients with unipolar disorder (38.1 +/- 5 years vs. 49.7 +/- years); the age at the onset of bipolar disorder is earlier than that of unipolar disorder (20.8 +/- 2 years vs. 38.7 +/- 5 years); family antecedents are more important in bipolar patients than in unipolar patients (51.1% vs. 33%). More importantly, bipolar disorder differs from unipolar disorder in the following aspects: The number of suicidal attempts (25.3% vs

  4. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  5. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  6. Creativity in familial bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diana I; Chang, Kiki D; Strong, Connie; Ketter, Terence A

    2005-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated relationships between creativity and bipolar disorder (BD) in individuals, and suggested familial transmission of both creativity and BD. However, to date, there have been no studies specifically examining creativity in offspring of bipolar parents and clarifying mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of creativity. We compared creativity in bipolar parents and their offspring with BD and bipolar offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with healthy control adults and their children. 40 adults with BD, 20 bipolar offspring with BD, 20 bipolar offspring with ADHD, and 18 healthy control parents and their healthy control children completed the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS), an objective measure of creativity. Adults with BD compared to controls scored significantly (120%) higher on the BWAS Dislike subscale, and non-significantly (32%) higher on the BWAS Total scale. Mean BWAS Dislike subscale scores were also significantly higher in offspring with BD (107% higher) and offspring with ADHD (91% higher) than in healthy control children. Compared to healthy control children, offspring with BD had 67% higher and offspring with ADHD had 40% higher BWAS Total scores, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance when adjusted for age. In the bipolar offspring with BD, BWAS Total scores were negatively correlated with duration of illness. The results of this study support an association between BD and creativity and contribute to a better understanding of possible mechanisms of transmission of creativity in families with genetic susceptibility for BD. This is the first study to show that children with and at high risk for BD have higher creativity than healthy control children. The finding in children and in adults was related to an enhanced ability to experience and express dislike of simple and symmetric images. This could reflect increased access to negative affect, which could yield both benefits

  7. Resistive switching in Ag-TiO2 contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenzi, N.; Stoliar, P.; Fuertes, M. C.; Marlasca, F. G.; Levy, P.

    2012-08-01

    We study the electric pulse induced resistance switching of TiO2-Ag contacts at room temperature, exploring both unipolar and bipolar switching modes. Initially we observed unipolar response. After hundred pulsing cycles the unipolar switching response vanishes but the device can still be operated in bipolar switching regime. The underlying mechanism for resistance switching is modeled in terms of formation and rupture of filament, and movement of oxygen vacancies.

  8. Resistive switching in Ag-TiO{sub 2} contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenzi, N., E-mail: ghenzi@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stoliar, P. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Campus Migueletes, UNSAM, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fuertes, M.C. [Gerencia Quimica, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marlasca, F.G.; Levy, P. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    We study the electric pulse induced resistance switching of TiO{sub 2}-Ag contacts at room temperature, exploring both unipolar and bipolar switching modes. Initially we observed unipolar response. After hundred pulsing cycles the unipolar switching response vanishes but the device can still be operated in bipolar switching regime. The underlying mechanism for resistance switching is modeled in terms of formation and rupture of filament, and movement of oxygen vacancies.

  9. Brainstorm: occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Grosskopf, Shawna; Yang, Ke

    2010-07-01

    Although economists have analyzed earnings, unemployment, and labor force participation for those with bipolar illness, occupational choice has yet to be explored. Psychological and medical studies often suggest an association between bipolar illness and creative achievement, but they tend to focus on eminent figures, case studies, or small samples. We seek to examine occupational creativity of non-eminent individuals with bipolar disorder. We use Epidemiologic Catchment Area data to estimate a multinomial logit model matched to an index of occupational creativity. Those with bipolar illness appear to be disproportionately concentrated in the most creative occupational category. Nonparametric kernel density estimates reveal that the densities of the occupational creativity variable for the bipolar and non-bipolar individuals significantly differ in the ECA data, and suggest that the probability of engaging in creative activities on the job is higher for bipolar than non-bipolar workers.

  10. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. As bases de dados avaliadas foram MedLine e Scopus, entre os anos de 1980 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28 trabalhos que estudaram alterações imunes em pacientes com transtorno bipolar. Seis artigos investigaram genes relacionados à resposta imune; cinco, autoanticorpos; quatro, populações leucocitárias; 13, citocinas e/ou moléculas relacionadas à resposta imune e seis, leucócitos de pacientes in vitro. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja evidências na literatura correlacionando o transtorno bipolar a alterações imunes, os dados não são conclusivos. O transtorno bipolar parece estar associado a níveis mais elevados de autoanticorpos circulantes, assim como à tendência à ativação imune com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e redução de parâmetros anti-inflamatórios.OBJECTIVE: Emerging research has implicated immune factors in the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of the present paper is to review the studies that investigated the association between bipolar disorder and immune parameters. METHODS: Papers that included the keywords "bipolar to disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" and "tumor necrosis factor" were selected in a systematic review of the literature. The evaluated databases were MedLine and Scopus in the period between 1980 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty eight works were found. Six studies investigated immune response

  11. Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management ... of contact with less irritating substances like: Water Foods Soap People often develop irritant contact dermatitis at ...

  12. Differences in the ICD-10 diagnostic subtype of depression in bipolar disorder compared to recurrent depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.M.; Christensen, E.M.; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with bipolar depression and patients with recurrent depressive disorder present with different subtypes of depressive episode as according to ICD-10. Sampling and Methods: All patients who got a diagnosis of bipolar affective......: Totally, 389 patients got a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, and 5.391 patients got a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, at first contact. Compared with patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, patients with bipolar...... for patients with bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, compared with patients with a current depression as part of a recurrent depressive disorder (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.20-1.86). Conclusions: The results consistently indicate that a depressive episode is severer and/or more often associated...

  13. Development of bipolar plates with different flow channel configurations for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Rajesh; Marupakula, Uday Kumar; Summers, Benjamin; Majumdar, Pradip

    Bipolar plates include separate gas flow channels for anode and cathode electrodes of a fuel cell. These gases flow channels supply reactant gasses as well as remove products from the cathode side of the fuel cell. Fluid flow, heat and mass transport processes in these channels have significant effect on fuel cell performance, particularly to the mass transport losses. The design of the bipolar plates should minimize plate thickness for low volume and mass. Additionally, contact faces should provide a high degree of surface uniformity for low thermal and electrical contact resistances. Finally, the flow fields should provide for efficient heat and mass transport processes with reduced pressure drops. In this study, bipolar plates with different serpentine flow channel configurations are analyzed using computational fluid dynamics modeling. Flow characteristics including variation of pressure in the flow channel across the bipolar plate are presented. Pressure drop characteristics for different flow channel designs are compared. Results show that with increased number of parallel channels and smaller sizes, a more effective contact surface area along with decreased pressured drop can be achieved. Correlations of such entrance region coefficients will be useful for the PEM fuel cell simulation model to evaluate the affects of the bipolar plate design on mass transfer loss and hence on the total current and power density of the fuel cell.

  14. Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    2001-01-01

    There have been in recent years increasing claims in both popular and professional literature for a connection between bipolar illness and creativity. A review of studies supporting this claim reveals serious flaws in sampling, methodology, presentation of results, and conclusions. Although there is therefore no evidence for etiological or genetic linkages, it is still necessary to explain interrelationships in those creative persons suffering from the illness. Examples of the work in progress of artists with bipolar disorder, Jackson Pollock and Edvard Munch, illustrate the use of healthy and adaptive creative cognition--janusian and homospatial processes--in the former's breakthrough conception during an improvement phase in treatment leading to the development of the Abstract Expressionist Movement and in the latter's transformation of an hallucination into his famous artwork "The Scream." Treatment options that do not produce cognitive effects are important for creative persons with bipolar disorder.

  15. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  17. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  18. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  19. Bipolar Neutrosophic Refined Sets and Their Applications in Medical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Deli, Irfan; Yusuf, Şubaş

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes concept of bipolar neutrosophic refined set and its some operations. Firstly, a score certainty and accuracy function to compare the bipolar neutrosophic refined information is defined. Secondly, to aggregate the bipolar neutrosophic refined information, a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted average operator and a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted geometric operator is developed.

  20. Responsabilidade penal no transtorno bipolar Penal responsibility in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma mulher que cometeu delito de assalto e foi avaliada em perícia psiquiátrica para análise da responsabilidade penal. Conclui-se que ela apresentava doença mental, na forma de transtorno bipolar, daí ser inimputável. A avaliação da responsabilidade penal é de extrema importância, para que se possam aplicar medidas de segurança ou sanções penais e correcionais adequadas a cada caso.The authors report a case of a woman who committed the crime of assault and was evaluated in penal imputability exam to assess criminal responsibility. It was concluded that she had a mental illness, bipolar disorder, being inimputable. The evaluation of penal responsibility is extremely important, in order to apply adequate involuntary commitment or correctional and penal sanctions to each case.

  1. Chengzikou Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Chengzikou Block is located in the north of Hekou district, Dongying City, Shandong Province, adjacent to Bohai Bay. It can be geographically divided into three units: onshore, transitional zone and offshore ultrashallow zone, totally covering an area of 470 km2. The southern onshore area is low and gentle in topography;the northern shallow sea is at water depths of 2-8 m below sea level, and the transitional zone occupies more than 60% of the whole block. The climate belongs to temperate zone with seasonal wind. Highways are welldeveloped here, and the traffic is very convenient. The Chengzikou Block is about 80 km away from Dongying City and 290 km from Jinan City in the south. The northern offshore area of the block is 160 km away from Longkou port in the east and only 38 km away in the west from Zhuangxi port.

  2. Distinct Kinesin-14 mitotic mechanisms in spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R; Kenny, Katelyn; Seo, Lan; Moyer, Amanda; Allen, Jessica; Paluh, Janet L

    2009-11-01

    Kinesin-like proteins are integral to formation and function of a conserved mitotic spindle apparatus that directs chromosome segregation and precedes cell division. Ubiquitous to the mechanism of spindle assembly and stability are balanced Kinesin-5 promoting and Kinesin-14 opposing forces. Distinct Kinesin-14 roles in bipolarity in eukaryotes have not been shown, but are suggested by gamma-tubulin-based pole interactions that affect establishment and by microtubule cross-linking and sliding that maintain bipolarity and spindle length. Distinct roles also imply specialized functional domains. By cross-species analysis of compatible mechanisms in establishing mitotic bipolarity we demonstrate that Kinesin-14 human HSET (HsHSET) functionally replaces Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pkl1 and its action is similarly blocked by mutation in a Kinesin-14 binding site on gamma-tubulin. Drosophila DmNcd localizes preferentially to bundled interpolar microtubules in fission yeast and does not replace SpPkl1. Analysis of twenty-six Kinesin-14 derivatives, including Tail, Stalk or Neck-Motor chimeras, for spindle localization, spindle assembly and mitotic progression defined critical domains. The Tail of SpPkl1 contains functional elements enabling its role in spindle assembly that are distinct from but transferable to DmNcd, whereas HsHSET function utilizes both Tail and Stalk features. Our analysis is the first to demonstrate distinct mechanisms between SpPkl1 and DmNcd, and reveal that HsHSET shares functional overlap in spindle pole mechanisms.

  3. Longmenshan Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Longmenshan Block is located in Jiange County of Jiangyou City in the northwest of Sichuan Basin. covering an area of 2 628 km2. Geologically, it is situated in the Mid-Longmenshan fault and fold belt, neighbouring Zitong Depression in its southeast. There are mountains surrounding its northwest , the rest area being hilly land,with the elevation of 500-700 m. The BaoCheng railway and the No. 108 highway run through the block, the traffic is very convenient.

  4. Bipolar spectral associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R G

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear spectral associative memories are proposed as quantized frequency domain formulations of nonlinear, recurrent associative memories in which volatile network attractors are instantiated by attractor waves. In contrast to conventional associative memories, attractors encoded in the frequency domain by convolution may be viewed as volatile online inputs, rather than nonvolatile, off-line parameters. Spectral memories hold several advantages over conventional associative memories, including decoder/attractor separability and linear scalability, which make them especially well suited for digital communications. Bit patterns may be transmitted over a noisy channel in a spectral attractor and recovered at the receiver by recurrent, spectral decoding. Massive nonlocal connectivity is realized virtually, maintaining high symbol-to-bit ratios while scaling linearly with pattern dimension. For n-bit patterns, autoassociative memories achieve the highest noise immunity, whereas heteroassociative memories offer the added flexibility of achieving various code rates, or degrees of extrinsic redundancy. Due to linear scalability, high noise immunity and use of conventional building blocks, spectral associative memories hold much promise for achieving robust communication systems. Simulations are provided showing bit error rates for various degrees of decoding time, computational oversampling, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Aysegul; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vazquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valenti, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Ozerdem, Aysegul; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations

  6. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  7. [Major depression: features indicative of bipolarity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder is underdiagnosed in patients with major depression. Missing the diagnosis of a bipolar disorder may have serious and even occasionally fatal consequences for a patient with the disease. Moreover misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment and therefore contribute to worsening medical and functional prognosis. Although there are no pathognomonic characteristics of bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression, evidence-based findings suggest that some features may be indicative of bipolarity, in patients with depression. These features are related to clinical picture of depressive state, course of episode and illness, response to treatment, family history, comorbid conditions, as well as demographic and temperamental characteristics. Based on such features, some authors have proposed operationalized criteria or a diagnostic specific for bipolarity, to identify bipolar depression. Screening instruments may also be used, to facilitate early recognition. Validation studies of these diagnostic features and instruments are underway.

  8. Bipolar integrated circuits in SiC for extreme environment operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael; Hallén, Anders; Hedayati, Raheleh; Kargarrazi, Saleh; Lanni, Luigia; Malm, B. Gunnar; Mardani, Shabnam; Norström, Hans; Rusu, Ana; Saveda Suvanam, Sethu; Tian, Ye; Östling, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits have been suggested for extreme environment operation. The challenge of a new technology is to develop process flow, circuit models and circuit designs for a wide temperature range. A bipolar technology was chosen to avoid the gate dielectric weakness and low mobility drawback of SiC MOSFETs. Higher operation temperatures and better radiation hardness have been demonstrated for bipolar integrated circuits. Both digital and analog circuits have been demonstrated in the range from room temperature to 500 °C. Future steps are to demonstrate some mixed signal circuits of greater complexity. There are remaining challenges in contacting, metallization, packaging and reliability.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.

  10. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Namli; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-01-01

    In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. ...

  11. The Facts on Bipolar Disorder and FDA-Approved Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates The Facts on Bipolar Disorder and FDA-Approved Treatments Share Tweet Linkedin ... to top What to Do if You Suspect Bipolar Disorder If you suspect you have a bipolar ...

  12. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  13. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  14. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder.

  15. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  16. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela V. Boeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  17. Chadong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Chadong Block, located in the east of Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, covers an area of 12 452 km2. It is bounded by Kunlum Mountains in the south and the northwest is closely adjacent to Aimunike Mountain.Rivers are widely distributed, which always run in NWSE direction, including the Sulunguole, Qaidam and Haluwusu Rivers. The traffic condition is good, the Qinghai-Tibet highway stretching through the whole area and the Lan-Qing railway, 20-50 km away from the block, passing from north to west. A lot of Mongolia minority people have settled there, of which herdsmen always live nearby the Qaidam River drainage area.

  18. Poorer sustained attention in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all information processing during cognitive processing takes place during periods of sustained attention. Sustained attention deficit is among the most commonly reported impairments in bipolar disorder (BP. The majority of previous studies have only focused on bipolar I disorder (BP I, owing to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of bipolar II disorder (BP II. With the refinement of the bipolar spectrum paradigm, the goal of this study was to compare the sustained attention of interepisode patients with BP I to those with BP II. Methods In all, 51 interepisode BP patients (22 with BP I and 29 with BP II and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. All participants undertook Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II to evaluate sustained attention. Results After controlling for the severity of symptoms, age and years of education, BP I patients had a significantly longer reaction times (F(2,68 = 7.648, P = 0.001, worse detectability (d' values (F(2,68 = 6.313, P = 0.003 and more commission errors (F(2,68 = 6.182, P = 0.004 than BP II patients and healthy controls. BP II patients and controls scored significantly higher than BP I patients for d' (F = 6.313, P = 0.003. No significant difference was found among the three groups in omission errors and no significant correlations were observed between CPT-II performance and clinical characteristics in the three groups. Conclusions These findings suggested that impairments in sustained attention might be more representative of BP I than BP II after controlling for the severity of symptoms, age, years of education and reaction time on the attentional test. A longitudinal follow-up study design with a larger sample size might be needed to provide more information on chronological sustained attention deficit in BP patients, and to illustrate

  19. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  20. Kainate receptors mediate signaling in both transient and sustained OFF bipolar cell pathways in mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghuis, Bart G; Looger, Loren L; Tomita, Susumu; Demb, Jonathan B

    2014-04-30

    A fundamental question in sensory neuroscience is how parallel processing is implemented at the level of molecular and circuit mechanisms. In the retina, it has been proposed that distinct OFF cone bipolar cell types generate fast/transient and slow/sustained pathways by the differential expression of AMPA- and kainate-type glutamate receptors, respectively. However, the functional significance of these receptors in the intact circuit during light stimulation remains unclear. Here, we measured glutamate release from mouse bipolar cells by two-photon imaging of a glutamate sensor (iGluSnFR) expressed on postsynaptic amacrine and ganglion cell dendrites. In both transient and sustained OFF layers, cone-driven glutamate release from bipolar cells was blocked by antagonists to kainate receptors but not AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological recordings from bipolar and ganglion cells confirmed the essential role of kainate receptors for signaling in both transient and sustained OFF pathways. Kainate receptors mediated responses to contrast modulation up to 20 Hz. Light-evoked responses in all mouse OFF bipolar pathways depend on kainate, not AMPA, receptors.

  1. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  2. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  3. Heritability of bipolar affective disorder: Family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bipolar affective disorder is mental disorder with polygenic type of heredity. Heritability - relation between genetic and environmental variance is used to estimate the level of influence of genetic variance to phenotype variance. Study results show decreasing trend in the value of heritability of bipolar affective disorder, thus indicating that this disorder is a complex behavioral threshold characteristic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of genetic variance to phenotype variance of bipolar affective disorder, i.e. to estimate heritability of this disorder. Methods. By the use of a questionnaire, 80 patients with over crossed threshold for bipolar affective disorder were asked for functional information about the members of their families belonging to the first degree of relation (fathers, mothers and full- sibs. By using ”Applet for calculating heritability for threshold traits (disease“, and regression analysis, heritability of bipolar affective disorder as well as its statistical significance, were estimated (χ2 test. Results. Heritability and relationship of genetic and environmental variance of bipolar affective disorder is 0.2 with statistically significant difference from zero (p < 0.001. Conclusion. The estimated contribution of genetic variance to phenotype variance of bipolar affective disorder is low being 20%, while the contribution of environmental variance is 80%. This result contributes to the understanding of bipolar affective disorder as a complex behavioral threshold trait.

  4. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  5. Creative treatment of bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Rok

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder with chronic and remitting course. The disorder is related to high mortality and severely impairs everyday functioning. Therefore a scientifically sound and practical approach to treatment is needed. Making a long-term treatment plan usually also demands some creativity. The patient is interested in a number of issues, from the choice of therapy in acute phases to long-term treatment. Usual questions are how long shall I take the medications, do I really need all those pills or can we decrease the dosage of some drugs? This paper discussed the above mentioned questions in light of latest publications in this field.

  6. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor: ⅩⅢ. Physical Realizations of the Transistor and Circuits (One-Two-MOS-Gates on Thin-Thick Pure-Impure Base)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薩支唐; 揭斌斌

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the physical realization of the Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) and its one-transistor basic building block circuits. Examples are given for the one and two MOS gates on thin and thick, pure and impure base, with electron and hole contacts, and the corresponding theoretical current-voltage characteristics previously computed by us, without generation-recombination-trapping-tunneling of electrons and holes. These ex-amples include the one-MOS-gate on semi-infinite thick impure base transistor (the bulk transistor) and the impure-thin-base Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) transistor and the two-MOS-gates on thin base transistors (the FinFET and the Thin Film Transistor TFT). Figures are given with the cross-section views containing the electron and hole concen-tration and current density distributions and trajectories and the corresponding DC current-voltage characteristics.

  7. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  8. In0.69Al0.31As0.41Sb0.59/In0.27Ga0.73Sb double-heterojunction bipolar transistors with InAs0.66Sb0.34 contact layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    associated fmax/ ft ratio of 0.61 (with ft ¼ 59 GHz), very close to the measured ratio of fmax/ft ¼ 0.57. fmax is expected to improve by nearly a factor of 2.5...49, pp. 1875–1895 2 Papanicolaou , N.A., Bennett, B.R., Boos, J.B., Park, D., and Bass, R.: ‘Sb-based HEMTs with InAlSb/InAs heterojunction’, Electron...Hobart, K.D., Park, D., and Papanicolaou , N.A.: ‘InAlAsSb/InGaSb double heterojunction bipolar transistor’, Electron. Lett., 2005, 41, pp. 370–371 6

  9. Stoichiometry gradient, cation interdiffusion, and band alignment between a nanosized TiO2 blocking layer and a transparent conductive oxide in dye-sensitized solar cell front contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Gabriele; Drera, Giovanni; Baratto, Camilla; Braga, Antonio; Sangaletti, Luigi

    2015-01-14

    An angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study allowed us to identify cation interdiffusion and stoichiometry gradients at the interface between a nanosized TiO2 blocking layer and a transparent conductive Cd-Sn oxide substrate. A stoichiometry gradient for the Sn cations is already found in the bare Cd-Sn oxide layer. When TiO2 ultrathin layers are deposited by RF sputtering on the Cd-Sn oxide layer, Ti is found to partially replace Sn, resulting in a Cd-Sn-Ti mixed oxide layer with a thickness ranging from 0.85 to 3.3 nm. The band gap profile across the junction has been reconstructed for three TiO2 layers, resulting in a valence band offset decrease (and a conduction band offset increase) with the blocking layer thickness. The results are related to the cell efficiencies in terms of charge injection and recombination processes.

  10. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, Aline André

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes can be obtained if interventions are implemented earlier in the course of illness. Thus, treatment planning would benefit from the assessment of cognition, functioning and comorbidities. Staging may offer a means to refine treatment options, and most importantly, to establish a more precise diagnosis. Moreover, staging could have utility as course specifier and may guide treatment planning and better information to patients and their family members of what could be expected in terms of prognosis. The present study reviews the clinical and biological basis of the concept of illness progression in bipolar disorder.

