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Sample records for biplanar open-wedge high

  1. Proximal Tibia Medial Biplanar Retrotubercle Open Wedge Osteotomy for Varus Knees with Medial Gonarthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, İsmail; Esenkaya, İrfan; Ünay, Koray; Türkmensoy, Fatih; Özkut, Afşar Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis and compare the results with the literatüre. Methods: The results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for 23 knees of 22 patients with medial gonarthrosis were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Results: Twenty of the patients were female and two were male. Mean age of the patients was 56.24; m...

  2. Effect of a biplanar osteotomy on primary stability following high tibial osteotomy: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Dietrich; Lorbach, Olaf; Schmitz, Christian; Busch, Lüder C; Van Giffen, Nicolien; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter M

    2010-02-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of varus gonarthrosis in the active patient. The various implants used in HTO differ with regard to its design, the fixation stability and osteotomy technique. It is assumed that the combination of a plate fixator with a biplanar, v-shaped osteotomy supports bone healing. So far, there are no biomechanical studies that quantify the stabilizing effect of a biplanar versus uniplanar osteotomy. We hypothesized that a significant increase in primary stability of bone-implant constructs is achieved when using a biplanar as opposed to a uniplanar osteotomy. Twenty-four fresh-frozen human tibiae were mounted in a metal cylinder, and open-wedge osteotomy (12 mm wedge size) was performed in a standardized fashion. Proximal and distal tibial segments were marked with tantalum markers of 0.8 mm diameter. Two different plates with locking screws were used for fixation: a short spacer plate (group 1, n = 12) and a plate fixator (group 2, n = 12). In six specimens of each group, a biplanar V-shaped osteotomy with a 110 degrees angulated anterior cut behind the tuberosity parallel to the ventral tibial shaft axis was performed. In the remaining six specimens of each group, a simple uniplanar osteotomy was performed in an oblique fashion. Axial compression of the tibiae was performed using a material testing machine under standardized alignment of the loading axis. Load-controlled cyclical staircase loading tests were performed. The specimens were radiographed simultaneously in two planes together with a biplanar calibration cage in front of a film plane with and without load after each subcycle. Radiostereometry allowed for serial quantification of plastic and elastic micromotion at the osteotomy site reflecting the stability provided by the combination of implant and osteotomy technique. No significant additional stabilizing effect of a biplanar osteotomy in craniocaudal and mediolateral

  3. The results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformity

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    Mahmood Jabalameli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High tibial open wedg osteotomy is one of the most important modality for treatment of varus deformity in order to correct deformity and improving signs and symptoms of patients with primary degenerative osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformities.Methods: This retrospective study conducted on twenty nine patients (36 knees undergone proximal tibial osteotomy operation in Shafa Yahyaian University Hospital from 2004 to 2010. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 60 years, high physical activity, varus deformity and involvement of medical compartment of knee. Patients with obesity, smoking, patelofemoral pain, lateral compartment lesion, deformity degree more than 20 degree, extension limitation and range of motion less than 90 degree were excluded. The clinical and radiologic characteristics were measured before and after operation.Results: Fourteen patients were females. All of them were younger than 50 years, with mean (±SD 27.64 (±10.88. The mean (±SD of follow up time was 4.33 (±1.7. All the patients were satisfied with the results of operation. Tenderness and pain decreased in all of them. In all patients autologus bone graft were used, in 15 cases (42.5% casting and in the rest T.Buttress plate were used for fixation of fractures. In both groups of primary and double varus the International knee documentation committee (IKDC and modified Larson indices were improved after operation, but there was no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: High tibial open wedge osteotomy can have satisfying results in clinical signs and symptoms of patients with primary medial joint degenerative osteoarthritis. This procedure also may correct the deformity and improves the radiologic parameters of the patients.

  4. Mid-term outcome of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus arthritic knees.

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    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Ran; Kidron, Amos; Thein, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Gonarthrosis in the relatively young and active population causes major daily discomfort and disability. If the arthritic process is mainly limited to the medial compartment, the axis of a varus knee can be realigned laterally with high tibial osteotomy to unload the medial compartment and allow some cartilage regeneration and pain relief. This study describes the outcomes of patients who underwent opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies using Puddu plate (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) fixation. Eighteen patients (22 knees) with genu varum and medial compartment osteoarthritis were followed-up for an average of 6.3±2.3 years after high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plate fixation and iliac crest allograft. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Oxford Knee Score and subjective satisfaction rating. Pre- and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for tibiofemoral angle, Insall-Salvati index, and Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale for osteoarthritis. Mean patient age at surgery was 44±13.7 years, and mean body mass index was 29.1±4.7 kg/m(2). At last follow-up, mean Oxford Knee Score improved from 22.4±13.5 to 37.2±13.7 (P=.002). Average subjective satisfaction rate at last follow-up was 8±3. The measured tibiofemoral angle was corrected to an average genu valgum of 3.3°±4.8° (P=.001). No patient showed severe postoperative osteoarthritis (ie, Kellgren-Lawrence grade 4) at last follow-up. All radiographs showed full incorporation of the bone grafts. At the end of the study, 2 patients underwent total knee replacement. Opening-wedge high tibial valgus osteotomy with Puddu plate fixation can be a reliable procedure for the treatment of medial-compartment osteoarthritis of the knee associated with varus deformity. PMID:22310405

  5. High, open wedge tibial osteotomy: Finite element analysis of five internal fixation modalities

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    Stepanović Željko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Medial open wedge tibial osteotomy is one of the most widely accepted method of treatment for varus knee deformity in younger patient population. Its success depends on the quality of fixation and preservation of the outer cortex of the tibia. The aim of the study was to evaluate stress distribution in five numerically designed plate configurations which can be used in open wedge tibial osteotomy. Methods. The paper describes the 3D numerical model of the tibia with 10° varus deformity correction obtained by an optical scanner ATOS. The simulation anticipated axial compressive loads of 700 N, 1 400 N and 2 100 N. We used a modification of the standard T-plate in all of the five tested models. Modalities were tested with and without a metal block, and with and without a stable angle fixation plates and screws. Software PAK was used in the analysis of stress distribution. Results. With exception for the standard T-plate configuration without the supporting block, the loads up to 1400 N did not result in critical stresses on the outer cortex of the tibia in the remaining four models. There is an objective risk of possible failure of the outer cortex and loss of correction at a load of 2100 N in all configurations. The plate model with the angle stable fixation and the supporting metal block showed the most optimal distribution of stresses on the plate-bone composite compared to other models. Conclusion. The standard T-plate configuration without supporting metal block is not sufficient to stabilize the open wedge osteotomy of the tibia. Numerical models of the angle stable T-plate and the supporting metal block achieved a favorable distribution of stresses on the bone and implant which require further biomechanical testing.

  6. Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy alters knee moments in multiple planes during walking and stair ascent.

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    Leitch, Kristyn M; Birmingham, Trevor B; Dunning, Cynthia E; Giffin, J Robert

    2015-07-01

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure intended to redistribute loads on the knee in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). The surgery may affect moments in multiple planes during ambulation, with potential beneficial or detrimental effects on joint loads. The objective of this study was to investigate three-dimensional external knee moments before and after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy during level walking and during stair ascent. Fourteen patients with varus alignment and osteoarthritis primarily affecting the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint were assessed. Three-dimensional motion analyses during level walking and stair ascent was evaluated using inverse dynamics before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Mean changes at 12 months suggested decreases in the peak knee adduction, flexion and internal rotation moments, with standardized response means ranging from 0.15 to 2.54. These decreases were observed despite increases in speed. Changes in alignment were associated with changes in the adduction and internal rotation moments, but not the flexion moment. Both pre- and postoperatively, the peak knee adduction moment was significantly lower (p=0.001) during stair ascent than during level walking, while the flexion and internal rotation moments were significantly higher (pplanes of motion during ambulation, suggesting substantial alterations of the loads on the knee during ambulation.

  7. A mid term comparison of open wedge high tibial osteotomy vs unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee

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    Takeuchi Ryohei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of surgical treatments for unicompartmental osteoarthritis (OA of the knee is still somewhat controversial. Midterm results from cases treated using unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA or open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO were evaluated retrospectively. Methods Twenty-seven knees of 24 patients with varus deformities underwent OWHTO and 30 knees of 18 patients underwent UKA surgeries for the treatment of medial compartmental osteoarthritis (OA. The KSS score, FTA, range of motion and complications were evaluated before and after surgery. Results The preoperative mean KSS scores were 49 points in the OWHTO group and 62 in the UKA group which improved postoperatively to 89 (excellent; 19 knees, good; 8 knees, and 88 (excellent; 25, good; 4, fair; 1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the OWHTO and UKA scores. Seventeen patients in the OWHTO group could sit comfortably in the formal Japanese style after surgery. The preoperative mean FTA values for the OWHTO and UKA groups were 182 degrees and 184, and at follow-up measured 169 and 170, respectively. In the UKA group, the femoral component and the polyethylene insertion in one patient was exchanged at 5 years post-surgery and revision TKAs were performed in 2 cases. In the OWHTO group, one tibial plateau fracture and one subcutaneous tissue infection were noted. Conclusions Treatment options should be carefully considered for each OA patient in accordance with their activity levels, grade of advanced OA, age, and range of motion of the knee. OWHTO shows an improved indication for active patients with a good range of motion of the knee.

  8. The efficacy of open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus knee%开放胫骨高位楔形截骨术治疗膝关节内翻畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海宁; 冷萍; 王英振; 吕成昱; 王湘达; 王昌耀

    2010-01-01

    sixteen weeks after operation. No complications such as plate broken or injury of nerve or blood vessel had occurred. The mean correct angle was 9. 5°. No degenerative changes had developed in other compartments of the knee. The mechanical axis of the lower extremities was maintained during the follow-up. The overall satisfactory rate was 83.3%.Statistically significant changes exist in the Lysholm score and varus degree. Conclusion The open-wedge high tibial osteotomy is suitable for the symptomatic genu varum in younger patients with good short-term and mid-term results.

  9. The new “dual osteotomy”: combined open wedge and tibial tuberosity anteriorisation osteotomies

    OpenAIRE

    Megied, Wael Samir Abdel; Mahran, Mahmoud A.; Thakeb, Mootaz F.; Abouelela, Amr A. K. H.; Elbatrawy, Yasser

    2009-01-01

    The high frequency with which medial compartment osteoarthritis is associated with patellofemoral osteoarthritis makes the addition of tibial tuberosity anteriorisation to high tibial osteotomy an appealing solution, despite the discouraging previously reported long-term results when tubercle anteriorisation was combined with a Coventry closed wedge technique. We conducted a prospective study of a new osteotomy combination: “the dual osteotomy”. An open wedge high tibial osteotomy was combine...

  10. Comparison of lateral closing and medial opening-wedge technique for high tibial osteotomy in varus knee%内侧撑开和外侧闭合胫骨高位截骨术治疗膝内翻骨关节炎

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    王飞; 陈百成; 高石军; 张建兵; 刘虎; 闫昌葆

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the surgical methods and clinical results of two kinds of high tibial osteotomy in varus knee. Methods A retrospective analysis was preformed on 68 cases with knee varus who underwent high tibial osteotomy, including 37 cases with closing wedge high tibial osteotomy (CWO) and 31 cases with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWO). Tibial slope was measured using post-operative X-ray film and HSS and Lysholm scores were evaluated. Results All patient were followed up for more than 24 months. There were no statistical differences in pre- and postoperative HSS and Lysholm scores between groups, respectively. 1) The pre- and postoperative tibial slope in the CWO were 8.57°±1.63° and 5.03°±1.24°, respectively, and in the OWO group were 8.71°±1.66° and 10.10°±1.30°, respectively, and sta-tistical difference was found within each group. 2) The pre- and postoperative Insall-Salvati index in the CWO were 0.880±0.053 and 0.820±0.049, respectively, with statistical difference; and in the OWO group were 0.892±0.043 and 0.897±0.042, respectively, without statistical difference. Blackbume-Peel index was 0.804±0.040 preoperative and 0.801±0.339 postoperatively in CWO, without statistical difference; 0.815± 0.039 preoperatively and 0.766±0.037 postoperatively in the OWO, with statistical difference. 3) Postopera-tively all patients showed knee valgus. The valgus angle was 8.65°±1.46° in the OWO and 8.06°±2.75° in CWO. Conclusion There was similar clinical results for both osteotomy techniques, with a more accurate angle in the OWO. Tibial slope decreasing and patellar tendon shortening were observed after CWO, however, OWO can cause the increase of tibial slope and the decrease between the patella and tibiofemoral joint line.%目的 比较两种胫骨高位截骨术的手术方法和临床结果.方法 膝内翻骨关节炎患者68例,其中37例采用外侧闭合胫骨高位截骨术(closed wedge high tibial osteotomy,CWO),31例采

  11. Proximal Opening Wedge Osteotomy Provides Satisfactory Midterm Results With a Low Complication Rate.

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    Oravakangas, Rami; Leppilahti, Juhana; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy is used for the treatment of moderate and severe hallux valgus with metatarsus primus varus. However, hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint can compromise the results of the operation, and a paucity of midterm results are available regarding proximal open wedge osteotomy surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the midterm results of proximal open wedge osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients with severe hallux valgus. Thirty-one consecutive adult patients (35 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent proximal open wedge osteotomy. Twenty patients (35.5%) and 23 feet (34.3%) were available for the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 5.8 (range 4.6 to 7.0) years. The radiologic measurements and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, and subjective questionnaires were completed and foot scan analyses performed at the end of the follow-up period. The mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 38° to 23°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle correction decreased from 17° to 10°. The mean improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score increased from 52 to 84. Two feet (5.7%) required repeat surgery because of recurrent hallux valgus. No nonunions were identified. Proximal open wedge osteotomy provided satisfactory midterm results in the treatment of severe hallux valgus, with a low complication rate. The potential instability of the first tarsometatarsal joint does not seem to jeopardize the midterm results of the operation. PMID:26905255

  12. The new "dual osteotomy": combined open wedge and tibial tuberosity anteriorisation osteotomies.

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    Abdel Megied, Wael Samir; Mahran, Mahmoud A; Thakeb, Mootaz F; Abouelela, Amr A K H; Elbatrawy, Yasser

    2010-02-01

    The high frequency with which medial compartment osteoarthritis is associated with patellofemoral osteoarthritis makes the addition of tibial tuberosity anteriorisation to high tibial osteotomy an appealing solution, despite the discouraging previously reported long-term results when tubercle anteriorisation was combined with a Coventry closed wedge technique. We conducted a prospective study of a new osteotomy combination: "the dual osteotomy". An open wedge high tibial osteotomy was combined with 1- to 1.5-cm Maquet-like tibial tuberosity anteriorisation. Thirty-four knees in 30 patients underwent surgery, including ten knees in nine male patients and 24 knees in 21 female patients with a mean age of 45 years (age range 34-58 years). All patients had varus medial compartment osteoarthritis and patellofemoral osteoarthritis with preoperative anatomical tibiofemoral angle exceeding 5 degrees . Twenty-four months after surgery, final evaluation detected improvement in the Knee Society clinical rating system function score from a mean of 61.3 (range 30-80) preoperatively to a mean of 87.3 (range 50-100) postoperatively and in the knee pain score from 27.3 (range 10-30) to 47 (range 30-50) postoperatively. Based on the rating system, at final follow-up, 70% of patients experienced no pain, 13% had mild or occasional pain, 10% had pain on stairs only, and 7% had pain during walking and on stairs. Anatomical tibiofemoral angles from 0 to 10 degrees valgus were achieved in 91% of operated knees, and union was achieved in all cases within six to twelve weeks after surgery. The dual osteotomy was effective in the short term in cases of medial compartment osteoarthritis associated with patellofemoral osteoarthritis. PMID:19998035

  13. Improved medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for the correction of knee varus in elderlys%改良内侧撑开楔形胫骨高位截骨矫正老年膝内翻的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云峰; 李红玲; 张伟; 周嘉顺; 章瑛

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索高龄(>60岁)膝关节内侧骨关节炎并膝内翻畸形患者的手术技术及疗效.方法 2010年3月至2012年3月,采用改良内侧撑开楔形胫骨高位截骨矫正老年膝内翻畸形46例(52膝).术前、后均拍患肢全长站立位X线片,测量髋(髋关节中心)-膝(膝关节中心)-踝(踝关节中心)形成的机械轴角度(HKA角),拍侧位X线片,测量胫骨平台后倾角,应用膝关节外科KOOS问卷评分标准对治疗后疗效评估.结果 术后有32例(34膝)获随访,其余14例(18膝)因手术后不足3个月被排除在本组样本之外.32例随访时间为3~20个月,平均12.6个月.HKA角从术前(167.6°±3.7°)增加至术后平均(184.5°±1.2°)(P 60 years) with medial osteoarthritis and varus deformity. Methods From March 2010 to March 2012, 46 randomized consecutive elderly patients (52 knees) were treated by improved medial open-wedge HTO. X-ray films of total limb length were taken before and after surgery, and the HKA ( hip center-Knee center-Ankle center) angle of mechanical axis was measured. The lateral radiograph was taken to measure posterior slope angle of tibial plateau. The KOOS questionnaire score was used to assess the therapeutic effects. Results 32 cases (34 Knees) were followed up, the other 14 cases (18 knees) which were less than three month after surgery, were excluded. 32 cases were followed up with an average time of 12. 6 months (3 to 20 months). The average HKA angle increased from ( 167.6°± 3.7°) preoperatively to ( 184.5°± 1.2°) postoperatively ( P < 0. 05 ). The posterior slope angle of tibial plateau decreased from ( 12. 8°± 1.3°) preoperatively to (9°± 0. 9° ) postoperative ly ( P < 0.05). On the second day after surgery, the patients began straight leg raising, as well as active flexion and extension knee exercises with a drainage tube. On the third day, the patients began weight-bearing walking with walking device. On the seventh day after surgery, the

  14. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

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    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography. PMID:27082150

  15. PERCUTANEOUS BIPLANAR EXTERNAL FIXATOR METHOD FOR TREATMENT OF CALCONEAL FRACTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesh Kumar; Parthasaradhy M.; Subramanian,; Thiyageswaran; Abinandharajha; Adhiyamaan; Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal fracture, the most common tarsal bone fracture, occurs predominantly in manual labors and subsequently has got considerable socioeconomic implications. Treatment modality which can offer early weight bearing and early return to work is therefore needed for those patient s. We have used a biplanar percutaneous external fixator for treating calcaneal fractures per operative visualization of the fractures. We have treated 20 ca...

  16. Vertebral Osteotomies in Ankylosing Spondylitis-Comparison of Outcomes Following Closing Wedge Osteotomy versus Opening Wedge Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.

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    Ravinsky, Robert A; Ouellet, Jean-Albert; Brodt, Erika D; Dettori, Joseph R

    2013-04-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale To seek out and assess the best quality evidence available comparing opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) and closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis to determine whether their results differ with regard to several different subjective and objective outcome measures. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in subjective and objective outcomes when comparing CWO and OWO in patients with ankylosing spondylitis suffering from clinically significant thoracolumbar kyphosis with respect to quality-of-life assessments, complication risks, and the amount of correction of the spine achieved at follow-up. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of articles published up to July 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies comparing effectiveness and safety outcomes between adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis who received closing wedge versus opening wedge osteotomies. Studies that included pediatric patients, polysegmental osteotomies, or revision procedures were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the GRADE criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From a total of 67 possible citations, 4 retrospective cohorts (class of evidence III) met our inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. No differences in Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 score, SRS-22 score, and patient satisfaction were reported between the closing and opening wedge groups across two studies. Regarding radiological outcomes following closing versus opening osteotomies, mean change in sagittal vertical axis ranged from 8.9 to 10.8 cm and 8.0 to 10.9 cm, respectively, across three studies; mean change in lumbar lordosis ranged from 36 to 47 degrees and 19 to 41 degrees across four studies; and mean change

  17. Robust femur condyle disambiguation on biplanar X-rays.

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    Serrurier, Antoine; Quijano, Sergio; Nizard, Remy; Skalli, Wafa

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the skeleton from biplanar X-rays relies on scarce information digitalised by an operator on both frontal and lateral radiographs. In clinical routine, difficulties occur for non-skilled operators to discriminate the medial from the lateral femur condyle on the lateral view. Our study proposes an algorithm able to detect automatically a possible inversion of the two condyles by the operator at an early stage of the reconstruction process. It relies on the computation of two 3D femur surfaces, one directly from the operator digitalisation and the other from the same digitalisation with medial and lateral condyles automatically swapped. Pairs of virtual biplanar X-rays are computed for both reconstructions and the closest pair to the original X-rays is selected on the basis of similarity measures, pointing the correct 3D surface. The algorithm shows a success rate higher than 85% for both asymptomatic and pathological femurs whatever the initial condyle digitalisation of the operator, bringing automatically non-skilled operators acting in clinical routine to the level of skilled operators. This study validates moreover the proof-of-concept of automatic shape adjustments of a 3D surface on the basis of similarity measures in the process of 3D reconstruction from biplanar X-rays. PMID:22349135

  18. PRE-OPERATIVE PLANNING AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE OF THE OPEN WEDGE SUPRACONDYLAR OSTEOTOMY FOR CORRECTION OF VALGUS KNEE AND FIXATION WITH A FIXED-ANGLE IMPLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The step-by-step preoperative planning for supracondylar opening wedge osteotomy of the femur for precise correction of the load axis of the lower limb using a fixed-angle implant (95° AO blade plate) is presented. The surgical technique and the use of a bone graft from the same site for filling in the defect are also presented.

  19. Avaliação radiográfica da osteotomia proximal de abertura gradual da tíbia Radiographic assessment of the opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy

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    Carlos Francisco Bittencourt Silva

    2010-01-01

    significant differences between the pre- and post-operative indices of tibial slope and patellar height in the patients were found. CONCLUSION: Opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy is a technique that avoids the problems presented by high tibial osteotomy, as it is done without promoting changes in the extensor mechanism, ligament imbalance or deformities in the proximal tibia.

  20. Complicações da osteotomia em cunha de abertura medial do joelho: estudo retrospectivo Complications following medial opening wedge osteotomy of the knee: retrospective study

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    Wilson Alves de Mello Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um levantamento retrospectivo das complicações mais frequentes da osteotomia tibial alta (OTA em cunha de abertura medial. Esse procedimento vem a cada vez ganhando mais espaço no tratamento da artrose do joelho como uma das opções para pacientes jovens e ativos. Apesar dos resultados satisfatórios e seus benefícios, não é procedimento isento de complicações. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, todos os pacientes submetidos à OTA supratuberositária medial de cunha de abertura e fixados com placa do tipo Puddu, realizadas no período de 1 de outubro de 1987 a 30 de outubro de 2008, no Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas e no Instituto Wilson Mello em Campinas. Foram excluídos pacientes com menos de 12 meses de seguimento, com prontuários incompletos, e os que tinham osteotomias bilaterais. RESULTADOS: Dos 67 casos avaliados, 55 eram do sexo masculino e 12 do feminino, com média de idade de 49,5 anos. O tamanho médio da cunha foi de 10,15mm e as complicações mais frequentes foram dor moderada e grave (13,04%, seguida de rigidez (6,52%, quebra de material (4,4%, fratura da cortical lateral intraoperatória (4,4% e infecção (4,4%. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observado aumento de probabilidade de complicações quando há retardo na consolidação da osteotomia (p OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively survey the most frequent complications from medial opening wedge high-tibial osteotomy. This procedure is becoming increasingly important in treating knee arthrosis, as one of the options for young and active patients. Despite satisfactory results and its benefits, it is not a complication -free procedure. METHODS: All cases of medial opening wedge high-tibial osteotomy above the tibial tubercle with fixation using a Puddu plate that were performed at the Celso Pierro Hospital and Maternity Hospital, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (PUC -Campinas

  1. PERCUTANEOUS BIPLANAR EXTERNAL FIXATOR METHOD FOR TREATMENT OF CALCONEAL FRACTURES

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    Jagadeesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcaneal fracture, the most common tarsal bone fracture, occurs predominantly in manual labors and subsequently has got considerable socioeconomic implications. Treatment modality which can offer early weight bearing and early return to work is therefore needed for those patient s. We have used a biplanar percutaneous external fixator for treating calcaneal fractures per operative visualization of the fractures. We have treated 20 calcaneal fractures in 18 patients, 12 intra articular and five extra articular, with our percutaneou s external fixator system with under image intensifier and achieving the fracture reduction. Functional outcome was measured using the American Orthopaedic Foot and ankle society Hind foot score. All fractures united with a mean of 55 days. Partial weight bearing was possible in a mean of 1.8 days and full bearing was possible in a mean of 11.6 days. All the patients were returned to their original work within six weeks. Minor infectious complications occurred in 17.6 percent of cases. The average AOFAS sco re at six months follow up was 83.8. We conclude that our percutaneous external fixator technique for fracture calcaneum is an effective alternative to the currently available – surgical and conservative treatment modalities especially in lower socio econo mic labor population who need to return to their job as early as possible. Level of Evidence – IV Case series

  2. Low-dose biplanar skeletal survey versus digital skeletal survey in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the low-dose biplanar (LDB) skeletal survey (SS) for the assessment of focal bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) as compared with digital SS and to compare the two techniques in terms of image quality, patient comfort and radiation exposure. Fifty-six consecutive patients with newly diagnosed or first relapsed MM underwent LDB and digital SS on the same day. These were assessed by two radiologists for the detection of focal bone lesions. In the case of discordance, whole-body MR imaging was performed. Image quality, patient comfort and radiation dose were also assessed. Fifty-six patients (M:30, F:26, mean age, 62 years) with newly diagnosed (n = 21) or first relapse MM (n = 35) were enrolled. A total of 473 bone lesions in 46 patients (82 %) were detected. Out of that total, digital SS detected significantly more lesions than LDB SS (451 [95.35 %] versus 467 [98.73 %]), especially in osteopenic and obese patients. Overall patient satisfaction was greater with LDB SS (48.6 %) compared with digital SS (2.7 %). The radiation dose was significantly reduced (by a factor of 7.8) with the LDB X-ray device. Low-dose biplanar skeletal surveys cannot replace digital SS in all patients suffering from multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  3. Low-dose biplanar skeletal survey versus digital skeletal survey in multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutry, Nathalie [University Hospital of Jeanne de Flandre and University of Lille 2, Departments of Pediatric and Musculoskeletal Imaging, Lille (France); University Hospital of Jeanne de Flandre and University of Lille 2, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Lille (France); Hopital Jeanne de Flandre, Service de Radiopediatrie, Lille (France); Dutouquet, Bastien; Cotten, Anne [University Hospital of Roger Salengro and University of Lille 2, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Lille (France); Leleu, Xavier [University Hospital of Claude Huriez and University of Lille 2, Clinical Hematology Department, Lille (France); Vieillard, Marie-Helene [University Hospital of Roger Salengro and University of Lille 2, Rheumatology Department, Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [University of Lille 2, Department of Medical Statistics, Lille (France)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the low-dose biplanar (LDB) skeletal survey (SS) for the assessment of focal bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) as compared with digital SS and to compare the two techniques in terms of image quality, patient comfort and radiation exposure. Fifty-six consecutive patients with newly diagnosed or first relapsed MM underwent LDB and digital SS on the same day. These were assessed by two radiologists for the detection of focal bone lesions. In the case of discordance, whole-body MR imaging was performed. Image quality, patient comfort and radiation dose were also assessed. Fifty-six patients (M:30, F:26, mean age, 62 years) with newly diagnosed (n = 21) or first relapse MM (n = 35) were enrolled. A total of 473 bone lesions in 46 patients (82 %) were detected. Out of that total, digital SS detected significantly more lesions than LDB SS (451 [95.35 %] versus 467 [98.73 %]), especially in osteopenic and obese patients. Overall patient satisfaction was greater with LDB SS (48.6 %) compared with digital SS (2.7 %). The radiation dose was significantly reduced (by a factor of 7.8) with the LDB X-ray device. Low-dose biplanar skeletal surveys cannot replace digital SS in all patients suffering from multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  4. Benefits and unexpected artifacts of biplanar digital slot-scanning imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biplanar digital slot-scanning allows for relatively low-dose orthopedic imaging, an advantage in imaging children given the growing concerns regarding radiosensitivity. We have used this system for approximately 1 year for orthopedic imaging of the spine and lower extremities. We have noted advantages of using the digital slot-scanning system when compared with computed radiographic and standard digital radiographic imaging systems, but we also found unexpected but common imaging artifacts that are the direct result of the imaging method and that have not been reported. This pictorial essay serves to familiarize radiologists with the advantages of the digital slot-scanning system as well as imaging artifacts common with this new technology. (orig.)

  5. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF BIPLANAR TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY- A REPORT OF 125 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国干; 孟宪强; 樊朝美; 张辉; 刘醒; 刘汉英; 蔡如升

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five patients with cardiovascular disease were examined by biplanar transesophageal echocardiography(BTEE),including 67 with rheumatic heart disease(7 monitored during operation),22 with aortic diseases,20 with congenital heart diseases,and 16 with other kinds of heart disease.The results showed that BTEE was not influenced by corpulent and pulmonary emphysema and was better than transthoracic echocardiography at imaging the interatrial septum.left atrium and left atrial appendage,thoracic aorta,and mitral artificial valve and at intraoperative monitoring.BTEE was also better than single-plane transesophageal echocardiography,because BTEE could be used to observe the heart and thoracic aorta in transverse and longitudinal planes,thus englarging the transmission"window" as well as allowing the entire lesin to be imaged.

  6. Benefits and unexpected artifacts of biplanar digital slot-scanning imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Steven L. [Nemours/A.I duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States); Dinan, David [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Orlando, FL (United States); Grissom, Leslie E. [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Biplanar digital slot-scanning allows for relatively low-dose orthopedic imaging, an advantage in imaging children given the growing concerns regarding radiosensitivity. We have used this system for approximately 1 year for orthopedic imaging of the spine and lower extremities. We have noted advantages of using the digital slot-scanning system when compared with computed radiographic and standard digital radiographic imaging systems, but we also found unexpected but common imaging artifacts that are the direct result of the imaging method and that have not been reported. This pictorial essay serves to familiarize radiologists with the advantages of the digital slot-scanning system as well as imaging artifacts common with this new technology. (orig.)

  7. Direct assessment of 3D foot bone kinematics using biplanar X-ray fluoroscopy and an automatic model registration method

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Kohta; Hosoda, Koh; Shimizu, Masahiro; Ikemoto, Shuhei; Kume, Shinnosuke; Nagura, Takeo; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantifying detailed 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the foot in contact with the ground during locomotion is crucial for understanding the biomechanical functions of the complex musculoskeletal structure of the foot. Biplanar X-ray fluoroscopic systems and model-based registration techniques have recently been employed to capture and visualise 3D foot bone movements in vivo, but such techniques have generally been performed manually. In the present study, we developed an automati...

  8. A 3D reconstruction method of the body envelope from biplanar X-rays: Evaluation of its accuracy and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nérot, Agathe; Choisne, Julie; Amabile, Célia; Travert, Christophe; Pillet, Hélène; Wang, Xuguang; Skalli, Wafa

    2015-12-16

    The aim of this study was to propose a novel method for reconstructing the external body envelope from the low dose biplanar X-rays of a person. The 3D body envelope was obtained by deforming a template to match the surface profiles in two X-rays images in three successive steps: global morphing to adopt the position of a person and scale the template׳s body segments, followed by a gross deformation and a fine deformation using two sets of pre-defined control points. To evaluate the method, a biplanar X-ray acquisition was obtained from head to foot for 12 volunteers in a standing posture. Up to 172 radio-opaque skin markers were attached to the body surface and used as reference positions. Each envelope was reconstructed three times by three operators. Results showed a bias lower than 7mm and a confidence interval (95%) of reproducibility lower than 6mm for all body parts, comparable to other existing methods matching a template onto stereographic photographs. The proposed method offers the possibility of reconstructing body shape in addition to the skeleton using a low dose biplanar X-rays system. PMID:26592437

  9. A 3D reconstruction method of the body envelope from biplanar X-rays: Evaluation of its accuracy and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nérot, Agathe; Choisne, Julie; Amabile, Célia; Travert, Christophe; Pillet, Hélène; Wang, Xuguang; Skalli, Wafa

    2015-12-16

    The aim of this study was to propose a novel method for reconstructing the external body envelope from the low dose biplanar X-rays of a person. The 3D body envelope was obtained by deforming a template to match the surface profiles in two X-rays images in three successive steps: global morphing to adopt the position of a person and scale the template׳s body segments, followed by a gross deformation and a fine deformation using two sets of pre-defined control points. To evaluate the method, a biplanar X-ray acquisition was obtained from head to foot for 12 volunteers in a standing posture. Up to 172 radio-opaque skin markers were attached to the body surface and used as reference positions. Each envelope was reconstructed three times by three operators. Results showed a bias lower than 7mm and a confidence interval (95%) of reproducibility lower than 6mm for all body parts, comparable to other existing methods matching a template onto stereographic photographs. The proposed method offers the possibility of reconstructing body shape in addition to the skeleton using a low dose biplanar X-rays system.

  10. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  11. A 3D reconstruction method of the body envelope from biplanar X-rays: Evaluation of its accuracy and reliability

    OpenAIRE

    NEROT, Agathe; CHOISNE, Julie; AMABILE, Célia; TRAVERT, Christophe; PILLET, Hélène; WANG Xuguang; Skalli, W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a novel method for reconstructing the external body envelope from the low dose biplanar X-rays of a person. The 3D body envelope was obtained by deforming a template to match the surface profiles in two X-rays images in three successive steps: global morphing to adopt the position of a person and scale the templateós body segments, followed by a gross deformation and a fine deformation using two sets of pre-defined control points. To evaluate the method, a...

  12. The Results of Biplanar Distal Femoral Osteotomy; A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Bagherifard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Distal femur wedge osteotomies for varus or valgus alignment of the lower extremity could be done in either uniplanar or biplanar fashion.Union time and stability of the osteotomy site has been considered important in this anatomic region. In this study, clinical and radiographic findings of biplane distal femur osteotomy were reported. Methods: Clinical, functional, and radiological findings of eight patients (10 kneesunderwent biplane distal femur osteotomy were evaluated. Visual analogue score (VAS and Lysholm-Tegner knee score were used for the assessment of pain and function before and three months after surgery. Results:  In this study, eight patients were included. All patients were female. The mean age was 28±6.3. The mean pre-operativemechanical anglewas 8.7±2.2˚and the post-operativeangle was 1.4±0.53˚ in patients with valgus alignment whileit was 7.0±1.0˚preoperatively and 0.66±1.2˚ postoperatively in patients with varus alignment. The mean lateral distal femoral angle (LDFAwas 85±8.0˚ before surgery and was 88±1.3˚ after surgery. According to Lysholm- Tegner knee score, in the post-operative visit, sixknees were good and four were excellent. The mean union time was 9.2±2.3 weeks.   Conclusions:  Biplane distal femur osteotomy is a reliable technique that creates larger surfaces and more stability at the osteotomy site with further rapid union. 

  13. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwab, Alexander [University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Finances, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 {+-} 231.7 cGy*cm{sup 2} versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 {+-} 103.8 cGy*cm{sup 2}). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of accuracy and precision of 3D reconstruction of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in upright position using biplanar radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Dimitriou, Dimitris; Hosseini, Ali; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Torriani, Martin; Li, Guoan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of 3D reconstruction of UKA component position, contact location and lower limb alignment in standing position using biplanar radiograph. Two human specimens with 4 medial UKAs were implanted with beads for radiostereometric analysis (RSA). The specimens were frozen in standing position and CT-scanned to obtain relative positions between the beads, bones and UKA components. The specimens were then imaged using biplanar radiograph (EOS). The positions of the femur, tibia, UKA components and UKA contact locations were obtained using RSA- and EOS-based techniques. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for inter-observer reliability of the EOS technique. The average (standard deviation) of the differences between two techniques in translations and rotations were less than 0.18 (0.29) mm and 0.39° (0.66°) for UKA components. The root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of contact location along the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral directions were 0.84mm and 0.30mm. The RMSEs of the knee rotations were less than 1.70°. The ICCs for the EOS-based segmental orientations between two raters were larger than 0.98. The results suggest the EOS-based 3D reconstruction technique can precisely determine component position, contact location and lower limb alignment for UKA patients in weight-bearing standing position. PMID:27117422

  15. Low-dose biplanar radiography can be used in children and adolescents to accurately assess femoral and tibial torsion and greatly reduce irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyrignac, Olivier; Baunin, Christiane; Vial, Julie; Sans, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse Purpan, Department of Radiology, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Moreno, Ramiro [ALARA Expertise, Oberhausbergen (France); Accadbled, Franck; Gauzy, Jerome Sales de [Hopital des Enfants, Department of Orthopedics, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Sommet, Agnes [Universite Paul Sabatier, Department of Fundamental Pharmaco-Clinical Pharmacology, Toulouse (France)

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate in children the agreement between femoral and tibial torsion measurements obtained with low-dose biplanar radiography (LDBR) and CT, and to study dose reduction ratio between these two techniques both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty children with lower limb torsion abnormalities were included in a prospective study. Biplanar radiographs and CTs were performed for measurements of lower limb torsion on each patient. Values were compared using Bland-Altman plots. Interreader and intrareader agreements were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients. Comparative dosimetric study was performed using an ionization chamber in a tissue-equivalent phantom, and with thermoluminescent dosimeters in 5 patients. Average differences between CT and LDBR measurements were -0.1 ±1.1 for femoral torsion and -0.7 ±1.4 for tibial torsion. Interreader agreement for LDBR measurements was very good for both femoral torsion (FT) (0.81) and tibial torsion (TT) (0.87). Intrareader agreement was excellent for FT (0.97) and TT (0.89). The ratio between CT scan dose and LDBR dose was 22 in vitro (absorbed dose) and 32 in vivo (skin dose). Lower limb torsion measurements obtained with LDBR are comparable to CT measurements in children and adolescents, with a considerably reduced radiation dose. (orig.)

  16. Three-dimensional biplanar radiography as a new means of accessing femoral version: a comparitive study of EOS three-dimensional radiography versus computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.L. [University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, San Diego, CA (United States); Glaser, Diana [Aurora Spine, Carlsbad, CA (United States); Doan, Josh [Orthopedic Biomechanics Research Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Kumar, Sita [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Edmonds, Eric W. [University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, San Diego, CA (United States); Rady Children' s Hospital San Diego, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-10-17

    To validate femoral version measurements made from biplanar radiography (BR), three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions (EOS imaging, France) were made in differing rotational positions against the gold standard of computed tomography (CT). Two cadaveric femurs were scanned with CT and BR in five different femoral versions creating ten total phantoms. The native version was modified by rotating through a mid-diaphyseal hinge twice into increasing anteversion and twice into increased retroversion. For each biplanar scan, the phantom itself was rotated -10, -5, 0, +5 and +10 . Three-dimensional CT reconstructions were designated the true value for femoral version. Two independent observers measured the femoral version on CT axial slices and BR 3D reconstructions twice. The mean error (upper bound of the 95 % confidence interval), inter- and intraobserver reliability, and the error compared to the true version were determined for both imaging techniques. Interobserver intraclass correlation for CT axial images ranged from 0.981 to 0.991, and the intraobserver intraclass correlation ranged from 0.994 to 0.996. For the BR 3D reconstructions these values ranged from 0.983 to 0.998 and 0.982 to 0.998, respectively. For the CT measurements the upper bound of error from the true value was 5.4-7.5 , whereas for BR 3D reconstructions it was 4.0-10.1 . There was no statistical difference in the mean error from the true values for any of the measurements done with axial CT or BR 3D reconstructions. BR 3D reconstructions accurately and reliably provide clinical data on femoral version compared to CT even with rotation of the patient of up to 10 from neutral. (orig.)

  17. Three-dimensional measurements of the lower extremity in children and adolescents using a low-dose biplanar X-ray device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheno, Ramon [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Lille (France); Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie Osteo-articulaire, Lille Cedex (France); Nectoux, Eric; Herbaux, Bernard [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Hopital Jeanne de Flandre, Department of Pediatric Surgery and Orthopaedics, Lille (France); Baldisserotto, Matteo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Radiology, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Glock, Luiz [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Statistics, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Lille (France); Boutry, Nathalie [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Hopital Roger Salengro and Jeanne de Flandre, Department of Musculoskeletal and Pediatric Radiology, Lille (France)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the lower extremity using a biplanar low-dose X-ray device in children and adolescents. Firstly, 3D measurements of eight dried bones were analysed by a biplanar low-dose X-ray device (LDX) using stereoscopic software and compared with 3D computed tomography (CT). Secondly, 47 lower limbs of children and adolescents were studied using LDX two-dimensional (2D) and 3D measurements. Both parts were evaluated for femoral and tibial lengths and mechanical angles, frontal and lateral knee angulations, and the femoral neck-shaft angle. The 3D specimen comparison between LDX and CT measurements showed no significant differences: femoral length (P = 0.069), tibial length (P = 0.059), femoral mechanical angle (P = 0.475), tibial mechanical angle (P = 0.067), frontal knee angulation (P = 0.198), lateral knee angulation (P = 0.646) and femoral neck-shaft angle (P = 0.068). The comparison between LDX 2D and 3D measurements showed significant differences in tibial length (P = 0.003), femoral mechanical angle (P < 0.001) and femoral neck-shaft angle (P = 0.001); other parameters were unremarkable. The 3D LDX system presented reliable measurements compared with 3D CT. Differences between LDX 2D and 3D measurements were noted in the femoral mechanical angle, femoral neck-shaft angle and tibial length. Moderate to good interobserver agreement for the 3D LDX measurements were found. (orig.)

  18. Three-dimensional measurements of the lower extremity in children and adolescents using a low-dose biplanar X-ray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the lower extremity using a biplanar low-dose X-ray device in children and adolescents. Firstly, 3D measurements of eight dried bones were analysed by a biplanar low-dose X-ray device (LDX) using stereoscopic software and compared with 3D computed tomography (CT). Secondly, 47 lower limbs of children and adolescents were studied using LDX two-dimensional (2D) and 3D measurements. Both parts were evaluated for femoral and tibial lengths and mechanical angles, frontal and lateral knee angulations, and the femoral neck-shaft angle. The 3D specimen comparison between LDX and CT measurements showed no significant differences: femoral length (P = 0.069), tibial length (P = 0.059), femoral mechanical angle (P = 0.475), tibial mechanical angle (P = 0.067), frontal knee angulation (P = 0.198), lateral knee angulation (P = 0.646) and femoral neck-shaft angle (P = 0.068). The comparison between LDX 2D and 3D measurements showed significant differences in tibial length (P = 0.003), femoral mechanical angle (P < 0.001) and femoral neck-shaft angle (P = 0.001); other parameters were unremarkable. The 3D LDX system presented reliable measurements compared with 3D CT. Differences between LDX 2D and 3D measurements were noted in the femoral mechanical angle, femoral neck-shaft angle and tibial length. Moderate to good interobserver agreement for the 3D LDX measurements were found. (orig.)

  19. Planejamento pré-operatório e técnica cirúrgica da osteotomia supracondiliana varizante de adição do fêmur para correção do geno valgo e fixação com implante de ângulo fixo Pre-operative planning and surgical technique of the open wedge supracondylar osteotomy for correction of valgus knee and fixation with a fixed-angle implant

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber Antonio Jansen Paccola

    2010-01-01

    É apresentado o planejamento pré-operatório passo a passo da osteotomia de abertura supracondiliana do fêmur para a correção precisa do eixo de carga do membro inferior usando um implante de ângulo fixo (placa lâmina AO 95º). Também é apresentada a técnica cirúrgica e a utilização de enxerto ósseo do próprio local para o preenchimento da falha.The pre-operative planning is presented in a step by step fashion and the surgical technique of the lateral open wedge supracondylar femoral osteotomy ...

  20. Planejamento pré-operatório e técnica cirúrgica da osteotomia supracondiliana varizante de adição do fêmur para correção do geno valgo e fixação com implante de ângulo fixo Pre-operative planning and surgical technique of the open wedge supracondylar osteotomy for correction of valgus knee and fixation with a fixed-angle implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Jansen Paccola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o planejamento pré-operatório passo a passo da osteotomia de abertura supracondiliana do fêmur para a correção precisa do eixo de carga do membro inferior usando um implante de ângulo fixo (placa lâmina AO 95º. Também é apresentada a técnica cirúrgica e a utilização de enxerto ósseo do próprio local para o preenchimento da falha.The pre-operative planning is presented in a step by step fashion and the surgical technique of the lateral open wedge supracondylar femoral osteotomy for correction of the valgus knee using a fixed angle implant (95º AO angled blade plate. A surgical method for filling in the defect using an autologous bone graft is also presented.