  11. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  12. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  13. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bas, James; Newton, Richard; Sore, Rachel; Castle, David

    2015-02-01

    Because affective pathogenesis is a hard problem for psychiatry, it behoves researchers to develop and test novel models of causality. We examine the notion that the adaptive drive to social investment - prestige - provides clues to the bipolar spectrum. A seven node bipolar spectrum is proposed, based on a putative gradient of "bipolarity". It is conceived that this gradient may correlate with the drive to social investment (prestige). In order to test this hypothesis with proof of concept data, a case control study categorised 228 subjects into a seven node bipolar spectrum. Whilst controlling for mood elevation and depression, differences in strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) between spectrum groups were examined. The bipolar I (S1) node had a greater strategic prestige (leadership) motivation score than the controls (S7) by 21.17 points, 95% CI [8.16, 34.18], pbipolar II (S2) node was higher than the control group by 16.73 points, 95% CI [0.92, 32.54], p=.030, d=0.84. Whilst the pseudounipolar (S3) node (those with depression and bipolar family histories; n=17) had only a marginally statistical difference in MSPM compared to controls (p=.051), the mean difference (16.98) and d value (0.86) indicated an elevated MSPM level. Prestige (leadership) motivation score positively correlated with dimensional lifetime bipolarity (Mood Disorder Questionnaire) score (rp=0.47), supporting the spectrum prestige motivation gradient notion. Evidence is presented for a genetic disposition to elevated strategic prestige (leadership) motivation. Sensitivity to Social Inclusion (MSIS), Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW.av) and tension significantly predicted strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) score in a multiple regression. - suggesting that a vulnerability of the social self may be a feature of bipolar disorders. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity offers a new conceptualisation of affective disorders and has received preliminary support.

  14. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  15. Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Kaplan, Katherine A; Soehner, Adriane M

    2015-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic disorder, ranked in the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Sleep disturbances are strongly coupled with interepisode dysfunction and symptom worsening in bipolar disorder. Experimental studies suggest that sleep deprivation can trigger manic relapse. There is evidence that sleep deprivation can have an adverse impact on emotion regulation the following day. The clinical management of the sleep disturbances experienced by bipolar patients, including insomnia, hypersomnia delayed sleep phase, and irregular sleep-wake schedule, may include medication approaches, psychological interventions, light therapies and sleep deprivation.

  16. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  17. Fabrication of micro-flow channels on graphite composite bipolar plates using microplaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万珍平; 梁德杰; 陆龙生; 汤勇

    2015-01-01

    A new method of manufacturing micro-flow channels on graphite composite bipolar plate (GCBPP) microplaning using specially designed multi-tooth tool is proposed. In this method, several or even dozens of parallel micro-flow channels ranging from 100μm to 500μm in width can be produced simultaneously. But, edge chippings easily occur on the rib surface of GCBPP during microplaning due to brittleness of graphite composites. Experimental results show that edge chippings result in the increase of contact resistance between bipolar plate and carbon paper at low compaction force. While the edge chippings scarcely exert influence on the contact resistance at high compaction force. Contrary to conventional view, the edge chippings can significantly improve performance of microfuel cell and big edge chippings outperform small edge chippings. In addition, the influence of technical parameters on edge chippings was investigated in order to obtain big, but not oversized edge chippings.

  18. Overview of patient care issues and treatment in bipolar spectrum and bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Joseph R

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies have reported lifetime prevalence estimates of 1.0% for bipolar I disorder, 1.1% for bipolar II disorder, and 2.4% to 4.7% for subthreshold bipolar disorder, illustrating the need for consensus definitions of bipolar spectrum disorders. These definitions will aid researchers in studying viable treatments options, as well as help clinicians in the differential diagnosis of patients. Broader definitions of bipolar spectrum disorders would also allow clinicians to more accurately diagnose patients, rather than placing them in the catchall category of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Bipolar symptoms that are currently labeled as subthreshold symptoms are becoming increasingly recognized as having relevant clinical implications. Despite diagnostic controversy, screening for the presence of mania in patients who present with depressive symptoms is a critical step in the appropriate treatment of bipolar spectrum disorders. Identifying the early onset of bipolar symptoms as manifested in prodromal disorders such as childhood major depressive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also important for possible early intervention and improved outcomes.

  19. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  20. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 3N9Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC and temporal pole (TP structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.Keywords: bipolar disorder, diffusion tensor imaging, white matter tractography, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, mood dysphoria, creativity, ventral semantic stream, writing ability, artistic aptitude

  1. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  2. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  3. Gene environment interactions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, Peter

    2011-09-01

    It has been estimated that the heritable component of bipolar disorder ranges between 80 and 90%. However, even genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of phenotypic variability not resolving the problem of "lost heritability". Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced, offering even single cell analysing and resolving the problem of cell heterogeneity in epigenetics research. Gene overlapping with other mental disorders represents another problem in identifying potential susceptibility genes in bipolar disorder. Better understanding of the interplay between multiple environmental and genetic factors involved in the patogenesis of bipolar disorder could provide relevant information for treatment of patients with this complex disorder. Future studies on the role of these factors in psychopathological conditions, subphenotypes and endophenotypes may greatly benefit by using more precise clinical data and a combined approach with multiple research tools incorporated into a single study.

  4. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  5. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  6. Psychosis Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Thaker, Gunvant

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies provide considerable evidence that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share overlapping etiologic determinants. Identifying disease-related genetic effects is a major focus in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder research, with implications for clarifying diagnosis and developing specific treatments for various impairments in these 2 disorders. Efforts have been multifaceted, with the ultimate goal of describing causal paths from specific genetic variants, to changes in neuro...

  7. Heritability of bipolar affective disorder: Family study

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović Tanja; Veličković Ružica; Timotijević Ivana; Anđelković Marko

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Bipolar affective disorder is mental disorder with polygenic type of heredity. Heritability - relation between genetic and environmental variance is used to estimate the level of influence of genetic variance to phenotype variance. Study results show decreasing trend in the value of heritability of bipolar affective disorder, thus indicating that this disorder is a complex behavioral threshold characteristic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the contribut...

  8. Very Large Arrays of Bipolar Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Determination of Percent Hemoglobin A1c Using a Potentiometric Method, Analytical Chemistry, (02 2013): 0. doi: 10.1021/ac3032228 05/30/2013 13.00 Francois...Chemiluminescence (ECL) Emission at Bipolar Electrodes, Analytical Chemistry, (08 2009): 6218. doi: 10.1021/ac900744p 07/13/2012 1.00 Robbyn K...Anand, Stephen E. Fosdick, Ioana Dumitrescu, Richard M. Crooks. Pressure-Driven Bipolar Electrochemistry , Journal of the American Chemical Society

  9. Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology: prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwiński, Piotr; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Domański, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Głuszko, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    VESTIC technology is an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. This paper presents first measurement data of prototypes of VES-BJT: bipolar transistors in VESTIC technology. The VES-BJT is a bipolar transistor on the SOI substrate with symmetric lateral structure and both emitter and collector made of polysilicon. The results indicate that VES-BJT can be a device with useful characteristics. Therefore, VESTIC technology has the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology with some unique properties.

  10. Performance evaluation and characterization of metallic bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yue

    Bipolar plate and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are the two most repeated components of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. Bipolar plates comprise more than 60% of the weight and account for 30% of the total cost of a fuel cell stack. The bipolar plates perform as current conductors between cells, provide conduits for reactant gases, facilitate water and thermal management through the cell, and constitute the backbone of a power stack. In addition, bipolar plates must have excellent corrosion resistance to withstand the highly corrosive environment inside the fuel cell, and they must maintain low interfacial contact resistance throughout the operation to achieve optimum power density output. Currently, commercial bipolar plates are made of graphite composites because of their relatively low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and high corrosion resistance. However, graphite composite's manufacturability, permeability, and durability for shock and vibration are unfavorable in comparison to metals. Therefore, metals have been considered as a replacement material for graphite composite bipolar plates. Since bipolar plates must possess the combined advantages of both metals and graphite composites in the fuel cell technology, various methods and techniques are being developed to combat metallic corrosion and eliminate the passive layer formed on the metal surface that causes unacceptable power reduction and possible fouling of the catalyst and the electrolyte. The main objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing efficient, cost-effective and durable metallic bipolar plates that were capable of functioning in the highly corrosive fuel cell environment. Bulk materials such as Poco graphite, graphite composite, SS310, SS316, incoloy 800, titanium carbide and zirconium carbide were investigated as potential bipolar plate materials. In this work, different alloys and compositions of chromium carbide coatings on aluminum and SS316

  11. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  12. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaznavi Sharmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder.

  13. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  14. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  15. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  16. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar Cognitive "Theory of Mind" processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais, no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatura sobre possíveis alterações do processamento Teoria da Mente no transtorno afetivo bipolar. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline por trabalhos publicados em língua inglesa, alemã, espanhola ou portuguesa nos últimos 20 anos, utilizando a frase de busca "Bipolar Disorder"[Mesh] AND "Theory of Mind". Foram procurados por estudos clínicos envolvendo indivíduos bipolares e que empregaram uma ou mais tarefas cognitivas desenvolvidas para a avaliação de habilidades Teoria da Mente. Foram excluídos os relatos de caso e cartas ao editor. A busca inicial resultou em cinco artigos, sendo selecionados quatro. Outros quatro foram também selecionados a partir da leitura dos artigos acima. DISCUSSÃO: Os artigos selecionados avaliaram populações de bipolares adultos e pediátricos, incluindo indivíduos eutímicos, maníacos e deprimidos. A maioria dos trabalhos avaliados sugere que existam prejuízos no processamento Teoria da Mente em portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar e que estes podem estar por trás dos sintomas e dos déficits funcionais do transtorno afetivo bipolar. CONCLUSÃO: Pesquisas futuras a respeito do tema em questão poderão esclarecer muito acerca do papel das alterações sociocognitivas no surgimento dos sintomas do transtorno afetivo bipolar, bem como ajudar no desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas do mesmo.OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is associated to persistent functional

  17. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  18. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A "ventral semantic stream" has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person-emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI's that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.

  19. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TYRE TREAD BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tyre tread pattern is the arrangement of blocks, grooves and voids, sipes and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip on the road. Tread is the uppermost part of any tyre which contact into the road and it has its own performance towards mileage, traction, low noise and heat built up properties. It would be meaningful to conduct an extended analysis on the tyre tread blocks for its performance in static and dynamic condition to predict its behavior and wear of tread block in on-road condition. The Finite Element software Abaqus is used for the present analysis of the tread block and its behavior was studied on two different contact surfaces. The tread block is modeled in six different shapes and analyzed for is performance. The deformation stress strain characteristic of different blocks is studied which will be useful in deciding the contact behavior, friction and road grip. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and the mixed type geometry shows a distinguished variation in the analysis. The dynamic stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has its own effect in tyre design. The tread block dynamics study by geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization to enhance the traction, better hydroplaning and rolling resistance under all operating conditions.

  20. Toward stratified treatments for bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Wolf, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition of bipolar disorders based on clinical symptoms reflects a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity. Stratification of treatments for bipolar disorders based on biomarkers and improved clinical markers are greatly needed to increase the efficacy of currently available treatments and improve the chances of developing novel therapeutic approaches. This review provides a theoretical framework to identify biomarkers and summarizes the most promising markers for stratification regarding beneficial and adverse treatment effects. State and stage specifiers, neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers will be discussed with respect to their ability to predict the response to specific pharmacological and psychosocial psychotherapies for bipolar disorders. To date, the most reliable markers are derived from psychopathology and history-taking, while no biomarker has been found that reliably predicts individual treatment responses. This review underlines both the importance of clinical diagnostic skills and the need for biological research to identify markers that will allow the targeting of treatment specifically to sub-populations of bipolar patients who are more likely to benefit from a specific treatment and less likely to develop adverse reactions.

  1. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  2. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  3. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  4. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Mood Dysregulation: Diagnostic Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Benjamin N

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder, once thought rare, has gone through stages of conceptualization. DSM criteria were reinterpreted such that children and adolescents, particularly those with ADHD, were commonly diagnosed with bipolar disorder and thought to be atypical by adult standards. Research criteria separated pediatric bipolar patients into 3 phenotypes, including a research diagnosis of "severe mood dysregulation." DSM-5 largely maintained previous criteria for bipolar disorder at all ages and created a new diagnosis called "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder," categorized as a depressive disorder, for persistently angry or irritable patients with symptoms of childhood onset. However, the controversy regarding the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder continues. Progress has been made in the classification of children and adolescents with mood symptoms who are predominantly irritable or angry, but lack of clarity remains regarding classification of children and adolescents with "symptoms characteristic of bipolar disorder" who do not meet criteria for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, or cyclothymia.

  5. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  6. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  7. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And those who also have conduct disorder ... with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and drugs may increase as they get older, ...

  8. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  9. Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder and Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder &Fibromyalgia: Choosing What’sRight for You What are anticonvulsant drugs? Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures. They are also used to treat bipolar ...

  10. A minimum thermodynamic model for the bipolar seesaw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar seesaw, synchronization of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Dansgaard-Oeschger events, north-south connection......Bipolar seesaw, synchronization of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Dansgaard-Oeschger events, north-south connection...

  11. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  12. Mechanisms of centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Medema, René H

    2010-12-14

    Accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division is accomplished through the assembly of a bipolar microtubule-based structure called the mitotic spindle. Work over the past two decades has identified a core regulator of spindle bipolarity, the microtubule motor protein kinesin-5. However, an increasing body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that kinesin-5-independent mechanisms driving bipolar spindle assembly exist as well. Here, we discuss different pathways that promote initial centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly.

  13. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  14. Differential expression of voltage-gated K+ and Ca2+ currents in bipolar cells in the zebrafish retinal slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, V P; Maguire, G

    1998-04-01

    Whole-cell voltage-gated currents were recorded from bipolar cells in the zebrafish retinal slice. Two physiological populations of bipolar cells were identified. In the first, depolarizing voltage steps elicited a rapidly activating A-current that reached peak amplitude or = 10 ms after step onset and did not inactivate. IK was antagonized by internal caesium and external tetraethylammonium. Bipolar cells expressing IK also expressed a time-dependent h-current at membrane potentials calcium-dependent potassium current (IK(Ca)) were identified. Depolarizing voltage steps > -50 mV activated ICa, which reached peak amplitude between -20 and -10 mV. ICa was eliminated in Ca+2-free Ringer and blocked by cadmium and cobalt, but not tetrodotoxin. In most cells, Ica was transient, activating rapidly at -50 mV. This current was antagonized by nickel. The remaining bipolar cells expressed a nifedipine-sensitive sustained current that activated between -40 and -30 mV, with both slower kinetics and smaller amplitude than transient ICa. IK(Ca) was elicited by membrane depolarizations > -20 mV. Bipolar cells in the zebrafish retinal slice preparation express an array of voltage-gated currents which contribute to non-linear I-V characteristics. The zebrafish retinal slice preparation is well-suited to patch clamp analyses of membrane mechanisms and provides a suitable model for studying genetic defects in visual system development.

  15. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  16. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  17. Bipolar effects in unipolar junctionless transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Ghosh, Dipankar; Armstrong, G. Alastair; Yu, Ran; Razavi, Pedram; Kranti, Abhinav

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we analyze hysteresis and bipolar effects in unipolar junctionless transistors. A change in subthreshold drain current by 5 orders of magnitude is demonstrated at a drain voltage of 2.25 V in silicon junctionless transistor. Contrary to the conventional theory, increasing gate oxide thickness results in (i) a reduction of subthreshold slope (S-slope) and (ii) an increase in drain current, due to bipolar effects. The high sensitivity to film thickness in junctionless devices will be most crucial factor in achieving steep transition from ON to OFF state.

  18. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  19. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHODS...

  20. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were c

  1. Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness : Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levander, Eric; Frye, Mark A.; McElroy, Susan; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Hwang, Sun; Mintz, Jim; Post, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods: Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-

  2. Sleep disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder: A comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelinda eBaroni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS. In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD NOS and BD I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD I and BD NOS youth using KSADS-PL interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8±3.6 years old including 24 BP-I and 46 BP-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD I in our sample.

  3. Anticorrosion Coating of Carbon Nanotube/Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Film on the Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite film of carbon nanotube (CNT and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was formed from dispersion fluids of CNT and PTFE. The composite film showed high electrical conductivity in the range of 0.1–13 S/cm and hydrophobic nature. This composite film was applied to stainless steel (SS bipolar plates of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC as anticorrosion film. This coating decreased the contact resistance between the surface of the bipolar plate and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA of the PEMFC. The output power of the fuel cell is increased by 1.6 times because the decrease in the contact resistance decreases the series resistance of the PEMFC. Moreover, the coating of this composite film protects the bipolar plate from the surface corrosion.

  4. Working conditions of bipolar radiofrequency on human articular cartilage repair following thermal injury during arthroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yuelong; Zhang Yujun; Ding Xiaoquan; Liu Songyang; Sun Tiezheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The thermal injury during bipolar radiofrequercy results in chondrocyte death that limits cartilage repair.The purpose was to determine the effects of various factors of bipolar radiofrequency on human articular cartilage after thermal injury,offering suitable working conditions for bipolar radiofrequency during arthroscopy.Methods Osteochondral explants from 28 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Department of Orthopaedic,Peking University Reople's Hospital from October 2013 to May 2014,were harvested and treated using bipolar radiofrequency in a light contact mode under the following conditions:various power setting of levels 2,4 and 6; different durations of 2 seconds,5 seconds and 10 seconds; irrigation with fluids of different temperatures of 4℃,22℃,and 37℃; two different bipolar radiofrequency probes ArthroCare TriStar 50 and Paragon T2.The percentage of cell death and depth of cell death were quantified with laser confocal microscopy.The content of proteoglycan elution at different temperatures was determined by spectrophotometer at 530 nm.Results Chondrocyte mortality during the treatment time of 2 seconds and power setting of level 2 was significantly lower than that with long duration or in higher level groups (time:P=0.001; power:P=0.001).The percentage of cell death after thermal injury was gradually reduced by increasing the temperature of the irrigation solutions (P=0.003),the depth of dead chondrocytes in the 37℃ solution group was significantly less than those in the 4℃ and 22℃ groups (P=0.001).The proteoglycan elution was also gradually reduced by increasing the temperature (P=0.004).Compared with the ArthroCare TriStar 50 group,the percentage of cell death in the Paragon T2 group was significantly decreased (P=0.046).Conclusions Thermal chondroplasty with bipolar radiofrequency resulted in defined margins of chondrocyte death under controlled conditions.The least cartilage damage during thermal chondroplasty

  5. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto en...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular.......Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto...... ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...

  6. Heritability of cognitive functions in families with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Mervi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Soronen, Pia; Palo, Outi M; Paunio, Tiina; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2007-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is highly heritable. Cognitive dysfunctions often observed in bipolar patients and their unaffected relatives implicate that these impairments may be associated with genetic predisposition to bipolar disorder and thus fulfill the criteria of a valid endophenotype for the disorder. However, the most fundamental criterion, their heritability, has not been directly studied in any bipolar population. This population-based study estimated the heritability of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to a population-based sample of 110 individuals from 52 families with bipolar disorder. Heritability of cognitive functions as assessed with neuropsychological test scores were estimated using the Solar package. Significant additive heritabilities were found in verbal ability, executive functioning, and psychomotor processing speed. Genetic contribution was low to verbal learning functions. High heritability, in executive functioning and psychomotor processing speed suggest that these may be valid endophenotypic traits for genetic studies of bipolar disorder.

  7. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  8. Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynere; Crowe, Marie; Scott, Anne; Lacey, Cameron

    2017-03-16

    Psychoeducation has become a common intervention within mental health settings. It aims to increase people's ability to manage a life with a long-term illness. For people with bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is one of a range of psychosocial interventions now considered part of contemporary mental health practice. It has taken on a 'common sense' status that results in little critique of psychoeducation practices. Using a published manual on psychoeducation and bipolar disorder as its data, Foucauldian discourse analysis was used in the present study for a critical perspective on psychoeducation in order to explore the taken-for-granted assumptions on which it is based. It identifies that the text produces three key subject positions for people with bipolar disorder. To practice self-management, a person must: (i) accept and recognize the authority of psychiatry to know them; (ii) come to see that they can moderate themselves; and (iii) see themselves as able to undertake a reflexive process of self-examination and change. These findings highlight the circular and discursive quality to the construct of insight that is central to how psychoeducation is practiced. Using Foucault's construct of pastoral power, it also draws attention to the asymmetrical nature of power relations between the clinician and the person with bipolar disorder. An effect of the use of medical discourse in psychoeducation is to limit its ability to work with ambivalence and contradiction. A critical approach to psychotherapy and education offers an alternate paradigm on which to basis psychoeducation practices.

  9. Homocysteine and cognitive functions in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Permoda-Osip

    2014-12-01

    The results obtained show higher HCY concentration in considerable proportion of patients with bipolar depression, especially in men. They also confirm a connect between high homocysteine concentration and worse performance in some neuropsychological tests. Such relationship was more marked in men.

  10. Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, André F; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging treatment target in bipolar disorder (BD). Several trials have assessed the efficacy of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments on cognition in BD but the findings are contradictory and unclear. A systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines...

  11. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  12. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed...

  13. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  14. Unraveling Psychomotor Slowing in Bipolar Disorde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsel, A.M.; Temmerman, A.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Morrens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In addition to affective and cognitive symptomatology, psychomotor deficits are known to be present in bipolar disorder (BD). Psychomotor functioning includes all of the processes necessary for completing a movement, from planning to initiation and execution. While these psychomotor

  15. The ups and downs of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R

    2003-06-01

    This brief historical overview of bipolar disorder addresses diagnosis, treatment, cost, creativity, suicide, and stigma with a review of the literature. This served as the introduction to the 27th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists (51 references).

  16. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning (i

  17. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  18. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajda M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Hajda,1 Jan Prasko,1 Klara Latalova,1 Radovan Hruby,2 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Barbora Mainerova1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Outpatient Psychiatric Department, Martin, Slovak Republic; 3Department of Psychiatry, Regional Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background: Bipolar disorder (BD is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods: A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results: Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion: Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. Keywords: bipolar disorder, unmet needs, stigma, treatment, medication, quality of life, family, psychotherapy

  19. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  20. Improvement on the dynamical performance of a power bipolar static induction transistor with a buried gate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongshun; Feng Jingjing; Liu Chunjuan; Wang Zaixing; Zhang Caizhen; Chang Peng

    2011-01-01

    The failure of a bipolar static induction transistor (BSIT) often occurs in the transient process between the conducting-state and the blocking-state,so a profound understanding of the physical mechanism of the switching process is of significance for designing and fabricating perfect devices.The dynamical characteristics of the transient process between conducting-state and blocking-state BSITs are represented in detail in this paper.The influences of material,structural and technological parameters on the dynamical performances of BSITs are discussed.The mechanism underlying the transient conversion process is analyzed in depth.The technological approaches are developed to improve the dynamical characteristics of BSITs.

  1. Experimental fuel cell performance analysis under different operating conditions and bipolar plate designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, Alfredo; Pino, Javier; Rosa, Felipe [Energy Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Munoz, Miguel; Lopez, Eduardo [INTA - National Institute for Aerospace Technology, Ctra. San Juan del Puerto-Matalascanas km 33, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This work presents experimental performance results for a 50 cm{sup 2} Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell, including polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis of the Fuel Cell. EIS results were used for the determination of the cell ohmic resistance as well as charge transfer resistances under different operating conditions. Different combinations of operating conditions and bipolar plate designs were analysed. In particular, the effect of the cathode oxygen concentration, reactant gases humidification, and bipolar plate (BP) design were assessed. Butler-Volmer (BV) kinetic parameters such as the charge transfer coefficient were also determined from Tafel plots. The electronic contact resistances were measured for both Bipolar Plate designs, and the membrane protonic resistances were calculated. Its dependence on the BP flow field design and operating conditions is addressed. The results obtained in this work are aimed both at gaining insight into the fundamental processes determining the fuel cell performance, and at determining parameters needed for Computational Fuel Cell Dynamics (CFCD) numerical simulations. (author)

  2. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  3. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.].