  1. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  2. Measuring physiological and pathological femoral anteversion using a biplanar low-dose X-ray system: validity, reliability, and discriminative ability in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepaut, Matthias [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); CHRU de Brest, Hopital Morvan, Service de chirurgie pediatrique, Brest (France); Brochard, Sylvain [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); CHRU de Brest, Hopital Morvan, Service de Medecine Physique et de Readaptation, Brest (France); Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Leboucher, Julien [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); Lempereur, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); CHRU de Brest, Hopital Morvan, Service de Medecine Physique et de Readaptation, Brest (France); Stindel, Eric [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); CHRU de Brest, La Cavale Blanche, Service d' Orthopedie-Traumatologie, Brest (France); Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Tissot, Valentin [CHRU de Brest, Service de radiologie, Brest (France); Borotikar, Bhushan S. [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); Institut Mines-Telecom, Telecom Bretagne, Brest (France)

    2016-02-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the concurrent validity and reliability of a low-dose biplanar X-ray system (Ld-BPR) for the measurement of femoral anteversion (FA) by comparing Ld-BPR-based three-dimensional measures with CT-scan-based measures and to assess the discriminative ability of this method in children with cerebral palsy. Fifty dry femora were scanned using both a CT scan and the Ld-BPR system. Ten femora were artificially modified to mimic a range of anteversion from -30 to +60 and scanned by both modalities. FA was quantified using the images from both modalities and statistically compared for concurrent validity. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Ld-BPR system was also determined. Further, Ld-BPR data from 16 hemiplegic and 22 diplegic children were analyzed for its discriminative ability. The concurrent validity between the Ld-BPR and CT-scan measures was excellent (R {sup 2} = 0.83-0.84) and no significant differences were found. The intra- and inter-trial reliability were excellent (ICCs = 0.98 and 0.97) with limits of agreement of (-2.28 ; +2.65 ) and (-2.76 ; +3.38 ) respectively. Further, no significant effects of angle or method were found in the sample of modified femora. Ld-BPR measures for FA were significantly different between healthy and impaired femora. The excellent concurrent validity with the CT scan modality, the excellent reliability, and the ability to discriminate pathological conditions evaluated by this study make this radiological method suitable for a validated use across hospitals and research institutes. (orig.)

  3. Measuring physiological and pathological femoral anteversion using a biplanar low-dose X-ray system: validity, reliability, and discriminative ability in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the concurrent validity and reliability of a low-dose biplanar X-ray system (Ld-BPR) for the measurement of femoral anteversion (FA) by comparing Ld-BPR-based three-dimensional measures with CT-scan-based measures and to assess the discriminative ability of this method in children with cerebral palsy. Fifty dry femora were scanned using both a CT scan and the Ld-BPR system. Ten femora were artificially modified to mimic a range of anteversion from -30 to +60 and scanned by both modalities. FA was quantified using the images from both modalities and statistically compared for concurrent validity. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Ld-BPR system was also determined. Further, Ld-BPR data from 16 hemiplegic and 22 diplegic children were analyzed for its discriminative ability. The concurrent validity between the Ld-BPR and CT-scan measures was excellent (R 2 = 0.83-0.84) and no significant differences were found. The intra- and inter-trial reliability were excellent (ICCs = 0.98 and 0.97) with limits of agreement of (-2.28 ; +2.65 ) and (-2.76 ; +3.38 ) respectively. Further, no significant effects of angle or method were found in the sample of modified femora. Ld-BPR measures for FA were significantly different between healthy and impaired femora. The excellent concurrent validity with the CT scan modality, the excellent reliability, and the ability to discriminate pathological conditions evaluated by this study make this radiological method suitable for a validated use across hospitals and research institutes. (orig.)

  4. Correction for Patient Sway in Radiographic Biplanar Imaging for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Spine: In Vitro Study of a New Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legaye, J. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Univ. of Louvain - Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium)); Saunier, P.; Dumas, R. (Univ. of Lyon 1 - INRETS, Villeurbanne (France)); Vallee, C. (Radiology Dept., Hpital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France))

    2009-08-15

    Background: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the spine in the upright position are classically obtained using two-dimensional, non-simultaneous radiographic imaging. However, a subject's sway between exposures induces inaccuracy in the 3D reconstructions. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of patient sway between successive radiographic exposures, and to test if 3D reconstruction accuracy can be improved by a corrective method with simultaneous Moire-X-ray imaging. Material and Methods: Using a calibrated deformable phantom perceptible by both techniques (Moire and X-ray), the 3D positional and rotational vertebral data from 3D reconstructions with and without the corrective procedure were compared to the corresponding data of computed tomography (CT) scans, considered as a reference. All were expressed in the global axis system, as defined by the Scoliosis Research Society. Results: When a sagittal sway of 10 deg occurred between successive biplanar X-rays, the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction without correction was 8.8 mm for the anteroposterior vertebral locations and 6.4 deg for the sagittal orientations. When the corrective method was applied, the accuracy was improved to 1.3 mm and 1.5 deg, respectively. Conclusion: 3D accuracy improved significantly by using the corrective method, whatever the subject's sway. This technique is reliable for clinical appraisal of the spine, if the subject's sway does not exceed 10 deg. For greater sway, improvement persists, but a risk of lack of accuracy exists

  5. Arthroscopic and computer-assisted high tibial osteotomy using standard total knee arthroplasty navigation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen R; Zabtia, Nazar; Weening, Bradley; Zalzal, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is an increasingly performed procedure for treatment of varus gonarthrosis and correction of malalignment during meniscal transplantation or cartilage restoration. Precise preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique are required to achieve an appropriate mechanical axis correction. We describe our technique of arthroscopic and computer-assisted high tibial osteotomy using commonly available total knee arthroplasty navigation software as an intraoperative goniometer. We believe that our technique, by providing intraoperative real-time guidance of the degree of correction that is accurate and reliable, represents a useful tool for the surgeon who uncommonly performs high tibial osteotomy.

  6. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes; Developpement d'un modele biomecanique du rachis base sur les relations 3D internes - externes: radiographie bi-planaire et franges de Moire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-15

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  7. Transperineal seed-implantation guided by biplanar transrectal ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans Henrik; Torp-Pedersen, S; Myschetzky, P

    1990-01-01

    A new method for precise transperineal placement of therapeutic sources in prostatic cancer is described. The method is a modification of the technique described in 1983 by Holm and coworkers. Insertion of needles is monitored by transverse as well as longitudinal transrectal ultrasound.......A new method for precise transperineal placement of therapeutic sources in prostatic cancer is described. The method is a modification of the technique described in 1983 by Holm and coworkers. Insertion of needles is monitored by transverse as well as longitudinal transrectal ultrasound....

  8. Accuracy and initial stability of open- and closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric RSA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Welsing, R.T.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Rijnberg, W.J.; Loon, C.J.M. van; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the difference in angle-correction accuracy and initial stability between open-wedge (OWO) and closed-wedge tibial valgus osteotomy (CWO). Five fresh-frozen pairs of human cadaver lower limbs were used; their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DEXA and a planned 7 degrees valgu

  9. Cardiovascular angiography system Infinix{sub TM} CB; Shinzoyo junkanki shindan system Infinix{sub TM} CB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A cardiovascular angiography system Infinix{sub TM} CB is developed, which is a dedicated system for cardiovascular catheter treatment (intervention), from PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) down, capable of two-way biplanar photography. It is designed to be thoroughly operator-friendly, and some of its features are stated below. It is capable of high-speed biplanar positioning at the maximum speed of 10 degrees/second (25% faster than in the conventional type). A side beam vertical motion mechanism is provided rendering biplanar framing faster and easier. Hyper-handling is embodied with ergonomics introduced into the system. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Cardiovascular angiography system Infinix[sub TM] CB. Shinzoyo junkanki shindan system Infinix[sub TM] CB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-03-01

    A cardiovascular angiography system Infinix[sub TM] CB is developed, which is a dedicated system for cardiovascular catheter treatment (intervention), from PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) down, capable of two-way biplanar photography. It is designed to be thoroughly operator-friendly, and some of its features are stated below. It is capable of high-speed biplanar positioning at the maximum speed of 10 degrees/second (25% faster than in the conventional type). A side beam vertical motion mechanism is provided rendering biplanar framing faster and easier. Hyper-handling is embodied with ergonomics introduced into the system. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Healing period after open high tibial osteotomy and related factors: Can we really say that it is long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Masamichi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Toru; Hirano, Koji; Doi, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a general procedure for the treatment of degenerative gonarthrosis. In recent years, it has been reported that opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) has become widespread with good results. Despite these facts, HTOs tend to be avoided due to the need for long-term postoperative treatment. To investigate the treatment period for total recovery (healing period) after OWHTO and the factors affecting it. There were 47 cases of medial type degenerative gonarthrosis who underwent OWHTO from 2008 through 2011. The definition of the healing period was based on the time-dependent changes of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, focusing especially on pain on walking and pain on ascending/descending stairs. This score was defined as the Ability score. In this study, the healing period ended when the Ability score reached its maximum or when it showed a perfect score. Patients' characteristics were examined to determine their effect on the healing period. The Ability score was 36.7 ± 10.1 (mean ± SD) before surgery and 51.6 ± 5.4 12 months after OWHTO. The healing period was 6.3 ± 3.9 months. Factors correlated with a longer healing period included female sex (correlation coefficient -0.35) and high BMI (correlation coefficient 0.33). Our study suggested that the healing period after OWHTO is approximately 6 months, and patients' BMI and sex appear to be related to this period. This information is expected to be helpful for counseling patients undergoing treatment for gonarthrosis. Level of evidence Therapeutic study, Level IV.

  12. Similar outcome for total knee arthroplasty after previous high tibial osteotomy and for total knee arthroplasty as the first measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W-Dahl, Annette; Robertsson, Otto

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Patients having a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after a previous high tibial osteotomy (HTO) constitute a minor group among those undergoing primary TKA for knee osteoarthritis (OA). There have been few reports on whether such patients differ pre- and postoperatively from those who undergo TKA as the first measure. We evaluated patient characteristics, knee-related pain, function, quality of life, and general health before and 1 year after TKA surgery in these 2 groups of patients. Patients and methods - We included 119 HTOs that were operated on for knee OA in the Skåne region, Sweden, in the period1998-2007 and that had been converted to a TKA during 2009-2013 (the C group). We also included 5,013 primary TKAs performed for knee OA in the same region, during the same period, and in patients of the same age range (42-82 years) (the P group). The patients were evaluated with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the EQ-VAS preoperatively and 1 year after the TKA surgery, when they were also asked about their satisfaction with the surgery. Case-mix variables available were Charnley category, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Results - Most of the HTOs were performed using open-wedge osteotomy with external fixation (81 of 119). Compared to the P group, the patients in the C group were more often men, were younger, and were healthier (according to the ASA classification). With respect to pre- and postoperative knee-related pain, function, quality of life, and general health, the 2 groups had similar mean values without any statistically significant differences. A similar proportion of patients in the 2 groups were satisfied with the surgery 1 year postoperatively (82% vs. 80%). Interpretation - Our findings indicate that HTO is a reasonable alternative for delaying TKA surgery in younger and/or physically active OA patients. PMID:27339330

  13. Ritidoplastia compuesta biplanar con restauración de volúmenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vallarta-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas actuales de rejuvenecimiento facial son producto de años de refinamiento técnico y la máxima expresión de la destreza del cirujano plástico moderno. El rejuvenecimiento del tercio medio facial ha retomado interés recientemente dado que permite reposicionar en bloque los tejidos de la región malar a su posición juvenil original. Como efecto agregado, atenúa el surco nasogeniano por tracción tisular secundaria. Para lograr este efecto se han descrito múltiples abordajes, planos de disección y métodos de fijación tisular. Las más recientes tendencias quirúrgicas han cambiado el objetivo de la ritidoplastia clásica de ser un procedimiento ablativo, al reposicionamiento volumétrico sin tensión. Este cambio de paradigma permite renovar la arquitectura facial propia del paciente, brindando un resultado más natural, más duradero y con menos complicaciones. Nuestro objetivo es presentar una alternativa quirúrgica para la ritidoplastia manipulando independientemente los vectores tisulares, y permitiendo el restablecimiento volumétrico tridimensional de la región malar. Esto brinda un resultado natural, juvenil y duradero sin el efecto de cara contra el viento que otras técnicas de ritidoplastia ofrecen. Nos permite además tratar la región frontal y cervical en el mismo procedimiento quirúrgico, contribuyendo a un rejuvenecimiento facial integral.

  14. Spine Curvature Analysis between Participants with Obesity and Normal Weight Participants: A Biplanar Electromagnetic Device Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyse and compare standing thoracolumbar curves in normal weight participants and participants with obesity, using an electromagnetic device, and to analyse the measurement reliability. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out. 36 individuals were divided into two groups (normal-weight and participants with obesity according to their waist circumference. The reference points (T1–T8–L1–L5 and both posterior superior iliac spines were used to perform a description of thoracolumbar curvature in the sagittal and coronal planes. A transformation from the global coordinate system was performed and thoracolumbar curves were adjusted by fifth-order polynomial equations. The tangents of the first and fifth lumbar vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebra were determined from their derivatives. The reliability of the measurement was assessed according to the internal consistency of the measure and the thoracolumbar curvature angles were compared between groups. Results. Cronbach’s alpha values ranged between 0.824 (95% CI: 0.776–0.847 and 0.918 (95% CI: 0.903–0.949. In the coronal plane, no significant differences were found between groups; however, in sagittal plane, significant differences were observed for thoracic kyphosis. Conclusion. There were significant differences in thoracic kyphosis in the sagittal plane between two groups of young adults grouped according to their waist circumference.

  15. A radiolucent chair for sitting-posture radiographs in non-ambulatory children: use in biplanar digital slot-scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EOS imaging (EOS System; EOS imaging, Paris, France) enables fast 2-D/3-D imaging of children in standing load-bearing position. Non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular scoliosis need evaluation of their spinal balance while in a normal daily position. We designed a customized chair fitting the EOS patient-area dimensions to obtain images in natural sitting postures. The chair is a 360 rotating orthopaedic chair made of fully radiolucent polyethylene and equipped with an adjustable headrest and three-point belts. Out of 41 consecutive patients, 36 (88%, 95% confidence interval 74-96%) had successful imaging. In most patients with severe neuromuscular trunk deformities, the EOS system combined with our chair was useful for assessing preoperative trunk collapse, pelvic obliquity and postoperative corrections in all planes. This specific device changed our daily practice for the assessment of spinal deformities in non-ambulatory patients. (orig.)

  16. A radiolucent chair for sitting-posture radiographs in non-ambulatory children: use in biplanar digital slot-scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloussa, Houssam; Dubory, Arnaud; Seiler, Catherine; Morel, Baptiste; Bachy, Manon; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-11-01

    EOS imaging (EOS System; EOS imaging, Paris, France) enables fast 2-D/3-D imaging of children in standing load-bearing position. Non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular scoliosis need evaluation of their spinal balance while in a normal daily position. We designed a customized chair fitting the EOS patient-area dimensions to obtain images in natural sitting postures. The chair is a 360° rotating orthopaedic chair made of fully radiolucent polyethylene and equipped with an adjustable headrest and three-point belts. Out of 41 consecutive patients, 36 (88%, 95% confidence interval 74-96%) had successful imaging. In most patients with severe neuromuscular trunk deformities, the EOS system combined with our chair was useful for assessing preoperative trunk collapse, pelvic obliquity and postoperative corrections in all planes. This specific device changed our daily practice for the assessment of spinal deformities in non-ambulatory patients. PMID:26111869

  17. Minimal skin dose increase in longitudinal rotating biplanar linac-MR systems: examination of radiation energy and flattening filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanloo, A.; Burke, B.; St. Aubin, J.; Baillie, D.; Wachowicz, K.; Warkentin, B.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic fields of linac-MR systems modify the path of contaminant electrons in photon beams, which alters patient entrance skin dose. Also, the increased SSD of linac-MR systems reduces the maximum achievable dose rate. To accurately quantify the changes in entrance skin dose, the authors use EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations that incorporate 3D magnetic field of the Alberta 0.5 T longitudinal linac-MR system. The Varian 600C linac head geometry assembled on the MRI components is used in the BEAMnrc simulations for 6 MV and 10 MV beam models and skin doses are calculated at an average depth of 70 μm using DOSXYZnrc. 3D modeling shows that magnetic fringe fields decay rapidly and are small at the linac head. SSDs between 100 and 120 cm result in skin-dose increases of between ~6%–19% and ~1%–9% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. For 6 MV, skin dose increases from ~10.5% to ~1.5% for field-size increases of 5  ×  5 cm2 to 20  ×  20 cm2. For 10 MV, skin dose increases by ~6% for a 5  ×  5 cm2 field, and decreases by ~1.5% for a 20  ×  20 cm2 field. Furthermore, the proposed reshaped flattening filter increases the dose rate from the current 355 MU min‑1 to 529 MU min‑1 (6 MV) or 604 MU min‑1 (10 MV), while the skin-dose increases by only an additional ~2.6% (all percent increases in skin dose are relative to D max). This study suggests that there is minimal increase in the entrance skin dose and minimal/no decrease in the dose rate of the Alberta longitudinal linac-MR system. The even lower skin dose increase at 10 MV offers further advantages in future designs of linac-MR prototypes.

  18. A radiolucent chair for sitting-posture radiographs in non-ambulatory children: use in biplanar digital slot-scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouloussa, Houssam; Dubory, Arnaud; Bachy, Manon [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Paris Cedex 12 (France); Seiler, Catherine [Groupe Lagarrigue, Clichy (France); Morel, Baptiste [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Vialle, Raphael [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Paris Cedex 12 (France); Armand Trousseau Hospital, The MAMUTH Hospital-University Department for Innovative Therapies in Musculoskeletal Diseases, Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    EOS imaging (EOS System; EOS imaging, Paris, France) enables fast 2-D/3-D imaging of children in standing load-bearing position. Non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular scoliosis need evaluation of their spinal balance while in a normal daily position. We designed a customized chair fitting the EOS patient-area dimensions to obtain images in natural sitting postures. The chair is a 360 rotating orthopaedic chair made of fully radiolucent polyethylene and equipped with an adjustable headrest and three-point belts. Out of 41 consecutive patients, 36 (88%, 95% confidence interval 74-96%) had successful imaging. In most patients with severe neuromuscular trunk deformities, the EOS system combined with our chair was useful for assessing preoperative trunk collapse, pelvic obliquity and postoperative corrections in all planes. This specific device changed our daily practice for the assessment of spinal deformities in non-ambulatory patients. (orig.)

  19. High Tech High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    In an era of high-stakes testing and prescriptive teaching styles, a San Diego charter high school embraces project learning, multilevel classrooms, and video portfolios of student work. The school lacks dining, music, and athletic facilities, but features hefty teacher salaries, student freedom, and real-world problem solving. (MLH)

  20. Three-dimensional reconstructions for asymptomatic and cerebral palsy children's lower limbs using a biplanar X-ray system: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assi, Ayman, E-mail: ayman.assi@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Laboratory of Biomechanics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph, Beirut (Lebanon); Gait and Motion Analysis Lab, SESOBEL, Beirut (Lebanon); Chaibi, Yasmina, E-mail: yasmina.chaibi@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Presedo, Ana, E-mail: a.presedo@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris (France); Dubousset, Jean, E-mail: jean.dubousset@wanadoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France); Ghanem, Ismat, E-mail: ghanem.i@dm.net.lb [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph, Beirut (Lebanon); Gait and Motion Analysis Lab, SESOBEL, Beirut (Lebanon); Hôpital Hôtel Dieu de France, Beirut (Lebanon); Skalli, Wafa, E-mail: wafa.skalli@ensam.eu [Laboratoire de Biomécanique, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris (France)

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of 3D subject-specific skeletal reconstructions of lower limb in children using stereoradiography, and to assess uncertainty of clinical and anatomical parameters for children with cerebral palsy and for healthy children. The stereoradiography technique, using the EOS{sup ®} system (Eos-imaging{sup ®}), is based on the acquisition of two simultaneous digital anteroposterior and lateral X-rays, from head to feet in standing position and at low radiation dose. This technique allows subject-specific skeletal 3D reconstructions. Five children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 5 typically developing children (TD) were included in the study. Two operators performed the lower limb reconstructions twice. Tridimensional reconstructions were feasible for children over the age of 5 years. The study of reproducibility of anatomical parameters defining skeletal alignment showed uncertainties under 3° for the neck shaft angle, the femoral mechanical angle, and for the femoral and tibial torsions. The maximum degree of uncertainty was obtained for the femoral tibial rotation (4° for healthy children and 3.5° for children with CP)

  1. Determining of the femoral neck torsion angle using CT-scaning, monoplanar, biplanar direct radiographic methods and comparison of the results

    OpenAIRE

    Uzel, M; Erginer, R.; Goksan, M. Alp; Senocak, M.; Alver, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several different methods such as fluoroscopi, CT scaning, monoplaner or biplaner direct radiography can be used determination of femoral neck torsion angle. In our study femoral neck torsion angle has been determined in one adult skelatal module and 22 hips of 10 adults. CT-scaning, monoplaner (Dunn) and biplaner (Magiligan, Ryder-Crane) direct radiographic methods have been used in the study and the results have been compared by using statistical analysis method. It has been observet that...

  2. Three-dimensional reconstructions for asymptomatic and cerebral palsy children's lower limbs using a biplanar X-ray system: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of 3D subject-specific skeletal reconstructions of lower limb in children using stereoradiography, and to assess uncertainty of clinical and anatomical parameters for children with cerebral palsy and for healthy children. The stereoradiography technique, using the EOS® system (Eos-imaging®), is based on the acquisition of two simultaneous digital anteroposterior and lateral X-rays, from head to feet in standing position and at low radiation dose. This technique allows subject-specific skeletal 3D reconstructions. Five children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 5 typically developing children (TD) were included in the study. Two operators performed the lower limb reconstructions twice. Tridimensional reconstructions were feasible for children over the age of 5 years. The study of reproducibility of anatomical parameters defining skeletal alignment showed uncertainties under 3° for the neck shaft angle, the femoral mechanical angle, and for the femoral and tibial torsions. The maximum degree of uncertainty was obtained for the femoral tibial rotation (4° for healthy children and 3.5° for children with CP)

  3. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the proximal femur and the pelvis in children and adolescents using an upright biplanar slot-scanning X-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuper, Kinga; Schlegl, Adam Tibor; Vermes, Csaba; Somoskeoey, Szabolcs; Than, Peter [University of Pecs, Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Clinical Centre, Pecs (Hungary); Leidecker, Eleonora [University of Pecs, Institute of Physiotherapy and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pecs (Hungary)

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvis and lower limbs play a key role in the development of orthopaedic disorders. This study aimed to establish normal reference standards for the measurement of gender-specific pelvic and femoral parameters in children and adolescents with the EOS 2-D/3-D system. EOS 2-D images of 508 individuals (ages 4-16 years) were obtained as part of routine diagnostics. Patients with lower limb abnormalities were excluded. Pelvic and femoral surface 3-D models were generated and clinical parameters calculated by sterEOS 3-D reconstruction software. Data were evaluated using Spearman correlation, paired-samples and independent-samples t-test and linear regression analysis. Changes in anatomical parameters were found to correlate with age and gender in (1) femoral mechanical axis length: 27.3-43.7 cm (males), 25.5-41.2 cm (females), (2) femoral head diameter: 29.4-46.1 mm (males), 27.7-41.3 mm (females), (3) femoral offset: 26.8-42.4 mm (males), 25.5-37.9 mm (females) and (4) femoral neck length: 35.1-52.9 mm (males), 32.8-48.1 mm (females). There was no gender-specific correlation for the neck shaft angle with values from 130.4 to 129.3 , for femoral torsion (22.5 -19.4 ), for sacral slope (39.0 -44.4 ) and for lateral pelvic tilt (5.1 mm-6.2 mm). Sagittal pelvic tilt exhibited no significant correlation with age showing average values of 6.5 . The EOS 2-D/3-D system proved to be a valuable method in the evaluation of female and male developmental changes in pelvic and lower limb anatomical parameters, in normal individuals younger than 16 years of age. (orig.)