  4. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  5. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzoni Antonella

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD. Methods The paper describes three patients affected by AS and bipolar spectrum disorders. Results and conclusion Mood stabilizers and 2nd generation antipsychotics were effective in the treatment of these AS patients with comorbid BD, while the use of antidepressants was associated with worsening of the mood disorder. It is of importance to recognize both the psychiatric diagnoses in order to arrange an exhaustive therapeutic program and to define specific and realistic goals of treatment.

  6. Dissecting bipolar disorder complexity through epigenomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, B; Dwivedi, Y

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies of gene regulation mechanisms have emerged in neuroscience. Epigenetic modifications, described as heritable but reversible changes, include DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. The pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, may be ascribed to a complex gene–environment interaction (G × E) model, linking the genome, environmental factors and epigenetic marks. Both the high complexity and the high heritability of bipolar disorder make it a compelling candidate for neurobiological analyses beyond DNA sequencing. Questions that are being raised in this review are the precise phenotype of the disorder in question, and also the trait versus state debate and how these concepts are being implemented in a variety of study designs. PMID:27480490

  7. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  8. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression.

  9. INVERSE DDA OF A SYSTEM OF BLOCKS IN SPHERE COORDINATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuYun; WangHui; ZhouShuoyu; ShiShunying

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with the geometric equations of elastic-mechanics in the sphere-coordinates, the displacement equation of blocks on asphere consisting of 6 deforming parameters is developed. The formula for distance between blocks is derived under the supposition that all block boundaries are prime arcs. The kinematic constraint and the penalty function for reasonable contact between blocks are developed. The normal equations and their coefficient matrix, based on the Least Squares Principle, are derived. The problem of adjudging penetration between blocks is discussed, and a solution is proposed.

  10. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  11. Bipolar Transistor Tester for Physics Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Baddi, Raju

    2012-01-01

    A very simple low cost bipolar transistor tester for physics lab is given. The proposed circuit not only indicates the type of transistor(NPN/PNP) but also indicates the terminals(emitter, base and collector) using simple dual colored(Red/Green) LEDs. Color diagrams of testing procedure have been given for easy following. This article describes the construction of this apparatus in all detail with schematic circuit diagram, circuit layout and constructional illustration.

  12. The Bipolar Quantum Drift-diffusion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Qing CHEN; Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A fourth order parabolic system, the bipolar quantum drift-diffusion model in semiconductor simulation, with physically motivated Dirichlet-Neumann boundary condition is studied in this paper. By semidiscretization in time and compactness argument, the global existence and semiclassical limit are obtained, in which semiclassical limit describes the relation between quantum and classical drift-diffusion models. Furthermore, in the case of constant doping, we prove the weak solution exponentially approaches its constant steady state as time increases to infinity.

  13. Complementary medicines in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogarapu, S; Bishop, J R; Krueger, C D; Pavuluri, M N

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number and availability of various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has resulted in an exponentially growing utilization of these products for everything from minor aches and pains to the treatment of mental illness. Difficulties in treating mental illnesses in children, averseness to having children take psychiatric medications, and stigma all drive patients and their families to research alternative treatments. As a result, there has been an increased utilization of CAM in psychiatry, particularly for hard to treat conditions like pediatric BD. It is important for the health care providers to be aware of the alternative treatments by some of their patients. A review of studies investigating the utility of complementary and alternative medicines in bipolar patients was conducted and selected studies were included. Omega-3 fatty acids and lecithin/ choline have preliminary data indicating potential utility in the CAM treatment for bipolar disorder while S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and inositol have some data supporting their efficacy in the treatment of depressive symptoms. Some data for CAM suggest they may be useful adjunctive treatments but only little data are available to support their use as stand-alone therapy. Thus, the conventional medicines remain the first choice in pediatric bipolar management. Healthcare providers need to routinely inquire about the utilization of these treatments by their patients and become familiar with the risks and benefits involved with their use in children.

  14. Olanzapine discontinuation emergent recurrence in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of atypical antipsychotics including olanzapine in acute treatment of manic episode has been established, whereas its role in maintenance treatment is not clear. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients of bipolar disorder who were on regular treatment with mood stabilizer and subsequently relapsed into mania or depressive episode after discontinuation of olanzapine were studied for various socio-demographic and clinical factors using retrospective chart review. Results: There was no correlation found between the period of tapering olanzapine, time to recurrence of episode after discontinuation, and the dosage of olanzapine at the time of discontinuation. The predominant early signs of relapse after discontinuation of olanzapine included sleep disturbance (72.7%, lack of insight for change in behavior (72.7%, irritability (54.5%, and elevated mood (45.5%. Conclusion: Mood stabilizer alone as a maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder may be inadequate for long-term management. A low dose of olanzapine along with mood stabilizers might be useful for prevention of recurrence in bipolar disorder.

  15. Bipolar outflows in OH/IR stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Hekkert, P L; Likkel, L; Comeron, F; Norris, R P; Molster, F J; Cohen, R J; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the development of bipolar outflows during the early post-AGB evolution. A sample of ten OH/IR stars is observed at high angular resolution, including bipolar nebulae (OH231.8+4.2), bright post-AGB stars (HD 101584) and reflection nebulae (e.g. Roberts 22). The IRAS colour--colour diagram separates the sample into different types of objects. One group may contain the progenitors to the (few) extreme bipolar planetary nebulae. Two objects show colours and chemistry very similar to the planetary nebulae with late IR-[WC] stars. One object is a confirmed close binary. A model is presented consisting of an outer AGB wind which is swept up by a faster post-AGB wind, with either wind being non-spherically symetric. The interface of the two winds is shown to exhibit a linear relation between velocity and distance from the star. The OH data confirms the predicted linear velocity gradients, and reveals torus-like, uniformly expanding components. All sources are discussed in detail using optical/HST imag...

  16. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-07-15

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  17. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  18. Recurrence and Relapse in Bipolar Mood Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gh Mousavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in acute phase of bipolar mood disorder, patients often experience relapses or recurrent episodes. Hospitalization of patients need a great deal of financial and humanistic resources which can be saved through understanding more about the rate of relapse and factors affecting this rate. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 380 patients with bipolar disorder who were hospitalized in psychiatric emergency ward of Noor hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were followed. Each patient was considered for; the frequency of relapse and recurrence, kind of pharmachotherapy, presence of psychotherapeutic treatments, frequency of visits by psychiatrist and the rank of present episode. Results: The overall prevalence of recurrence was 42.2%. Recurrence was lower in patients using lithium carbonate or sodium valproate or combined therapy (about 40%, compared to those using carbamazepine (80%. Recurrence was higher in patients treated with only pharmacotherapy (44.5% compared to those treated with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (22.2%. Patients who were visited monthy by psychiatrist had lower rate of recurrence compared to those who had irregular visits. Conclusion: The higher rate of recurrence observed in carbamazepine therapy may be due to its adverse reactions and consequently poor compliance to this drug. Lower rates of recurrence with psychotherapy and regular visits may be related to the preventive effects of these procedures and especially to the effective management of stress. Keywords: Bipolar Mood Disorder, Recurrence, Relapse.

  19. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  20. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  1. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  2. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  3. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  4. Bipolarna motnja razpoloženja: Bipolar disorder:

    OpenAIRE

    Dernovšek, Mojca Zvezdana; Frangeš, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is very prevalent in general population. According to Diagnostic and statistical manual ofmental disorders, fourth revision - DSM-IV, four types ofbipolar disorder are distinguished: bipolar disorder 1, bipolar disorder II, cyclothymia, and other types (not specified otherwise). Etiology of disorder is multifactorial with overlap between genetic, environmental"and neurobiological factors. Due to complexity of clinical features it represents diagnostical and therapeutical chal...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The...

  6. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Bai

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  7. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Kiyama, Takae; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  8. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire: A Simple, Patient-Rated Screening Instrument for Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschfeld, Robert M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is frequently encountered in primary care settings, often in the form of poor response to treatment for depression. Although lifetime prevalence of bipolar I disorder is 1%, the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders (e.g., bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia) is much higher, especially among patients with depression. The consequences of misdiagnosis can be devastating. One way to improve recognition of bipolar spectrum disorders is to screen for them. The Mood Disorder ...

  9. Bipolar disorder and age-related functional impairment Prejuízo funcional associado à idade e transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aita Cacilhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este

  10. Heavily doped polysilicon-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.; Arienzo, M.; Iles, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first use of a (silicon)/heavily doped polysilicon)/(metal) structure to replace the conventional high-low junction or back-surface-field (BSF) structure of silicon solar cells is reported. Compared with BSF and back-ohmic-contact (BOC) control samples, the polysilicon-back solar cells show improvements in red spectral response (RSR) and open-circuit voltage. Measurement reveals that a decrease in effective surface recombination velocity S is responsible for this improvement. Decreased S results for n-type (Si:As) polysilicon, consistent with past findings for bipolar transistors, and for p-type (Si:B) polysilicon, reported here for the first time. Though the present polysilicon-back solar cells are far from optimal, the results suggest a new class of designs for high efficiency silicon solar cells. Detailed technical reasons are advanced to support this view.

  11. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-02-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB.

  12. Dark therapy for bipolar disorder using amber lenses for blue light blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James

    2008-01-01

    "Dark Therapy", in which complete darkness is used as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder, roughly the converse of light therapy for depression, has support in several preliminary studies. Although data are limited, darkness itself appears to organize and stabilize circadian rhythms. Yet insuring complete darkness from 6 p.m. to 8 a.m. the following morning, as used in several studies thus far, is highly impractical and not accepted by patients. However, recent data on the physiology of human circadian rhythm suggests that "virtual darkness" may be achievable by blocking blue wavelengths of light. A recently discovered retinal photoreceptor, whose fibers connect only to the biological clock region of the hypothalamus, has been shown to respond only to a narrow band of wavelengths around 450 nm. Amber-tinted safety glasses, which block transmission of these wavelengths, have already been shown to preserve normal nocturnal melatonin levels in a light environment which otherwise completely suppresses melatonin production. Therefore it may be possible to influence human circadian rhythms by using these lenses at night to blunt the impact of electrical light, particularly the blue light of ubiquitous television screens, by creating a "virtual darkness". One way to investigate this would be to provide the lenses to patients with severe sleep disturbance of probable circadian origin. A preliminary case series herein demonstrates that some patients with bipolar disorder experience reduced sleep-onset latency with this approach, suggesting a circadian effect. If amber lenses can effectively simulate darkness, a broad range of conditions might respond to this inexpensive therapeutic tool: common forms of insomnia; sleep deprivation in nursing mothers; circadian rhythm disruption in shift workers; and perhaps even rapid cycling bipolar disorder, a difficult- to -treat variation of a common illness.

  13. [Confusing clinical presentations and differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    An early recognition of bipolar disorders may have an important impact on the prognosis of this disorder according to different mechanisms. Bipolar disorder is nevertheless not easy to detect, the diagnosis being correctly proposed after, in average more than a couple of Years and three different doctors assessments. A short delay before introducing the relevant treatment should help avoiding inappropriate treatments (prescribing, for example, neuroleptics for long periods, antidepressive drugs each time depressive symptoms occurs, absence of treatment despite mood disorders), with their associated negative impact such as mood-switching, rapid cycling or presence of chronic side-effects stigmates. Furthermore, non-treated mood disorders in bipolar disorder are longer, more stigmatizing and may be associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviour and mortality. Lastly, compliance, an important factor regarding the long term prognosis of bipolar disorder, should be improved when there is a short delay between correct diagnosis and treatment and onset of the disorder. We therefore propose to review the literature for the different pitfalls involved in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Non-bipolar mood-disorders are frequently quoted as one of the alternative diagnosis. Hyperthymic temperament, side-effects of prescribed treatments and organic comorbid disorders may be involved. Bipolar disorders have a sex-ratio closer to 1 (men are thus more frequently of the bipolar type in mood-disorders), with earlier age at onset, and more frequent family history of suicidal attempts and bipolar disorder. Schizo-affective disorders are also a major concern regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. This is explained by flat affects sometimes close to anhedonia, presence of a schizoïd personality in bipolar disorder, persecutive hostility that can be considered to be related to irritability rather than a schizophrenic symptom. Rapid cycling, mixed episodes and short

  14. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  15. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  16. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  17. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  18. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  20. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  1. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha M Rathi; Preeji S Mandathara; Srikanth Dumpati

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  2. The bipolar puzzle, adding new pieces. Factors associated with bipolar disorder, Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schot, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. The first part will discuss the structural brain abnormalities and schoolperformance associated with bipolar disorder and the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors to this association. It is part of a large twin study investigating several potential b

  3. Mixed lubricated line contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Faraon, Irinel Cosmin

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is essential that an engineer is able to predict friction.

  4. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  5. Coral contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  6. Coral contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Thompson, Curtis; Hinshaw, Molly; Rich, Phoebe

    2015-04-16

    Corals can elicit both toxic and allergic reactions upon contact with the skin. Clinical presentations vary depending on whether the reaction is acute, delayed, or chronic. Literature concerning cutaneous reactions to corals and other Cnidarians is scarce. Herein we report a case of delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to coral and review the clinical and histopathological features of coral contact dermatitis.

  7. Contact urticaria : Present scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological contact urticaria is a hypersensitivity reaction that appears on the skin following contact with an eliciting substance. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of this reaction have altered its classification, diagnosis, and treatment. We discuss classification, epidemiology, diagnosis, testing, and treatment options that are available to patients with contact urticaria.

  8. Types of Contact Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back to top ] Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) Contact Lenses Rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPs) are more durable ... Ortho-K) Orthokeratology, or Ortho-K, is a lens fitting procedure that uses specially designed rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses to change the ...

  9. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  10. Blocks search result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_blocks_search_result.zip File si...atabase Site Policy | Contact Us Blocks search result - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Psychodynamics of hypersexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    It has recently become evident that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents. The criteria for making the diagnosis of juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) are in the process of being proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V). In adults, a criterion for bipolar disorder is excessive involvement in pleasurable activities including hypersexuality. Recently, some clinicians and researchers have suggested that hypersexuality be included as a criterion for JBD as well. Although abnormal sexuality has been reported to be present in some youth thought to have JBD, the reason for this association is not yet clear. Hypersexuality may be primary and intrinsic to bipolar disorder in youth, secondary and associated with it as the result of psychosocial influences or psychodynamic factors, or due to general aggression and disruptive behavior. Not only have developmental psychosocial factors that may influence sexuality in children and adolescence not been fully investigated, but psychodynamic influences have been omitted from modern etiological constructs as well. This report discusses the importance of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexual experience and activity of bipolar children. It is proposed that a developmental, psychodynamically informed model is helpful in understanding sexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. It is also suggested that assessment of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexuality of bipolar children is necessary in order to adequately assess whether hypersexuality should be a criterion of bipolar disorder in youth.

  12. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Power, R.A.; Steinberg, S.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Rietveld, C.A.; Abdellaoui, A.; Nivard, M.M.; Johannesson, M.; Galesloot, T.E.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Cesarini, D.; Benjamin, D.J.; Magnusson, P.K.; Ullen, F.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Rooij, F.J. van; Walters, G.B.; Sigurdsson, E.; Thorgeirsson, T.E.; Ingason, A.; Helgason, A.; Kong, A.; Kiemeney, B.; Koellinger, P.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gudbjartsson, D.; Stefansson, H.; Stefansson, K.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 x 10(-6) and 3.8 x 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectiv

  13. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  14. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  15. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  16. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  17. A Scalable Mextram Model for Advanced Bipolar Circuit Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a referenced based scaling approach and its parameter extraction for the bipolar transistor model Mextram is proposed. It is mainly based on the physical properties of the Mextram parameters, which scale with the junction temperature and geometry of the bipolar transistor. The scalab

  18. SEMICLASSICAL LIMIT FOR BIPOLAR QUANTUM DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qiangchang; Chen Li

    2009-01-01

    Semiclassical limit to the solution of transient bipolar quantum drift-diffusion model in semiconductor simulation is discussed. It is proved that the semiclassical limit ofthis solution satisfies the classical bipolar drift-diffusion model. In addition, the authors also prove the existence of weak solution.

  19. New types of bipolar fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Yaqoob

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The notion of bipolar fuzzy set was initiated by Lee (2000 as a generalization of the notion fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, which have drawn attention of many mathematicians and computer scientists. In this paper, we initiate a study on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. By using the concept of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets (Yaqoob and Ansari, 2013, we introduce the notion of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroups (-hyperideals and bi--hyperideals and discuss some basic results on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. Furthermore, we define the bipolar fuzzy subset ,               and prove that if  ,       is a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H; then ,               is also a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H.

  20. Asymmetric bipolar membranes in acid-base electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Friedrich G.; Punt, Ineke; Vegt, van der Nico F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this experimental study, the influence of asymmetric bipolar membranes on the salt impurities in the acid and base product is investigated. The thickness of one, the other, or both ion-permeable layers of a bipolar membrane is increased. With increased layer thickness, the current-voltage curves

  1. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  2. Tiagabine in treatment refractory bipolar disorder : a clinical case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppes, T; Chisholm, KA; Dhavale, D; Frye, MA; Atshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Keck, PE; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Denicoff, KD; Leverich, GS; Rush, AJ; Post, RM

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Anticonvulsants have provided major treatment advances for patients with bipolar disorder. Many of these drugs, including several with proven efficacy in bipolar mania or depression, enhance the activity of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system. A new anticonvulsant

  3. NEW FAMILY OF BIPOLAR SEQUENCES AND ITS CORRELATION SPECTRUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Fei; Wen Hong; Jin Fan

    2004-01-01

    Based on a class of bipolar sequences with two-values autocorrelation functions, a new family of bipolar sequences is constructed and its correlation spectrum is calculated. It is shown that the new family is optimal with respect to Welch's bound and is different from the small set of Kasami sequences, while both of them have the same correlation properties.

  4. [Self-assessment questionnaires for the investigation of bipolarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Ch; Konstantinidou, D; Douzenis, A

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary research shows that bipolar disorders are very often faced initially as depression, while the precise diagnosis usually delay 8-10 years or more. As a result of this delay in the diagnosis, the patients do not receive appropriate treatment and are not led to recession of their symptoms. Roughly one third of depressed patients are treated at mental health services and two thirds at the primary care health services. Regarding the psychiatric patients that are treated in the secondary and trietary services of mental health, various researches indicate that the bipolar disorders and especially Bipolar Disorder II are under-diagnosed and consequently they do not receive satisfactory treatment with important repercussions in the professional and social existence of Bipolar Disorders' patients. The imperative need for early diagnosis and treatment in patients with bipolar disorders is obvious, in order to decrease the big time of delay in the diagnosis of Bipolar disorders. Patient self-completed questionnaires, which are small in duration and well structured, can contribute in the early recognition of disorders of bipolar spectrum in patients that are treated at the outpatient clinics. In this bibliographic research we compare two questionnaires (the MDQ and the HCL-32) with regard to their psychometrics faculties and the possibility of use in the early diagnosis and treatment of individuals that suffers from disorders of Bipolar spectrum.

  5. People-Things and Data-Ideas: Bipolar Dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2011-01-01

    We examined a longstanding assumption in vocational psychology that people-things and data-ideas are bipolar dimensions. Two minimal criteria for bipolarity were proposed and examined across 3 studies: (a) The correlation between opposite interest types should be negative; (b) after correcting for systematic responding, the correlation should be…

  6. Mechanisms of Centrosome Separation and Bipolar Spindle Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E.; Medema, Rene H.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division is accomplished through the assembly of a bipolar microtubule-based structure called the mitotic spindle. Work over the past two decades has identified a core regulator of spindle bipolarity, the microtubule motor protein kinesin-5. However, a

  7. Premorbid intelligence and educational level in bipolar and unipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Sæbye, Ditte; Urfer-Parnas, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups.......Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups....

  8. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  9. Enhancing outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder: results from the Bipolar Disorder Center for Pennsylvanians Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Frank, Ellen; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; Cheng, Yu; Curet, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Gildengers, Ariel G; Goldstein, Tina; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Houck, Patricia R; Stofko, Mary G; Thase, Michael E; Thompson, Wesley K; Turkin, Scott R; Kupfer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We developed models of Specialized Care for Bipolar Disorder (SCBD) and a psychosocial treatment [Enhanced Clinical Intervention (ECI)] that is delivered in combination with SCBD. We investigated whether SCBD and ECI + SCBD are able to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for young and elderly individuals, African Americans, and rural residents with bipolar disorder. Method Subjects were 463 individuals with bipolar disorder, type I, II, or not otherwise specified, or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, randomly assigned to SCBD or ECI + SCBD and followed longitudinally for a period of one to three years at four clinical sites. Results Both treatment groups significantly improved over time, with no significant differences based on age, race, or place of residence, except for significantly greater improvement among elderly versus adult subjects. Improvement in quality of life was greater in the ECI + SCBD group. Of the 299 participants who were symptomatic at study entry, 213 achieved recovery within 24 months, during which 86 of the 213 subjects developed a new episode. No significant difference was found for race, place of residence, or age between the participants who experienced a recurrence and those who did not. However, the adolescent patients were less likely than the adult and elderly patients to experience a recurrence. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of SCBD and the additional benefit of ECI independent of age, race, or place of residence. It also demonstrated that new mood episodes are frequent in individuals with bipolar disorder who achieve recovery and are likely to occur in spite of specialized, guideline-based treatments. PMID:19500091

  10. Block TERM factorization of block matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Yiyuan; HAO Pengwei

    2004-01-01

    Reversible integer mapping (or integer transform) is a useful way to realize Iossless coding, and this technique has been used for multi-component image compression in the new international image compression standard JPEG 2000. For any nonsingular linear transform of finite dimension, its integer transform can be implemented by factorizing the transform matrix into 3 triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs) or a series of single-row elementary reversible matrices (SERMs). To speed up and parallelize integer transforms, we study block TERM and SERM factorizations in this paper. First, to guarantee flexible scaling manners, the classical determinant (det) is generalized to a matrix function, DET, which is shown to have many important properties analogous to those of det. Then based on DET, a generic block TERM factorization,BLUS, is presented for any nonsingular block matrix. Our conclusions can cover the early optimal point factorizations and provide an efficient way to implement integer transforms for large matrices.

  11. Analysis of bipolar and CMOS amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Sodagar, Amir M

    2007-01-01

    The classical approach to analog circuit analysis is a daunting prospect to many students, requiring tedious enumeration of contributing factors and lengthy calculations. Most textbooks apply this cumbersome approach to small-signal amplifiers, which becomes even more difficult as the number of components increases. Analysis of Bipolar and CMOS Amplifiers offers students an alternative that enables quick and intuitive analysis and design: the analysis-by-inspection method.This practical and student-friendly text demonstrates how to achieve approximate results that fall within an acceptable ran

  12. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drozd, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Nolan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Orsatti, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Heppener, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Di Lieto, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schultheiss, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Zapasek, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Sandberg, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  13. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-03

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques.