  4. 双平面骨科机器人结构设计和分析%Structure design and application of orthopaedic bi-planar robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 张维军; 魏军; 刘文勇

    2006-01-01

    针对骨科手术的特点,提出了一种基于并联机构的骨科机器人结构(2-PPTC).该结构将机器人的主动运动副设置在两个相互平行的平面内,构成了手术空间的边界,实现了机器人的运动空间和手术空间无交集,提高了骨科机器人的安全性.并采用螺旋理论,对骨科机器人的位置和运动特性进行了分析,最后将双平面骨科机器人应用于小腿骨折髓内钉临床手术实例,验证了这种结构模型在骨科临床手术中应用的可行性,为并联机器人在骨科中的应用提供了一种新的设计和分析方法.

  5. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia Group guidelines for BL—Group B protocol and currently is in remission.

  6. Burkitt Lymphoma of Thyroid Gland in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, K.; Gangadharan, A.; Arora, R S; Shukla, R; B. Pizer

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt Lymphoma is a highly aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that in nonendemic areas has abdominal primary sites. We report a very rare case of Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid swelling in a 14-year-old white Caucasian British male with no preexisting thyroid or medical problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by an open wedge biopsy following a fine needle aspiration. The patient was treated according to the Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia...

  7. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  8. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard;

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis using SOECs is competitive to H-2 production from fossil fuels at electricity prices below 0.02-0.03 is an element of per kWh. Though promising SOEC results on H-2 production have been reported a substantial R&D is still required to obtain inexpensive, high performing and long-term stable...

  9. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  10. High Line

    OpenAIRE

    Jagielska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This project examines The High Line in New York City and what is due to its success. The park, which runs through the meatpacking district in Manhattan, is on an old rail line that was abandoned from the 1980s. Two private locals, Joshua and Hammond, founded the non-profit organization “Friends of The High Line” and established the rail line into a public park. The aesthetics of the park is the wildness of the nature and the modern architecture in the middle of Manhattan mixed with a sustaina...

  11. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  12. Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemeyer, Bob

    2004-08-01

    The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements. PMID:15279331

  13. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  14. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here on progress made for the period from December 1, 1992 (the date of submission of our latest progress report) to November 30, 1993 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER40717. The new results from the SMC experiment have generated a buzz of theoretical activity. Our involvement with the D0 experiment and the upgrade has increased substantially during the past two years so that we now have six people heavily committed and making what can only be described as a large and disproportionate impact on D0 physics output. Some of the new developments made here at Rice in Neural Network and Probability Density Estimation techniques for data analysis promise to have applications both in D0 and beyond. We report a load of new results from our high-pt jet photoproduction experiment. In addition we have been working on KTeV, albeit without having adequate funding for this work. Progress on the theoretical front has been nothing short of amazing, as is reported herein. In a grand lecture tour during this sabbatical year, Paul Stevenson has already reported his breakthroughs at ten institutions, including CERN, Oxford, Cambridge, Rutherford Lab, Imperial College, and Durham University. The group at Rice University has had an exceptionally productive year and we are justifiably proud of the progress which is reported here

  15. Comparison of image quality using a X-ray stereotactical whole-body system and a direct flat-panel X-ray device in examinations of the pelvis and knee; Bildqualitativer Vergleich eines roentgenstereotaktischen Ganzkoerperaufnahmesystems mit der direkten Flachdetektor-Radiografie anhand von Untersuchungen des Beckens und des Knies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, K.B.; Weber, C.; Schwabe, H. [Klinikum der Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; and others

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The novel biplanar X-ray unit 'EOS', EOS Imaging, allows to acquire simultaneously 2 perpendicular planes of full-length spine and limbs and to measure spatially correct angles based on the acquired image data sets. This is to be seen alongside with a low spatial resolution, high investment costs and high operating expenses. The use of the biplanar X-ray unit in morphology based skeletal radiography might improve the cost-benefit-relation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare image quality of the EOS-unit and the flat panel (FP)-technology as reference in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: All 114 patients of the Orthopedic Hospital Dept., who had a biplanar full-length lower limb radiograph and a FP-examination of the pelvis and/or the knee with maximum time interval of 3 months without changes in the clinical and radiological findings were included in the study. All X-ray examinations had been carried out due to clinical indications. Secondary captures comparable to the FP-images were extracted from the electronic EOS-image data sets. 4 radiologists independently from each other compared the visualization of normal anatomical structures of the pseudonymous EOS- and FP-images in a randomized order. Results: In the overview of all readers and all skeletal regions image quality of the FP-images was considered being superior in a mean of 83 {+-} 13 % standard deviation of the pair comparisons (minimum 48 %, maximum 100 %). Image quality of the EOS-images was assessed as being superior in 2 {+-} 3 % of the cases (0 %, 10 %). Image quality of 0.8 {+-} 3 % of the FP-images (0 %, 17 %) and 30 {+-} 34 % (0 %, 100 %) of the EOS-images was estimated as diagnostically inadequate. 30 {+-} 33 % of the pair comparisons (0 %, 100 %) showed a diagnostically inadequate image quality of the EOS-images and a diagnostically good image quality of the FP-images. Conclusion: Image quality of biplanar full-length lower limb X-ray examinations is not

  16. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  17. Diamond for High Power / High Temperature Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, E.; Kubovic, M.; Hernandez-Guillen, F.; Denisenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with extremely attractive properties but also many technological difficulties. Doping is restricted to deep impurities and substrate size is very limited. Nevertheless in proof of concept experiments, the potential for high power, high temperature and high frequency applications can already well be estimated. In addition, first passive MEMS elements for advanced circuit applications have also been demonstrated, however still on n...

  18. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  19. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  1. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  2. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  3. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  4. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  5. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  6. High temperature high vacuum creep testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep is the term used to describe time-dependent plastic flow of metals under conditions of constant load or stress at constant high temperature. Creep has an important considerations for materials operating under stresses at high temperatures for long time such as cladding materials, pressure vessels, steam turbines, boilers,...etc. These two creep machines measures the creep of materials and alloys at high temperature under high vacuum at constant stress. By the two chart recorders attached to the system one could register time and temperature versus strain during the test . This report consists of three chapters, chapter I is the introduction, chapter II is the technical description of the creep machines while chapter III discuss some experimental data on the creep behaviour. Of helium implanted stainless steel. 13 fig., 3 tab

  7. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  8. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  9. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  10. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  11. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... the Guesswork out of Planning Meals! Find the healthy eating plan that works for you and your diabetes. ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  15. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  18. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  19. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  20. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  1. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  2. High field, high repetition rate kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Ishi, Y; Muto, M; Shirakabe, Y; Takagi, A

    2001-01-01

    New kicker magnet systems and their related technologies are being developed and tested at KEK. The kickers are to be used both for the injection and for the fast extraction of two rings, the 50 GeV proton synchrotron in the 'Joint Project' of JAERI-KEK and the PRISM/FFAG ring for the muon beam. In order to obtain a sufficient kick on the high-intensity beam in the 50 GeV proton ring, the kicker systems must have both large apertures and high fields. In addition to this, the PRISM/FFAG ring demands muon beams with a high repetition rate of injection and extraction. The requested repetition rate is 1 kHz or higher. In order to fulfill those demands, new technologies have been introduced and are now being tested. Among them are high-power IGBT modules, a subordinated-gating system, 1 kHz repetition pulsed power supply, and kickers with magnetic-alloy cores used as return yokes.

  3. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J

    2014-01-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  4. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  5. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-03-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  6. High-harmonic gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, D. B.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1984-08-01

    There is currently much interest in the development of moderate to high power (1 kW - 1 MW) millimeter wave sources. Considered applications are mainly related to radar and communication systems. There are, however, also applications in plasma diagnostics, heating, and the nondestructive testing of dielectrics. The dominant source of high-power, high-frequency radiation has become the gyrotron. Jory et al. (1983) have reported operation of a 60 GHz, CW gyrotron, producing output powers in excess of 200 kW. High power, compact submillimeter-wave sources have become possible by making use of the concept of a high-harmonic gyrotron, in which the magnetic field can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Attention is given to synchronism, negative-mass instability, energy requirements, oscillators, efficiency, high power, dielectric loading, the peniotron, and amplifiers.

  7. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  8. High reliability pastoralism

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, E.; Huntsinger, L.; Labnow, K.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record In contrast to the view of pastoralism as being driven by risk aversion, new disequilibrium-based models of ecological dynamics on rangelands enable us to see pastoralism as what organization theorists term as high reliability institution. Such institutions seek and attain reliable peak performance by managing highly complex technologies to better manage risk. Nine features of high-reliability organizations are described and linked to published observations of pastoral...

  9. High Altitude and Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yalcin; Ejder Kardesoglu; Zafer Isilak

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altit...

  10. High temperature furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  11. High Resolution Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Grossard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Driven by increasing societal, economic, and technological pressures, high-resolution actuators must achieve ever increasing accuracy requirements and functional integration into the system.[...

  12. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  13. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  14. High availability using virtualization

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Federico

    2009-01-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and...

  15. High School Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falmouth Public Schools, MA.

    This book is a compilation of a series of papers designed to aid high school teachers in organizing a course in oceanography for high school students. It consists of twelve papers, with references, covering each of the following: (1) Introduction to Oceanography, (2) Geology of the Ocean, (3) The Continental Shelves, (4) Physical Properties of Sea…

  16. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  17. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  18. Proxmox high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Simon MC

    2014-01-01

    If you want to know the secrets of virtualization and how to implement high availability on your services, this is the book for you. For those of you who are already using Proxmox, this book offers you the chance to build a high availability cluster with a distributed filesystem to further protect your system from failure.

  19. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  20. High assurance services computing

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Covers service-oriented technologies in different domains including high assurance systemsAssists software engineers from industry and government laboratories who develop mission-critical software, and simultaneously provides academia with a practitioner's outlook on the problems of high-assurance software development

  1. High temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the proceedings of the 3rd National Meeting on High Temperature Superconductivity Topics includes: Crystal growth of superconductors; thermodynamic stability of superconducting materials; spectroscopy of High Tc Superconductors; synchrotron radiation investigation of superconductors; density state determination; measurements of current density; preparation and characterization of superconductors

  2. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  3. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  4. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  5. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.

  6. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  7. High temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New superconducting oxides and physical basis of the high-temperature superconductivity developed from 1979 till 1986 are reviewed. The analysis is based upon the concept of exchange amplification of electron-phonon interaction put forward by the author in 1964. Using the high-temperature superconductivity theory an approach to increasing the critical temperature of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) is proposed along with the means for synthesis of HTSC with higher critical fields. The feasibility of HTSC implementation in the modern physical experiment technology is also considered, e.g. for detecting the magnetic monopoles. 35 refs.; 2 figs

  8. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  9. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  10. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  11. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... prediabetes, and no one is excused. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  13. Microwave Radiometer - high frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two...

  14. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... prediabetes, and no one is excused. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- The Italian ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  19. High-Altitude Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control. People who have coronary artery disease, mild emphysema or high blood pressure aren't at greater ... as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or severe emphysema, and for people who have severe heart disease. ...

  20. High pressure furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  1. High pressure oxygen furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  2. High-Tech Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eşsiz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological development in building and construction area, bring with the new construction systems and the new products. The aim of this study is to define the High Tech concept, and set the common and basic characteristics of High Tech applications. During 1970’s High Tech was born and developed in Britain. Especially British Architects Richard Rogers, Michael Hopkins, Norman Foster, Nicholas Grimshaw and Ian Ritchie are the leaders of this style. Their architecture show the machine aesthetic and use of industrial revoluation materials such as glass and steel. The reasons for wide usage of this technology in building constructions are; the ease of renewing the structural and installation systems by the changing technology and giving monumentality to the prestige buildings. High Tech building which we have many examples of give their occupants a lot of opportunities and also they can adapt itself to the time.

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  4. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  5. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders American Indian/ ... High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't ...

  7. High Plains Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base, the extent, and the 1991 potentiometric surface (i.e. altitude of the water table) of the High...

  8. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  9. High Speed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Dumitrascu; Roxana Arabela Dumitrascu

    2013-01-01

    The use of knowledge in business opens vast possibilities for the spectacular intensification of the rhythms of the processes of economic value creation. High speeds are a fundamental feature of the knowledge economy. The sources of high speeds in business are certain economic, technological and commercial processes with the nature of some positive feedbacks. What generates it is the organization of knowledge in the form of networks. The organizations competitiveness is marked by the ability ...

  10. Fulminant high altitude blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkovskiy, Evgeny; Szawarski, Piotr; Ryzhkov, Pavel; Goslar, Tomaz; Mrak, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes. PMID:27601532

  11. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  12. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  13. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  14. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  15. High-temperature electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Seng, Gary T.

    1990-02-01

    To meet the needs of the aerospace propulsion and space power communities, the high temperature electronics program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. This program supports a major element of the Center's mission - to perform basic and developmental research aimed at improving aerospace propulsion systems. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices.

  16. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  17. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  18. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low power microwave cold test and high power, high gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  19. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  20. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  1. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  2. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  4. High Metallicity LGRB Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J F; Levesque, E M; Kewley, L J; Tanvir, N R; Levan, A J; Patel, S K; Misra, K; Huang, K -H; Reichart, D E; Nysewander, M; Schady, P

    2015-01-01

    We present our imaging and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of two dark long bursts with anomalously high metallicities, LGRB 051022 and LGRB 020819B, which in conjunction with another LGRB event with an optical afterglow comprise the three LGRBs with high metallicity host galaxies in the Graham & Fruchter (2013) sample. In Graham & Fruchter (2013), we showed that LGRBs exhibit a strong and apparently intrinsic preference for low metallicity environments (12+log(O/H) < 8.4 in the KK04 scale) in spite of these three cases with abundances of about solar and above. These exceptions however are consistent with the general star-forming galaxy population of comparable brightness & redshift. This is surprising: even among a preselected sample of high metallicity LGRBs, were the metal aversion to remain in effect for these objects, we would expect their metallicity to still be lower than the typical metallicity for the galaxies at that luminosity and redshift. Therefore we deduce that it...

  5. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  6. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  7. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  8. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ4 model on a four-dimensional F4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C60; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S1 x S2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  9. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  10. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  11. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occu...... efficient to operate and valuable for building communities. Herein discussed are two successful examples of low energy prefabricated housing projects built in Copenhagen Denmark, which embraced both the constraints and possibilities offered by prefabrication........ Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  12. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2016-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  13. High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardo, M P

    2012-01-01

    I review recent results on QCD at high temperature on a lattice. Steady progress with staggered fermions and Wilson type fermions allow a quantitative description of hot QCD whose accuracy in many cases parallels that of zero temperature studies. Simulations with chiral quarks are coming of age, and togheter with theoretical developments trigger interesting developments in the analysis of the critical region. Issues related with the universality class of the chiral transition and the fate of the axial symmetry are discussed in the light of new numerical and analytical results. Transport coefficients and analysis of bottomonium spectra compare well with results of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Model field theories, lattice simulations and high temperature systematic expansions help building a coherent picture of the high temperature phase of QCD. The (strongly coupled) Quark Gluon Plasma is heavily investigated, and asserts its role as an inspiring theoretical laboratory.

  14. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  15. High temperature electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1991-03-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have acknowledged a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high-temperature operation. Aeropropulsion applications for high-temperature electronic devices include engine ground test instrumentation such as multiplexers, analog-to-digital converters, and telemetry systems capable of withstanding hot section engine temperatures in excess of 600 C. Uncooled operation of control and condition monitoring systems in advanced supersonic aircraft would subject the electronics to temperatures in excess of 300 C. Similarly, engine-mounted integrated electronic sensors could reach temperatures which exceed 500 C. In addition to aeronautics, there are many other areas that could benefit from the existence of high-temperature electronic devices. Space applications include power electronic devices for space platforms and satellites. Since power electronics require radiators to shed waste heat, electronic devices that operate at higher temperatures would allow a reduction in radiator size. Terrestrial applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, high power electronics, and nuclear reactor instrumentation and control. To meet the needs of the applications mentioned previously, the high-temperature electronics (HTE) program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high-temperature semiconductor material. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, growth modeling, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices. Interest in SiC has grown dramatically in recent years due to solid advances in the technology. Much research remains to be performed, but SiC appears ready to emerge as a useful semiconductor material.

  16. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that more than 8% of patients examined for vitamin B12 deficiency unexpectedly have increased plasma levels of the vitamin, but so far there are no guidelines for the clinical interpretation of such findings. In this review, we summarise known associations between high plasma...... cobalamin binding proteins, transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Based on current knowledge, we suggest a strategy for the clinical interpretation of unexpected high plasma cobalamin. Since a number of the associated diseases are critical and life-threatening, the strategy promotes the concept of 'think...

  17. High Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikka

    OpenAIRE

    Tupiini, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia High Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikan ominaisuuksia ja eroavaisuuksia Standard Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikkaan. Työ suoritettiin pääosin tutkien teoreettisia lähteitä. Työn aihe on saatu Eptek ry:ltä. Tutkimustieto kerättiin pääosin verkkolähteistä ja käytännön kaistanleveysmittaukset suoritettiin Seinäjoen keskussairaalan tietoliikenneverkon läpi käyttäen neljää eri videoneuvottelulaitteistoa. High Definition -formaatit tuottavat huomat...

  18. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  19. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However, similar approach for

  20. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  1. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  2. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  3. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  4. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  5. High Performance FORTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1994-01-01

    High performance FORTRAN is a set of extensions for FORTRAN 90 designed to allow specification of data parallel algorithms. The programmer annotates the program with distribution directives to specify the desired layout of data. The underlying programming model provides a global name space and a single thread of control. Explicitly parallel constructs allow the expression of fairly controlled forms of parallelism in particular data parallelism. Thus the code is specified in a high level portable manner with no explicit tasking or communication statements. The goal is to allow architecture specific compilers to generate efficient code for a wide variety of architectures including SIMD, MIMD shared and distributed memory machines.

  6. JUNOS High Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Sonderegger, James; Milne, Kieran; Palislamovic, Senad

    2009-01-01

    Whether your network is a complex carrier or just a few machines supporting a small enterprise, JUNOS High Availability will help you build reliable and resilient networks that include Juniper Networks devices. With this book's valuable advice on software upgrades, scalability, remote network monitoring and management, high-availability protocols such as VRRP, and more, you'll have your network uptime at the five, six, or even seven nines -- or 99.99999% of the time. Rather than focus on "greenfield" designs, the authors explain how to intelligently modify multi-vendor networks. You'll learn

  7. Dual-plane high tibial osteotomy to treat posterolateral corner injuries combined with varus deformity of knee joint%双平面胫骨高位截骨治疗伴下肢力线不良的膝关节后外复合体损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 冯华; 洪雷; 王雪松; 张晋; 刘心; 宋关阳

    2016-01-01

    necessary. Conclusion The dual⁃plane medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy can improve the alignment of lower extremity and the stability of knee joint, and 67%patients do not need a staged PLC and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.%目的:探讨双平面胫骨高位截骨在伴下肢力线不良的膝关节后外复合体损伤修复中的作用。方法2008年10月至2014年3月采用双平面胫骨高位截骨治疗的伴下肢力线不良的膝关节后外复合体损伤并随访2年以上的患者12例,男10例,女2例;年龄20~44岁,平均29.8岁;单膝11例,双膝1例。所有患者均有后十字韧带损伤,伴有膝关节过伸5膝,不伴膝关节过伸8膝。双平面胫骨高位截骨,在冠状面调整下肢力线通过胫骨平台62%的位置,在矢状面矫正膝关节过伸至膝关节完全伸直。术前和术后2年摄下肢负重位全长X线片,测量下肢机械轴通过胫骨平台的相对位置、股胫角和胫骨平台后倾角;摄膝关节应力位X线片,评估膝关节后向稳定性(胫骨后移距离)和内翻稳定性(外侧间隙张开程度);通过Opti_knee步态分析测量负重期膝关节内翻角,评估截骨对内翻步态矫正的效果。结果下肢机械轴通过胫骨平台的相对位置由术前19.6%±19.1%改善至42.6%±17.9%,股胫角由术前172.8°±4.2°改善至178.1°±4.2°,胫骨平台后倾角由术前10.2°±5.3°改善至18.4°±6.3°,手术前后差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。9例患者行膝关节应力位X线检查,胫骨后移距离由术前(11.4±5.3)mm改善至(8.1±6.9)mm,外侧间隙张开程度由术前(16.3±6.5)mm改善至(14.2±4.9)mm,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。7例患者行步态分析,负重期膝关节内翻角由术前3.0°±2.6°改善至-2.7°±2.5°,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。8例患者主观认为不再需要二期韧带重建。结论双平面胫

  8. Microfabrication of diamond-based slow-wave circuits for mm-wave and THz vacuum electronic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, M. R.; Malta, D. M.; Gilchrist, K. H.; Kory, C. L.; Mearini, G. T.; Dayton, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    Planar and helical slow-wave circuits for THz radiation sources have been made using novel microfabrication and assembly methods. A biplanar slow-wave circuit for a 650 GHz backward wave oscillator (BWO) was fabricated through the growth of diamond into high aspect ratio silicon molds and the selective metallization of the tops and sidewalls of 90 µm tall diamond features using lithographically created shadow masks. Helical slow-wave circuits for a 650 GHz BWO and a 95 GHz traveling wave tube were created through the patterning of trenches in thin film diamond, electroplating of gold half-helices, and high accuracy bonding of helix halves. The development of new techniques for the microfabrication of vacuum electronic components will help to facilitate compact and high-power sources for terahertz range radiation.

  9. Microfabrication of diamond-based slow-wave circuits for mm-wave and THz vacuum electronic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar and helical slow-wave circuits for THz radiation sources have been made using novel microfabrication and assembly methods. A biplanar slow-wave circuit for a 650 GHz backward wave oscillator (BWO) was fabricated through the growth of diamond into high aspect ratio silicon molds and the selective metallization of the tops and sidewalls of 90 µm tall diamond features using lithographically created shadow masks. Helical slow-wave circuits for a 650 GHz BWO and a 95 GHz traveling wave tube were created through the patterning of trenches in thin film diamond, electroplating of gold half-helices, and high accuracy bonding of helix halves. The development of new techniques for the microfabrication of vacuum electronic components will help to facilitate compact and high-power sources for terahertz range radiation

  10. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  11. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  13. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... diabetes. Learn More: Stories of Courage, Love and Resilience - 2016-08-blog.html Learn More Stories of ...

  15. High purity limestone quest

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Limestone probably has the largest number of commercial applications of all the industrial minerals. These include construction (aggregate, rail ballast and dimension stone), mineral fillers (in paper, paint, plastic, rubber and pharmaceuticals), adhesives, abrasives, fertilisers, food additives, environmental applications (acidity neutralisation, flue gas desulphurisation, soil conditioning and stabilisation), and production of cement, lime and calcium chemicals. ‘High-purity’ limestone i...

  16. High School Press Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  17. High-resolution headlamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  18. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  19. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  20. High availability using virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Calzolari, Federico

    2009-01-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtu...

  1. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known to...

  3. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  4. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber - self-care ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help you ... Grains are another important source of dietary fiber. Eat more: ... Whole-grain breads Brown rice Popcorn High-fiber cereals, such ...

  5. Nuclei in high forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of 1991 Joliot-Curie Summer School is to review the most advances in the understanding of the nuclei physics after the considerable progress in gamma spectroscopy. It covers the following topics: Highly and super-deformed nuclei, nuclear structures, mean-field approach and beyond, fission isomers, nuclear excitations with long lifetime and metal clusters

  6. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  7. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  8. High distance knots

    OpenAIRE

    Minsky, Yair; Moriah, Yoav; Schleimer, Saul

    2006-01-01

    We construct knots in S^3 with Heegaard splittings of arbitrarily high distance, in any genus. As an application, for any positive integers t and b we find a tunnel number t knot in the three-sphere which has no (t,b)-decomposition.

  9. Highly Expressive Hakka Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    SOUTHERN Jiangxi Province was the birthplace of the Hakka ethnic group and has since been the native home and main transfer hub for the spread of the nationality. The highly expressive art of the Hakkas, including folk songs in Xingguo, colored lantern performances in Shicheng, ancient

  10. High Quality Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Balslev, Lise; Molin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Gode og stærke relationer er afgørende for en organisations livskraft. Motivation, engagement, effektivitet, kreativitet mv. er nemlig ofte direkte forbundet med organisationens evne til at skabe stærke relationer mellem ledere, medarbejdere, kunder og omverden. Jane Dutton, Professor of Business Administration and Psychology ved Michigan University, introducerer begrebet High Quality Connections (HQC) og siger.

  11. High-voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaxiola, E

    2006-01-01

    High-voltage engineering covers the application, the useful use and proper working of high voltages and high fields. Here we give some introductory examples, i.e., ‘septa’ and ‘kicker’ at the Large Hadron Collider (14 TeV), the Super Proton Synchrotron (450 GeV) and the Proton Synchrotron (26 GeV) accelerators as found at the European Orginization for Nuclear Research (CERN) today. We briefly cover the theoretical foundation (Maxwell equations) and aspects of numerical field simulation methods. Concepts relating to electrical fields, insulation geometry and medium and breakdown are introduced. We discuss ways of generating high voltages with examples of AC sources (50/60 Hz), DC sources, and pulse sources. Insulation and breakdown in gases, liquids, solids and vacuum are presented, including Paschen’s law (breakdown field and streamer breakdown). Applications of the above are discussed, in particular the general application of a transformer. We briefly discuss measurement techniques of partial disch...

  12. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  13. High-Stakes Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold II

    2000-01-01

    Critiquing Nina and Sol Horowitz's article advocating high-stakes tests, the author deplores deleterious effects of too-rigorous standards on poor students and recent immigrants. Without large-scale initiatives to affect their lives out of school, urban youngsters' prospects are dim. A National Research Council report offers testing guidelines.…

  14. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  15. Highly oxidized superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  16. High-Velocity Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Oswalt, Terry D.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The high-velocity clouds (HVCs) are gaseous objects that do not partake in differential galactic rotation, but instead have anomalous velocities. They trace energetic processes on the interface between the interstellar material in the Galactic disk and intergalactic space. Three different processes

  17. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety risk

  18. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  19. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  20. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  1. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems. PMID:12284289

  2. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  3. High density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, J R

    2013-01-01

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this review the latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS) of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of the matter are surveyed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available observational data on neutron stars, including gravitational masses, radii and cooling patterns is presented. The effect of changing rotational frequency on the composition of ne...

  4. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  5. High-tech entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, Michel; Harris, Simon; Mønsted, Mette

    planning models, and also means that the management skills used in this area must be more responsive to issues of risk, uncertainty and evaluation than in conventional business opportunities. Whilst entrepreneurial courses do reflect the importance of high-tech businesses, they often lack the resources......High-tech businesses form a crucial part of entrepreneurial activity - in some ways representing very typical examples of entrepreneurship, yet in some ways representing quite different challenges. The uncertainty in innovation and advanced technology makes it difficult to use conventional economic...... needed to teach this in a way that goes beyond standard 'how to start up a business' courses whilst not focusing solely on theoretical models. This book specifically focuses on the mix of theory and practice needed to accurately inform students. Key topics covered include: uncertainty and innovation...

  6. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  8. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed

  9. High Voltage Electrostatic Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Baddi, Raju

    2012-01-01

    A pendulum powered by high voltage electricity is described. The pendulum consists of two conducting plates(thin foil) separated by copper rods and are insulated from each other. High voltage is applied to these plates through the connecting copper rods. Another stationary aluminum plate(thin foil) is placed in front of the pendulum such that it serves to attract the pendulum plates and makes electrical contact with them enabling charge transfer between the stationary plate and the pendulum plates. The pendulum is powered by the energy stored in the capacitance between the stationary aluminum plate and the pendulum plate. Attempt has been made to obtain the time period of oscillations as a function of applied voltage and other parameters. The derived formula for the time period has been verified experimentally. This apparatus can be used to demonstrate electrical phenomena in general and in particular electrical energy stored in conductors of small dimensions.

  10. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  11. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  12. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  13. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  14. High-growth SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    BRUN, M.; Chai, F.

    2012-01-01

    Independent, high-growth SMEs are a significant driver of France’s economic growth: they create a large number of jobs, make a significant contribution to innovation and are particularly profitable when they manage to emerge. Their rapid development requires a suitable financing method: once they have reached maturity, these companies raise their equity levels in order to restore their balance sheet, opening up their capital to private investors, both households and businesses.

  15. High Performance Work Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boselie, Paul; Wiele, Ton

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this topic reveals encouraging results on organizational level. Also in relation to Total Quality Management (TQM) there is research evidence that 'best practices' and/or 'high performance work systems'...

  16. High resolution differential thermometer

    OpenAIRE

    Gotra Z. Yu.; Holyaka R. L.; Pavlov S. V.; Kulenko S. S.; Manus O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Main schematic solutions of differential thermometers with measurement resolution about 0.001°C are considered. Differential temperature primary transducer realized on a transistor differential circuit in microampere mode. Analytic calculation and schematic mathematic simulation of primary transducer are fulfilled. Signal transducer is realized on a high precision Zero-Drift Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail operation amplifier AD8552 and 24-Bit S-D microconverter ADuC834.

  17. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  18. High speed door assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  19. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  20. High Power Switching Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  1. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  2. High resolution differential thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotra Z. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Main schematic solutions of differential thermometers with measurement resolution about 0.001°C are considered. Differential temperature primary transducer realized on a transistor differential circuit in microampere mode. Analytic calculation and schematic mathematic simulation of primary transducer are fulfilled. Signal transducer is realized on a high precision Zero-Drift Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail operation amplifier AD8552 and 24-Bit S-D microconverter ADuC834.

  3. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  4. High Performance RAIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHughes; CharlesMilligan; 等

    2001-01-01

    The ability to move 10s of TeraBytes in reasonable amounts of time are critical to many of the High Energy Physics applications.This paper examines the issues of high performance,high reliability tape storage systems,and presents the results of a 2-year ASCI Path Forward program to be able to reliably move 1GB/s to an archive that can last 20 years.This paper will cover the requirements.approach,hardware,application software,interface descriptions,performance,measured reliability and predicted reliability.This paper will also touch on future directions for this research.The current research allows systems to sustain 80MB/s of uncompressable data per Fibre Channel interface which is striped out to 8 or more drives.This looks to the application as a single tape drive from both mout and data transfer perspectives .Striping 12 RAIT systems together will provide nearly 1GB/s to tape.The reliability is provided by a method of adding parity tapes to the data stripes.For example,adding 2 parity tapes to an 8-stripe group will allow any 2 of the 10 tapes to be lost or damaged without loss of information.The reliability of RAIT with 8 stripes and 2 parities exceeds that of mirrored tapes while RAIT uses 10 tapes instead of the 16 tapes that a mirror would require.The results of this paper is to be abloe to understand the applicability of RAIT and to be able to understand when it may be useful in High Energy Physics applications.

  5. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. High reliability organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety risks in a specific way, supported by an associated organizational culture. A key concept hereby is resilience. The concept of HRO’s can be used to improve safety and reliability of other industries. T...

  7. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  8. High redshift blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2013-01-01

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing to us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ~GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ~MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ~4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve i...

  9. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  10. High pressure ceramic joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  11. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  12. Very high energy colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required.

  13. Highly Charged Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a study is made for the factors affecting the production and extraction of highly charged ion beams. Discussion is made for the production of highly charged ions from: the conventional vacuum are ion sources (Pinning PIG and Duoplasmatron DP) and the recent trends type which are (Electron Beam Ion Sources EBIS, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources ECRIS and Laser Ion source LIS). The highly charged ions with charge state +7 , O+8 ,Ne+10 , Ar+18 have been extracted from the ECRIS while fully stripped Xe+54 has been extracted from EBIS. Improving the capabilities of the conventional RF ion source to produce multiply charged ions is achieved through the use of electron injection into the plasma or with the use of RF driven ion source. The later is based on coupling the RF power to the discharge through an internal antenna in vacuum are ion source. The argon ion species extracted from these upgraded RF ion sources could reach Ar+5

  14. High speed preprocessing system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sankar Kishore

    2000-10-01

    In systems employing tracking, the area of interest is recognized using a high resolution camera and is handed overto the low resolution receiver. The images seen by the low resolution receiver and by the operator through the high resolution camera are different in spatial resolution. In order to establish the correlation between these two images, the high-resolution camera image needsto be preprocessed and made similar to the low-resolution receiver image. This paper discusses the implementation of a suitable preprocessing technique, emphasis being given to develop a system both in hardware and software to reduce processing time. By applying different software/hardware techniques, the execution time has been brought down from a few seconds to a few milliseconds for a typical set of conditions. The hardware is designed around i486 processors and software is developed in PL/M. The system is tested to match the images obtained by two different sensors of the same scene. The hardware and software have been evaluated with different sets of images.

  15. Determination of high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of an X-ray image is influenced by the radiation parameters (kV value, filtration) because of their impact on contrast and contrast resolution. Deviations from the nominal high voltage of an X-ray tube may lead to unnecessary exposure of the patient and complicate the comparability of X-ray images, which is why there is interest in an easy to handle, non-invasive method of determining the high voltage of an X-ray tube. For the purposes of constancy, several non-invasive high-voltage test tools have been developed, some of which work on the principle of modified film cassettes with two different intensifying screens or different optical extenuations, while others use a ''two filter method'' with photodiodes (electronic kV meters). The accuracy, reproducibility and practicality of two test cassettes and five electronic kV meters have been investigated and their usefulness with respect to national regulations and physicians' demands is discussed. (author)

  16. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb-1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  17. High power coaxial ubitron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkcum, Adam J.

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state material properties. In this dissertation, the efficient production of high power microwaves (HPM) is investigated for a ubitron employing a coaxial circuit and wiggler. Designs for the particular applications of an advanced high gradient linear accelerator driver and a directed energy source are presented. The coaxial ubitron is inherently suited for the production of HPM. It utilizes an annular electron beam to drive the low loss, RF breakdown resistant TE01 mode of a large coaxial circuit. The device's large cross-sectional area greatly reduces RF wall heat loading and the current density loading at the cathode required to produce the moderate energy (500 keV) but high current (1-10 kA) annular electron beam. Focusing and wiggling of the beam is achieved using coaxial annular periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stacks without a solenoidal guide magnetic field. This wiggler configuration is compact, efficient and can propagate the multi-kiloampere electron beams required for many HPM applications. The coaxial PPM ubitron in a traveling wave amplifier, cavity oscillator and klystron configuration is investigated using linear theory and simulation codes. A condition for the dc electron beam stability in the coaxial wiggler is derived and verified using the 2-1/2 dimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. New linear theories for the cavity start-oscillation current and gain in a klystron are derived. A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the ubitron-TWT and a new nonlinear theory for the ubitron oscillator are presented. These form the basis for simulation codes which, along

  18. High-frequency ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  19. High Test Peroxide High Sealing Conical Seal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Test Peroxide (HTP) Highly Compatible High Sealing Conical Seals are necessary for ground test operations and space based applications. Current conical seals...

  20. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  1. Knees Lifted High

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Knees Lifted High gives children fun ideas for active outdoor play.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  2. High tibial osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    F.Taser, Omer; Aydinok, Hilmi C.; Asik, Mehmet; Sar, Cuneyt; Sahinkaya, Sabahattin

    2004-01-01

    We have revieved 16 knees of 13 patients who had been treated with high tibial osteotomy for gonarthrosis in Department of Orthopaedics and traumatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between 1970 and 1987, and who were available for final follow-up we report the short-term and the long-term results. When the group with a follow-up of 9.6 years was compared to the one with 16.2 months follow-up, we observed that the initial satisfactory results coult not be maintained in %17.5 of the cases. G...

  3. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    as their exposure to antibiotics. Data on outpatient prescribing of antimicrobials (ATC J01) in 2010 were obtained from a prescription database covering Aragón (northeastern Spain). The antimicrobial consumption at the individual level was analysed both according to the volume of DDD and the number of packages...... with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high...

  4. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  5. High voltage distributed amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, D.; Bahl, I.; Wirsing, K.

    1991-12-01

    A high-voltage distributed amplifier implemented in GaAs MMIC technology has demonstrated good circuit performance over at least two octave bandwidth. This technique allows for very broadband amplifier operation with good efficiency in satellite, active-aperture radar, and battery-powered systems. Also, by increasing the number of FETs, the amplifier can be designed to match different voltage rails. The circuit does require a small amount of additional chip size over conventional distributed amplifiers but does not require power dividers or additional matching networks. This circuit configuration should find great use in broadband power amplifier design.

  6. High-frequency ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M R

    1986-08-01

    Over the last six years high-frequency ventilation has been extensively evaluated both in the clinical and laboratory settings. It is now no longer the great mystery it once was, and it is now no longer believed (as many had hoped), that it will solve all the problems associated with mechanical pulmonary ventilation. Although the technique is safe and appears to cause no harm even in the long term, it has not yet been shown to offer any major advantages over conventional mechanical ventilation. PMID:3530042

  7. High risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that roughly 20% of pregnancies fall into the high risk category, which in turn are responsible for over 80% of perinatal adverse outcome. Modern obstetrics has been very successful in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. It has focused mainly on fetal and neonatal aspects, and on identifying the subgroup of pregnant women that need greater surveillance and care because of clearly identifiable risk factors. The article describes the preconceptional advice, its components and recommendations for its implementation, as well as its role in maternal and perinatal risk assessment. These interventions attempt to reduce the rates of maternal and perinatal mortality.

  8. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  9. High-Tech Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Serguey Braguinsky; Steven Klepper; Atsushi Ohyama

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most start-ups are in low-tech industries, we apply a novel strategy to a data set of scientists and engineers to focus predominantly on high-tech entrepreneurs. We develop a simple model in which the rewards from entrepreneurship are determined by the interaction of ability, the quality of the entrepreneurial idea, and experience in employment. As is consistent with the model, we find that the average return to entrepreneurship is positive, higher paid workers are more likely to beco...

  10. High efficiency photoionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  11. High power microwave sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power microwaves have known a great expansion with intense relativistic electron beams. CEA-CESTA evolved several HPM sources on electron beam generator CESAR, as the planar VIRCATOR, the REDITRON and the coaxial VIRCATOR. We obtained microwave frequencies located between 2 and 8 GHz with power of some hundreds until 1 gigawatt. Several measurements have been improved to qualify these sources: frequency, power density, energy, wave polarization, modes visualization. A hollow beam generator, relativistic klystron electric source, has also been built to improve a recurrent system and obtain gigawatt microwave power. (author)

  12. High energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more novel and important design considerations and features of high energy hadron colliders (pp or p anti p) are discussed. The paper does not attempt to be sufficient for making a complete design, but contains enough references to other papers necessary for doing so. Formulas are generally given without derivation, and notations are not consistent from section to section. For most formulas the derivation is transparent although the mathematics may be lengthy. Whenever obscure, an explanation of the procedure for derivation will be given in physical terms. Detailed mathematical derivations can be found in the references. 10 references

  13. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  14. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  15. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  16. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  17. 'Tuning' for high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of some 'tuning' methods where the goal is to optimise energy resolution of particle spectra in two-body reactions. With a system consisting of an accelerator, beam analyser, beam transport system and magnetic spectrograph, its potential for high resolution, its limitations and the possibilities of optimising the resolution are investigated. The physics of matching to the spectrograph is considered, adjustments and diagnostics with the spectrograph at 00 are discussed and some on-line tuning methods are examined. (U.K.)

  18. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  19. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  20. High sensitivity pulsar search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning, implementation, and results from a highly sensitive, automated search for new pulsars are discussed. This research effort was begun with a study of the relevant signal detection theory, and the conclusions reached are presented. The general procedures developed were specifically tailored for use on a high speed minicomputer, and produced a search relatively free from observational selection effects. The actual computer coding of these procedures is also described, with emphasis on how the required speed and efficiency of these routines was obtained. The final system applied over half a million different matched digital filters to the data obtained from each successive telescope beam area. Use of this search system at the 1000 foot telescope of the Arecibo Observatory resulted in the detection of 50 pulsars, 40 of which were not previously known. Parameters are presented for these new pulsars. The relatively limited range in dispersion measure exhibited by this pulsar sample is used, along with other evidence, to infer a reduced number density of pulsars at distances beyond approximately 10 kpc from the galactic center. By far the most interesting individual pulsar discovered in the course of this search was PSR 1913+16. Large periodic variations in the observed pulsation period of this pulsar are interpreted in terms of doppler shifts associated with its orbital motion about some companion object. The data analysis methods employed to arrive at the current observational description of this system are discussed, along with a review of the theoretical conclusions that are based on this description

  1. High power ultrafast lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, S.; Durfee, C.G. III; Murnane, M.M.; Kapteyn, H.C. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In this article, we review progress in the development of high peak-power ultrafast lasers, and discuss in detail the design issues which determine the performance of these systems. Presently, lasers capable of generating terawatt peak powers with unprecedented short pulse duration can now be built on a single optical table in a small-scale laboratory, while large-scale lasers can generate peak power of over a petawatt. This progress is made possible by the use of the chirped-pulse amplification technique, combined with the use of broad-bandwidth laser materials such as Ti:sapphire, and the development of techniques for generating and propagating very short (10{endash}30 fs) duration light pulses. We also briefly summarize some of the new scientific advances made possible by this technology, such as the generation of coherent femtosecond x-ray pulses, and the generation of MeV-energy electron beams and high-energy ions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  3. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La2CuO4, which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  4. High speed optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeff

    2005-02-01

    This overview will discuss core network technology and cost trade-offs inherent in choosing between "analog" architectures with high optical transparency, and ones heavily dependent on frequent "digital" signal regeneration. The exact balance will be related to the specific technology choices in each area outlined above, as well as the network needs such as node geographic spread, physical connectivity patterns, and demand loading. Over the course of a decade, optical networks have evolved from simple single-channel SONET regenerator-based links to multi-span multi-channel optically amplified ultra-long haul systems, fueled by high demand for bandwidth at reduced cost. In general, the cost of a well-designed high capacity system is dominated by the number of optical to electrical (OE) and electrical to optical (EO) conversions required. As the reach and channel capacity of the transport systems continued to increase, it became necessary to improve the granularity of the demand connections by introducing (optical add/drop multiplexers) OADMs. Thus, if a node requires only small demand connectivity, most of the optical channels are expressed through without regeneration (OEO). The network costs are correspondingly reduced, partially balanced by the increased cost of the OADM nodes. Lately, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This is expected to produce a substantial elimination of OEO costs, increase in network capacity, and a notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, such optical "analog" network requires a large amount of complicated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. New and more complex modulation formats that provide resiliency to both optical noise and nonlinear propagation effects are important for extended

  5. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  6. High Density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of high partonic density QCD is presented considering, in the double logarithm approximation, the parton recombination mechanism built in the AGL formalism, developed including unitarity corrections for the nucleon as well for nucleus. It is shown that these corrections are under theoretical control. The resulting non linear evolution equation is solved in the asymptotic regime, and a comprehensive phenomenology concerning Deep Inelastic Scattering like $F_2$, $F_L$, $F_2^c$. $\\partial F_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, $\\partial F^A_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, etc, is presented. The connection of our formalism with the DGLAP and BFKL dynamics, and with other perturbative (K) and non-perturbative (MV-JKLW) approaches is analised in detail. The phenomena of saturation due to shadowing corrections and the relevance of this effect in ion physics and heavy quark production is emphasized. The implications to e-RHIC, HERA-A, and LHC physics and some open questions are mentioned.

  7. High temperature hydraulic seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  8. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  9. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  10. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  11. High-Throughput Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaorui; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-06-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based high-throughput proteomics is the core technique for large-scale protein characterization. Due to the extreme complexity of proteomes, sophisticated separation techniques and advanced MS instrumentation have been developed to extend coverage and enhance dynamic range and sensitivity. In this review, we discuss the separation and prefractionation techniques applied for large-scale analysis in both bottom-up (i.e., peptide-level) and top-down (i.e., protein-level) proteomics. Different approaches for quantifying peptides or intact proteins, including label-free and stable-isotope-labeling strategies, are also discussed. In addition, we present a brief overview of different types of mass analyzers and fragmentation techniques as well as selected emerging techniques.

  12. High density QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of high partonic density QCD is present considering, in the double logarithm approximation, the parton recombination mechanism built in the AGL formalism, developed including unitarity corrections for the nucleon as well for nucleus. It is shown that these corrections are under theoretical control. The resulting non linear evolution in the asymptotic regime and a comprehensive phenomenology concerning Deep Inelastic Scattering F2, FL, F2c.δF2/δIn Q2, δF2A/δIn Q2, etc, is presented. The connection of our formalism with the DGLAP and BFKL dynamics, and with other perturbative (K) and non perturbative (MV-JKLW) approaches is analysed in detail. The phenomena of saturation due to shadowing corrections and the relevance of this effect in ion physics and heavy quark production is emphasized. The implications to e-RHIC, HERA-A, and LHC physics and some open questions are mentioned. (author)

  13. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... electrolyte, commonly yttria-stabilised-zirconia (YSZ), with porous fuel and oxygen side electrodes. The electrodes must be both electron and oxide ion conducting, and maximising the active surface area is essential for efficient operation. For the fuel electrode a cermet of nickel and YSZ is often used......, whereas a lanthanum strontium manganite - YSZ mix is utilised for the oxygen electrode. Long term durability and performance are key for commercialisation of SOEC technology. To date, experimental tests of 1000. h on electrolysis stacks operated at low current density have shown little or no degradation...