  14. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  15. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...... on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A total of 17...

  16. Activation of suicidal ideation with adjunctive rufinamide in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Struck, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Antiepileptic drugs are effective psychotropics, especially for bipolar disorder, which leads to their use off-label in treatment-refractory cases. A recent publication suggests that rufinamide may be beneficial adjunctively for bipolar disorder with comorbid psychopathology. This report addresses two negative cases with significant psychiatric adverse effects: increased depression, agitation, and activation of suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adjunctive rufinamide may lead to increased suicidal ideation in patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Secondary to the course of severe bipolar disorder, rufinamide cannot be specifically implicated; however, clinicians should be aware of this potential significant adverse effect and monitor high-risk patients. Further studies are required to address rufinamide treatment efficacy and severity of adverse effects in patients with bipolar disorder.

  17. The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It appears that the female reproductive events and hormonal treatments may impact the course of bipolar disorder in women. In particular, childbirth is known to be associated with onset of affective episodes in women with bipolar disorder. During the female reproductive events the sex...... hormones, e.g. estrogen, are fluctuating and particularly postpartum there is a steep fall in the levels of serum estrogen. The role of estrogen in women with bipolar disorder is, however, not fully understood. AIM: The main objective of this review is to evaluate the possible relation between serum...... estrogen levels and women with bipolar disorder including studies of the anti manic effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. METHOD: A systematically literature search on PubMed was conducted: two studies regarding the connection between serum estrogen levels and women with bipolar...

  18. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  19. Minor physical anomalies in bipolar I and bipolar II disorders - Results with the Méhes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecz, Hajnalka; Csábi, Györgyi; Jeges, Sára; Herold, Róbert; Simon, Maria; Halmai, Tamás; Trixler, Dániel; Hajnal, András; Tóth, Ákos Levente; Tényi, Tamás

    2017-03-01

    Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are external markers of abnormal brain development, so the more common appearence of these signs among bipolar I and bipolar II patients can confirm the possibility of a neurodevelopmental deficit in these illnesses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in patients with bipolar I and - first in literature - with bipolar II disorders compared to matched healthy control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies (the Méhes Scale), 30 bipolar I and 30 bipolar II patients, while as a comparison 30 matched healthy control subjects were examined. Significant differences were detected between the three groups comparing the total number of minor physical anomalies, minor malformations and phenogenetic variants and in the cases of the ear and the mouth regions. The individual analyses of the 57 minor physical anomalies by simultaneous comparison of the three groups showed, that in the cases of furrowed tongue and high arched palate were significant differences between the three groups. The results can promote the concept, that a neurodevelopmental deficit may play a role in the etiology of both bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

  20. A different perspective on bipolar disorder? : epidemiology, consequences, concept, and recognition of bipolar spectrum disorder in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeer, Eline Janet

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness, is a mood disorder in which episodes of mania, hypomania and depression occur in alternation with intervals of normal mood. Bipolar disorder is typically a recurrent illness and may have serious consequences such as poor social and occupational function

  1. Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.

  2. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices.

  3. The last deglaciation: timing the bipolar seesaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Pedro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise information on the relative timing of north-south climate variations is a key to resolving questions concerning the mechanisms that force and couple climate changes between the hemispheres. We present a new composite record made from five well-resolved Antarctic ice core records that robustly represents the timing of regional Antarctic climate change during the last deglaciation. Using fast variations in global methane gas concentrations as time markers, the Antarctic composite is directly compared to Greenland ice core records, allowing a detailed mapping of the inter-hemispheric sequence of climate changes. Consistent with prior studies the synchronized records show that warming (and cooling trends in Antarctica closely match cold (and warm periods in Greenland on millennial timescales. For the first time, we also identify a sub-millennial component to the inter-hemispheric coupling. Within the Antarctic Cold Reversal the strongest Antarctic cooling occurs during the pronounced northern warmth of the Bølling. Warming then resumes in Antarctica, potentially as early as the Intra-Allerød Cold Period, but with dating uncertainty that could place it as late as the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial. There is little-to-no time lag between climate transitions in Greenland and opposing changes in Antarctica. Our results lend support to fast acting inter-hemispheric coupling mechanisms, including recently proposed bipolar atmospheric teleconnections and/or rapid bipolar ocean teleconnections.

  4. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2017-01-24

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.263.

  5. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  6. Loopy: The Political Ontology of Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RACHEL JANE LIEBERT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is at once a critical analysis, an experiment in form, and – with some irony – a cautionary tale. Triggered by the inclusion of prodromal diagnoses in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and the recent call by the United States’ (U.S. Obama administration for increased mental health screening, I argue that shifts toward identifying and intervening on one’s potential madness, or risk, circulate with/in the contemporary U.S. climate of intensified discipline and terror, and use Bipolar Disorder as a site to critically explore how and with what implications this circulation occurs. Specifically, I weave Massumi’s ‘political ontology of threat’ with the narrative of a woman diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder in order to trace the pre-emptive politics and affective logic of a risk-based approach to madness. I contend that the diagnosing and drugging of potential is a self-perpetuating loop that is personally and politically harmful, and consider alternatives to this burgeoning practice.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  8. Transtorno bipolar do humor e gênero Bipolar affective disorder and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Dias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o transtorno bipolar (TB ocorra quase igualmente em ambos os sexos, a fenomenologia e o curso da doença diferem no homem e na mulher. No entanto, há evidências de que mulheres bipolares, mais que os homens, apresentariam início mais tardio (em especial na quinta década de vida, ciclagem rápida, mais episódios depressivos, mais mania disfórica que eufórica, estados mistos e evolução do tipo bipolar II, ainda que os achados nem sempre sejam consistentes. Embora o risco de comorbidades no TB inclua, para ambos os gêneros, abuso de álcool e drogas, homens bipolares teriam maior probabilidade de ser alcoolistas, não procurar tratamento e de se suicidar. Hipóteses sugeridas para explicar tais diferenças variam daquelas centradas em aspectos culturais ou psicológicos para as que focalizam os sistemas hormonais, como os esteróides gonadais ou o eixo tireoidiano, e até mesmo a anatomia cerebral. A influência do ciclo reprodutivo (ciclo menstrual, gravidez e menopausa sobre as opções terapêuticas no tratamento do TB é apresentada na última parte desta revisão.Although the bipolar disorder (BD occurs almost with the same frequency in both genders, the phenomenology and the outcome of the illness differ between them. Nevertheless, there is evidence that women with BD show, more than men, delayed beginning, especially in their fifth decade, more rapid cycling outcome, more depressive episodes, more dysphoric mania, more mixed states and more BD type II. Even so, the findings are not always consistent. Although the risk of comorbidities in BD includes, for both the sorts, excessive alcoholic consumption and drugs, bipolar men would have greater probability of being alcohol dependent, of not seeking treatment and of committing suicide. Suggested hypotheses to explain such differences vary from those centered in cultural or psychological aspects to those that focus on the steroids hormones, and other hormones such as cortisol

  9. Changes in Neuronal Excitability by Activated Microglia: Differential Na(+) Current Upregulation in Pyramid-Shaped and Bipolar Neurons by TNF-α and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapal, Lars; Igelhorst, Birte A; Dietzel-Meyer, Irmgard D

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to hippocampal cultures upregulates Na(+) current densities (INavD) of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a major cytokine released by activated microglia, upregulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, the upregulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the upregulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18), are released from activated microglia, we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5-10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose-response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines, microglial cells upregulate Na(+) current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released, this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger upregulation of

  10. Changes in neuronal excitability by activated microglia: Differential Na+ current up-regulation in pyramid-shaped and bipolar neurons by TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eKlapal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS to hippocampal cultures up-regulates Na+ current densities (INavD of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a major cytokine released by activated microglia, up-regulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells the up-regulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the up-regulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18, are released from activated microglia we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5-10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose-response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines microglial cells up-regulate Na+ current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger up-regulation of

  11. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blocked Urethral Valves Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Blocked Urethral Valves Page Content Article Body Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra, which in boys passes through the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in ...

  12. Types of Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P wave as it normally would. If an electrical signal is blocked before it reaches the ventricles, they won't contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Second-degree heart block is divided into two ...

  13. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  14. The Block Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We define the block neighborhood of a reversible CA, which is related both to its decomposition into a product of block permutations and to quantum computing. We give a purely combinatorial characterization of the block neighborhood, which helps in two ways. First, it makes the computation of the block neighborhood of a given CA relatively easy. Second, it allows us to derive upper bounds on the block neighborhood: for a single CA as function of the classical and inverse neighborhoods, and for the composition of several CAs. One consequence of that is a characterization of a class of "elementary" CAs that cannot be written as the composition of two simpler parts whose neighborhoods and inverse neighborhoods would be reduced by one half.

  15. Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: application to bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; Geddes, John R; Colom, Francesc; Goodwin, Guy M

    2008-12-01

    Cognitions in the form of mental images have a more powerful impact on emotion than their verbal counterparts. This review synthesizes the cognitive science of imagery and emotion with transdiagnostic clinical research, yielding novel predictions for the basis of emotional volatility in bipolar disorder. Anxiety is extremely common in patients with bipolar disorder and is associated with increased dysfunction and suicidality, yet it is poorly understood and rarely treated. Mental imagery is a neglected aspect of bipolar anxiety although in anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and social phobia focusing on imagery has been crucial for the development of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In this review we present a cognitive model of imagery and emotion applied to bipolar disorder. Within this model mental imagery amplifies emotion, drawing on Clark's cyclical panic model [(1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461-470]. We (1) emphasise imagery's amplification of anxiety (cycle one); (2) suggest that imagery amplifies the defining (hypo-) mania of bipolar disorder (cycle two), whereby the overly positive misinterpretation of triggers leads to mood elevation (escalated by imagery), increasing associated beliefs, goals, and action likelihood (all strengthened by imagery). Imagery suggests a unifying explanation for key unexplained features of bipolar disorder: ubiquitous anxiety, mood instability and creativity. Introducing imagery has novel implications for bipolar treatment innovation--an area where CBT improvements are much-needed.

  16. Broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: benefits vs. risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    STRAKOWSKI, STEPHEN M.; FLECK, DAVID E.; MAJ, MARIO

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether bipolar and related disorders that share common signs and symptoms, but are currently defined as distinct clinical entities in DSM-IV and ICD-10, may be better characterized as falling within a more broadly defined “bipolar spectrum”. With a spectrum view in mind, the possibility of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder has been proposed. This paper discusses some of the rationale for an expanded diagnostic scheme from both clinical and research perspectives in light of potential drawbacks. The ultimate goal of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder is to help identify a common etiopathogenesis for these conditions to better guide treatment. To help achieve this goal, bipolar researchers have increasingly expanded their patient populations to identify objective biological or endophenotypic markers that transcend phenomenological observation. Although this approach has and will likely continue to produce beneficial results, the upcoming DSM-IV and ICD-10 revisions will place increasing scrutiny on psychiatry’s diagnostic classification systems and pressure to re-evaluate our conceptions of bipolar disorder. However, until research findings can provide consistent and converging evidence as to the validity of a broader diagnostic conception, clinical expansion to a dimensional bipolar spectrum should be considered with caution. PMID:21991268

  17. Bipolar II postpartum depression: Detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Burt, Vivien K; Ritchie, Hendrica L

    2009-11-01

    Research on postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, bipolar I disorder, and puerperal psychosis and has largely ignored or neglected bipolar II disorder. Hypomanic symptoms are common after delivery but frequently unrecognized. DSM-IV does not consider early postpartum hypomania as a significant diagnostic feature. Although postpartum hypomania may not cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning, it is often associated with subsequent, often disabling depression. Preliminary evidence suggests that bipolar II depression arising in the postpartum period is often misdiagnosed as unipolar major depressive disorder. The consequences of the misdiagnosis can be particularly serious because of delayed initiation of appropriate treatment and the inappropriate prescription of antidepressants. Moreover, no pharmacological or psychotherapeutic studies of bipolar postpartum depression are available to guide clinical decision making. Also lacking are screening instruments designed specifically for use before or after delivery in women with suspected bipolar depression. It is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of nonpuerperal bipolar II depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation.

  18. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  19. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  20. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  1. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...... to contribute to “an era of participation.” We describe a contact perspective in PD developed through a collaboration with body-oriented psychotherapeutic research that have specialized experiences in investigating open-minded contact and authentic meetings as body-related experiences....

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  3. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  4. Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiromi Kimura, Akemi Osaki, Rui Kawashima, Takeshi Inoue, Shin Nakagawa, Katsuji Suzuki, Satoshi Asakura, Teruaki Tanaka, Yuji Kitaichi, Takuya Masui, Nobuki Kitagawa, Yuki Kako, Tomohiro Abekawa, Ichiro Kusumi, Hiroyoshi Yamanaka, Kenzo Denda, Tsukasa KoyamaDepartment of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, JapanBackground: The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls.Methods: Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls.Results: The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder.Keywords: bipolar depression, bipolar disorder, Rorschach test, thought disorder, unipolar depression

  5. Intervenções psicossociais no transtorno bipolar Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pereira Justo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, os autores, através de revisão bibliográfica narrativa, situam as intervenções psicossociais dentro do panorama terapêutico para o transtorno bipolar e constatam que ainda são insuficientes os estudos primários feitos com metodologia adequada para a obtenção de informações científicas de boa qualidade. São sucintamente descritos os trabalhos mais relevantes.In this paper, the authors review the status of psychosocial interventions within the general treatment for bipolar disorder. They have verified the scantiness of studies performed with adequate methodology to obtain scientific information of good quality. The more relevant studies are briefly described.

  6. Sutures and contact homology I

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Vincent; Honda, Ko; Hutchings, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We define a relative version of contact homology for contact manifolds with convex boundary, and prove basic properties of this relative contact homology. Similar considerations also hold for embedded contact homology.

  7. [HOW TO EXPLORE BIPOLARITY IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY: A DIMENSIONAL SEMIOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, J-M

    2016-02-01

    Despite its high frequency, bipolarity in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child's psychosocial future is at stake. A proper diagnosis requires recognition of accurate clinical signs. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers. This paper presents a dimensional semiology for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. These clinical signs enable the identification of a bipolar manic temperament in the child and/or the identification of various different forms of childhood bipolar and depressive disorder. The relevant differential diagnoses and comorbidities are also presented.

  8. Rapid Prototyping Bipolar Plate of PEMFC by Gelcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing; CHEN Shang-wei; HUANG Ming-yu; WANG Lian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plate is one key component of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). According to this paper, mesocarbon microbeads were used as raw materials for forming the green bodies of bipolar plates with complex flow channels by gelcasting technique. Then, the final bipolar plates would be gained after the green parts were died, burned out and sintered. Meanwhile, its properties are researched and evaluated by the test of flexible strength and electric resistivity. The resultant flexural strength of sintered sample is 67 Mpa and the electric resistivity is 52 μΩ·m.

  9. Evaluation of Electrochemical Characteristics on Graphene Coated Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels for Metallic Bipolar Plates in PEMFC Fabricated with Hydrazine Reduction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong-Yun; Lee, Jae-Bong [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Graphene was coated on austenitic and martensitic stainless steels to simulate the metallic bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a hydrazine process. rGO was confirmed by FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) between the bipolar plate and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) was measured to confirm the electrical conductivity. Both ICR and corrosion current density decreased on graphene coated stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was also improved with immersion time in cathodic environments and satisfied the criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE), USA. The total concentrations of metal ions dissolved from graphene coated stainless steels were reduced. Furthermore hydrophobicity was improved by increasing the contact angle.

  10. Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: Igniting a Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Moezpoor, Michelle; Murray, Greg; Hole, Rachelle; Barnes, Steven J; Michalak, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been related to heightened creativity, yet core questions remain unaddressed about this association. We used qualitative methods to investigate how highly creative individuals with BD understand the role of symptoms and treatment in their creativity, and possible mechanisms underpinning this link. Twenty-two individuals self-identified as highly creative and living with BD took part in focus groups and completed quantitative measures of symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and creativity. Using thematic analysis, five themes emerged: the pros and cons of mania for creativity, benefits of altered thinking, the relationship between creativity and medication, creativity as central to one's identity, and creativity's importance in stigma reduction and treatment. Despite reliance on a small sample who self-identified as having BD, findings shed light on previously mixed results regarding the influence of mania and treatment and suggest new directions for the study of mechanisms driving the creative advantage in BD.

  11. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated...... deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients...... suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a subgroup of patients with BD may be related to a shared genetically determined influence on neurodevelopment....

  12. Screw bondgraph contact dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Martijn; Stramigioli, Stefano; Heemskerk, Cock

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an elegant contact dynamics model in screw bondgraph form. It can model the contact between any two objects of finite curvature. It does so by defining a Gauss frame on the surfaces of both objects in the points that are closest to each other. Then it describes how the Gauss fram

  13. Contact dermatitis. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Benezra, C; Burrows, D;

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in our understanding of contact dermatitis. This paper is a review of our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in contact dermatitis and related phenomena, the investigation of these events and the emergence of significant new allergens during...

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem Önder

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenific...

  15. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  16. The Twist Limit for Bipolar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Gary, Allen

    2008-01-01

    We present new evidence that further supports the standard idea that active regions are emerged magnetic-flux-rope omega loops. When the axial magnetic twist of a cylindrical flux rope exceeds a critical amount, the flux rope becomes unstable to kinking, and the excess axial twist is converted into writhe twist by the kinking. This suggests that, if active regions are emerged omega loops, then (1) no active region should have magnetic twist much above the limit set by kinking, (2) active regions having twist near the limit should often arise from kinked omega loops, and (3) since active regions having large delta sunspots are outstandingly twisted, these arise from kinked omega loops and should have twist near the limit for kinking. From each of 36 vector magnetograms of bipolar active regions, we have measured (1) the total flux of the vertical field above 100 G, (2) the area covered by this flux, and (3) the net electric current that arches over the polarity inversion line. These three quantities yield an estimate of the axial magnetic twist in a simple model cylindrical flux rope that corresponds to the top of the active region s hypothetical omega loop prior to emergence. In all 36 cases, the estimated twist is below the critical limit for kinking. The 11 most twisted active regions (1) have estimated twist within a factor of approx.3 of the limit, and (2) include all of our 6 active regions having large delta sunspots. Thus, our observed twist limit for bipolar active regions is in good accord with active regions being emerged omega loops.

  17. Associations of serotonin receptor gene HTR3A, HTR3B, and HTR3A haplotypes with bipolar disorder in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, J; Li, C; Xu, J; Qiao, D; Mi, G; Chen, X; Tang, M

    2016-09-16

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HTR3A and HTR3B have been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder in European and Japanese populations. We explored the roles of 21 tag SNPs in HTR3A and HTR3B in susceptibility to bipolar disorder in a Chinese cohort. Twenty-one Tag SNPs were genotyped in a study consisting of 130 patients with bipolar disorder, who visited Shandong Mental Health Center between June 2013 and May 2014, and 109 healthy individuals as controls. All of the tag SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom MassArray matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight spectrometry. Plink 1.07, Haploview 4.2, and SPSS 20.0 were used for the analysis of the genotypes and the associations of the haplotypes with bipolar disorder. Association analyses of tag SNPs detected significant associations with the A allele in HTR3A rs1176719 (P = 0.030) and the C allele in HTR3A rs1176713 (P = 0.048). Haplotype-based association analyses indicated a statistically significant (P = 0.035) five-SNP haplotype (rs1062613:C, rs11604247:C, rs1176722:G, rs2276302:A, rs1176719:G) of linkage disequilibrium in block 3. Analysis of our small Chinese sample revealed a significant association of HTR3A with bipolar disorder, but yielded no evidence of an association between HTR3B and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, evidence for an association was found for a haplotype of HTR3A. Studies with larger Chinese samples are needed to verify our findings.

  18. As bases neurobiológicas do transtorno bipolar Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Machado-Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, os autores revisam importantes aspectos associados às bases biológicas do transtorno de humor bipolar (THB. O THB está relacionado com o surgimento de diversas alterações bioquímicas e moleculares em sistemas de neurotransmissão e vias de segundos-mensageiros geradores de sinais intracelulares. Essas modificações em neurônios e glia parecem estar associadas com o surgimento de sintomas maníacos e depressivos. Ainda neste contexto, disfunções na homeostasia e no metabolismo energético cerebral tem sido associado com alterações comportamentais, na modulação do humor e ritmo circadiano em humanos e em modelos animais da doença. Assim, alterações metabólicas em neurônios e células gliais têm sido associadas com quadros depressivos e maníacos. Nos últimos anos, avanços nas técnicas de neuroimagem, genéticos e de biologia moleculares têm gerado novos conhecimentos acerca das bases biológicas da bipolaridade. Os autores destacam que a doença parece estar relacionada diretamente com disfunções em diferentes mecanismos adaptativos a estresse em células neurais, gerando perda na capacidade celular de induzir neuroplasticidade e neurotrofismo, facilitando assim o surgimento da doença.In this article, the authors review relevant aspects related to the neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder. This illness has been associated with complex biochemical and molecular changes in brain circuits linked to neurotransmission and intracellular signal transduction pathways, and changes on neurons and glia have been proposed to be directly associated with clinical presentation of mania and depression. In the same context, dysfunctions on brain homeostasis and energy metabolism have been associated with alterations on circadian rythms, behavior and mood in human and animal models of bipolarity. In the recent years, advances on techniques of neuroimaging, molecular biology and genetics has provided new insights about

  19. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  20. A new alloy design concept for austenitic stainless steel with tungsten modification for bipolar plate application in PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Kim, Kyoo Young

    The feasibility of a new alloy design concept utilizing the principle of 'tungsten bronze effect' is critically evaluated for the development of metallic bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). An austenitic stainless steel (ASS) is modified with W and La to improve the stability of the passive film in an acidic environment as well as to reduce the contact resistance by the tungsten bronze effect. The experimental ASS containing W and La was evaluated in a simulated PEMFC environment of H 3PO 4 and H 2SO 4 solutions at 80 °C, and the electrical property was evaluated by performing a contact resistance test. The test results show that the ASS modified with W and La has good passive film stability for corrosion resistance and low contact resistance. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis clearly suggests the possibility of the tungsten bronze effect from the change in valency state of W 6+ to W 5+ in the passive film formed on the modified ASS. The feasibility of a new alloy design concept utilizing the 'tungsten bronze effect' is well demonstrated; however, more study is highly required for the development of metallic bipolar plates of PEMFC.

  1. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, 1 Daxue Road, Jinning Township, Kinmen 89250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zhao, Yu-Xiang [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi [Department of Applied English, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng, E-mail: shenghan@nutc.edu.tw [Center for General Education, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, 129 San-min Road, Section 3, Taichung 40401, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} films were fabricated by a bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering apparatus. • Titanium oxide being sputtered tungsten enhanced the highly oriented of TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. • The mechanism WO{sub 3}(h{sup +}, e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}, e{sup −}) → WO{sub 3}(e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}) shows the higher hydrophilicity and lower contact angle. - Abstract: Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWO{sub x} films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole–electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  2. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  3. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  4. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  5. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  6. Facial Emotion Recognition in Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Stella, Eleonora; Balzotti, Angela; Bellomo, Antonello; Palumbo, Rocco; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth

    2016-03-01

    Emotional face recognition is impaired in bipolar disorder, but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness. Here, we investigated how aging and bipolar disorder influence dynamic emotional face recognition. Twenty older adults, 16 bipolar patients, and 20 control subjects performed a dynamic affective facial recognition task and a subsequent rating task. Participants pressed a key as soon as they were able to discriminate whether the neutral face was assuming a happy or angry facial expression and then rated the intensity of each facial expression. Results showed that older adults recognized happy expressions faster, whereas bipolar patients recognized angry expressions faster. Furthermore, both groups rated emotional faces more intensely than did the control subjects. This study is one of the first to compare how aging and clinical conditions influence emotional facial recognition and underlines the need to consider the role of specific and common factors in emotional face recognition.

  7. Redox Dysregulation in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Anita; Steullet, Pascal; Cabungcal, Jan-Harry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are classified as two distinct diseases. However, accumulating evidence shows that both disorders share genetic, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. Based on genetic and functional findings, redox dysregulation due...

  8. Combinations of SNPs related to signal transduction in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Pernille; Andreassen, Ole A; Bennike, Bente

    2011-01-01

    of complex diseases, it may be useful to look at combinations of genotypes. Genes related to signal transmission, e.g., ion channel genes, may be of interest in this respect in the context of bipolar disorder. In the present study, we analysed 803 SNPs in 55 genes related to aspects of signal transmission...... and calculated all combinations of three genotypes from the 3×803 SNP genotypes for 1355 controls and 607 patients with bipolar disorder. Four clusters of patient-specific combinations were identified. Permutation tests indicated that some of these combinations might be related to bipolar disorder. The WTCCC...... in the clusters in the two datasets. The present analyses of the combinations of SNP genotypes support a role for both genetic heterogeneity and interactions in the genetic architecture of bipolar disorder....

  9. Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment in remitted patients with bipolar disorder contributes to functional disabilities. However, the pattern and impact of these deficits are unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 193 fully or partially remitted patients with bipolar disorder and 110 healthy...... controls. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether there are discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. The pattern of the cognitive deficits and the characteristics of patients in these neurocognitive subgroups were examined with analyses of covariance and least...... was cross-sectional which limits inferences regarding the causality of the findings. CONCLUSION: Globally and selectively impaired bipolar disorder patients displayed more functional disabilities than those who were cognitively intact. The present findings highlight a clinical need to systematically screen...

  10. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  11. Voice analysis as an objective state marker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M.; Busk, Jonas; Frost, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in speech have been suggested as sensitive and valid measures of depression and mania in bipolar disorder. The present study aimed at investigating (1) voice features collected during phone calls as objective markers of affective states in bipolar disorder and (2) if combining voice...... features, automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities and electronic self-monitored data were collected from 28 outpatients with bipolar disorder in naturalistic settings on a daily basis during a period of 12 weeks. Depressive and manic symptoms were assessed using...... and electronic self-monitored data increased the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification of affective states slightly. Voice features collected in naturalistic settings using smartphones may be used as objective state markers in patients with bipolar disorder....

  12. Bounding the total-dose response of modern bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosier, S.L.; Wei, A.; Schrimpf, R.D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Combs, W.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center-Crane, Crane, IN (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeLaus, M. [Analog Devices, Inc., Wilmington, MA (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The base current in modern bipolar transistors saturates at large total doses once a critical oxide charge is reached. The saturated value of base current is dose-rate independent. Testing implications are discussed.

  13. Precursor Parameter Identification for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  14. GANGGUAN AFEKTIF BIPOLAR MANIA DENGAN PSIKOTIK: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrikus Gede Surya Adhi Putra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gangguan bipolar merupakan gangguan yang terdiri dari afek yang meningkat, dan jugaaktivitas yang berlebih (mania atau hipomania, dan dalam jangka waktu yang berbedaterjadi penurunan afek yang disertai dengan penurunan aktivitas (depresi. Kejadianpada  gangguan  bipolar  berkisar  antara  0,3-1,5%.  Prevalensi  serupa  pada  pria  danwanita.Gejala gangguan bipolar episode manik meliputi perasaan sensitif, kurangistirahat, harga diri melonjak naik, dan pada episode depresi meliputi kehilanganminat, tidur lebih atau kurang dari normal, gelisah, merasa tidak berharga, dan kurangkonsentrasi. Laporan ini membahas kasus gangguan bipolar episode kini manik yangterjadi pada seorang laki-laki berusia 45 tahun. Pasien ini mendapatkan psikoterapi,haloperidol 1 x 5 mg, dan trihexyphenidyl 1 x 2 mg per oral.

  15. Shaping and exploring the micro- and nanoworld using bipolar electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Kuhn, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Bipolar electrochemistry is a technique with a rather young history in the field of analytical chemistry. Being based on the polarization of a conducting object which is exposed to an external electric field, it allowed recently the development of new methods for controlled surface modification at the micro- and nanoscale and very original analytical applications. Using bipolar electrodes, analyte separation and detection becomes possible based on miniaturized systems. Moreover, the modified objects that can be created with bipolar electrochemistry could find applications as key components for detection systems. In this contribution, the principles of bipolar electrochemistry will be reviewed, as well as recent developments that focus on the modification of objects at the nano- and microscale and their potential application in miniaturized analytical systems.

  16. Neuropsychological profile of patients with bipolar depression in remission

    OpenAIRE

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja; Marinković Dragan; Pavlović Dragan; Paunović Vladimir R.

    2005-01-01

    Aim. To determine if the patients with bipolar affective disorder, after the depressive phase, would exhibit cognitive impairment in remission. Methods. Twenty three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were matched, on a case-by-case basis, to twenty-one healthy subjects in the control group, for the presence of the symptoms of depression. The patients and the control group were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results. Impairments were found in the patients compared wit...

  17. Analysis of bipolar and amacrine populations in marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzien, Felix; Percival, Kumiko A; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    About 15 parallel ganglion cell pathways transmit visual signals to the brain, but the interneuron (bipolar and amacrine) populations providing input to ganglion cells remain poorly understood in primate retina. We carried out a quantitative analysis of the inner nuclear layer in the retina of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vertical Vibratome sections along the horizontal meridian were processed with immunohistochemical markers. Image stacks were taken with a confocal microscope, and densities of cell populations were determined. The density of flat midget bipolar cells fell from 15,746 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm (8 deg) to 7,827 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm (25 deg). The rod bipolar cell density fell from 8,640 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm to 4,278 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm, but the ratio of the two bipolar cell types did not change with eccentricity. The amacrine cell density ranged from 30,000 cells/mm(2) at 8 deg to less than 15,000 cells/mm(2) at 25 deg, but throughout the retina, the ratio of glycinergic to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic to amacrine cells remained relatively constant. The fractions of rod bipolar, cone bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells of all cells in the inner nuclear layer were comparable in central and peripheral retina. Marmosets had lower proportions of midget bipolar and rod bipolar in comparison with macaque. These differences were correlated with differences in rod and cone densities between the two species and did not reflect fundamental differences in the wiring between the two species.

  18. Retinal bipolar cells: temporal filtering of signals from cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Dwight A; Fahey, Patrick K; Sikora, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of the response of neurons in the outer retina were investigated by intracellular recording from cones, bipolar, and horizontal cells in the intact, light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), with special emphasis on comparing the two major classes of bipolars cells, the ON depolarizing bipolars (Bd) and the OFF hyperpolarizing bipolars (Bh). Transfer functions were computed from impulse responses evoked by a brief light flash on a steady background of 20 cd/m(2). Phase delays ranged from about 89 ms for cones to 170 ms for Bd cells, yielding delays relative to that of cones of about 49 ms for Bh cells and 81 ms for Bd cells. The difference between Bd and Bh cells, which may be due to a delay introduced by the second messenger G-protein pathway unique to Bd cells, was further quantified by latency measurements and responses to white noise. The amplitude transfer functions of the outer retinal neurons varied with light adaptation in qualitative agreement with results for other vertebrates and human vision. The transfer functions at 20 cd/m(2) were predominantly low pass with 10-fold attenuation at about 13, 14, 9.1, and 7.7 Hz for cones, horizontal, Bh, and Bd cells, respectively. The transfer function from the cone voltage to the bipolar voltage response, as computed from the above measurements, was low pass and approximated by a cascade of three low pass RC filters ("leaky integrators"). These results for cone-->bipolar transmission are surprisingly similar to recent results for rod-->bipolar transmission in salamander slice preparations. These and other findings suggest that the rate of vesicle replenishment rather than the rate of release may be a common factor shaping synaptic signal transmission from rods and cones to bipolar cells.

  19. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  20. Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor: A Novel Three Terminal Device

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh; Nadda, Kanika

    2012-01-01

    A distinctive approach for forming a lateral Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (BCPT) is explored using 2-D simulations. Different metal work-function electrodes are used to induce n- and p-type charge plasma layers on undoped SOI to form the emitter, base and collector regions of a lateral NPN transistor. Electrical characteristics of the proposed device are simulated and compared with that of a conventionally doped lateral bipolar junction transistor with identical dimensions. Our simulation...

  1. Connection between Genetic and Clinical Data in Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole; Bennike, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Complex diseases may be associated with combinations of changes in DNA, where the single change has little impact alone. In a previous study of patients with bipolar disorder and controls combinations of SNP genotypes were analyzed, and four large clusters of combinations were found...... to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. It has now been found that these clusters may be connected to clinical data....

  2. [The implantation of bipolar coagulation to remove endometriosis foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkiewicz, S; Palatyński, A; Salata, I

    2001-05-01

    The paper compares the results of bipolar coagulation bey means of ERBE ICC 300 diatermy coagulator and WISAP endocoagulator. The results of both types of coagulation were assessed with reference to the changes occurring on peritoneum ligamenti sacro-uterini, Douglas pouch and ovary. The best results of endometriosis foci coagulation were obtained with bipolar ball at 20-30 W; no side effects or feelings of malaise were observed in patients just after the operation or over a longer period of convalescence.

  3. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  4. Evidence for clinical progression of unipolar and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L. V.; Andersen, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    ) the risk of recurrence of episodes, (ii) probability of recovery from episodes, (iii) severity of episodes, (iv) the threshold for developing episodes, and (v) progression of cognitive deficits in unipolar and bipolar disorders. Method: A systematic review comprising an extensive literature search...... severity of episodes, (iv) decreasing threshold for developing episodes, and (v) increasing risk of developing dementia. Conclusion: Although the course of illness is heterogeneous, there is evidence for clinical progression of unipolar and bipolar disorders....

  5. Emotional dysfunction as a marker of bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Chantal; Phillips, Mary; Leibenluft, Ellen; M'Bailara, Katia; Houenou, Josselin; Leboyer, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Background assessment of emotional reactivity, defined as rapid emotional responses to salient environmental events, has been neglected in mood disorders. This article reviews data showing the relevance of using emotional reactivity to better characterize bipolar mood episodes. Method We reviewed clinical data on emotional reactivity during all phases of bipolar disorders (euthymic, manic, mixed and depressive states) and brain-imaging, neurochemical, genetic studies related to emotional reac...

  6. Photothermally induced bromination of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Martin; Franzka, Steffen [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cappuccio, Franco; Peinecke, Volker; Heinzel, Angelika [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik (ZBT), Carl-Benz-Straße 201, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal laser bromination of carbon/polymer materials is demonstrated. • Using a microfocused laser functionalized domains with diameters of 5 μm and 100 μm and more can be fabricated. • Bromine groups can be transformed in a variety of other chemical functionalities, i.e. amine groups. • Depending on the chemical functionality, the local chemical affinity and wettability is changed. • The routine can be applied to standard bipolar plate materials used for fuel cell applications. - Abstract: A facile photothermal procedure for direct functionalization of carbon/polymer bipolar plate materials is demonstrated. Through irradiation with a microfocused beam of an Ar{sup +}-laser at λ = 514 nm in gaseous bromine and distinct laser powers and pulse lengths local bromination of the carbon/polymer material takes place. At a 1/e spot diameter of 2.1 μm, functionalized surface areas with diameters down to 5 μm are fabricated. In complementary experiments large-area bromination is investigated using an ordinary tungsten lamp. For characterization contact angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in conjunction with labeling techniques are employed. After irradiation bromine groups can easily be substituted by other chemical functionalities, e.g. azide and amine groups. This provides a facile approach in order to fabricate surface patterns and gradient structures with varying wetting characteristics. Mechanistic aspects and prospects of photothermal routines in micropatterning of carbon/polymer materials are discussed.

  7. Role of Contact and Contact Mo dification on Photo-resp onse in a Charge Transfer Complex Single Nanowire Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabaya Basori∗; A. K. Raychaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of obtaining large photoresponse in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) type single nanowire device where one contact can be blocking type. We showed that suitable modifi-cation of the blocking contact by deposition of a capping metal using focused electron beam (FEB) can lead to considerable enhancement of the photoresponse. The work was done in a single Cu:TCNQ nanowire device fabricated by direct growth of nanowires (NW) from pre-patterned Cu electrode which makes the contact ohmic with the other contact made from Au. Analysis of the data shows that the large photoresponse of the devices arises predominantly due to reduction of the barriers at the Au/NW blocking contact on illumination. This is caused by the diffusion of the photo generated carriers from the nanowires to the contact region. When the barrier height is further reduced by treating the contact with FEB deposited Pt, this results in a large enhancement in the device photoresponse.

  8. Chronic somatic comorbidity and excess mortality due to natural causes in persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Munk Laursen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide and death by accidents in persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common, but excess mortality from natural death accounts for even more years of life lost. The impact of somatic comorbidity, however, often is not duly considered in analyses and explanations of excess mortality in patients with psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: This study investigates and evaluates the impact of 19 severe chronic diseases on excess mortality due to diseases and medical conditions (natural death in individuals with psychotic disorders compared with the general population using a population-based cohort study in Denmark. Incidence/mortality rate ratios of admission/mortality were calculated using survival analysis. RESULTS: Cohort members with psychotic disorders had higher incidence rates of hospital contacts for almost all of the 19 disorders than the general population. The mortality rate ratio (MRR of natural death was 7.10 (95% CI 6.45, 7.81 for schizophrenic men, decreasing to 4.64 (95% CI 4.21, 5.10 after adjustment for the somatic disorders. The same pattern existed in women and in both genders with bipolar disorder. Highest MRRs were observed for psychotic patients without hospital admissions with the investigated somatic disorders. CONCLUSION: Chronic somatic diseases accounted for half of the excess mortality in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Chronic disorders investigated in this paper seem to be under-treated or under-detected among such patients.

  9. Antidepressant Treatment for Acute Bipolar Depression: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H. Amit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While studies in the past have focused more on treatment of the manic phase of bipolar disorder (BD, recent findings demonstrate the depressive phase to be at least as debilitating. However, in contrast to unipolar depression, depression in bipolar patients exhibits a varying response to antidepressants, raising questions regarding their efficacy and tolerability. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration Library search for papers published between 2005 and 2011 on the subject of antidepressant treatment of bipolar depression. Sixty-eight articles were included in the present review. Results. While a few studies did advocate the use of antidepressants, most well-controlled studies failed to show a robust effect of antidepressants in bipolar depression, regardless of antidepressant class or bipolar subtype. There was no significant increase in the rate of manic/hypomanic switch, especially with concurrent use of mood stabilizers. Prescribing guidelines published in recent years rely more on atypical antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, as a first-line therapy. Conclusions. Antidepressants probably have no substantial role in acute bipolar depression. However, in light of conflicting results between studies, more well-designed trials are warranted.

  10. Cognitive functioning in depression period of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtalska, Julita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Study aims were to compare neuropsychological functioning of depressed bipolar patients and healthy controls and to estimate relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Method. Cognitive functions were examined in 30 depressed bipolar patients aged 18-68 (M=45,6, SD=12,6; 18 women and 12 men who fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive episode (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥11. The comparison group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 23-71 (M=46, 20 women and 10 men matched in age, years of education and gender to bipolar group. A neuropsychological battery assessed executive functions and working memory. Results. The bipolar patients in depression revealed neuropsychological deficits in working memory and some aspects of executive functions in comparison to healthy group. Only in WCST test both groups received similar results. Neuropsychological functioning seems to be independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. Discussion. Different aspects of working memory and executive functions are impaired in depression period of bipolar disorder and they seem independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. These results are consistent with previous reports. Conclusions. In patients with bipolar depression cognitive assessment should be taken into account in the diagnosis and the disturbances in executive functions and working memory should be treated with neuropsychological rehabilitation and / or pharmacotherapy.

  11. Coupled electrochemical reactions at bipolar microelectrodes and nanoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrette, Joshua P; Oja, Stephen M; Zhang, Bo

    2012-02-07

    Here we report the voltammetric study of coupled electrochemical reactions on microelectrodes and nanoelectrodes in a closed bipolar cell. We use steady-state cyclic voltammetry to discuss the overall voltammetric response of closed bipolar electrodes (BPEs) and understand its dependence on the concentration of redox species and electrode size. Much of the previous work in bipolar electroanalytical chemistry has focused on the use of an "open" cell with the BPE located in an open microchannel. A closed BPE, on the other hand, has two poles placed in separate compartments and has remained relatively unexplored in this field. In this work, we demonstrated that carbon-fiber microelectrodes when backfilled with an electrolyte to establish conductivity are closed BPEs. The coupling between the oxidation reaction, e.g., dopamine oxidation, on the carbon disk/cylinder and the reduction of oxygen on the interior fiber is likely to be responsible for the conductivity. We also demonstrated the ability to quantitatively measure voltammetric properties of both the cathodic and anodic poles in a closed bipolar cell from a single cyclic voltammetry (CV) scan. It was found that "secondary" reactions such as oxygen reduction play an important role in this process. We also described the fabrication and use of Pt bipolar nanoelectrodes which may serve as a useful platform for future advances in nanoscale bipolar electrochemistry.

  12. Bipolar disorder and the pseudoautosomal region: An association study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsian, A.; Todd, R.D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-03-15

    From family, adoption, and twin studies it is clear that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (McGuffin and Katz: The Biology of Depression, Gaskell, London, 1986). Recently Yoneda et al. reported an association between an allele (A4) of a VNTR marker (DXYS20) for the pseudoautosomal region and bipolar disorder in a Japanese population. In order to test for this association in a Caucasian population, we have typed a sample of 52 subjects with bipolar disorder and 61 normal controls. The bipolar subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained sample of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of DXYS20 between the two groups. In particular, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the A4 allele in normal controls and bipolar patients (0.377 vs. 0.317, respectively). The prevalence of the A4 allele in bipolar patients and normal controls was 0.567 and 0.622, respectively. We were not able to replicate the results of the 1992 Yoneda et al. study. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Allostasis as a conceptual framework linking Bipolar Disorder and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro ePettorruso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorders and addictions constitute reciprocal risk factors and are best considered under a unitary perspective. The concepts of allostasis and allostatic load may contribute to the understanding of the complex relationships between bipolar disorder and addictive behaviors. Allostasis entails the safeguarding of reward function stability by recruitment of changes in the reward and stress system neurocircuitry and it may help to elucidate neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to addiction in bipolar patients. Conceptualizing bipolar disorder as an illness involving the cumulative build-up of allostatic states, we hypothesize a progressive dysregulation of reward circuits clinically expressed as negative affective states (i.e. anhedonia. Such negative affective states may render bipolar disorder patients more vulnerable to drug addiction, fostering a very rapid transition from occasional drug use to addiction, through mechanisms of negative reinforcement. The resulting addictive behavior-related allostatic loads, in turn, may contribute to illness progression. This framework could have a heuristic value to enhance research on pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder and addiction comorbidity.

  14. Update on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on cariprazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts RJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rona Jeannie Roberts,1 Lillian Jan Findlay,2 Peggy L El-Mallakh,2 Rif S El-Mallakh1 1Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, 2School of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric disorders that are frequently associated with persistent symptoms and significant dysfunction. While there are a multitude of psychopharmacologic agents are available for treatment of these illnesses, suboptimal response and significant adverse consequences limit their utility. Cariprazine is a new, novel antipsychotic medication with dopamine D2 and D3 partial agonist effects. Its safety and efficacy have been investigated in acute psychosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression. Efficacy has been demonstrated in schizophrenia and mania. It is unclear if cariprazine is effective in depression associated with unipolar or bipolar illness. Adverse consequences include extrapyramidal symptoms including akathisia, and various gastrointestinal symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has recently approved cariprazine. This review will provide clinicians with basic information regarding the research program of cariprazine. Keywords: cariprazine, dopamine D3 receptor, dopamine D2 receptor, bipolar disorder, mania, bipolar depression, schizophrenia

  15. The Effect of Joint Width on Structural Performance of Asphalt Block Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelgalil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt blocks have been occasionally used around the world as a road pavement, but there have been very limited studies being done to evaluate the effect of joint width (spacing between the blocks on the structural performance of asphalt paving blocks. This study explains the experimental study to assess the performance and properties of asphalt paving blocks laid with different joint widths between the blocks i.e., 0, 2 and 3 mm, respectively. A total of 250 asphalt paving blocks was manufactured and tested in the laboratory to ascertain the density, air voids, the compressive strength and the rut depth and displacement occurred in asphalt paving block. The design compressive load of single asphalt paving block is 166 kN. The test results showed that the joint width plays a vital role on the performance of asphalt block pavement. Asphalt paving blocks were laid as closely in contact as possible (0 mm yields the best structural performance.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started ...

  18. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  19. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap and distilled water have been associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, a corneal infection that is resistant to ... to: Advice for Patients With Soft Contact Lenses: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Infections Related to Complete® MoisturePlus Multi Purpose ...

  20. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... 2016 More Eye Health News Studies Look at Effects of Marijuana on Vision FEB 28, 2017 By ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Contact Lens Use May 31, 2016 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 ... Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  6. Contact air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  7. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Vinod; Asati Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and i...

  8. Design and Fabrication of Novel Dual-Base Negative-Differential Resistance Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on planar Si dual-base transistor conception, a novel mesa dual-base heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is designed and fabricated. Molecule beam extension, selective wet chemical etching, common contact photolithography and metal lift-off technique are adopted in the process. The device has particular and distinct voltage-controlled negative differential resistance (NDR) and photo-controlled NDR. The highest peak-to-vally current rate of the voltage-controlled NDR is larger than 148 and the peak current varies with the increase of collector voltage. The device features high speed and high frequency characteristics derived from HBT and intrinsic bistability and self-latching characteristics due to NDR. A single dual-base HBT can be seen as an integration of NDR device, HBT and photoconductive device. Compared with common HBT,the groove is the key factor producing NDR.

  9. Functionalizing Arrays of Transferred Monolayer Graphene on Insulating Surfaces by Bipolar Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Line; Pedersen, Emil Bjerglund; Thyssen, Lena

    2016-01-01

    graphene sheets supported on SiO2. Using this technique, transferred graphene can be electrochemically functionalized without the need of a metal support or the deposition of physical contacts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to map the chemical changes and modifications....... Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to simultaneously modify an array of many small graphene electrodes (1 × 1 mm2) on SiO2.......Development of versatile methods for graphene functionalization is necessary before use in applications such as composites or as catalyst support. In this study, bipolar electrochemistry is used as a wireless functionalization method to graft 4-bromobenzenediazonium on large (10 × 10 mm2) monolayer...