  14. Streamflows at record highs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streamflow was reported well above average in more than half the country during May, with flows at or near record levels for the month in 22 states, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior.USGS hydrologists said that above average flow was reported at 98 of the 173 USGS key index gauging stations used in their monthly check on surface- and ground-water conditions. High flows were most prevalent in the Mississippi River basin states and in the east, with the exception of Maine, South Carolina, and Georgia. Below-average streamflow occurred in the Pacific northwest and in small scattered areas in Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Minnesota.

  15. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  16. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  17. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  18. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  19. Femoral anteversion measured by ultrasonography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic and real-time ultrasound measurements of femoral anteversion were compared in an anatomic study of 20 dried adult femurs. The real anteversion (AV) angle was determined by biplanar radiography. In four ultrasound measurements, the linear transducer was kept either horizontal or tilted. The measuring lines were either the anterior tangent of the femoral head-greater trochanter or the anterior tangent of the femoral neck. With the tilted transducer, the correlation between the head-trochanter AV angle and the real AV angle was high (r=0.9452), and slightly less when the anterior neck AV angle was used (r=0.9142). The clinical relevance is that the tilted transducer technique with the head-trochanter tangent is recommended for AV screening in patients with clinical signs of increased femoral anteversion. In adults 8.50 has to be subtracted in order to obtain an approximation of the real AV angle. (orig.)

  20. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  1. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. High temperature gas reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a reflector block structure of a high temperature gas reactor in which graphite blocks are not failed even a containing cylinder loaded to a fuel exchanger collides against to secured reflectors upon loading and withdrawing fuel constitutional elements. Namely, a protection plate made of a metal material such as stainless steel is covered on the secured reflector blocks disposed to the upper most step among secured graphite reflector blocks constituting the reactor core. In addition, positioning guide grooves are formed on the protection plate for guiding the containing cylinder loaded to the fuel exchanger to the column of the reactor core constitutional elements. With such a constitution, even if the containing cylinder of fuel exchanger is hoisted down and collided against the inner circumferential edge of the secured reflector blocks due to deviation of the position and the direction upon exchange of fuels, the reflector blocks are not failed since the above-mentioned portion is covered with the metal protection plate. In addition, the positioning guide grooves lead the fuel exchanger to a predetermined column correctly. (I.S.)

  3. High energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research is to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. At this time, the following activities are underway: e+e- interactions and Z0 physics at CERN; studies to upgrade the L3 detector at LHC; very high statistics charm physics at Fermilab; search for the H particle at BNL; search for the fifth force; rare kaon decay experiments at BNL; study of B-meson physics at hadron colliders; e+e- pair creation by light at SLAC; R ampersand D related to SSC experiments and the GEM detector; and theoretical research in elementary particle physics and cosmology. The main additions to the activities described in detail in the original grant proposal are (1) an experiment at SLAC (E-144) to study strong-field QED effects in e-laser and γ-laser collisions, and (2) a search for the H particle at BNL (E-188). The R ampersand D efforts for the GEM detector have also considerably expanded. In this paper we give a brief status report for each activity currently under way

  4. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  5. High level waste properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitrification and leaching analyses of four waste glasses were made to compare non-radioactive compositions to compositions made using fully radioactive waste calcine. Microstructural analyses of the phase behavior of glasses were performed by means of optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. The author's summary of the major findings are: Melt insoluables and crystallization products were found to the same extent in both radioactive and non-radioactive glasses of similar composition. High radiation field appeared to have no effect on the crystallization behavior. The results of long-term IAEA static leach tests indicated no significant difference between the average leach rates of the fully radioactive and non-radioactive glass formulations. Glass composition was more important in determining leach rates than was the extent of devitrification. In both short time tests at 750C or longer leach tests at 250C elemental analyses suggested that congruent dissolution did not occur

  6. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z[degrees] resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s] for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  7. The high intensity frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoni, D. [INFN-Ferrara (Italy); Bianco, S. [INFN-LNF (Italy); Bossi, F. [INFN-LNF (Italy); Catanesi, M.G. [INFN-Bari (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN (Switzerland); Cervelli, F. [INFN-Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: franco.cervelli@pi.infn.it; Dell' Orso, M. [Universita di Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Dosselli, U. [INFN-Padova (Italy); Ferroni, F. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFN-Romal (Italy); Grassi, M. [INFN-Pisa (Italy); Guglielmi, A. [INFN-Padova (Italy); Iacopini, E. [Universita di Firenze and INFN-Firenze (Italy); Incagli, M. [INFN-Pisa (Italy); Isidori, G. [INFN-LNF (Italy); Malvezzi, S. [INFN-Milano (Italy); Mezzetto, M. [INFN-Padova (Italy); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Mussa, R. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Palladino, V. [Universita di Napoli and INFN-Napoli (Italy); Ripani, M. [INFN-Genova (Italy); Scandale, W. [CERN (Switzerland); Sozzi, M. [SNS-Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Terranova, F. [INFN-LNF (Italy); Tessarotto, F. [INFN-Trieste (Italy); Zoccoli, A. [INFN-Bologna (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    In these last years, there is an unprecedented world-wide consensus on the next steps to be taken in the construction of major 'energy frontier' accelerator facilities. The main threads for the future of world particle physics seem clear: the first priority is the completion and commissioning of the large hadron collider (LHC), the next priority is the construction of the TeV-energy LC, with a significant period of overlap with LHC running. If the 'energy frontier' for the future activities in particle physics seems to be well defined, it is becoming more and more relevant and urgent to underline the importance of other facilities for particle physics. This Report focuses the importance of a diversified experimental program in flavour physics during the LHC era. In particular this Report presents the great opportunities, offered by flavour physics, on a number of fronts within the quark flavour sector, K and charm physics, as well as within neutral and charged-lepton sector, neutrino physics and physics of lepton flavour violation. Finally it is briefly illustrated how future high intensity facilities may also offer an opportunity to perform frontier experiment in nuclear physics.

  8. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, A. A.; Rull, M.; Martin-Gonzalez, M.; Moure, A.; Jacquot, A.; Niarchos, D.

    2014-07-01

    The use of microwave energy for materials processing has a major potential and real advantages over conventional heating such as (1) time and energy savings, (2) rapid heating rates (volumetric heating vs. conduction), (3) considerably reduced processing time and temperature, (4) fine microstructures and hence improved mechanical properties and better product performance, and (5) finally lower environmental impact. In this study, we investigated the use of microwave-assisted synthesis to synthesize a series of Co1- x Fe x Sb3 using this novel approach, which gave high quality materials with little or no impurities in a fraction of the time needed for conventional synthesis. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine the structure and the lattice parameters of the samples, while scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to study the morphology of the compounds. The samples were sintered by spark plasma sintering, and the highest ZT of 0.33 was obtained for x = 0.2 at 700 K.

  9. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  10. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  11. High-intensityfocusedultrasoundtreatmentfor patientswithunresectablepancreaticcancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Zhou Li; Shai-Hong Zhu; Wei He; Li-Yong Zhu; Sheng-Ping Liu; Yan Liu; Guo-Hui Wang; Fei Ye

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive method of solid tissue ablation therapy. However, only a few studies have reported the effect of HIFU for unresectable pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical beneifts, survival time and complications associated with the use of HIFU ablation in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Twenty-ifve patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in our study. All patients received HIFU therapy for tumors at least once. The therapeutic effects of HIFU was evaluated in terms of Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores, pain relief, serum CA19-9, and imaging by B-US and CT before and after the therapy. We also recorded median overall survival time and complications caused by the treatment. RESULTS: In the 25 patients, KPS scores were above 60, and increased KPS was observed in 23 patients after treatment. Pain relief occurred in 23 patients. Serum CA19-9 levels were signiifcantly reduced one month after HIFU treatment and became negative in 5 patients. B-US revealed enhanced tumor echogenicity in 13 patients and decreased tumor blood supply in 9. Tumor necrosis was conifrmed by CT in 8 patients one month after HIFU treatment. The median overall survival time was 10 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 42%. No severe complications were observed after HIFU treatment. CONCLUSION: HIFU can effectively relieve pain, increase KPS, decrease tumor growth and prolong the survival time of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  12. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z degrees resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant αs for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e+e- → ν bar νγ. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R ampersand D work on BaF2 by joining the GEM collaboration

  13. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z{degrees} resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}{gamma}. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R&D work on BaF{sub 2} by joining the GEM collaboration.

  14. Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and the University of Wisconsin (UW) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination....

  15. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  16. Highly crystallized poly (lactic acid) under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Zhang; Ding-Xiang Yan; Jia-Zhuang Xu; Hua-Dong Huang; Jun Lei; Zhong-Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic acid) (PLA) usually has a crystallinity less than 10% due to its poor crystallization ability. In this work, we found high pressure could significantly facilitate formation of crystallites of PLA, resulting in a crystallinity high up to 66.3% at pressure and temperature of 300 MPa and 185 ºC. High-pressure induced crystalline reorganization and lamellar thickening led to two melting temperatures in the highly crystallized PLA but without cold crystallization compare...

  17. High-quality breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2014-05-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demands the competing factors of high spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios, and complete bilateral breast coverage. Achieving these competing factors requires modern MRI equipment with high magnetic field strength and homogeneity, high maximum gradient strength with short rise times, dedicated multichannel bilateral breast coils with prone patient positioning, and 3D (volume) gradient-echo MRI pulse sequences with short TR, short TE, high spatial resolution, and reasonably short acquisition times. This article discusses the equipment and pulse sequences needed to achieve high-quality breast MRI and summarizes requirements of the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program. PMID:24792656

  18. Mining High-Dimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Jiong

    With the rapid growth of computational biology and e-commerce applications, high-dimensional data becomes very common. Thus, mining high-dimensional data is an urgent problem of great practical importance. However, there are some unique challenges for mining data of high dimensions, including (1) the curse of dimensionality and more crucial (2) the meaningfulness of the similarity measure in the high dimension space. In this chapter, we present several state-of-art techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data, e.g., frequent pattern mining, clustering, and classification. We will discuss how these methods deal with the challenges of high dimensionality.

  19. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  20. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  2. High Performance Space Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high...

  3. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  4. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  5. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  6. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  9. High Efficency Lightweight Radiators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity...

  10. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    OpenAIRE

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1) Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2) Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3) Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, ...

  11. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoning Jiang; Kyungrim Kim; Shujun Zhang; Joseph Johnson; Giovanni Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discu...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  13. High pressure engineering and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 10 papers. Some of the titles are: Control of vibration in high pressure piping systems; Hazards and safeguards of high pressure hydraulic fatigue testing; Load, stress and fatigue analysis of threaded end closures; Application of fatigue crack growth to an isostatic press; and Time dependent failure in high strength steels for autoclave service

  14. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  15. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  16. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Myths About High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 12,2014 You CAN manage your ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  17. High-Mass Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schilke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A review on current theories and observations of high-mass star formation is given. Particularly the influence of magnetic fields and feedback mechanisms, and of varying initial conditions on theories are discussed. The, in my biased view, most important observations to put strong constraints on models of high-mass star formation are pres ented, in particular bearing on the existence and properties of high-mass starless cores, the role of filaments in the mass transport to high-mass cores, and the propertie s of disks around high-mass stars.

  18. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  19. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  20. High Cycle-life Shape Memory Polymer at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deyan; Xiao, Xinli

    2016-01-01

    High cycle-life is important for shape memory materials exposed to numerous cycles, and here we report shape memory polyimide that maintained both high shape fixity (Rf) and shape recovery (Rr) during the more than 1000 bending cycles tested. Its critical stress is 2.78 MPa at 250 °C, and the shape recovery process can produce stored energy of 0.218 J g−1 at the efficiency of 31.3%. Its high Rf is determined by the large difference in storage modulus at rubbery and glassy states, while the high Rr mainly originates from its permanent phase composed of strong π-π interactions and massive chain entanglements. Both difference in storage modulus and overall permanent phase were preserved during the bending deformation cycles, and thus high Rf and Rr were observed in every cycle and the high cycle-life will expand application areas of SMPs enormously. PMID:27641148

  1. High Cycle-life Shape Memory Polymer at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deyan; Xiao, Xinli

    2016-09-01

    High cycle-life is important for shape memory materials exposed to numerous cycles, and here we report shape memory polyimide that maintained both high shape fixity (Rf) and shape recovery (Rr) during the more than 1000 bending cycles tested. Its critical stress is 2.78 MPa at 250 °C, and the shape recovery process can produce stored energy of 0.218 J g‑1 at the efficiency of 31.3%. Its high Rf is determined by the large difference in storage modulus at rubbery and glassy states, while the high Rr mainly originates from its permanent phase composed of strong π-π interactions and massive chain entanglements. Both difference in storage modulus and overall permanent phase were preserved during the bending deformation cycles, and thus high Rf and Rr were observed in every cycle and the high cycle-life will expand application areas of SMPs enormously.

  2. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  3. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  4. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  5. High power evaluation of X-band high power loads

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Syratchev, Igor; Riddone, Germana; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Several types of X-band high power loads developed for several tens of MW range were designed, fabricated and used for high power tests at X-band facility of KEK. Some of them have been used for many years and few units showed possible deterioration of RF performance. Recently revised-design loads were made by CERN and the high power evaluation was performed at KEK. In this paper, the main requirements are recalled, together with the design features. The high power test results are analysed and presented

  6. Recrystallization of High Carbon Steel during High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The recrystallization of high carbon steel during high temperature and high speed rolling has been studied by analyzing the stress-strain curves and the austenite grain size.Isothermal multi-pass hot compression at high strain rate was carried out by Gleeble-2000. The austenite grain size was measured by IBAS image analysis system. The results show that static recrystallization occurred at interpass time under pre-finish rolling, and at the finish rolling stage, due to the brief interpass time, static recrystallization can not be found.

  7. High permittivity gate dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    "The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects."

  8. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  9. High-temperature piezoelectric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  10. Self-Esteem of Junior High and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimberly E.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the self-esteem of junior high and high school students. The independent variables investigated were quality of family life, birth order, family size, maternal employment, grade level and family structure. The dependent variables were the self-esteem scores from the following sub-scales of the Texas…

  11. Early Identification of Educationally High Potential and High Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.

    Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…

  12. A high current, high speed pulser using avalanche transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high current, high speed pulser for the beam pulsing of a linear accelerator is described. It uses seven avalanche transistors in cascade. Design of a trigger circuit to obtain fast rise time is discussed. The characteristics of the pulser are : (a) Rise time = 0.9 ns (FWHM) and (d) Life time asymptotically equals 2000 -- 3000 hr (at 50 Hz). (author)

  13. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    , and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  14. Another Innovation from High Tech High--Embedded Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Janie; Riordan, Rob

    2016-01-01

    High Tech High School's teaching internship program blends on-the-job work with classroom theory. Interns spend two years working as full teachers as they take courses. The program serves three large purposes: Train new teachers and build capacity in the HTH organization; train teachers in and beyond HTH for success in a wide range of contexts;…

  15. High performance dielectric materials development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joe; Kirchner, Ted; Jayaraj, K.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of polymer composites materials technology is to develop materials and processing technology to meet DoD and commercial needs. The following are outlined in this presentation: high performance capacitors, high temperature aerospace insulation, rationale for choosing Foster-Miller (the reporting industry), the approach to the development and evaluation of high temperature insulation materials, and the requirements/evaluation parameters. Supporting tables and diagrams are included.

  16. Ultra-High Temperature Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Canning; Somnath Bandyopadhyay; Michael Stevenson; Kevin Cook

    2008-01-01

    Regenerated gratings seeded by type-Ⅰ gratings are shown to withstand temperatures beyond 1000 ℃. The method of regeneration offers a new approach to increasing temperature resistance of stable fibre Bragg and other gratings. These ultra-high temperature (UHT) gratings extend the applicability of silicate based components to high temperature applications such as monitoring of smelters and vehicle and aircraft engines to high power fibre lasers.

  17. High-n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic study of stability against high-n ballooning modes is highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. - From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that local shear has an important effect on the stability of elongated plasmas, and that stability deteriorates through high elongation since the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear are reduced. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation for strong ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). - The computational study of high-n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for βsub(p) less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for βsub(p) larger than unity. (author)

  18. High-entropy alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeie, Samrand [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guo, Sheng, E-mail: sheng.guo@chalmers.se [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hu, Qiang [Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Fahlquist, Henrik [Bruker AXS Nordic AB, 17067 Solna (Sweden); Erhart, Paul [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Palmqvist, Anders, E-mail: anders.palmqvist@chalmers.se [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators that efficiently recycle a large portion of waste heat will be an important complementary energy technology in the future. While many efficient TE materials exist in the lower temperature region, few are efficient at high temperatures. Here, we present the high temperature properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a potential new class of high temperature TE materials. We show that their TE properties can be controlled significantly by changing the valence electron concentration (VEC) of the system with appropriate substitutional elements. Both the electrical and thermal transport properties in this system were found to decrease with a lower VEC number. Overall, the large microstructural complexity and lower average VEC in these types of alloys can potentially be used to lower both the total and the lattice thermal conductivity. These findings highlight the possibility to exploit HEAs as a new class of future high temperature TE materials.

  19. High-entropy alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeie, Samrand; Guo, Sheng; Hu, Qiang; Fahlquist, Henrik; Erhart, Paul; Palmqvist, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators that efficiently recycle a large portion of waste heat will be an important complementary energy technology in the future. While many efficient TE materials exist in the lower temperature region, few are efficient at high temperatures. Here, we present the high temperature properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a potential new class of high temperature TE materials. We show that their TE properties can be controlled significantly by changing the valence electron concentration (VEC) of the system with appropriate substitutional elements. Both the electrical and thermal transport properties in this system were found to decrease with a lower VEC number. Overall, the large microstructural complexity and lower average VEC in these types of alloys can potentially be used to lower both the total and the lattice thermal conductivity. These findings highlight the possibility to exploit HEAs as a new class of future high temperature TE materials.

  20. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. PMID:27651260

  1. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  2. Cerebrovascular stroke at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To asses the high altitude as a risk factor for cerebrovascular stroke in people residing at a height greater than 15,000 feet above sea level. Results: Ten patients suffered from stroke at high altitude while just one case had stroke in indexed age group at lower heights (p-value<0.05). Relative risk was 10 times greater at high altitude. Conclusion: High altitude is a risk factor for stroke in persons residing at altitudes of over 15, 000 ft. (author)

  3. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  4. High resolution rainfall measurements around a high rise building

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Stijn; van de Giesen, Nick; Hut, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    A number of disdrometers (acoustic rain gauge) has been placed around a high rise building on a place where variation in spatial distribution of precipitation is expected, to show the advantage of high resolution rainfall measurements in a urban area. The standard recommendation for the placement of a rain gauge is that the gauge is positioned at a distance corresponding to two to four times the height of any nearby obstruction to obtain a measurement that is representative for the surrounding area. In an urban area it is almost impossible to find a location that suits this recommendation. Rain measurements in urban area with a high spatial resolution are desired, to obtain a better understanding of urban hydrology, but costs may be prohibitive. A low cost disdrometer has been developed to make it affordable to perform rain measurements with a very high spatial and temporal resolution. The disdrometer is tested around a high rise building on the Delft University of Technology campus. The faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EWI) on the campus of Delft University of Technology consists of a high rise building of 90 meters and a low rise building of 15 meters. Sensors are placed on the low rise building to measure the impact of the high rise building on the spatial distribution of precipitation. In addition to the disdrometer, two other methods are used to measure precipitation differences around the high rise building. Tipping bucket rain gauges have been placed on two elevator shaft housings on the low rise building, of which one is situated in the shadow of the high rise building. Simultaneously, runoff from the elevator shafts is measured. A comparison of the different methods will be presented.

  5. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1997-01-01

    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....

  6. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the annual reports for the contracts: (A) Glass Technology; (B) Calcination of Highly Active Waste Liquors; (C) Formation and Trapping of Volatile Ruthenium; (D) Deposition of Ruthenium; (E) Enhancement of Off-Gas Aerosol Collection; (F) Volatilisation of Cs, Tc and Te in High Level Waste Vitrification. (author)

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  8. LLL dynamic high pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has several experimental facilities to measure material properties at dynamic high pressures. These include an isobaric expansion experiment, a two-stage light-gas gun, and a high-power laser facility (Janus). Each of these are briefly described.

  9. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final reports are presented on work on the following topics: glass technology; enhancement of off-gas aerosol collection; formation and trapping of volatile ruthenium; volatilisation of caesium, technetium and tellurium in high-level waste vitrification; deposition of ruthenium; and calcination of high-level waste liquors. (author)

  10. High-Performance Ball Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

    1995-01-01

    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  11. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Samuel J.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies where in the scheme of modern chromatography high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) fits and why in some situations it is a viable alternative to gas and high performance liquid chromatography. New TLC plates, sample applications, plate development, and instrumental techniques are considered. (JN)

  12. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  13. LBNL high field core program

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, S

    2011-01-01

    The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group mission is to develop and establish the technologies associated with high field superconducting magnets in order to provide cost-effective options for the next-generation high-energy physics accelerators. The research effort is part of the group core program and the development is part of the LARP program discussed elsewhere at this workshop.

  14. Plant growth under high salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Plants most suitable for growing under high saline or even seawater conditions are the ones naturally living under high saline circumstances. A series of tolerant or moderate salt tolerant plants are experimentally tested and described in literature. For many species of this group a threshold value

  15. The High Luminosity LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, O

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the high luminosity LHC project, and highlights the main challenges from the technology and beam physics point of view. It will mention the outcome of the 2015 Cost and Schedule review for the HL-LHC project and summarizes the status of the high field quadrupole and crab cavity development.

  16. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... care provider and take steps to control your blood pressure by making healthy lifestyle changes and taking medications, ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood ...

  18. Hyperhalogens and highly electronegative compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Puru; Gantefoer, Gerd

    2016-08-16

    Hyperhalogens, a new class of highly electronegative species, are now invented. A hyperhalogen is a superhalogen-containing composition in which the electron affinity (EA) of the hyperhalogen is even larger than that of the superhalogens they are composed of. Novel production methods are provided in which highly electronegative species are produced by surrounding a central metal atom by superhalogen moieties.

  19. High Energy Neutrinos from Space

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the search for high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Results from large neutrino telescopes in water (Antares, Baikal) and ice (IceCube) are discussed as well as observations from the surface with Auger and from high altitude with ANITA. Comments on IceTop, the surface component of IceCube are also included.

  20. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  1. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V-1 s-1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m-2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics.

  2. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Toko; Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Pohl, David-Leon; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  3. Website Design Guidelines: High Power Distance and High Context Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the question of offering a culturally adapted website for a local audience. So far, in the website design arena the vast majority of studies examined mainly Western and the American (low power distance and low context culture disregarding possible cultural discrepancies. This study fills this gap and explores the key cultural parameters that are likely to have an impact on local website design for Asian-Eastern culture high power distance and high context correlating with both Hofstede’s and Hall’s cultural dimensions. It also reviews how website localisation may be accomplished more effectively by extracting the guidelines from two different yet compatible cultural dimensions: high power distance and high context.

  4. Interpolation circuit with high resolution and high response speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Weiying; Yuan, Yibao; Xu, Lianhu; Zhang, Hao

    2009-05-01

    An interpolation circuit based upon the looking-up table by hardware is presented. Output data of two A/D convertors are connected to ROM's address bus. The memory space of ROM is divided. When the address bus is activated by A/D conversion's output data, the ROM's output data is interpolation data. This circuit has high response speed, and it is easy to obtain high interpolation multiple. The same kind of hardware circuit can achieve different interpolation multiple by modifying ROM's data. It is very convenient and flexible. The principle of direction judgment and counting is analyzed; the implementation speed and maximal interpolation multiple are discussed in this paper. Finally through experiment, make sure this circuit not only has the characteristic of high response speed and high interpolation multiple, but also avoids the counting error of micro-computer interpolation.

  5. Highly stable high-rate discriminator for nuclear counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. J.; Howard, R. H.; Rudnick, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    Pulse amplitude discriminator is specially designed for nuclear counting applications. At very high rates, the threshold is stable. The output-pulse width and the dead time change negligibly. The unit incorporates a provision for automatic dead-time correction.

  6. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  7. Computer Controlled High Precise,High Voltage Pules Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但果; 邹积岩; 丛吉远; 董恩源

    2003-01-01

    High precise, high voltage pulse generator made up of high-power IGBT and pulse transformers controlled by a computer are described. A simple main circuit topology employed in this pulse generator can reduce the cost meanwhile it still meets special requirements for pulsed electric fields (PEFs) in food process. The pulse generator utilizes a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to generate trigger signals. Pulse-frequency, pulse-width and pulse-number are controlled via RS232 bus by a computer. The high voltage pulse generator well suits to the application for fluid food non-thermal effect in pulsed electric fields, for it can increase and decrease by the step length 1.

  8. HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION WELDING OF HIGH SILICON STEEL TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miranda Alé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High-Si steel is a low cost alternative for the fabrication of tubular structures resistant to atmospheric corrosion. However, the literature has often pointed out that steels presenting a higher Si content and/or a lower Mn/Si ratio have higher susceptibility to defects at the weld bond line during HFIW (High Frequency Induction Welding process, which has been widely used for manufacturing small diameter tubes. In this study the effect of the HFIW conditions on the quality of steel tubes with high-Si content and low Mn/Si ratio is investigated. The quality of welded tubes was determined by flare test and the defects in the bond line were identified by SEM. It has been found that higher welding speeds, V-convergence angles and power input should be applied in welding of high-Si steel, when compared to similar strength C-Mn steel.

  9. Observation of high current effects in high energy linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1991-12-01

    The acceleration and transport of electron beams with high currents and low emittances are subjects studied very carefully for many operating accelerators and most future accelerators. For a example, several Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) presently operate with high energy intense beams. The next generation of synchrotron light sources and future linear colliders require a much higher degree of component precision and beam control. In this note the basic concepts governing the effects of high currents in accelerators are explored, including observations of high currents in present accelerators. The effects of longitudinal wakefields on acceleration and energy spreads are studied first. Then, the transverse equations of motion are developed including the technique of BNS damping to control wakefield growth. These wakefield effects are investigated to characterize their influence on the control and observation of beam oscillations. Finally, the reduction of transverse wakefield effects is important for maintaining the emittance of intense beams. 49 refs., 48 figs.

  10. Equation of state of unreacted high explosives at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, C-S

    1998-08-14

    Isotherms of unreacted high explosives (HMX, RDX, and PETN) have been determined to quasi-hydrostatic high pressures below 45 GPa, by using a diamond-anvil cell angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction method. The equation-of-state parameters (bulk modulus Bo, and its derivatives B' ) are presented for the 3rd-order Birch-Murnaghan formula based on the measured isotherms. The results are also used to retrieve unreacted Hugoniots in these high explosives and to develop the equations of state and kinetic models for composite high explolsivcs such as XTX-8003 and LX-04. The evidence of shear-induced chemistry of HMX in non-hydrostatic conditions is also presented.

  11. High Temperature, High Frequency Fuel Metering Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Signal Technologies and its subcontractor Moog propose to develop a high-frequency actuator driven valve intended to achieve TRL 6 by the end of Phase II....

  12. Fiber MOPAs with high control and high power

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, J.; Yoo, S.; Dupriez, P.; Farrell, C.; Abidin, M.S.Z.; Ji, J; Maran, J.-N.; Codemard, C. A.; Jeong, Y.; Sahu, J.K.; Richardson, D J; Payne, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    High power fiber sources have reached several kilowatts of output power, and are now leading contenders for many applications. Important attractions include control, efficiency, manufacturability, and reliability. We will exemplify opportunities and limitations for these revolutionary sources.

  13. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Bernard, E. [Yale U.; Faham, C. H. [LBL, Berkeley; Ito, T. M. [Los Alamos; Lundberg, B. [Maryland U.; Messina, M. [Columbia U.; Monrabal, F. [Valencia U., IFIC; Pereverzev, S. P. [LLNL, Livermore; Resnati, F. [Zurich, ETH; Rowson, P. C. [SLAC; Soderberg, M. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U.; Tomas, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Va' vra, J. [SLAC; Wang, H. [UCLA

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  14. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rebel, Edited by B; Faham, C H; Ito, T M; Lundberg, B; Messina, M; Monrabal, F; Pereverzev, S P; Resnati, F; Rowson, P C; Soderberg, M; Strauss, T; Tomas, A; Va'vra, J; Wang, H

    2014-01-01

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  15. High-throughput high-resolution cryo-electron crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution structures of membrane and soluble proteins can be obtained by cryo-electron crystallography, given highly-ordered cryo-preparations of perfectly flat 2D crystals are available. Studies of membrane proteins, which are embedded into a lipid membrane, mimicking the native cell membrane, are of particular biological interest. However there are multiple reasons why electron crystallography is far from being a mainstream protein structure determination technique. In this thesis we ...

  16. Website Design Guidelines: High Power Distance and High Context Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer Ahmed; Haralambos Mouratidis; David Preston

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question of offering a culturally adapted website for a local audience. So far, in the website design arena the vast majority of studies examined mainly Western and the American (low power distance and low context) culture disregarding possible cultural discrepancies. This study fills this gap and explores the key cultural parameters that are likely to have an impact on local website design for Asian-Eastern culture high power distance and high context correlati...

  17. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  18. High sperm chromatin stability in semen with high viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Sánchez, A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of high semen viscosity on sperm chromatin stability. Semen samples obtained from men with normal and high viscosity were studied. Sperm chromatin stability was tested by exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) only and SDS together with a zinc-chelating agent, disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (SDS+EDTA). After SDS incubation, stable sperm was 61.36 +/- 3.0 and 54.71 +/- 3.42% for normal and high semen viscosity, respectively (P:NS), and after SDS+EDTA, it was further reduced to 12.48 +/- 0.99% in semen samples with normal consistency and in a less magnitude in semen samples with high viscosity (25.6 +/- 5.2). Comparing values obtained in SDS+EDTA, a high sperm stability was observed in samples with hyperviscosity (p hyperviscosity is associated with a high sperm chromatin stability in situations when a zinc-chelating agent is present. PMID:8122934

  19. Development of a high strength high toughness ausferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ausferritic steel with high strength and exceptionally high fracture toughness has been developed. This steel has been synthesized integrating concepts from Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) technology. The influence of the austempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of this steel at room temperature and ambient atmosphere has been examined. The effect of microstructure on the plane strain fracture toughness and on the magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties was also investigated. Compact tension and cylindrical tensile specimens prepared from the low alloy medium carbon steel with high silicon content were initially austenitized at 927 deg. C for 2 h and then subsequently austempered at several temperatures between 260 deg. C (500 F) and 400 deg. C (750 F) to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography. A combination of exceptionally high yield strength (1336 MPa) and a high fracture of toughness of 116 MPa√m (a value comparable to maraging steel) was obtained in this steel after austempering at 316 deg. C (600 F) for 2 h. Potential applications of this steel include the inexpensive fabrication of armored plates and components requiring high reliability and durability.

  20. High Speed and High Resolution Table-Top Nanoscale Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tadesse, G K; Demmler, S; HÄdrich, S; Wahyutama, I; Steinert, M; Spielmann, C; ZÜrch, M; TÜnnermann, A; Limpert, J; Rothhardt, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a table-top coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) experiment based on high-order harmonics generated at 18 nm by a high average power femtosecond fiber laser system. The high photon flux, narrow spectral bandwidth and high degree of spatial coherence allow for ultra-high sub-wavelength resolution imaging at a high numerical aperture. Our experiments demonstrate a half-pitch resolution of 13.6 nm, very close to the actual Abbe-limit of 12.4 nm, which is the highest resolution achieved from any table-top XUV or X-ray microscope. In addition, 20.5 nm resolution was achieved with only 3 sec of integration time bringing live diffraction imaging and 3D tomography on the nanoscale one step closer to reality. The current resolution is solely limited by the wavelength and the detector size. Thus, table-top nanoscopes with only a few-nm resolutions are in reach and will find applications in many areas of science and technology.

  1. Design optimization of high pressure and high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor for high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhe; Zhao, Yulong; Tian, Bian

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design method for optimizing sensitivity of piezoresistive pressure sensor in high-pressure and high-temperature environment. In order to prove the method, a piezoresistive pressure sensor (HPTSS) is designed. With the purpose of increasing sensitivity and to improve the measurement range, the piezoresistive sensor adopts rectangular membrane and thick film structure. The configuration of piezoresistors is arranged according to the characteristic of the rectangular membrane. The structure and configuration of the sensor chip are analyzed theoretically and simulated by the finite element method. This design enables the sensor chip to operate in high pressure condition (such as 150 MPa) with a high sensitivity and accuracy. The silicon on insulator wafer is selected to guarantee the thermo stability of the sensor chip. In order to optimize the fabrication and improve the yield of production, an electric conduction step is devised. Series of experiments demonstrates a favorable linearity of 0.13% and a high accuracy of 0.48%. And the sensitivity of HTPSS is about six times as high as a conventional square-membrane sensor chip in the experiment. Compared with the square-membrane pressure sensor and current production, the strength of HPTTS lies in sensitivity and measurement. The performance of the HPTSS indicates that it could be an ideal candidate for high-pressure and high-temperature sensing in real application.

  2. Design optimization of high pressure and high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor for high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhe; Zhao, Yulong; Tian, Bian

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design method for optimizing sensitivity of piezoresistive pressure sensor in high-pressure and high-temperature environment. In order to prove the method, a piezoresistive pressure sensor (HPTSS) is designed. With the purpose of increasing sensitivity and to improve the measurement range, the piezoresistive sensor adopts rectangular membrane and thick film structure. The configuration of piezoresistors is arranged according to the characteristic of the rectangular membrane. The structure and configuration of the sensor chip are analyzed theoretically and simulated by the finite element method. This design enables the sensor chip to operate in high pressure condition (such as 150 MPa) with a high sensitivity and accuracy. The silicon on insulator wafer is selected to guarantee the thermo stability of the sensor chip. In order to optimize the fabrication and improve the yield of production, an electric conduction step is devised. Series of experiments demonstrates a favorable linearity of 0.13% and a high accuracy of 0.48%. And the sensitivity of HTPSS is about six times as high as a conventional square-membrane sensor chip in the experiment. Compared with the square-membrane pressure sensor and current production, the strength of HPTTS lies in sensitivity and measurement. The performance of the HPTSS indicates that it could be an ideal candidate for high-pressure and high-temperature sensing in real application.

  3. Understanding high-dimensional spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Skillicorn, David B

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional spaces arise as a way of modelling datasets with many attributes. Such a dataset can be directly represented in a space spanned by its attributes, with each record represented as a point in the space with its position depending on its attribute values. Such spaces are not easy to work with because of their high dimensionality: our intuition about space is not reliable, and measures such as distance do not provide as clear information as we might expect. There are three main areas where complex high dimensionality and large datasets arise naturally: data collected by online ret

  4. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  5. High-speed photonics interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic increases in processing power have rapidly scaled on-chip aggregate bandwidths into the Tb/s range. This necessitates a corresponding increase in the amount of data communicated between chips, so as not to limit overall system performance. To meet the increasing demand for interchip communication bandwidth, researchers are investigating the use of high-speed optical interconnect architectures. Unlike their electrical counterparts, optical interconnects offer high bandwidth and negligible frequency-dependent loss, making possible per-channel data rates of more than 10 Gb/s. High-Speed

  6. High-Speed Photography 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the contents of a unique introductory, applications oriented, high speed photography course offered to Imaging and Photographic Technology majors at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The course covers the theory and practice of photographic systems designed to permit analysis of events of very short duration. Included are operational characteristics of intermittent and rotating prism cameras, rotating mirror and drum cameras, synchronization systems and timing controls and high speed flash and stroboscopic systems, and high speed video recording. Students gain basic experience not only in the use of fundamental equipment but also in proper planning, set-up and introductory data reduction techniques through a series of practical experiments.

  7. Applications of high dielectric materials in high field magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kristina Noel

    At high magnetic fields, radiation losses, wavelength effects, self-resonance, and the high resistance of components all contribute to losses in conventional RF MRI coil designs. The hypothesis tested here is that these problems can be combated by the use of high permittivity ceramic materials at high fields. High permittivity ceramic dielectric resonators create strong uniform magnetic fields in compact structures at high frequencies and can potentially solve some of the challenges of high field coil design. In this study NMR probes were constructed for operation at 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) and 900 MHz (21.1 Tesla) using inductively fed CaTiO3 (relative permittivity of 156-166) cylindrical hollow bore dielectric resonators. The designs showed the electric field is largely confined to the dielectric itself, with near zero values in the hollow bore, which accommodates the sample. The 600 MHz probe has an unmatched Q value greater than 2000. Experimental and simulation mapping of the RF field show good agreement, with the ceramic resonator giving a pulse width approximately 25% less than a loop gap resonator of similar inner dimensions. High resolution images, with voxel dimensions less than 50 microm3, have been acquired from fixed zebrafish samples, showing excellent delineation of several fine structures. The 900 MHz probe has an unmatched Q value of 940 and shows Q performance five times better than Alderman-Grant and loop-gap resonators of similar dimensions. High resolution images were acquired of an excised mouse spinal cord (25 microm 3) and an excised rat soleus muscle (20 microm3). The spatial distribution of electromagnetic fields within the human body can be tailored using external dielectric materials. Here, a new material is introduced with high dielectric constant and low background MRI signal. The material is based upon metal titanates, which can be made into geometrically formable suspensions in de-ionized water. The suspension's material properties are

  8. High-strength carbon nanotube fibre-like ribbon with high ductility and high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J N; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, Y

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic fibres made up of carbon nanotubes exhibit properties far below theoretical predictions and even much lower than those for conventional carbon fibres. Here we report improvements of mechanical and electrical properties by more than one order of magnitude by pressurized rolling. Our carbon nanotubes self-assemble to a hollow macroscopic cylinder in a tube reactor operated at high temperature and then condense in water or ethanol to form a fibre, which is continually spooled in an open-air environment. This initial fibre is densified by rolling under pressure, leading to a combination of high tensile strength (3.76-5.53 GPa), high tensile ductility (8-13%) and high electrical conductivity ((1.82-2.24) × 10(4) S cm(-1)). Our study therefore demonstrates strategies for future performance maximization and the very considerable potential of carbon nanotube assemblies for high-end uses.

  9. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  10. High density matter at RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas S Ullrich

    2004-02-01

    QCD predicts a phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already the first round of experimental results at RHIC indicated that the conditions to create a new state of matter are indeed reached in the collisions of heavy nuclei. Studies of particle spectra and their correlations at low transverse momenta provide evidence of strong pressure gradients in the highly interacting dense medium and hint that we observe a system in thermal equilibrium. Recent runs with high statistics allow us to explore the regime of hard-scattering processes where the suppression of hadrons at large transverse momentum, and quenching of di-jets are observed thus providing further evidence for extreme high density matter created in collisions at RHIC.

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  12. High pressure diffraction at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the high pressure diffraction programme at ISIS is reviewed. Along with general accounts of the technique and the pressure cells used, examples of science carried out in this field are given. (author)

  13. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  14. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  15. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformal field theory. (LSP)

  16. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  19. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  20. High Power Betavoltaic Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded...

  1. (SUPERCEDED) High Plains aquifer (SUPERCEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the states of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas....

  2. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  3. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  4. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  6. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  8. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  9. High Temperature Bell Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a...

  10. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  11. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase eq...

  12. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  13. High temperature ultrasonic transducers: review

    OpenAIRE

    Kažys, R.; Voleišis, A.; Voleišienė, B.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of development of high-temperature ultrasonic transducers for modern science and technology applications are analysed. More than 10 piezoelectric materials suitable for operation at high temperatures are overviewed. It is shown that bismuth titanate based piezoelectric elements are most promisable. Bonding methods of piezoelectric elements to a protector and backing are discussed. Thermosonic gold-to-gold bonding is most modern and possesses unique features. Our achievements in t...

  14. High pressure rinsing parameters measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, E. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Fusetti, M. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Michelato, P. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Pagani, C. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)]. E-mail: carlo.pagani@mi.infn.it; Pierini, P. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Paulon, R. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Sertore, D. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    High pressure rinsing with ultra pure water jet is an essential step in the high field superconducting cavity production process. In this paper, we illustrate the experimental characterization of a HPR system, in terms of specific power and energy deposition on the cavity surfaces and on the damage threshold for niobium. These measurements are used to tentatively derive general rules for the optimization of the free process parameters (nozzle geometry, speeds and water pressure)

  15. Bootstrapping High Dimensional Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianyang; Cheng, Guang

    2014-01-01

    This article studies bootstrap inference for high dimensional weakly dependent time series in a general framework of approximately linear statistics. The following high dimensional applications are covered: (1) uniform confidence band for mean vector; (2) specification testing on the second order property of time series such as white noise testing and bandedness testing of covariance matrix; (3) specification testing on the spectral property of time series. In theory, we first derive a Gaussi...

  16. The AAVSO High Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2004-06-01

    The AAVSO is expanding its International Gamma-Ray Burst Network to incorporate other high energy objects such as blazars and magnetic cataclysmic variables (polars). The new AAVSO High Energy Network will be collaborating with the Global Telescope Network (GTN) to observe bright blazars in support of the upcoming GLAST mission. We also will be observing polars in support of the XMM mission. This new network will involve both visual and CCD obsrvers and is expected to last for many years.

  17. Signal detection in high dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Hallin, Marc; Moreira, Marcelo J.; Onatski, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the local asymptotic structure, in the sense of Le Cam’s asymptotic theory of statistical experiments, of the signal detection problem in high dimension. More precisely, we consider the problem of testing the null hypothesis of sphericity of a high-dimensional covariance matrix against an alternative of (unspecified) multiple symmetry-breaking directions (multispiked alternatives). Simple analytical expressions for the asymptotic power envelope and the ...

  18. High pressure rinsing system comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Sertore; M. Fusetti; P. Michelato; Carlo Pagani; Toshiyasu Higo; Jin-Seok Hong; K. Saito; G. Ciovati; T. Rothgeb

    2007-06-01

    High pressure rinsing (HPR) is a key process for the surface preparation of high field superconducting cavities. A portable apparatus for the water jet characterization, based on the transferred momentum between the water jet and a load cell, has been used in different laboratories. This apparatus allows to collected quantitative parameters that characterize the HPR water jet. In this paper, we present a quantitative comparison of the different water jet produced by various nozzles routinely used in different laboratories for the HPR process

  19. High Frequency Trade Direction Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Stav, Augustine Dexter

    2015-01-01

    High Frequency Trade Direction PredictionbyAugustine StavAbstract High frequency trading involves large volumes and rapid price changes. The Volume Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN) metric characterizes order flow toxicity. This toxicity is the unbalance of order flow between informed traders who possess knowledge of future price directions and market makers who do not have this information. VPIN requires trades to be classified as buys or sells and works with volume as a pr...

  20. Multicomponent and High Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cantor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some underlying principles of multicomponent and high entropy alloys, and gives some examples of these materials. Different types of multicomponent alloy and different methods of accessing multicomponent phase space are discussed. The alloys were manufactured by conventional and high speed solidification techniques, and their macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscale structures were studied by optical, X-ray and electron microscope methods. They exhibit a variety of amorphous, quasicrystalline, dendritic and eutectic structures.

  1. MongoDB high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrabani, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This book has a perfect balance of concepts and their practical implementation along with solutions to make a highly available MongoDB server with clear instructions and guidance. If you are using MongoDB in a production environment and need a solution to make a highly available MongoDB server, this book is ideal for you. Familiarity with MongoDB is expected so that you understand the content of this book.

  2. High-temperature testing of high performance fiber reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Vejmelková, Eva; Pavlíková, Milena; Trník, Anton; Čítek, David; Kolísko, Jiří; Černý, Robert; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    The effect of high-temperature exposure on properties of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) is researched in the paper. At first, reference measurements are done on HPFRC samples without high-temperature loading. Then, the HPFRC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 °C. For the temperature loaded samples, measurement of residual mechanical and basic physical properties is done. Linear thermal expansion coefficient as function of temperature is accessed on the basis of measured thermal strain data. Additionally, simultaneous difference scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis is performed in order to observe and explain material changes at elevated temperature. It is found that the applied high temperature loading significantly increases material porosity due to the physical, chemical and combined damage of material inner structure, and negatively affects also the mechanical strength. Linear thermal expansion coefficient exhibits significant dependence on temperature and changes of material structure. The obtained data will find use as input material parameters for modelling the damage of HPFRC structures exposed to the fire and high temperature action.

  3. Discovering highly informative feature set over high dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng

    2012-11-01

    For many textual collections, the number of features is often overly large. These features can be very redundant, it is therefore desirable to have a small, succinct, yet highly informative collection of features that describes the key characteristics of a dataset. Information theory is one such tool for us to obtain this feature collection. With this paper, we mainly contribute to the improvement of efficiency for the process of selecting the most informative feature set over high-dimensional unlabeled data. We propose a heuristic theory for informative feature set selection from high dimensional data. Moreover, we design data structures that enable us to compute the entropies of the candidate feature sets efficiently. We also develop a simple pruning strategy that eliminates the hopeless candidates at each forward selection step. We test our method through experiments on real-world data sets, showing that our proposal is very efficient. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge

    2015-10-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)—an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents—could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST.

  5. Instrumentation for high-efficiency, high-sensitivity actinide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. We have developed a high-efficiency thermal ionization source that provides one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sample utilization efficiency in comparison with the traditional filament-type ion source currently used in thermal ionization mass spectrometry. This improved sample utilization efficiency results in a proportional increase in sample throughput and proportional decrease in analysis time. Coupling this source with a quadrupole mass spectrometer results in an instrument system for high-efficiency actinide analysis and other applications. In addition to its high efficiency, the sample used in this source can be much smaller than that in previous tube-type sources. The compact structure of the cavity makes it more applicable to any type of mass spectrometer and the whole instrument is small and transportable

  6. Note: High precision measurements using high frequency gigahertz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aohan; Fu, Siyuan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Pullerits, Tõnu; Öwall, Viktor; Karki, Khadga Jung

    2014-12-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5 × 108 to measure signals with very high precision. In this Note, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example, the change in length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in situ virtual metrology in material design.

  7. High point for CERN and high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Amalia Ballarino is named the Superconductor Industry Person of the year 2006. Amalia Ballarino showing a tape of high-superconducting material used for the LHC current leads.The CERN project leader for the high-temperature superconducting current leads for the LHC, Amalia Ballarino, has received the award for "Superconductor Industry Person of the Year". This award, the most prestigious international award in the development and commercialization of superconductors, is presented by the leading industry newsletter "Superconductor Week". Amalia Ballarino was selected from dozens of nominations from around the world by a panel of recognized leading experts in superconductivity. "It is a great honour for me," says Amalia Ballarino. "It has been many years of hard work, and it’s a great satisfaction to see that the work has been completed successfully." Amalia Ballarino has been working on high-temperature superconducting materials sin...

  8. Performance evaluation of high speed compressors for high speed multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes high speed compressors for high speed parallel multipliers like Booth Multiplier, Wallace Tree Multiplier in Digital Signal Processing (DSP. This paper presents 4-3, 5-3, 6-3 and 7-3 compressors for high speed multiplication. These compressors reduce vertical critical path more rapidly than conventional compressors. A 5-3 conventional compressor can take four steps to reduce bits from 5 to 3, but the proposed 5-3 takes only 2 steps. These compressors are simulated with H-Spice at a temperature of 25°C at a supply voltage 2.0V using 90nm MOSIS technology. The Power, Delay, Power Delay Product (PDP and Energy Delay Product (EDP of the compressors are calculated to analyze the total propagation delay and energy consumption. All the compressors are designed with half adder and full Adders only.

  9. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  10. Process optimization for advanced high conductivity-high strength materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantsyrnyi, V.; Shikov, A.; Nikulin, A. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-09-01

    On the basis of investigations carried out earlier, two types of high strength-high conductivity Cu-Nb wires have been designed and appropriate manufacturing processes have been proposed and experimentally approved. Long length conductors with rectangular cross sections 4 x 6 mm{sup 2} and 2 x 3 mm{sup 2} have been fabricated by the in situ process and by the bundle and deform process, which eliminates the operation of melting, accordingly. Investigation on the microstructure of both types of the fabricated wires has been conducted. Mechanical properties and electrical conductivity parameters have been measured also.

  11. High emissivity coatings for high temperature application: Progress and prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xiaodong, E-mail: hexd@hit.edu.c [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); Li Yibin [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang Lidong [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); School Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 405, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun Yue [Center for Composite Materials, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3010, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Sam [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    High emissivity coatings are widely used in many cases where heat transfers through electromagnetic radiation that arises due to the temperature of a body. Extensive theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to synthesize and investigate high emissivity coatings. The emissivity can be improved through various or combined mechanisms. The characterization of the emissivity is still a fully open problem. In this paper, we review the various mechanisms associated with the emissivity enhancement and emissivity characterization techniques. Based on these literature reviews, the prospect will be presented in the concluding remarks.

  12. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  13. High temperature, high vacuum facility for heavy ion simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high vacuum irradiation facility for heavy ion simulation studies with a tandem accelerator is described. Specimen irradiations are performed at vacuums of less than 10-8 Torr. The samples are heated to temperatures as high as 11000C by a thermal radiation heater. Partial pressure analysis reveals that H2, H2O and CO are the main constituents (approximately 97 percent) of the vacuum. Smaller amounts of CO2, CH4 and C2H4 (approximately 3 percent total) are also present. Beam charge state distribution and beam purity are measured by Rutherford scattering from a gold foil. Beam current densities and profiles are also measured

  14. Integrated high power VCSEL systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    High power VCSEL systems are a novel laser source used for thermal treatment in industrial manufacturing. These systems will be applied in many applications, which have not used a laser source before. This is enabled by the unique combination of efficiency, compactness and robustness. High power VCSEL system technology encompasses elements far beyond the VCSEL chip itself: i.e. heat sinks, bonding technology and integrated optics. This paper discusses the optimization of these components and processes specifically for building high-power laser systems with VCSEL arrays. New approaches help to eliminate components and process steps and make the system more robust and easier to manufacture. New cooler concepts with integrated electrical and mechanical interfaces have been investigated and offer advantages for high power system design. The bonding process of chips on sub-mounts and coolers has been studied extensively and for a variety of solder materials. High quality of the interfaces as well as good reliability under normal operation and thermal cycling have been realized. A viable alternative to soldering is silver sintering. The very positive results which have been achieved with a variety of technologies indicate the robustness of the VCSEL chips and their suitability for high power systems. Beam shaping micro-optics can be integrated on the VCSEL chip in a wafer scale process by replication of lenses in a polymer layer. The performance of VCSEL arrays with integrated collimation lenses has been positively evaluated and the integrated chips are fully compatible with all further assembly steps. The integrated high power systems make the application even easier and more robust. New examples in laser material processing and pumping of solid state lasers are presented.

  15. Mechanically Alloyed High Entropy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, G.; Adrian, M. M.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Mitrică, D.; Vasile, S.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years high entropy alloys have been investigated due to their high hardness, high temperature stability and unusual properties that make these alloys to have significant interest. In comparison with traditional alloys that are based on two or three major elements, this new generation alloys consists at least of 5 principal elements, with the concentration between 5 and 35 at.%. The present paper reports synthesis of high entropy alloys (HEA) and high entropy composites (HEC) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA). The equiatomic AlCrFeNiMn matrix was used for creating the HEA matrix, starting from elemental powders and as reinforcing material for composites was used pure graphite. The mechanical alloying process was carried out at different duration, in a high energy planetary ball mill, under argon atmosphere. The elemental powders alloying began after '5 hours of milling and was complete after 40 hours. The mechanical alloyed matrix and composite was pressed and heat treated under argon protection. The elemental powers were investigated for physical - technological properties, and by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Phase pressing operation was realized with a hydraulic press and the applied pressure was progressive. The sintering process was carried out at 850°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the MA process resulted in solid solutions formation and also revealed body- centred cubic (BCC) and face-centred cubic (FCC) structures with average grain size around 40 nm. In addition, nanoscale particles were highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, as well as the homogeneity of the chemical composition of the matrix and composite that was confirmed by EDX microanalysis. It was noted that HEA matrix and HEA composites were processed with a high degree of compaction and with a quite large capacity of mixed powder densification (around 70%).

  16. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  17. Thin film diamond. Electronic devices for high temperature, high power and high radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ideal form diamond displays extreme physical, optical and electronic properties, making this material interesting for many device applications. However, natural or high pressure, high temperature synthesised forms of diamond are not useful since they are only available as small irregular crystallites and are expensive. The emergence of commercially accessible techniques for the formation of thin films of diamond over relatively large areas has changed this situation, enabling the prospects for the use of diamond as an electronic material to be truly evaluated. Thin film diamond is a defective polycrystalline material. It is difficult to dope n- and p-type and resists conventional chemical etching. Thus, despite the superlative properties of ideal diamond, the realisation of useful devices from this material is far from simple. This thesis considers how the problems may be overcome such that high performance diamond devices can be realised for use in high temperature, high power and high radiation environments. Following a review of the current state-of-the-art in diamond device technology the experimental techniques used throughout this study are summarised. Field effect transistors (FETs) have been designed for operation at high (>300 deg. C) temperatures. Boron-doped (p-type) diamond was used to form the active channel, with insulating diamond acting as the gate to the FET structure. Polycrystalline diamond devices with the highest yet reported transconductance values, which display full turn-off characteristics have been produced. To enable room temperature operation, where boron is an ineffective dopant, a novel doping approach has been established using hydrogen; devices with transconductance, power handling and full pinch-off characteristic have been realised for the first time with this approach. More complex devices require patterning of the diamond substrate material; reactive ion etching using oxygen and chlorinated fluorocarbons have been studied

  18. Investigation of a High-Power, High-Pressure Spark Gap Switch with High Repetition Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, Hasibur

    2007-01-01

    Micro plasmas in a pressurized spark gap switch were under investigation in the present dissertation. In contrast to the requirements of commonly used high power switches, this work was focused on investigations of a high repetition rate and simultaneously maintaining a fast switching time at a low energy transfer per pulse. The spark gap was operating in a free running mode, without any triggering. The breakdown was only initiated by overvoltage. For this particular switch, a theoretical cha...

  19. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  20. High Z laser plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the coupling of high powered lasers to dense plasmas is a first step toward the realization of laser driven fusion. At LLNL there is a continuing effort to understand the coupling of short wavelength lasers to high Z plasmas. The intensity and wavelength dependence of absorption, energy partition and instability thresholds have been studied in order to develop a good predictive capability for high Z laser-produced plasmas. These studies, begun on Argus, Shiva and Novette, and most recently continued on the Nova laser facility, have extended the wavelength scaling studies from 1.06 to 0.26 μm wavelength using frequency multiplication techniques to convert the fundamental 1.06 μm wavelength of our Nd-glass lasers to shorter wavelengths. In general, shorter wavelength light couples more efficiently to the plasma with absorption measured as greater than 80% for 0.53 μm wavelength and 90% for 0.35 μm wavelength at intensities up to 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/. For high Z plasmas significant laser energy is converted to low energy x rays. In this paper, the author gives a brief overview of Nova, the present experimental facility, and its diagnostic capability. The author then presents highlights of the experiments and present understanding of high Z interaction experiments

  1. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states.

  2. High concentration linear Fresnel reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Linear Fresnel reflectors (LFRs) have great potential for cost reductions. • Concentration in the receiver central strip as high as in trough collectors. • Daily constant flux map in the receiver if the filling factor is adequately designed. • High concentration variation between summer and winter for N–S configurations. - Abstract: The late exponential development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology has driven to a very high power installed worldwide, but with no time for global optimization of the technology. High feed-in-tariffs have concentrated investments on trough collectors and central towers, previously studied during the 1980s. Linear Fresnel reflectors (LFRs) are regarded as a low efficiency technology, which is mainly due to very little previous research. However, the use of slightly bent mirrors drives to high concentration ratios, with obvious cost advantages over other CSP technologies. This paper studies the radiation flux obtained in a flat receiver using different mirror shapes, and analyzes its variation along the year. Linear Fresnel reflector design variables are reviewed, and a Ray Tracing model of the Fresdemo prototype is carried out. Results show higher performances than expected

  3. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed. PMID:27131709

  4. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  5. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo

    2016-09-01

    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  6. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  7. High-speed signal processing using highly nonlinear optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in all-optical signal processing techniques making use of conventional silica-based highly nonlinear fibres. In particular, we focus on recent demonstrations of ultra-fast processing at 640 Gbit/s and above, as well as on signal processing of novel modulation formats...

  8. High speed VLSI neural network for high-energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masa, P.; Hoen, K.; Wallinga, H.

    1994-01-01

    A CMOS neural network IC is discussed which was designed for very high speed applications. The parallel architecture, analog computing and digital weight storage provides unprecedented computing speed combined with ease of use. The circuit classifies up to 70 dimensional vectors within 20 nanosecond

  9. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  10. GaN Electronics For High Power, High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-06-12

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers. GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  11. High-tech maintenance for high-speed trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Javier Rutz [Nertus Mantenimiento Ferroviario, S.A., Madrid (Spain); Hofmann, Manfred [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Mobility Div., Integrated Services

    2011-03-15

    Reliable, punctual trains cannot do without professional maintenance. Nertus S.A., a joint subsidiary of Siemens and Renfe, is responsible for providing precisely this for the Spanish high-speed train, Velaro E (AVE S103), which operates between Madrid and Barcelona. (orig.)

  12. High Molecular Weight Polybenzimidazole Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Steenberg, T.;

    2014-01-01

    showed enhanced chemical stability towards radical attacks under the Fenton test, reduced volume swelling upon the acid doping and improved mechanical strength at acid doping levels of as high as about 11 mol H3PO4 per molar repeat polymer unit. The PBI‐78kDa/10.8PA membrane, for example, exhibited...

  13. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  14. Boriding of high carbon high chromium cold work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-carbon high-chromium cold work tool steels are widely used for blanking and cold forming of punches and dies. It is always advantageous to obtain an increased wear resistant surface to improve life and performance of these steels. In this connection boriding of a high-carbon high-chromium cold work die steel, D3, was conducted in a mixture of 30% B4C, 70% borax at 950 °C for two, four and six hours. Case depth of the borided layer obtained was between 40 to 80 μm. After boriding, the surface hardness achieved was between 1430 to 1544 HV depending upon the process time. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of a duplex compound layer consisting of FeB and Fe2B. It is generally considered that FeB is undesirable because of its inherent brittleness. Post boriding treatment (homogenization) transformed the compound layer into single-phase layer of Fe2B, while surface hardness decreased to 1345-1430 HV. Pin-on-disc wer test showed that wear resistance of the borided samples was superior as compared to non-borided material and increased with boriding time

  15. Digital valve for high pressure high flow applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Lewis, Derek; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Hall, Jeffery L.

    2016-04-01

    To address the challenges, which are involved with the development of flow control valves that can meet high demand requirements such as high pressure, high flow rate, limited power and limited space, the authors have conceived a novel design configuration. This design consists of a digitalized flow control valve with multipath and multistage pressure reduction structures. Specifically, the valve is configured as a set of parallel flow paths from the inlet to the outlet. A choke valve controls the total flow rate by digitally opening different paths or different combination of the paths. Each path is controlled by a poppet cap valve basically operated in on-off states. The number of flow states is 2N where N is the number of flow paths. To avoid erosion from sand in the fluid and high speed flow, the seal area of the poppet cap valve is located at a distance from the flow inlet away from the high speed flow and the speed is controlled to stay below a predefined erosion safe limit. The path is a multistage structure composed of a set of serial nozzles-expansion chambers that equally distribute the total pressure drop to each stage. The pressure drop of each stage and, therefore, the flow speed at the nozzles and expansion chambers is controlled by the number of stages. The paths have relatively small cross section and could be relatively long for large number of stages and still fit in a strict annular space limit. The paper will present the design configuration, analysis and preliminary test results.

  16. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per;

    Abstract Background: The research of high pressure (HP) processing of meat based foods needs to address how pressure affects protein interactions, aggregation and/or gelation. The understanding of the gel forming properties of myofibrillar components is fundamental for the development of muscle......–PAGE gels of myofibrillar protein extract from HP treated meat showed that myofibrillar proteins form high molecular weight aggregates after HP treatment. Myofibrillar protein aggregates were stable in a reducing environment, suggesting that disulfide bonds are not the main molecular interactions...... the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  17. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    -order difference of the output signal from the loop filter's first integrator stage. This technique avoids the need for accurate matching of analog and digital filters that characterizes the MASH topology, and it preserves the signal-band suppression of quantization errors. Simulations show that quantizers...... in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential......, because that requires a high-resolution loop quantizer which introduces only a small delay. Generally, it is not acceptable to design the loop quantizer as a high-resolution flash quantizer because they require a large chip area and high power consumption. Pipeline techniques are proposed to circumvent...

  18. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented.

  19. High-let radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads

  20. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  1. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  2. High Exposure Facility Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Gregory L.; Stithem, Arthur R.; Murphy, Mark K.; Smith, Alex K.

    2008-02-12

    The High Exposure Facility is a collimated high-level gamma irradiator that is located in the basement of the 318 building. It was custom developed by PNNL back in 1982 to meet the needs for high range radiological instrument calibrations and dosimeter irradiations. At the time no commercially available product existed that could create exposure rates up to 20,000 R/h. This document is intended to pass on the design criteria that was employed to create this unique facility, while maintaining compliance with ANSI N543-1974, "General Safety Standard for Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV."

  3. High-power RF compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss here the possibility of rapidly compressing resonant RF fields in a coaxial cavity with a moving, magnetically confined plasma ring. The possibility of accelerating a plasma ring and various acceleration configurations was discussed earlier. Since the ring velocity can be high, compression to high energy density and high power can be achieved before significant resistive loss or vaporization of the cavity walls occurs. An example is given of compressing 105 J of lambda = 15 cm stored energy to 2 x 106 J of lambda = 1.0 cm RF energy with the energy released in 3 nsec for a maximum power of 6 x 1014 W. A proof of principle plasma ring accelerator experiment could provide a significant test by compressing 125 joules of 14 cm RF to 1.25 kJ of 1.4 cm radiation, released in 5 nsec for a very respectable peak power of 2.5 x 1011 W

  4. High resolution elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative analysis of light elements in ultra thin films being thinner than 10 nm is still a nontrivial task. This paper will summarise the prospects of high resolution elastic recoil detection (ERD) using a Q3D magnetic spectrograph. It has been shown that subnanometer resolution can be achieved in ultra thin films and even monolayer resolution is possible close to the surface. ERD has best quantification possibilities compared to any other method. Sensitivity is sufficient to analyse main elements and impurities as e.g. being necessary for the characterisation of microelectronic materials. In addition, high resolution channeling ERD can be performed in order to get information on lattice location of light elements in crystalline ultra thin layers. The potential of high resolution ERD will be demonstrated by several applications where it is the most valuable tool for elemental profiling

  5. Portable High Voltage Impulse Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gómez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a portable high voltage impulse generator which was designed and built with insulation up to 20 kV. This design was based on previous work in which simulation software for standard waves was developed. Commercial components and low-cost components were used in this work; however, these particular elements are not generally used for high voltage applications. The impulse generators used in industry and laboratories are usually expensive; they are built to withstand extra high voltage and they are big, making them impossible to transport. The proposed generator is portable, thereby allowing tests to be made on devices that cannot be moved from their location. The results obtained with the proposed impulse generator were satisfactory in terms of time and waveforms compared to other commercial impulse generators and the standard impulse wave simulator.

  6. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  7. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  8. Simulation of High Energy Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Mashtakov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Under the scope of a CERN summer student project, a Geant4 physical model has been developed and committed to the Geant4 repository to allow precise simulation of high-energy muons and hadrons transport inside a material. Resulted angular distributions produced by this model have small deviations from those that were obtained by the Geant4 model used by default. High-energetic muons energy losses inside the CMS tracker have also been estimated and may vary from 0.05% up to 2.5%.

  9. CROPS : high tech agricultural robots

    OpenAIRE

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS (Clever Robots for Crops) project high tech robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit and fruit vegetables. The harvesting robots are being designed to harvest high-value crops such as greenhouse vegetables, fruits in orchards and grapes for premium wines. The CROPS robots are also developed for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target spraying in grape vines to reduce the use of pesticides. A CROPS robot will be able ...

  10. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.104-1020) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  11. Pairing Correlations at High Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Ping; Yuan, Da-Qing; Zhu, Shen-Yun; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Petrache, C. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Carlsson, B. G.

    The pairing correcting energies at high spins in 161Lu and 138Nd are studied by comparing the results of the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky (CNS) and cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky-Bogoliubov (CNSB) models. It is concluded that the Coriolis effect rather than the rotational alignment effect plays a major role in the reduction of the pairing correlations in the high spin region. Then we proposed an average pairing correction method which not only better reproduces the experimental data comparing with the CNS model but also enables a clean-cut tracing of the configurations thus the full-spin-range discussion on the various rotating bands.

  12. High-frequency complex pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine...

  13. Analysis of high load dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S. T.; Buono, D. F.; Hibner, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    High load damping requirements for modern jet engines are discussed. The design of damping systems which could satisfy these requirements is also discusseed. In order to evaluate high load damping requirements, engines in three major classes were studied; large transport engines, small general aviation engines, and military engines. Four damper concepts applicable to these engines were evaluated; multi-ring, cartridge, curved beam, and viscous/friction. The most promising damper concept was selected for each engine and performance was assessed relative to conventional dampers and in light of projected damping requirements for advanced jet engines.

  14. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra......-rotating propellers, propeller-and-stator-blade propulsors, and also to propellers with unconventional geometry, like propellers with end plates and tip-fin or Kappel propellers. The paper starts with a short overview of the different unconventional, high-efficiency propulsors. The emphasis is laid on the background......, development and current state of development of tip-fin propellers....

  15. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.;

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  16. High rate manure supernatant digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anne Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7h imposing a maximum organic load of 400g COD L-1 reactor d-1. The reactors re...

  17. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  18. High-End Silicon PDICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zimmermann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview on integrated silicon photodiodes and photodiode integrated circuits (PDICs or optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs for optical storage systems (OSS and fiber receivers is given. It is demonstrated, that by using low-cost silicon technologies high-performance OEICs being true competitors for some III/V-semiconductor OEICs can be realized. OSS-OEICs with bandwidths of up to 380 MHz and fiber receivers with maximum data rates of up to 11 Gbps are described. Low-cost data comm receivers for plastic optical fibers (POF as well as new circuit concepts for OEICs and highly parallel optical receivers are described also in the following.

  19. Mechanical properties of high performance concrete made with high calcium high sulfate fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Sun, W. [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Shang, L. [Nanjing Ningyuan Science and Technology Development Co., Nanjing (China)

    1997-07-01

    A high calcium fly ash with high SO{sub 3} content was used to produce high performance concrete. In all the mixes, the fly ash contents of 50% and 60% by weight were applied. Although fly ash cement pastes showed severe volume instability and poor pore structure development, mortars and concretes incorporating high mass high calcium fly ash exhibited good performance in both fresh and hardened state as those with low calcium fly ash did. The 3d and 28d compressive strength of mortars reached 25.2--42.2MPa respectively with the water binder ratio varying from 0.30 to 0.24. What is noticeable is that all the mortars and concretes showed good strength developing tendency with the 90d compressive strength up to 67.3--85.5MPa. This investigation reveals once more the fact that some materials which are not up to standard can still play a special role so long as the components are carefully chosen and proportions properly designed.

  20. Dephosphorization of stainless steel and high Cr-high Ni-high Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation was carried out about dephosphorization by both oxidizing and reducing of 10-20%Cr metals using several kinds of flux, such as Na2CO3-NaCl, K2CO3-KCl, CaO-CaF2, BaO-BaCl2, CaC2-CaF2 and CaCN2-CaF2. It was recognized that CaC2-20%CaF2 flux was adequate to dephosphorization of high Cr content molten metal, because higher Cr content was advantageous for dephosphorization and high degree of dephosphorization was obtained. Experiments of dephosphorization was carried out with CaC2-20% CaF2 flux and it was applied to high Cr, high Ni, high Mo commercial alloys. The results are summerrized as follows: 1) S, N and O contents in addition to P of the molten metals reduced after flux addition, and carbon increased. 2) The effects of alloying elements on dephosphorization are that Cr is advantageous, Ni is disadvantageous, and Mo, Si, Mn have little influence. 3) Because of rephosphorization, the slag after dephosphorization should be completely cut off. 4) The stink of the slag after dephosphorization can be extinguished by wasted nitricacid treatment. (author)