  10. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  11. To BD or not to BD: functional neuroimaging and the boundaries of bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Sandy; McLean, Loyola; Malhi, Gin S

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are major mood disorders defined by the presence of discrete episodes of depression and either mania, in bipolar I disorder, or hypomania, in bipolar II disorder. There is little contention that both are serious psychiatric conditions or that they are associated with substantial suffering, disability, risk of suicide and cost to the community. Recently, focus has shifted away from classic manic-depressive illness toward a 'bipolar spectrum' model, which allows for much softer presentations to be conceptualized as bipolarity, but the boundaries of this concept remain contentious. In this article, we will consider the contribution of neuroimaging to delineating the bipolar phenotype and differentiating it from similar disorders.

  12. Double pendulum contact problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns contact problems focused on biomechanical systems modelled by a multibody approach. The example is modelling of impact between a body and an infrastructure. The paper firstly presents algorithm for minimum distance calculation. An analytical approach using a tangential plain perpendicular to an initial one is applied. Contact force generated during impact is compared by three different continuous force models, namely the Hertz’s model, the spring-dashpot model and the non-linear damping model. In order to identify contact parameters of these particular models, the method of numerical optimization is used. Purpose of this method is to find the most corresponding results of numerical simulation to the original experiment. Numerical optimization principle is put upon a bouncing ball example for the purpose of evaluation of desirable contact force parameters. The contact modelling is applied to a double pendulum problem. The equation of motion of the double pendulum system is derived using Lagrange equation of the second kind with multipliers, respecting the contact phenomena. Applications in biomechanical research are hinted at arm gravity motion and a double pendulum impact example.

  13. Relato de caso: transtorno afetivo bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Von Krakauer Hübner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB é uma doença crônica e grave, marcada pela variância de episódios depressivos com episódios de mania ou hipomania, podendo haver sintomas psicóticos. É classificado em dois tipos, I e II. Sua etiologia é desconhecida, mas supõe-se que envolva influências genéticas e ambientais, variando a cada indivíduo afetado. As apresentações clínicas do TAB podem variar de episódios leves de depressão ou hipomania até episódios depressivos graves ou mania acompanhados ou não de sintomas psicóticos. Objetivos: Relatar o caso de um paciente internado na enfermaria da psiquiatria do Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba que foi diagnosticado com TAB. Metodologia: As informações foram obtidas por meio de revisão do prontuário, entrevista com o paciente e revisão da literatura. Relato de Caso: Homem de 20 anos encaminhado do serviço hospitalar de Itapetininga após alteração de comportamento, heteroagressividade e alucinações auditivas. Conclusões: Transtorno depressivo maior, de ansiedade generalizada, de estresse pós-traumático e esquizofrenia são diagnósticos diferenciais. O episódio maníaco provoca prejuízo no funcionamento social, profissional e até necessidade de hospitalização. O risco de suicídio em pessoas com TAB é estimado em pelo menos 15 vezes o da população em geral. A taxa de não adesão ao tratamento no TAB é de 47%. A conduta terapêutica medicamentosa mais eficaz para a mania é a associação do carbonato de lítio com risperidona, já para a depressão bipolar o carbonato de lítio é a primeira escolha.

  14. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  15. [Dementia and bipolar disorder on the borderline of old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, D; Theochari, I; Tsalta, E

    2013-01-01

    Dementia and bipolar disorder have been traditionally considered two separate clinical entities. However, recent preclinical and clinical data in elderly people suggest that they are in fact related. Several theories have been put forward to interpret their relationship which could be summed up as follows: (1) Dementia could increase the risk for the emergence of bipolar symptoms, or (2) conversely, bipolar disorder might be associated with heightened risk for developing pseudodementia or dementia. (3) Alternatively, dementia, other brain diseases or drugs affecting brain function could lead to the combination of symptoms of dementia and bipolar disorder in elderly individuals. The two disorders demonstrate similarities with respect to their clinical expression (agitation, psychotic, mood and cognitive symptoms) and structural brain neuroimaging (enlarged lateral ventricles and white matter hyperintensities using magnetic resonance imaging-MRI). Despite the above similarities, the two disorders also have important differences. As expected, cognitive symptoms prevail in dementia and mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. In dementia but not in bipolar disorder there is evidence that brain structural abnormalities are diffuse and hippocampal volumes are smaller. Dementia and bipolar disorder present different abnormalities in functional brain neuroimaging. The pattern of "ventral" hyperactivity and "dorsal" hypoactivity in brain emotional circuits at rest is revealed in bipolar disorder but not dementia. With respect to their treatment, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are indicated against cognitive symptoms in dementia and also improve behavioural and psychological symptoms appearing during the course of dementia. Lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics and antidepressants are effective in the management of the acute episodes of bipolar disorder of younger adults, but there are not yet evidence-based data in elderly bipolar patients. It is likely that the

  16. [Psychoeducation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    In treating bipolar disorder, specific psychotherapies in adjunct to pharmacotherapy have been shown to be effective in preventing new episodes and treating depressive episodes. Among those, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) developed by Frank, amalgamation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) with behavioral therapy focused on social rhythm has been shown to be an efficacious adjunct to mediation in preventing new episodes in bipolar I patients and in treating depression in bipolar I arid II disorder. IPSRT has also been shown to enhance total functioning, relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression were covaried. IPSRT was designed to directly address the major pathways to recurrence in bipolar disorder, namely medication nonadherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. IPT, originated by Klerman et al., is a strategic time-limited psychotherapy focused on one or two of four current interpersonal problem areas (ie, grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal dificits). In IPSRT, the fifth problem area "grief for the lost healthy self" has been added in order to promote acceptance of the diagnosis and the need for life-long treatment. Social rhythm therapy is a behavioral approach aiming at increasing regularity of social rhythms using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a chart to record daily social activities including how stimulating they were, developed from observation that disruptions in social rhythms often trigger affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. IPSRT also appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression as monotherapy for the acute treatment.

  17. Cognitive and psychosocial impairment in remitted bipolar patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Moreira Lima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence showing that bipolar disorder is associated with persistent cognitive deficits. However, the exact meaning and impact of cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder is still not entirely known, even though they have been associated with poor psychosocial functioning. This study aims to summarize cognitive and psychosocial functioning findings of remitted bipolar patients. We conducted an extensive Medline search of the published English literature for the period January 2000– March 2014 using a variety of search terms to find relevant articles. Bibliographies of retrieved papers were further analysed for publications of interest. Our results showed that: (1 all mood states of bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment. However, the euthymic state is associated with less impairment than the other states; (2 there is a strong association between clinical factors (i.e, duration of illness, number of episodes, residual mood symptoms, comorbidities and cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients, although these factors do not account fully for these deficits; (3 cognitive deficits, in particular, verbal learning and executive dysfunctions may contribute to poor functioning. In conclusion, our review suggests that cognitive deficits are strongly associated with mood episodes; such deficits persist, in lower degree, during remission. Impairment on cognitive performance may explain, in part, poor long–term functioning in remitted bipolar patients. It highlights that psychosocial interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy should be considered to improve cognition and enhance the level of functioning. Therefore, studies assessing the efficacy of novel strategies focused on cognitive and functional status are an important area of future investigation in bipolar disorder.

  18. Valuing happiness is associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Although people who experience happiness tend to have better psychological health, people who value happiness to an extreme tend to have worse psychological health, including more depression. We propose that the extreme valuing of happiness may be a general risk factor for mood disturbances, both depressive and manic. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the extreme valuing of happiness and risk for, diagnosis of, and illness course for bipolar disorder (BD). Supporting our hypothesis, the extreme valuing of happiness was associated with a measure of increased risk for developing BD (Studies 1 and 2), increased likelihood of past diagnosis of BD (Studies 2 and 3), and worse prospective illness course in BD (Study 3), even when controlling for current mood symptoms (Studies 1-3). These findings indicate that the extreme valuing of happiness is associated with and even predicts BD. Taken together with previous evidence, these findings suggest that the extreme valuing of happiness is a general risk factor for mood disturbances. More broadly, what emotions people strive to feel may play a critical role in psychological health.

  19. Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Panaccione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD. Indeed, there is growing evidence confirming the presence of a generalized pro-inflammatory state in BD patients, involving alterations in cytokine, acute-phase proteins, and complement factor secretion, white blood cell differentiation, microglial activation, arachidonic acid signaling pathways, and increased oxidative stress markers. Medications commonly used to treat BD, such as lithium, antiepileptics and antipsychotics, show some immunoregulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of our study was to review the role of different inflammatory mechanisms, specifically in the development of excitatory symptoms, via a systematic PubMed search of the literature. Despite the high variability of results among studies, we found evidence indicating specific alterations of the inflammatory response during manic and mixed states of BD. These findings may help to clarify some of the complex mechanisms underlying the development of excitatory symptoms and suggest a potential role for drugs targeting the inflammatory system as new therapeutic options.

  20. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, James Evans; West, Shawn Michael; Fabean, Robert J.

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  1. Biological hypotheses and biomarkers of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigitova, Ekaterina; Fišar, Zdeněk; Hroudová, Jana; Cikánková, Tereza; Raboch, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    The most common mood disorders are major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders (BD). The pathophysiology of BD is complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood. Creation of new hypotheses in the field gives impetus for studies and for finding new biomarkers for BD. Conversely, new biomarkers facilitate not only diagnosis of a disorder and monitoring of biological effects of treatment, but also formulation of new hypotheses about the causes and pathophysiology of the BD. BD is characterized by multiple associations between disturbed brain development, neuroplasticity, and chronobiology, caused by: genetic and environmental factors; defects in apoptotic, immune-inflammatory, neurotransmitter, neurotrophin, and calcium-signaling pathways; oxidative and nitrosative stress; cellular bioenergetics; and membrane or vesicular transport. Current biological hypotheses of BD are summarized, including related pathophysiological processes and key biomarkers, which have been associated with changes in genetics, systems of neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factors, neuroinflammation, autoimmunity, cytokines, stress axis activity, chronobiology, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Here we also discuss the therapeutic hypotheses and mechanisms of the switch between depressive and manic state.

  2. Molecular control of bipolar spindle assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Cell division has long been used as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Many agents that are clinically beneficial in the treatment of cancer block chromosome segregation during cell division and thereby inhibit the ability of cancer cells to divide. Thus, a better understanding of cell divis

  3. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  4. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  5. Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  6. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major ...

  7. [Bipolarity correlated factors in major depression: about 155 Tunisian inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassab, L; Mechri, A; Gaha, L; Khiari, G; Zaafrane, F; Zougaghi, L

    2002-01-01

    The distinction between the depressive troubles according to their inclusion in bipolar disorders or in recurrent depressive disorders offers an evident practical interest. In fact, the curative and mainly the preventive treatment of these troubles are different. So it is necessary to identify the predictive factors of bipolar development in case of inaugural depressive episode. In 1983, Akiskal was the first who identified those factors: pharmacological hypomania, puerperal depression, onset at early age (bipolar disorders to recurrent depressive disorders in order to indicate the correlated factors with bipolarity. It is a retrospective and comparative study based on about 155 inpatients for major depressive episode during the period between January 1994 and December 1998. These patients were divided into two groups according the DSM IV criteria: bipolar group (96 patients) and recurrent depressive group (59 patients). Both groups were compared according to socio-demographic data, life events in childhood, personal and family history, clinical and evolution characteristics of the index depressive episode. The predictive factors proposed by Akiskal were systematically examined. It was found out that the following factors were correlated with bipolarity: high rate of separation and divorce (17.7% versus 5.1%; p=0.02), family history of psychiatric disorders (56.3% versus 35.6%; p=0.012) especially bipolar ones (29.2% versus 3.4%; p=0,00008), onset at early age (mean age of onset: 24.8 8.2 years versus 34.1 12.6 years; p=0.000004), number of affective episode significantly more frequent (mean 3.6 versus 2.5; p=0.03), sudden onset of depressive episode (44.8% versus 15.9%; p=0.0003) and presence of psychotic characteristics (69.8% versus 16.7%; p=0.0001) catatonic characteristics (37.3% versus 20.3%; p=0.03), hypersomnia (51% versus 20.3%; p=0.03) and psychomotor inhibition (83.3% versus 42.4%; p=0.00007). Negatively correlated factors of bipolar depression were

  8. Elastic contact mechanics: percolation of the contact area and fluid squeeze-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J; Prodanov, N; Krick, B A; Rodriguez, N; Mulakaluri, N; Sawyer, W G; Mangiagalli, P

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of fluid flow at the interface between elastic solids with rough surfaces depends sensitively on the area of real contact, in particular close to the percolation threshold, where an irregular network of narrow flow channels prevails. In this paper, numerical simulation and experimental results for the contact between elastic solids with isotropic and anisotropic surface roughness are compared with the predictions of a theory based on the Persson contact mechanics theory and the Bruggeman effective medium theory. The theory predictions are in good agreement with the experimental and numerical simulation results and the (small) deviation can be understood as a finite-size effect. The fluid squeeze-out at the interface between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces is studied. We present results for such high contact pressures that the area of real contact percolates, giving rise to sealed-off domains with pressurized fluid at the interface. The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data for a simple model system (a rubber block squeezed against a flat glass plate), and for prefilled syringes, where the rubber plunger stopper is lubricated by a high-viscosity silicon oil to ensure functionality of the delivery device. For the latter system we compare the breakloose (or static) friction, as a function of the time of stationary contact, to the theory prediction.

  9. Neuropsychological dysfunction in bipolar affective disorder: a critical opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Jonathan; Solms, Mark; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2005-06-01

    Data from the imaging literature have led to suggestions that permanent structural brain changes may be associated with bipolar disorder. Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder display deficits on a range of neuropsychological tasks in both the acute and euthymic phases of illness, and correlations between experienced number of affective episodes and task performance are commonly reported. These findings have renewed interest in the neuropsychological profile of individuals with bipolar disorder, with deficits of attention, learning and memory, and executive function, asserted to be present. This paper critically reviews five different potential causes of neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: (i) iatrogenic, (ii) acute functional changes associated with depression or mania, (iii) permanent structural lesions of a neurodegenerative origin, (iv) permanent structural lesions that are neurodevelopmental in origin, and (v) permanent functional changes that are most likely genetic in origin. Although the potential cognitive effects of residual symptomatology and long-term medication use cannot be entirely excluded, we conclude that functional changes associated with genetically driven population variation in critical neural networks underpin both the neurocognitive and affective symptoms of bipolar disorder. The philosophical implications of this conclusion for neuropsychology are briefly discussed.

  10. Management of bipolar I depression: clinical utility of lurasidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay LJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lillian Jan Findlay,1 Peggy El-Mallakh,1 Rif S El-Mallakh2 1College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: Lurasidone is a benzisothiazol derivative second-generation antipsychotic. It has been approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of acute schizophrenia and bipolar depression. In type I bipolar subjects, treatment with lurasidone monotherapy of adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproic acid with doses of 20 to 120 mg once daily with food, results in statistically and clinically significant reduction of depressive symptoms. Patients experience relatively few side effects, which include somnolence, akathisia, nausea, and other gastrointestinal upset. Dopamine related side effects, such as Parkinsonism and elevated prolactin, are rare and mild. Longer term safety data obtained in 6 months long, open continuation observation periods, suggest that metabolic related elevations in weight, glucose, and lipids are absent or minimal. The mechanism of action of lurasidone is not known, but the data are compatible with antagonism of the serotonin 7 receptor. Lurasidone is a new option for the treatment of bipolar depression with relatively few side effects. Keywords: lurasidone, bipolar disorder, bipolar depression, adjunctive therapy

  11. Use of adjunctive stimulants in adult bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Ketter, Terence A

    2013-02-01

    Bipolar depression represents a high priority research field, due to its pervasiveness, and high economic and personal (suicidality, impaired function, quality of life) costs, and the limited evidence base to inform therapeutics. Mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics for bipolar depression are commonly only partially effective, and their side-effects may overlap with depressive symptoms such as hypersomnia, daytime drowsiness, fatigue, psychomotor retardation, and weight gain. Moreover, the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression is controversial due to concerns regarding the risks of inefficacy or switching to mood elevation. Stimulants and related compounds such as modafinil and armodafinil have on occasion been used as adjuncts in bipolar depressed patients with encouraging results, but their use is limited by the paucity of systematic evidence of efficacy and safety. The present review aims to provide an updated perspective on the use of stimulants and stimulant-like medications in adult bipolar depression, considering not only recent randomized controlled trials, but also open naturalistic studies, in order to clarify the strengths and limitations of using these agents.

  12. Management of bipolar depression with Lamotrigine: an antiepileptic mood stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S Prabhavalkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of lamotrigine in the treatment of focal epilepsies have already been reported in several case reports and open studies, which is thought to act by inhibiting glutamate release through voltage-sensitive sodium channels blockade and neuronal membrane stabilization. However, recent findings have also illustrated the importance of lamotrigine in alleviating the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder, without causing mood destabilization or precipitating mania. Currently, no mood stabilizers are available having equal efficacy in the treatment of both mania and depression, two of which forms the extreme sides of the bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine, a well established anticonvulsant has received regulatory approval for the treatment and prevention of bipolar depression in more than 30 countries worldwide. Lamotrigine, acts through several molecular targets and overcomes the major limitation of other conventional antidepressants by stabilizing mood from ‘below baseline’ thereby preventing switches to mania or episode acceleration, thus being effective for bipolar I disorder. Recent studies have also suggested that these observations could also be extended to patients with bipolar II disorder. Thus, lamotrigine may supposedly fulfill the unmet requirement for an effective depression mood stabilizer.

  13. Family Care giving in Bipolar disorder: Experiences of Stigma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Shamsaei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigma is a serious impediment to the well-being of those who experience it. Many family- caregivers are challenged by the stereotypes and prejudice that result from misconceptions about bipolar disorder.The purpose of this study was to explore the stigma experienced by family caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder.This was a qualitative and phenomenological study. In this study, we selected the family caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder in a psychiatric hospital (Iran using purposive sampling in 2011. By reaching data saturation, the number of participant was 12. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews and analyzed by the "Collaizi" method.Stigma was a pervasive concern to almost all participants. Family caregivers of patients with Bipolar disorders reported feelings and experiences of stigma and were most affected by them. Analysis of the interviews revealed 3 themes: Negative judgment, Shame, Stigmatization and Social Isolation.For a person with bipolar disorder, this illness is associated with the following problems: worse recovery, difficulty accessing health services, receiving poor treatment and support, and difficulty gaining community acceptance. Rejection of people with mental illness might also affect their family caregivers at various levels.

  14. Basic Principles of Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446

  15. Lifetime psychopathology among the offspring of Bipolar I parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Zappitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.

  16. A brief review of exercise, bipolar disorder and mechanistic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eThomson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomised controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. Given the high rate of medical co-morbidities experienced by people with bipolar disorder, it is possible that exercise is a potentially useful and important intervention with regard to general health benefits; however, further research is required to elucidate the impact of exercise on mood symptomology.

  17. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  18. Clinical features, comorbidity, and cognitive impairment in elderly bipolar patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Ida Vikan; Haro, Josep Maria; Gjervan, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data specific to late-life bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. Current research is sparse and present guidelines are not adapted to this group of patients. Objectives We present a literature review on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cognitive impairment in patients with late-life BD. This review discusses common comorbidities that affect BD elders and how aging might affect cognition and treatment. Methods Eligible studies were identified in MedLine by the Medical Subject Headings terms “bipolar disorder” and “aged”. We only included original research reports published in English between 2012 and 2015. Results From 414 articles extracted, 16 studies were included in the review. Cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, type II diabetes, and endocrinological abnormalities were observed as highly prevalent. BD is associated with a high suicide risk. Bipolar elderly had an increased risk of dementia and performed worse on cognitive screening tests compared to age-matched controls across different levels of cognition. Despite high rates of medical comorbidity among bipolar elderly, a systematic under-recognition and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease have been suggested. Conclusion There was a high burden of physical comorbidities and cognitive impairment in late-life BD. Bipolar elderly might be under-recorded and undertreated in primary medical care, indicating that this group needs an adapted clinical assessment and specific clinical guidelines need to be established. PMID:27274256

  19. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22......%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy...

  20. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  1. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  2. Tranylcypromine vs. lamotrigine in the treatment of refractory bipolar depression : a failed but clinically useful study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolen, W. A.; Kupka, R. W.; Hellemann, G.; Frye, M. A.; Altshuler, L. L.; Leverich, G. S.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P. E.; McElroy, S.; Grunze, H.; Mintz, J.; Post, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tranylcypromine vs. lamotrigine in bipolar depression not responding to conventional antidepressants. Method: Bipolar depressed patients received open randomized treatment with tranylcypromine or lamotrigine as add-on to a mood stabilizer during

  3. Enhanced charge trapping in bipolar spacer oxides during low-dose-rate irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Winokur, P.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L.; Schrimpf, R.D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Nowlin, R.N. [Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeLaus, M. [Analog Devices, Wilmington, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Thermally-stimulated-current and capacitance-voltage measurements reveal enhanced hole trapping in bipolar spacer-oxide capacitors irradiated at 0 V at low dose rates. Possible mechanisms and implications for bipolar low-rate response are discussed.

  4. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was measu

  5. Restoration of hip architecture with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the elderly : does it affect early functional outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Maximilian; Arndt, Marius; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Rueger, Johannes M.; Hoffmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of the anatomic architecture correlates with functional outcome in patients receiving elective total hip arthroplasty. In theory similar rules should apply for bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fractures. The influence of anatomic restoration after bipolar hemiarthroplasty on s

  6. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, Michael D; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a classic example of a cell mediated hypersensitivity reaction in the skin. This occurs as a result of xenobiotic chemicals penetrating into the skin, chemically reacting with self proteins, eventually resulting in a hapten-specific immune response. It is precisely because of this localized immune response that allergic signs and symptoms occur (redness, edema, warmth and pruritus). It has been known for years that conventional T-cells (CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells that express a T-cell receptor alpha/Beta) are critical effectors for this reaction. There is emerging evidence that innate immune lymphocytes such as invariant Natural killer T-cells and even Natural killer cells may play important role. Other T-cell types such as Tregulatory cells and the IL-10 secreting Tregulatory cells type I are likely to be important in the control (resolution) of allergic contact dermatitis. Other cell types that may contribute include B-cells and hapten-specific IgM. Additionally, epidermal Langerhans cells have been ascribed an indispensable role as an antigen presenting cell to educate T-cells of the skin immune system. Studies of mice that lack this cell type suggest that Langerhans cells may be dispensible, and may even play a regulatory role in allergic contact dermatitis. The identity of the antigen presenting cells that complement Langerhans cells has yet to be identified. Lastly, Keratinocytes play a role in all phases of allergic contact dermatitis, from the early initiation phase with the elaboration of inflammatory cytokines, that plays a role in Langerhans cell migration, and T-cell trafficking, through the height of the inflammatory phase with direct interactions with epidermotrophic T-cells, through the resolution phase of allergic contact dermatitis with the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tolerogenic antigen presentation to effector T-cells. As the understanding of allergic contact dermatitis continues to improve, this will

  8. Psoriasis and Contact Sensitivitiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arlı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of contact sensitivity in patients with psoriasis, whether there was an association between clinical types and contact sensitivity, whether patch test is a factor that causes Koebner reaction and frequency of contact sensitivity against commonly used topical corticosteroids. Methods: Fifty patients with psoriasis and 50 healthy volunteers were included in this study and ‘European standard series' and test units of active ingredients of some corticosteroids were performed on their upper back. The patches were read on hours 24, 48 and on day 7 in order to detect delayed allergic reactions and also Koebner reaction. The results of both groups were compared by using chi-square test. Results: At the end of the patch test allergic reaction was observed in 7 of 50 (14% patients with psoriasis and 12 of 50 (24% healthy volunteers. There was no statistically significant difference between allergic reaction of study group and healthy volunteers. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical types of psoriasis and allergic contact sensitivity. The frequency of reaction increased in individuals having a positive sensitivity history to any substance in both patient and control groups. Reaction to topical steroids was not seen in any patients. Koebner phenomenon due to patch test was also not seen in any patients. Conclusion: We did not show any association between psoriasis and contact sensitivity in this study. We believe that contact allergens should be determined by using patch test in psoriatic patients with a positive history to any substance.

  9. The immediate effect of the variation of anteroposterior laterotrusive contacts on the elevator EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, A; Rocabado, M; Cadenasso, P; Miralles, R; Cumsille, M A

    1993-07-01

    A unilateral maxillary splint divided into three occlusal blocks was built for eight healthy young adults. The three blocks allowed the anteroposterior location of the laterotrusive contacts to vary and to distribute the occlusal force over equivalent periodontal surfaces. The ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis electromyogram (EMG) activities were recorded with surface electrodes during maximal voluntary clenching. The elevator EMG activity with the anterior occlusal block in place was significantly lower than with the intermediate or posterior blocks. The reduction for both elevators with the intermediate block in place did not show a significant variation in comparison to the posterior block of the three blocks inserted. The elevator activity with the three occlusal blocks did not differ from that recorded with the posterior block alone. Neurophysiologic and biomechanical explanations are given related to this laterotrusive elevator muscular behavior.

  10. Correlates of Emergency Department Use among Individuals with Bipolar Disorder enrolled in a Collaborative Care Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxmonsky, Jeanette; Verchinina, Lilia; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Lai, Zongshan; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kyle, Julia T.; Nord, Kristina M.; Han, Jenny; Goodrich, David E.; Bauer, Mark; Thomas, Marshall R.; Kilbourne, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study assessed correlates of emergency department use among individuals with bipolar disorder receiving a collaborative care program. Methods Community-based clinics from two states implemented the evidence-based Life Goals-Collaborative Care Model (LG-CC), which included self-management sessions and care management contacts. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine participant factors associated with 12-month emergency department use after LG-CC implementation. Results Among 219 participants with non-missing baseline and 12-month data, 24.2% (n=53) reported at least one emergency department visit. Participants with homelessness history (OR=3.76; 95% CI=1.39–10.2; p=.01) or 5 or more care management contacts (OR=2.62; 95% CI=.1.00–6.95; p=.05) had higher probability of emergency department visit, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors including physical health and hospitalization history. Conclusions Individuals with bipolar disorder and history of homelessness were more likely to use the emergency department despite enrollment in a Collaborative Care program, suggesting a greater need for more intensive care coordination. PMID:27247174

  11. Circadian Phase Preference in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri L. Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD rates have notably increased over the past three decades. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with BD, efforts are needed to identify factors useful in earlier detection to help address this serious public health concern. Sleep is particularly important to consider given the sequelae of disrupted sleep on normative functioning and that sleep is included in diagnostic criteria for both Major Depressive and Manic Episodes. Here, we examine one component of sleep—i.e., circadian phase preference with the behavioral construct of morningness/eveningness (M/E. In comparing 30 BD and 45 typically developing control (TDC participants, ages 7–17 years, on the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC, no between-group differences emerged. Similar results were found when comparing three groups (BD−ADHD; BD+ADHD; TDC. Consistent with data available on circadian phase preference in adults with BD, however, we found that BD adolescents, ages 13 years and older, endorsed significantly greater eveningness compared to their TDC peers. While the current findings are limited by reliance on subjective report and the high-rate of comorbid ADHD among the BD group, this finding that BD teens demonstrate an exaggerated shift towards eveningness than would be developmentally expected is important. Future studies should compare the circadian rhythms across the lifespan for individuals diagnosed with BD, as well as identify the point at which BD youth part ways with their healthy peers in terms of phase preference. In addition, given our BD sample was overall euthymic, it may be that M/E is more state vs. trait specific in latency age youth. Further work would benefit from assessing circadian functioning using a combination of rating forms and laboratory-based measures. Improved understanding of sleep in BD may identify behavioral targets for inclusion in prevention and intervention protocols.

  12. Dynamic thermoelectricity in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovichev, I.N., E-mail: vin@ire.kharkov.ua

    2016-07-01

    The theory of the dynamic thermoelectric effect has been developed. The effect lies in an electric current flowing in a closed circuit that consists of a uniform bipolar semiconductor, in which a non-uniform temperature distribution in the form of the traveling wave is created. The calculations are performed for the one-dimensional model in the quasi-neutrality approximation. It was shown that the direct thermoelectric current prevails, despite the periodicity of the thermal excitation, the circuit homogeneity and the lack of rectifier properties of the semiconductor system. Several physical reasons underlining the dynamic thermoelectric effect are found. One of them is similar to the Dember photoelectric effect, its contribution to the current flowing is determined by the difference in the electron and hole mobilities, and is completely independent of the carrier Seebeck coefficients. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current magnitude on the semiconductor parameters, as well as on the temperature wave amplitude, length and velocity is studied. It is shown that the magnitude of the thermoelectric current is proportional to the square of the temperature wave amplitude. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current on the temperature wave length and velocity is the nonmonotonic function. The optimum values for the temperature wave length and velocity, at which the dynamic thermoelectric effect is the greatest, have been deduced. It is found that the thermoelectric short circuit current changes its direction with decreasing the temperature wave length under certain conditions. The prospects for the possible applications of the dynamic thermoelectric effect are also discussed.

  13. Linkage studies of bipolar disorder with chromosome 18 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T; Kirov, G; Gill, M; Spurlock, G; Vallada, H P; Murray, R M; McGuffin, P; Collier, D A; Owen, M J; Craddock, N

    1999-10-15

    Evidence consistent with the existence of genetic linkage between bipolar disorder and three regions on chromosome 18, the pericentromeric region, 18q21, and 18q22-q23 have been reported. Some analyses indicated greater evidence for linkage in pedigrees in which paternal transmission of disease occurs. We have undertaken linkage analyses using 12 highly polymorphic markers spanning these three regions of interest in a sample of 48 U.K. bipolar pedigrees. The sample comprises predominantly nuclear families and includes 118 subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) bipolar I disorder and 147 subjects with broadly defined phenotype. Our data do not provide support for linkage using either parametric or nonparametric analyses. Evidence for linkage was not significantly increased by analyses that allowed for heterogeneity nor by analysing the subset of pedigrees consistent with paternal transmission.

  14. Neuropsychological profile of patients with bipolar depression in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine if the patients with bipolar affective disorder, after the depressive phase, would exhibit cognitive impairment in remission. Methods. Twenty three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were matched, on a case-by-case basis, to twenty-one healthy subjects in the control group, for the presence of the symptoms of depression. The patients and the control group were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results. Impairments were found in the patients compared with the control group in tests of verbal learning and memory and in tests of executive function. Verbal learning and memory, as well as executive functions, did not correlate either with the clinical indices of patients, or with the demographic and baseline clinical measures of depression. Conclusion. Impaired verbal learning and memory and executive functions may represent a trait rather than the state variables in bipolar disorder.

  15. Molecular neurobiological clues to the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder, with a high heritability and unknown pathogenesis. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified the first loci, implicating genes such as CACNA1C and ANK3. The genes highlight several pathways, notably calcium signalling, as being of importance. Molecular studies suggest that the risk variants impact on gene regulation and expression. Preliminary studies using reprogrammed patient-derived cells report alterations in the transcriptome and in cellular adhesion and differentiation. Mouse models show that genes involved in circadian biology, acting via dopaminergic effects, reproduce aspects of the bipolar phenotype. These findings together represent significant advances in identification of the genetic and molecular basis of bipolar disorder, yet we are still far from an integrated, evidence-based understanding of its aetiopathogenesis.

  16. The Management of Catatonia in Bipolar Disorder with Stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed K. Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia, while not a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder, has not been widely discussed in the literature. We present a case of a married Caucasian male with a history of bipolar disorder, exhibiting catatonia and experiencing difficulty in day-to-day functioning. He demonstrated impairment in cognition and an inability to organize simple activities of daily life. After exhausting a number of options for medical management, including benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and amantadine, he only displayed significant clinical improvement with the addition of a stimulant, methylphenidate. In time, the patient saw a complete return to normal functioning. The use of stimulants for catatonia in bipolar disorder may be an interesting and effective option for treatment. While this is not the first time this treatment has been suggested, there is very little data in support of it; our case confirms the discoveries of previous case reports.

  17. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  18. Online information seeking by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Rita; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information seeking is an important coping mechanism for dealing with chronic illness. Despite a growing number of mental health websites, there is little understanding of how patients with bipolar disorder use the Internet to seek information. METHODS: A 39 question, paper......-based, anonymous survey, translated into 12 languages, was completed by 1222 patients in 17 countries as a convenience sample between March 2014 and January 2016. All patients had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder from a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized estimating...... equations to account for correlated data. RESULTS: 976 (81 % of 1212 valid responses) of the patients used the Internet, and of these 750 (77 %) looked for information on bipolar disorder. When looking online for information, 89 % used a computer rather than a smartphone, and 79 % started with a general...

  19. Stimulants for treating bipolar disorder: pro and con.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The role of stimulants for treating severe depression remains controversial, especially when it comes to bipolar depression. Potential benefits have to be weighed against risks, including addictive potential and treatment-emergent mania. But not all stimulants are the same. Modafinil and its R-enantiomer armodafinil seem to have positive augmentation effects when coupled with standard treatment of bipolar depression, while also having a relative low risk of addiction and manic switches. A recent hypothesis derived from the observation of hypovigilance in manic patients postulates that modafinil may also have a beneficial effect in reducing manic behaviors. Further controlled studies are needed to clarify the benefits and risks of stimulants, both in bipolar depression and mania.

  20. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism...... disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences...

  1. Activated depression: mixed bipolar disorder or agitated unipolar depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C

    2013-08-01

    The combination of depression and activation presents clinical and diagnostic challenges. It can occur, in either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, as increased agitation as a dimension of depression. What is called agitation can consist of expressions of painful inner tension or as disinhibited goal-directed behavior and thought. In bipolar disorder, elements of depression can be combined with those of mania. In this case, the agitation, in addition to increased motor activity and painful inner tension, must include symptoms of mania that are related to goal-directed behavior or manic cognition. These diagnostic considerations are important, as activated depression potentially carries increased behavioral risk, especially for suicidal behavior, and optimal treatments for depressive episodes differ between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  2. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has contracted with Electro Energy, Inc., to develop a bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery design for energy storage on low-Earth-orbit satellites. The objective of the bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery development program is to approach advanced battery development from a systems level while incorporating technology advances from the lightweight nickel electrode field, hydride development, and design developments from nickel-hydrogen systems. This will result in a low-volume, simplified, less-expensive battery system that is ideal for small spacecraft applications. The goals of the program are to develop a 1-kilowatt, 28-volt (V), bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery with a specific energy of 100 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg), an energy density of 250 W-hr/liter and a 5-year life in low Earth orbit at 40-percent depth-of-discharge.

  3. Anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Kakar, Ron; Berk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inflammation has been implicated in the risk, pathophysiology, and progression of mood disorders and, as such, has become a target of interest in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, the objective of the current qualitative and quantitative review was to determine...... the overall antidepressant effect of adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression. METHODS: Completed and ongoing clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents for BD published prior to 15 May 15 2015 were identified through searching the PubMed, Embase, Psych...... or significant treatment-emergent adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a moderate antidepressant effect was observed for adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents compared with conventional therapy alone in the treatment of bipolar depression. The small number of studies, diversity of agents, and small...

  4. A Physics-Based Charge-Control Model for InP DHBT Including Current-Blocking Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ji; JIN Zhi; SU Yong-Bo; CHENG Wei; WANG Xian-Wai; CHEN Gao-Peng; LIU Xin-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We develop a physics-based charge-control InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor model including three important effects: current blocking, mobile-charge modulation of the base-collector capacitance and velocity-field modulation in the transit time. The bias-dependent base-collector depletion charge is obtained analytically, which takes into account the mobile-charge modulation. Then, a measurement based voltage-dependent transit time formulation is implemented. As a result, over a wide range of biases, the developed model shows good agreement between the modeled and measured S-parameters and cutoff frequency. Also, the model considering current blocking effect demonstrates more accurate prediction of the output characteristics than conventional vertical bipolar inter company results.

  5. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and... Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter is a device used to perform female sterilization and...

  6. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Strengths, Challenges, and Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi; Ackerson, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe form of mental illness with a primary disruption in mood. With fluctuating phases of mania and depression, bipolar disorder can have a serious impact on all activities of daily living, including parenting. Ten mothers with bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their strengths, challenges, and service needs in…

  7. Signs of a higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in female offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies are inconsistent as to whether patients with bipolar disorder are more frequently affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Aim: To study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in offspring of bipolar patients. Method: In 1998 140 children (age 12-21 years) of bipolar parents were ev

  8. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with stru

  9. White-matter microstructure and gray-matter volumes in adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paillère Martinot, M-L; Lemaitre, Henri Charles Francois; Artiges, E;

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in white-matter (WM) microstructure, as lower fractional anisotropy (FA), have been reported in adolescent-onset bipolar disorder and in youth at familial risk for bipolarity. We sought to determine whether healthy adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms (SBP) would have earl...

  10. Bipolar disorders in DSM-IV: impact of inclusion of rapid cycling as a course modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunner, D L

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we review the process for inclusion of rapid cycling as a course modifier to bipolar disorders in DSM-IV. This process involved definition of bipolar II disorder, delineating the duration of manic episode for bipolar I disorder, and clarification of the diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder and mixed mania.

  11. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong,Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Methods Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity wa...

  12. Development and Application of a New Approach to Testing the Bipolarity of Semantic Differential Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliser, Claudia C.; Schriesheim, Chester A.

    1994-01-01

    A method of testing semantic differential scales for bipolarity is developed using a new conception of bipolarity that does not require unidimensionality. Assessment of Fielder's Least Preferred Coworker instrument with 63 college student subjects using multidimensional scaling revealed its significant departures from bipolarity. (SLD)

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  14. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the w

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... person. Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how ...

  16. Thermal Contact Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  17. The Nuclear Contact Exists

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Piasetzky, E; Miller, G A; Sargsian, M M

    2014-01-01

    Many-body systems of strongly interacting Fermions are ubiquitous in nature, ranging from High-Tc superconductors and ultra-cold atomic gases to atomic nuclei and neutron stars. Theoretical predictions, recently verified by measurements on ultra-cold atomic gases, show that under certain conditions the universal behavior of systems composed of two kinds of fermions can be described using a single parameter, simply called the contact, which is a measure of the number of different-fermion pairs in close proximity. This paper discusses the relevance of the contact for very different systems: atomic nuclei, made of strongly-interacting neutrons and protons. Here we show that the high-momentum distributions of protons and neutrons in nuclei, dominated by correlated proton-neutron pairs mainly in a spin-triplet state, have the same momentum dependence as those of cold atoms, with a strength described by the contact. We use high-energy electron scattering data to extract a value for the nuclear contact consistent wi...

  18. Irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Iris S; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is the most common form of contact dermatitis. It represents the cutaneous response to the toxic/physical effects of a wide variety of environmental agents. Nowadays, it is recognized that irritancy does not represent a single monomorphous entity but rather a complex biologic syndrome with diverse pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. The clinical presentation is highly variable depending on several factors, including properties and strength of the irritant, dose, duration and frequency of exposure, environmental factors, and skin susceptibility. The pathophysiological mechanism depends on activation of the innate immune system and involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators that directly recruit and activate T lymphocytes. The diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis is often clinical, and involves a comprehensive history and examination, as well as the exclusion of allergic contact dermatitis with patch testing. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis as well as better awareness of the clinical significance of ICD will lead to a improved care for our patients.

  19. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  20. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  1. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  2. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  3. Visual context processing in bipolar disorder: a comparison with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice eYang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous perception has been investigated extensively in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether these impairments are specific to schizophrenia or extend to other psychotic disorders. Recent studies of visual context processing in schizophrenia (Tibber et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2013 point to circumscribed, task-specific abnormalities. Here we examined visual contextual processing across a comprehensive set of visual tasks in individuals with bipolar disorder and compared their performance with that of our previously published results from schizophrenia and healthy participants tested on those same tasks. We quantified the degree to which the surrounding visual context alters a center stimulus’ appearance for brightness, size, contrast, orientation and motion. Across these tasks, healthy participants showed robust contextual effects, as indicated by pronounced misperceptions of the center stimuli. Participants with bipolar disorder showed contextual effects similar in magnitude to those found in healthy participants on all tasks. This result differs from what we found in schizophrenia participants (Yang et al., 2013 who showed weakened contextual modulations of contrast but intact contextual modulations of perceived luminance and size. Yet in schizophrenia participants, the magnitude of the contrast illusion did not correlate with symptom measures. Performance on the contrast task by the bipolar disorder group also could not be distinguished from that of the schizophrenia group, and this may be attributed to the result that bipolar patients who presented with greater manic symptoms showed weaker contrast modulation. Thus, contrast gain control may be modulated by clinical state in bipolar disorder. Stronger motion and orientation context effects correlated with worse clinical symptoms across both patient groups and especially in schizophrenia participants. These results highlight the complexity of visual context processing in schizophrenia

  4. Relapses in bipolar patients: changes in social rhythm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nadia; Mouchtaq, Nadia; Hakkou, Farid; Moussaoui, Driss

    2000-03-01

    The Ramadan month represents a valuable opportunity to test the hypothesis that the course of the illness of bipolar patients can be disrupted by the change in social rhythm which usually occurs during this month. The objectives of this study were to follow up the mood state and blood lithium level of fasting Muslim bipolar patients who had been on lithium therapy for at least 3 months, and were clinically stable before being included in the study. Twenty bipolar patients were enrolled during the month of Ramadan in 1997. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was according to ICD-10 criteria. Patients were assessed during the week before Ramadan, the second and the fourth weeks of the fasting month and the first week after its end, with the Hamilton Depression and Bech-Rafaelsen scales. The plasma concentration of lithium was also assessed. The main finding of the study was that 45% of the patients relapsed, 70% during the second week and the remaining patients at the end of Ramadan. These relapses were not related to plasma concentration of lithium. Most of the relapses were manic (71.4 %). Patients who did not relapse had insomnia and anxiety during the second and third weeks of the study. Side-effects of lithium increased and were observed in 48% of the sample, mostly dryness of the mouth with thirst and tremor. The result of this pilot study indicates that the Ramadan month may disrupt the mood state of bipolar patients. More studies are needed to confirm this observation and to evaluate the validity of the Ramadan model to study the impact of social rhythms on bipolar patients.

  5. Late life bipolar disorder evolving into frontotemporal dementia mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dols A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Annemiek Dols,1 Welmoed Krudop,2 Christiane Möller,2 Kenneth Shulman,3 Martha Sajatovic,4 Yolande AL Pijnenburg2 1Department of Old Age Psychiatry, GGZInGeest, 2Alzheimer Centre and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 4Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Objectives: Although bipolar disorder has been understood classically as a cyclic disease with full recovery between mood episodes, in the last decade, evidence has accumulated supporting progressive features. The clinical picture of advanced or end-stage bipolar disorder is heterogeneous with possible deficits in cognition and behavior, as illustrated by our case series.Cases: From our neuropsychiatric outpatient clinic, we describe four cases with bipolar disorder gradually developing a clinical syndrome, including apathy, disinhibition, loss of empathy, stereotypical behavior, and compulsiveness, fulfilling the criteria for possible behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. All cases were diagnosed with bipolar 1 disorder at least 10 years before the onset of the current symptoms, which were not due to recent mood episodes or switches of medication. In all cases, 3–7 years of follow-up yielded no progression. Repeated neuroimaging was within normal limits. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies were not supportive of underlying neurodegenerative pathology. C9orf72 mutation status was negative in all cases.Conclusion: Symptoms fitting the criteria for possible behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia may be present in end-stage of bipolar disorder. An alternative neurodegenerative nature seems unlikely based on repeated normal neuroimaging and the absence of clinical

  6. Lurasidone as a potential therapy for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo YS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Young Sup Woo, Hee Ryung Wang, Won-Myong Bahk Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Lurasidone is a benzisothiazol derivative and an atypical antipsychotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the acute treatment of adults with schizophrenia (October 2010 and bipolar 1 depression (June 2013. Lurasidone has a strong antagonistic property at the D2, serotonin (5-HT2A, and 5-HT7 receptors, and partial agonistic property at the 5-HT1A receptor. Lurasidone also has lower binding affinity for the α2C and 5-HT2C receptor. Lurasidone is rapidly absorbed (time to maximum plasma concentration: 1–3 hours, metabolized mainly by CYP3A4 and eliminated by hepatic metabolism. In two large, well-designed, 6-week trials in adult patients with bipolar 1 depression, lurasidone monotherapy and adjunctive therapy with mood stabilizers were significantly more effective than placebo at improving depressive symptoms assessed using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score. In both trials, lurasidone also reduced the Clinical Global Impression–Bipolar Severity depression score to a greater extent than placebo. In these two trials, discontinuation rates due to adverse events in the lurasidone group were small (<7% and were not different from those of the placebo group. The most common adverse events in the lurasidone group were headache, nausea, somnolence, and akathisia. The changes in lipid profiles, weight, and parameters of glycemic control were minimal, and these findings were in line with those observed in schizophrenia trials. Further active comparator trials and long-term tolerability and safety data in bipolar patients are required. Lurasidone may be an option for the management of depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar 1 disorder, and it may be considered as a treatment alternative for patients who are at high risk for metabolic abnormalities

  7. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epa, Roksana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and Young Rating Scale for Mania (YMRS. Profile of moral reasoning was defined on the basis of the results obtained in the Defining Issue Test (DIT by James Rest. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between bipolar disorder (and its phases and the profile of moral reasoning: bipolar patients significantly less often than healthy individuals chose answers indicating the postconventional thinking (p=0,000 – and more often – answers indicating stage 3 and those belonging to the anti-institutional thinking index (p=0,000. There was also a relationship shown between the development of moral reasoning and the phase of bipolar disorder: patients in mania less often than per- sons in euthymia chose answers indicating the final stage of moral thinking (p=0,050. There were no significant differences between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in mania and between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in euthymia. Conclusions: The results suggest that the psychological state of the individual may have an impact on the process of moral reasoning – bipolar disorder may to some extent influence the way of thinking about moral dilemmas. The collected data also seem to emphasize the specificity of the manic phase which is especially worth exploration when conducting further studies.

  8. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Ueda,1 Takeshi Sakayori,1 Ataru Omori,2 Hajime Fukuta,3 Takashi Kobayashi,3 Kousuke Ishizaka,1 Tomoyuki Saijo,4 Yoshiro Okubo1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tamachuo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Kurumegaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 4Saijo Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The authors describe three cases of NIDS superimposed on depressive phase in bipolar disorder with psychosis, where the attending psychiatrist’s failure to recognize NIDS prevented patients from receiving effective treatment and achieving remission. All cases achieved remission after reduction of neuroleptics and intensive therapy, including electroconvulsive therapy, for bipolar depression. The concept of NIDS was originally introduced for schizophrenia, and it has rarely been highlighted in other diseases. In recent years, however, atypical antipsychotics are being more often administered to patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists, therefore, should also remember and exercise caution regarding NIDS in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder with and without psychosis. The authors believe that the concept of NIDS needs to be reappraised in current psychiatry. Keywords: neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, bipolar disorder, psychosis, atypical antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy

  9. Pre-attentive information processing and impulsivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Acas, Michelle D; Cox, Blake; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-12-01

    Early responses to stimuli can be measured by sensory evoked potentials (EP) using repeated identical stimuli, S1 and S2. Response to S1 may represent efficient stimulus detection, while suppression of response to S2 may represent inhibition. Early responses to stimuli may be related to impulsivity. We compared EP reflecting stimulus detection and inhibition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, and investigated relationships to impulsivity. Subjects were 48 healthy controls without family histories of mood disorder and 48 with bipolar disorder. EP were measured as latencies and amplitudes for auditory P50 (pre-attentional), N100 (initial direction of attention) and P200 (initial conscious awareness), using a paired-click paradigm, with identical stimuli 0.5 s apart. Impulsivity was measured by questionnaire and by laboratory tests for inability to suppress responses to stimuli or to delay response for a reward. Analyses used general linear models. S1 amplitudes for P50, N100, and P200, and gating of N100 and P200, were lower in bipolar disorder than in controls. P50 S1 amplitude correlated with accurate laboratory-task responding, and S2 amplitude correlated with impulsive task performance and fast reaction times, in bipolar disorder. N100 and P200 EP did not correlate with impulsivity. These findings were independent of symptoms, treatment, or substance-use history. EPs were not related to questionnaire-measured or reward-based impulsivity. Bipolar I disorder is characterized by reduced pre-attentional and early attentional stimulus registration relative to controls. Within bipolar disorder, rapid-response impulsivity correlates with impaired pre-attentional response suppression. These results imply specific relationships between ERP-measured response inhibition and rapid-response impulsivity.

  10. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  11. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  12. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  13. Development of new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Alan I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  14. [Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions and endophenotypes in bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correard, N; Elissalde, S N; Azorin, J-M; Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R

    2012-12-01

    Diseases with complex determinism, bipolar disorders, involve at the same time environmental and genetic factors of vulnerability. The characterization of these vulnerabilities would allow a better knowledge of their etiology and envisage the development of therapeutics, more specialized, even preventive. The research in genetic psychiatry allowed to highlight endophenotype candidates associated to bipolar disorders. They are endogenous clinical or biological features, biologically more elementary than phenotypes and more directly bound to the physiological consequences of genes and their polymorphisms. Targeting some of them with specific psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions could reduce the consequences of their expression and so have an action on the course of the disease and also preventive.

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive-Bipolar Disorder Comorbidity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been described as features of Bipolar Disorder (BD, and Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar disorder (OCBD may occur in as many as 56% of obsessive-compulsive patients. Mania in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD can occur either as an independent comorbidity or as a result of an antidepressant-induced switch. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with a 3 year diagnosis of OCD treated with antidepressants, admitted due to a manic episode, and describe diagnostic and treatment challenges of this comorbidity.

  16. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  17. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  18. Transient electro-thermal modeling of bipolar power semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gachovska, Tanya Kirilova; Du, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents physics-based electro-thermal models of bipolar power semiconductor devices including their packages, and describes their implementation in MATLAB and Simulink. It is a continuation of our first book Modeling of Bipolar Power Semiconductor Devices. The device electrical models are developed by subdividing the devices into different regions and the operations in each region, along with the interactions at the interfaces, are analyzed using the basic semiconductor physics equations that govern device behavior. The Fourier series solution is used to solve the ambipolar diffusio

  19. Bipolar Host Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-02-01

    It is important to balance holes and electrons in the emitting layer of organic light-emitting diodes to maximize recombination efficiency and the accompanying external quantum efficiency. Therefore, the host materials of the emitting layer should transport both holes and electrons for the charge balance. From this perspective, bipolar hosts have been popular as the host materials of thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. In this review, we have summarized recent developments of bipolar hosts and suggested perspectives of host materials for organic light-emitting diodes.

  20. Effects of testosterone therapy on bipolar disorder with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuhiro; Jono, Tadashi; Nishi, Yoshitomo; Ushijima, Hirokage; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is widely associated with cognitive impairment and language problems. KS patients may also exhibit psychiatric symptoms. We present the case of an 18-year-old man with KS who experienced rapidly repeating relapses of manic episodes. He was unresponsive to the usual pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorders such as mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics. Mood was eventually improved with testosterone therapy in addition to pharmacotherapy, with no relapse of manic episodes for 3 years after discharge. Testosterone therapy may prevent relapsing manic episodes of bipolar disorder in patients with KS.

  1. re:Mind - A mobile application for bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Lyck Festersen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Several personal healthcare monitoring systems have been proposed to target somatic diseases and specific mental illness. This paper reports on the re:Mind system, which is a helpful tool that supports the treatment of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder. We developed the system as a hybrid...... mobile application to help bipolar patients self-monitor a set of parameters that are known to affect their illness while also allowing them to communicate with their physician. Based on data collected from medical personnel, clinicians, patients, patients’ relatives and persons akin to them, we created...

  2. Synchronization of chaotic and nonchaotic oscillators: Application to bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nono Dueyou Buckjohn, C., E-mail: bucknono@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Siewe Siewe, M., E-mail: martinsiewesiewe@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Tchawoua, C., E-mail: ctchawa@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Kofane, T.C., E-mail: tckofane@yahoo.co [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2010-08-02

    In this Letter, we use a synchronization scheme on two bipolar disorder models consisting of a strong nonlinear system with multiplicative excitation and a nonlinear oscillator without parametric harmonic forcing. The stability condition following our control function is analytically demonstrated using the Lyapunov theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria, we then have the condition for the existence of a feedback gain matrix. A convenient demonstration of the accuracy of the method is complemented by the numerical simulations from which we illustrate the synchronized dynamics between the two non-identical bipolar disorder patients.

  3. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity.

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Robert A.; Steinberg, Stacy; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel M; Johannesson, Magnus; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Ullén, Fredrik; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    To access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink at the bottom of the page We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by...

  4. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Steinberg, Stacy; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel M; Johannesson, Magnus; Galesloot, Tessel E; Hottenga, Jouke J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Ullén, Fredrik; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; van Rooij, Frank J A; Walters, G Bragi; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Ingason, Andres; Helgason, Agnar; Kong, Augustine; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Koellinger, Philipp; Boomsma, Dorret I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots.

  5. International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    the framework of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide, a systematic review of articles published since 1980, characterized by the key terms bipolar disorder and 'suicide attempts' or 'suicide', was conducted, and data extracted for analysis from all eligible articles...... significantly associated with suicide attempts were: female gender, younger age at illness onset, depressive polarity of first illness episode, depressive polarity of current or most recent episode, comorbid anxiety disorder, any comorbid substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, any illicit substance use...

  6. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  8. Paternal postpartum mood: bipolar episodes? Depressão paterna: episódio bipolar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth. METHOD: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted with a representative sample of 739 fathers whose children were born between April 2007 and May 2008 in maternity wards in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Paternal psychopathology was measured with the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI across three time points: between 28 and 34 weeks of pregnancy (T1, 30 to 60 days postpartum (T2, and 12 months after childbirth (T3. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive episodes was 5.0% at T1, 4.5% at T2, and 4.3% at T3. Mixed episodes were present in 3%, 1.7%, and 0.9% of subjects, respectively, and accounted for 61.1% of the cases of depression in the antenatal period, 37.5% in postpartum, and 21.4% at 12 months. Depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes were significantly associated during pregnancy and in postpartum, but not at 12 months after childbirth. CONCLUSION: Bipolar episodes were common in men with depressive symptoms during their partner's pregnancy in the postpartum period and, to a lesser extent, 12 months after childbirth. Therefore, this population should be carefully investigated for manic and hypomanic symptoms.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência dos episódios depressivos e bipolares em homens no período pré e pós-natal, assim como 12 meses após o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal com amostra de pais cujas crianças nasceram entre abril de 2007 e maio de 2008 em maternidades da cidade de Pelotas-RS, no sul do Brasil. Episódios depressivos e maníacos/hipomaníacos foram mensurados com o Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview em três tempos diferentes: entre a 28ª e 34ª semanas de gestação (T1, 30 a 60 dias após o parto (T2 e 12 meses após o nascimento da criança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de episódios depressivos foi 5,0% em T1, 4,5% em T2 e 4,3% em T3

  9. Paternal postpartum mood: bipolar episodes? Depressão paterna: episódio bipolar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth. METHOD: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted with a representative sample of 739 fathers whose children were born between April 2007 and May 2008 in maternity wards in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Paternal psychopathology was measured with the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI across three time points: between 28 and 34 weeks of pregnancy (T1, 30 to 60 days postpartum (T2, and 12 months after childbirth (T3. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive episodes was 5.0% at T1, 4.5% at T2, and 4.3% at T3. Mixed episodes were present in 3%, 1.7%, and 0.9% of subjects, respectively, and accounted for 61.1% of the cases of depression in the antenatal period, 37.5% in postpartum, and 21.4% at 12 months. Depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes were significantly associated during pregnancy and in postpartum, but not at 12 months after childbirth. CONCLUSION: Bipolar episodes were common in men with depressive symptoms during their partner's pregnancy in the postpartum period and, to a lesser extent, 12 months after childbirth. Therefore, this population should be carefully investigated for manic and hypomanic symptoms.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência dos episódios depressivos e bipolares em homens no período pré e pós-natal, assim como 12 meses após o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal com amostra de pais cujas crianças nasceram entre abril de 2007 e maio de 2008 em maternidades da cidade de Pelotas-RS, no sul do Brasil. Episódios depressivos e maníacos/hipomaníacos foram mensurados com o Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview em três tempos diferentes: entre a 28ª e 34ª semanas de gestação (T1, 30 a 60 dias após o parto (T2 e 12 meses após o nascimento da criança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de episódios depressivos foi 5,0% em T1, 4,5% em T2 e 4,3% em T3

  10. Matricídio e transtorno bipolar Matricide and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Matricídio é o assassinato de uma mãe pelo filho ou filha, uma forma de homicídio raramente vista na prática psiquiátrica. Estudos de casos de matricídio têm revelado a presença de transtornos mentais, tais como esquizofrenia, transtorno bipolar, transtornos de personalidade e alcoolismo, assim como casos em que não há evidência de transtorno mental. OBJETIVO: Tem-se como objetivo relatar o caso de uma mulher com transtorno bipolar que assassinou a sua genitora e que foi avaliada em perícia psiquiátrica para avaliação da responsabilidade penal. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada entrevista psiquiátrica, sendo o diagnóstico psiquiátrico estabelecido com base na entrevista e observação dos registros periciais e hospitalares, utilizando-se os critérios diagnósticos DSM-IV-TR. RESULTADOS: A examinanda foi considerada inimputável, em virtude da presença de doença mental que afetou inteiramente o seu entendimento e determinação em relação ao delito praticado. Ela cumpre medida de segurança em Hospital de Custódia e Tratamento Psiquiátrico há dois anos. CONCLUSÃO: É importante que psiquiatras e outros profissionais da saúde mental estejam atentos para risco de comportamento violento em pacientes que apresentam história de doença mental de longa duração, com episódios de violência durante a fase aguda, ameaças contra familiares ou amigos e falta de tratamento psiquiátrico regular.BACKGROUND: Matricide is the killing of one's own mother, and a type of homicide rarely seen on psychiatric practice. Matricide cases studies have shown the presence of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, personality disorders and alcoholism, and have also found cases where there is no evidence of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aim to report a case of a woman with bipolar disorder that murdered her own mother and had a psychiatric forensic evaluation to ascertain her penal imputability. METHODS: Psychiatric

  11. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  12. Contact of surfaces and contact characteristics of offset surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin CAO; Hu GONG; Jian LIU

    2008-01-01

    Based on differential geometry, the contact problems of two surfaces are discussed in this paper. The relationship between the contact status of two sur-faces and that of offset surfaces are also analyzed. For a 5-axis NC machining, some research such as optimization of cutter location and calculation of the geometrical cusp height are important. The research results indicate that the relative normal curvature is an important geometrical invariant for describing the contact state of two surfaces. For point contact two surfaces, the calculation equation for the second order remained error is given. For line contact two surfaces, the condition of the second order line contact is that the principal directions and curvatures of the two surfaces are the same along the contact curve. If two surfaces keep the second order line contact, their two offset surfaces will also keep the second order line contact, and their third order remained errors are also uniform with that of the two offset surfaces.

  13. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  14. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  15. Anticonvulsivantes e antipsicóticos no tratamento do transtorno bipolar Anticonvulsants and antipsychotics in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Moreno

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é uma condição médica complexa e até o momento não há um tratamento único comprovadamente eficaz no controle de todos aspectos da doença. Foram revisadas a literatura disponível sobre o uso de anticonvulsivantes (valproato, carbamazepina, oxcarbazepina, lamotrigina, gabapentina, topiramato, clonazepam e antipsicóticos atípicos (clozapina, risperidona, olanzapina, quetiapina, ziprasidona e aripiprazole no tratamento agudo e profilático do transtorno bipolar. Existe um acúmulo de evidências acerca da eficácia do lítio na profilaxia e de ser melhor no tratamento da mania aguda do que nos episódios depressivos. Outros dados indicam que a carbamazepina e o valproato são eficazes na mania aguda. A lamotrigina parece reduzir ciclagem e ser eficaz em episódios depressivos. Baseado nas informações disponíveis, as evidências apontam a olanzapina como o antipsicótico atípico mais apropriado no tratamento de pacientes bipolares em mania, embora existam estudos sugerindo a eficácia da risperidona, aripiprazol e da clozapina. Resultados preliminares avaliando a eficácia de ziprasidona e quetiapina no transtorno bipolar ainda são bastante limitadas. Não há dados consistentes apoiando o uso profilático dos novos antipsicóticos.Bipolar disorder is a complex medical condition, and up to the date there is no single treatment with proven efficacy in the control of all aspects of the illness. The available literature on the use of anticonvulsants (valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, clonazepam and atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole for acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder was reviewed. There is a large amount of evidence that lithium is efficacious in the prophylaxis of episodes and better for acute mania than for depressive episodes. Other data show that carbamazepine and valproate are

  16. Correlates of current suicide risk among Thai patients with bipolar I disorder: findings from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit,1 Suchat Paholpak,2 Somrak Choovanicvong,3 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,4 Wetid Pratoomsri,5 Manit Srisurapanont1On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Registry Group1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 3Srithanya Hospital, Nonthaburi, 4Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 5Chachoengsao Hospital, Chachoengsao, ThailandBackground: The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a prospective, multisite, naturalistic study conducted in 24 hospitals across Thailand. This study aimed to examine the correlates of current suicide risk in Thai patients with bipolar I disorder.Methods: Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with bipolar disorder, based on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All were assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, version 5. The severity of current suicide risk was determined by using the total score of the MINI suicidality module. Mood symptoms were assessed by using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale.Results: The data of 383 bipolar I disorder patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 363 (94.8% were outpatients. The mean (standard deviation of the MINI suicide risk score was 1.88 (5.0. The demographic/clinical variables significantly associated with the MINI suicide risk scores included age, number of overall previous episodes, the Young Mania Rating Scale score, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness Scale for Bipolar Disorder mania score, depression score, and overall score. The variables affecting the differences of suicide risk scores between or among groups were type of first mood episode, a history of rapid cycling, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders. The stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed

  17. Thermal analytic model of current gain for bipolar junction transistor-bipolar static induction transistor compound device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang You-Run; Zhang Bo; Li Ze-Hong; Lai Chang-Jin; Li Zhao-Ji

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a thermal analytical model of current gain for bipolar junction transistor-bipolar static induction transistor (BJT-BSIT) compound device in the low current operation. It also proposes a best thermal compensating factor to the compound device that indicates the relationship between the thermal variation rate of current gain and device structure. This is important for the design of compound device to be optimized. Finally, the analytical model is found to be in good agreement with numerical simulation and experimental results. The test results demonstrate that thermal variation rate of current gain is below 10% in 25℃C-85℃ and 20% in -55℃-25℃.

  18. /Au Back Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  19. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  20. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  1. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  2. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  3. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  4. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  5. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  6. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  7. Properties of blocked linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  8. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  9. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  10. Bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. Madrid study on the prevalence of dual disorders/pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesías, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Rentero, David

    2016-03-02

    Given its prevalence and impact on public health, the comorbidity of bipolar and substance use disorders is one of the most relevant of dual diagnoses. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of patients from community mental health and substance abuse centres in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from mental health and substance abuse centres. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate axis I and II disorders. Of these patients, 174 had a lifetime bipolar disorder, 83 had bipolar disorder type I and 91 had type II. Most patients had dual pathology. Of the 208 participants from the mental health centres, 21 had bipolar disorder and 13 (61.9%) were considered dually-diagnosed patients, while 33.2% of non-bipolar patients had a dual diagnoses (p = 0.03). Of the 629 participants from the substance abuse centres, 153 patients (24.3%) had a bipolar diagnosis. Bipolar dual patients had higher rates of alcohol and cocaine dependence than non-bipolar patients. Moreover, age at onset of alcohol use was earlier in bipolar duallydiagnosed patients than in other alcoholics. Bipolar dually-diagnosed patients had higher personality and anxiety disorder comorbidities and greater suicide risk. Thus, alcohol and cocaine are the drugs most associated with bipolar disorder. Given the nature of the study, the type of relationship between these disorders cannot be determined.

  11. [Pediatric bipolar disorder - case report of a bipolar patient with disease onset in childhood and adolescence: implications for diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H P; Reininghaus, E

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, intense controversies have evolved about the existence and exact diagnostic criteria of pediatric bipolar affective disorder. The present study aims to discuss pediatric bipolar affective disorder based on the current literature focussing on the diagnostic prospects. Based on a case study, a process of bipolar disorder developed in childhood is depicted exemplarily. Because of the high comorbidity and overlapping symptoms of paediatric bipolar affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders, the major impact of the differential diagnosis has to be stressed. An early diagnosis and the treatment possibilities are discussed.

  12. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  13. Creativity and bipolar disorder: Touched by fire or burning with questions?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Murray, Greg; Fredrickson, Barbara; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; Bass, Julie Malbrancq; Deckersbach, Thilo; Schooler, Jonathan; Salloum, Ihsan

    2012-01-01

    Substantial literature has linked bipolar disorder with creative accomplishment. Much of the thinking in this area has been inspired by biographical accounts of poets, musicians, and other highly accomplished groups, which frequently document signs of bipolar disorder in these samples. A smaller literature has examined quantitative measures of creativity among people with bipolar disorder or at risk for the disorder. In this paper, we provide a critical review of such evidence. We then consider putative mechanisms related to the link of bipolar disorder with creativity, by drawing on literature outside of bipolar disorder on personality, motivational, and affective predictors of creativity. Because so little research has directly evaluated whether these factors could help explain the elevations of creativity in bipolar disorder, we conclude with an agenda for future research on the theoretically and clinically compelling topic of creativity in bipolar disorder. PMID:22088366

  14. Creativity and bipolar disorder: touched by fire or burning with questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Murray, Greg; Fredrickson, Barbara; Youngstrom, Eric A; Hinshaw, Stephen; Bass, Julie Malbrancq; Deckersbach, Thilo; Schooler, Jonathan; Salloum, Ihsan

    2012-02-01

    Substantial literature has linked bipolar disorder with creative accomplishment. Much of the thinking in this area has been inspired by biographical accounts of poets, musicians, and other highly accomplished groups, which frequently document signs of bipolar disorder in these samples. A smaller literature has examined quantitative measures of creativity among people with bipolar disorder or at risk for the disorder. In this paper, we provide a critical review of such evidence. We then consider putative mechanisms related to the link of bipolar disorder with creativity, by drawing on literature outside of bipolar disorder on personality, motivational, and affective predictors of creativity. Because so little research has directly evaluated whether these factors could help explain the elevations of creativity in bipolar disorder, we conclude with an agenda for future research on the theoretically and clinically compelling topic of creativity in bipolar disorder.

  15. ECNP consensus meeting. Bipolar depression. Nice, March 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, Guy M.; Anderson, Ian; Arango, Celso; Bowden, Charles L.; Henry, Chantal; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nolen, Willem A.; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis and epidemiology: DSM-IV, specifically its text revision DSM-IV-TR, remains the preferred diagnostic system. When employed in general population samples, prevalence estimates of bipolar disorder are relatively consistent across studies in Europe and USA. In community studies, first onset o

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.rojo@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Cubillos, Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2009-09-15

    In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed: applied electric field, liquid content, initial pH, and remediation time. The laboratory results showed that inserting bipolar plates in EDR cells improves the remediation action, even though the applied electric field is reduced by the electrochemical reactions on the plates. Basically three aspects favor the process: reduction of the ionic migration pathways, increase of the electrode surface, and in-situ generation of protons (H{sup +}) and hydroxyls (OH{sup -}). Furthermore, the laboratory results with citric acid addition significantly improve the remediation actions, reaching copper removal of up to nine times better, compared to conventional EDR experiments without any plates or citric acid addition.

  17. Ziprasidone in the treatment of mania in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Nicolson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Nicolson1, Charles B Nemeroff21From the Department of Psychiatry, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2From the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic with a unique receptor-binding profile. Currently, ziprasidone is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the acute treatment of psychosis in schizophrenia and mania in bipolar disorder. When compared to certain other atypical antipsychotics, ziprasidone appears to have a relatively benign side effect profile, especially as regards metabolic effects eg, weight gain, serum lipid elevations and glucose dysregulation. Taken together, these data suggest that ziprasidone may be a first line treatment for patients with bipolar mania. However, ziprasidone is a relatively new medication for which adverse events after long-term use and/or in vulnerable patient populations must be studied. Unstudied areas of particular importance include the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone in the treatment of bipolar depression and relapse prevention of mania as, well as in the subpopulations of pregnant women, the elderly and pediatric patients. The emergence of mania in patients taking ziprasidone is another topic for further study.Keywords: antipsychotic, bipolar disorder, mania, mood disorder, neuroleptic, ziprasidone

  18. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    electron-double-resonance spectroscopy, we find that the spin response of both spin-coated and printed P3HT/PCBM and spin-coated PCDTBT/PCBM solar cells at low temperatures is governed by bipolar polaron pair recombination and quantitatively determine the polaron-polaron coupling strength with double...

  19. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Children's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…

  20. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Suwalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM, planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions.