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Sample records for biphasic myopathic phenotype

  1. Changes in muscle cell metabolism and mechanotransduction are associated with myopathic phenotype in a mouse model of collagen VI deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Palma

    Full Text Available This study identifies metabolic and protein phenotypic alterations in gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of Col6a1(-/- mice, a model of human collagen VI myopathies. All three muscles of Col6a1(-/- mice show some common changes in proteins involved in metabolism, resulting in decreased glycolysis and in changes of the TCA cycle fluxes. These changes lead to a different fate of α-ketoglutarate, with production of anabolic substrates in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, and with lipotoxicity in diaphragm. The metabolic changes are associated with changes of proteins involved in mechanotransduction at the myotendineous junction/costameric/sarcomeric level (TN-C, FAK, ROCK1, troponin I fast and in energy metabolism (aldolase, enolase 3, triose phosphate isomerase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase 1, parvalbumin, IDH1 and FASN. Together, these change may explain Ca(2+ deregulation, impaired force development, increased muscle-relaxation-time and fiber damage found in the mouse model as well as in patients. The severity of these changes differs in the three muscles (gastrocnemius

  2. Myopathic mtDNA Depletion Syndrome Due to Mutation in TK2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Rivera, Henry; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Coca-Robinot, David; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the disease gene(s) in a Spanish girl with failure to thrive, muscle weakness, mild facial weakness, elevated creatine kinase, deficiency of mitochondrial complex III and depletion of mtDNA. With whole-exome sequencing data, it was possible to get the whole mtDNA sequencing and discard any pathogenic variant in this genome. The analysis of whole exome uncovered a homozygous pathogenic mutation in thymidine kinase 2 gene ( TK2; NM_004614.4:c.323 C>T, p.T108M). TK2 mutations have been identified mainly in patients with the myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes. This patient presents an atypical TK2-related myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes, because despite having a very low content of mtDNA (TK2 gene in mtDNA depletion syndromes and expanded the phenotypic spectrum.

  3. Molecular and clinical characterization of the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome caused by mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasert, Sirisak; Wang, Jing; Weng, Shao-Wen; Enns, Gregory M; Boué, Daniel R; Wong, Brenda L; Mendell, Jerry R; Perry, Deborah A; Sahenk, Zarife; Craigen, William J; Alcala, Francisco J Climent; Pascual, Juan M; Melancon, Serge; Zhang, Victor Wei; Scaglia, Fernando; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDSs) are a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous group of mitochondrial cytopathies characterized by severe mtDNA copy number reduction in affected tissues. Clinically, MDSs are mainly categorized as myopathic, encephalomyopathic, hepatocerebral, or multi-systemic forms. To date, the myopathic form of MDS is mainly caused by mutations in the TK2 gene, which encodes thymidine kinase 2, the first and rate limiting step enzyme in the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleosides. We analyzed 9 unrelated families with 11 affected subjects exhibiting the myopathic form of MDS, by sequencing the TK2 gene. Twelve mutations including 4 novel mutations were detected in 9 families. Skeletal muscle specimens were available from 7 out of 11 subjects. Respiratory chain enzymatic activities in skeletal muscle were measured in 6 subjects, and enzymatic activities were reduced in 3 subjects. Quantitative analysis of mtDNA content in skeletal muscle was performed in 5 subjects, and marked mtDNA content reduction was observed in each. In addition, we outline the molecular and clinical characteristics of this syndrome in a total of 52 patients including those previously reported, and a total of 36 TK2 mutations are summarized. Clinically, hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness are the major phenotypes present in all subjects. In summary, our study expands the molecular and clinical spectrum associated with TK2 deficiency. © 2013.

  4. Myopathic involvement and mitochondrial pathology in Kennedy disease and in other motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsucci, D; Rocchi, A; Caldarazzo Ienco, E; Alì, G; LoGerfo, A; Petrozzi, L; Scarpelli, M; Filosto, M; Carlesi, C; Siciliano, G; Bonuccelli, U; Mancuso, M

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy disease (spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, or SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by a CAG expansion in the androgen-receptor (AR) gene. Increasing evidence shows that SBMA may have a primary myopathic component and that mitochondrial dysfunction may have some role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this article, we review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) in SBMA, and we present the illustrative case of a patient who presented with increased CK levels and exercise intolerance. Molecular analysis led to definitive diagnosis of SBMA, whereas muscle biopsy showed a mixed myopathic and neurogenic process with "mitochondrial features" and multiple mtDNA deletions, supporting some role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of the myopathic component of Kennedy disease. Furthermore, we briefly review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in two other motor neuron diseases (namely spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Most likely, in most cases mtDNA does not play a primary role and it is involved subsequently. MtDNA deletions may contribute to the neurodegenerative process, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear. It will be important to develop a better understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in motoneuron diseases, since it may lead to the development of more effective strategies for the treatment of this devastating disorder.

  5. [Educational and Professional Qualifications of Adults With Myotonic Dystrophies - A Misleading Perception by the Myopathic Face?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, K; Wenninger, S; Schüller, A; Montagnese, F; Schoser, B

    2016-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophies types 1 and 2 (DM1 / DM2) are the most frequent inherited progressive, segmental progeroid, multisystemic neuromuscular diseases in adulthood. The executive impairment is one of the key disease features. The myopathic face triggers the general perception of DM1 patients being associated with a low educational level. We used a standardized questionnaire to evaluate educational levels in adults with genetically confirmed DM1 and DM2 in comparison to data of the general population. Investigated topics included the level of education, e. g. the highest university degree aquired. Out of a total cohort of 546 DM patients, 125 DM1 and 156 DM2 patients (51 %) participated in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between the two collectives as far as high school levels are concerned. 50.4 % of DM1 and 48.3 % of DM2 patients obtained the higher education entrance qualification compared to 29.6 % of the normal German population. However, there were significant differences between the two collectives in "spelling problems" (DM1 cohort: p = 0.039), "difficulty in mental arithmetic" (p = 0.043), and classification of patients "with learning difficulties" (p = 0.012). Misled by a myopathic face, many physicians associate myotonic dystrophy with cognitive deficiency. Based on our study, the minimal deviation between DM1 and DM2 and the normal German population indicates that the multisystemic disease does not significantly influence the maximum attainable level of education in adults with DM1. In summary, physicians should be aware that the general educational levels are rather normal in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and rethink their perception of DM1 patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Aging Effects of Caenorhabditis elegans Ryanodine Receptor Variants Corresponding to Human Myopathic Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicoll Baines

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Delaying the decline in skeletal muscle function will be critical to better maintenance of an active lifestyle in old age. The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor, the major intracellular membrane channel through which calcium ions pass to elicit muscle contraction, is central to calcium ion balance and is hypothesized to be a significant factor for age-related decline in muscle function. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a key model system for the study of human aging, and strains were generated with modified C. elegans ryanodine receptors corresponding to human myopathic variants linked with malignant hyperthermia and related conditions. The altered response of these strains to pharmacological agents reflected results of human diagnostic tests for individuals with these pathogenic variants. Involvement of nerve cells in the C. elegans responses may relate to rare medical symptoms concerning the central nervous system that have been associated with ryanodine receptor variants. These single amino acid modifications in C. elegans also conferred a reduction in lifespan and an accelerated decline in muscle integrity with age, supporting the significance of ryanodine receptor function for human aging.

  7. Effect of coenzyme q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Giuseppe; Kelly, Patricia; McNurlan, Margaret A; Lawson, William E

    2007-05-15

    Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, statin use is often associated with a variety of muscle-related symptoms or myopathies. Myopathy may be related in part to statin inhibition of the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor for mitochondrial energy production. The aim of this study is to determine whether coenzyme Q10 supplementation would reduce the degree of muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Patients with myopathic symptoms were randomly assigned in a double-blinded protocol to treatment with coenzyme Q10 (100 mg/day, n = 18) or vitamin E (400 IU/day, n = 14) for 30 days. Muscle pain and pain interference with daily activities were assessed before and after treatment. After a 30-day intervention, pain severity decreased by 40% (p pain interference with daily activities decreased by 38% (p pain severity (+9%, p = NS) or pain interference with daily activities (-11%, p = NS) was observed in the group treated with vitamin E. In conclusion, results suggest that coenzyme Q10 supplementation may decrease muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Thus, coenzyme Q10 supplementation may offer an alternative to stopping treatment with these vital drugs.

  8. Variable myopathic presentation in a single family with novel skeletal RYR1 mutation.

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    Ruben Attali

    Full Text Available We describe an autosomal recessive heterogeneous congenital myopathy in a large consanguineous family. The disease is characterized by variable severity, progressive course in 3 of 4 patients, myopathic face without ophthalmoplegia and proximal muscle weakness. Absence of cores was noted in all patients. Genome wide linkage analysis revealed a single locus on chromosome 19q13 with Zmax = 3.86 at θ = 0.0 and homozygosity of the polymorphic markers at this locus in patients. Direct sequencing of the main candidate gene within the candidate region, RYR1, was performed. A novel homozygous A to G nucleotide substitution (p.Y3016C within exon 60 of the RYR1 gene was found in patients. ARMS PCR was used to screen for the mutation in all available family members and in an additional 150 healthy individuals. This procedure confirmed sequence analysis and did not reveal the A to G mutation (p.Y3016C in 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Functional analysis on EBV immortalized cell lines showed no effect of the mutation on RyR1 pharmacological activation or the content of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the RyR1 protein in the patient's muscle concomitant with a reduction of the DHPRα1.1 protein. This novel mutation resulting in RyR1 protein decrease causes heterogeneous clinical presentation, including slow progression course and absence of centrally localized cores on muscle biopsy. We suggest that RYR1 related myopathy should be considered in a wide variety of clinical and pathological presentation in childhood myopathies.

  9. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  10. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  11. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  12. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biphasic calcium phosphate; bone graft; Cassia occidentalis; simulated body fluid; SaOS-2 cell line. ... The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. ... Current Issue

  13. Mediated water electrolysis in biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Peljo, Pekka; Rivier, Lucie; Vrubel, Heron; Girault, Hubert H

    2017-08-30

    The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H 2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H 2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell. At the cathode the reduction of decamethylferrocenium cations ([Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + ) to neutral decamethylferrocene (Cp 2 *Fe (II) ) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) solvent takes place at the solid electrode/oil interface. This electron transfer process induces the ion transfer of a proton across the immiscible water/oil interface to maintain electroneutrality in the oil phase. The oil-solubilised proton immediately reacts with Cp 2 *Fe (II) to form the corresponding hydride species, [Cp 2 *Fe (IV) (H)] + . Subsequently, [Cp 2 *Fe (IV) (H)] + spontaneously undergoes a chemical reaction in the oil phase to evolve hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and regenerate [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + , whereupon this catalytic Electrochemical, Chemical, Chemical (ECC') cycle is repeated. During biphasic electrolysis, the stability and recyclability of the [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + /Cp 2 *Fe (II) redox couple were confirmed by chronoamperometric measurements and, furthermore, the steady-state concentration of [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + monitored in situ by UV/vis spectroscopy. Post-biphasic electrolysis, the presence of H 2 in the headspace of the cathodic compartment was established by sampling with gas chromatography. The rate of the biphasic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was enhanced by redox electrocatalysis in the presence of floating catalytic molybdenum carbide (Mo 2 C) microparticles at the immiscible water/oil interface. The use of a superhydrophobic organic electrolyte salt was critical to

  14. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  15. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  16. Modeling and predictions of biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration altered by cell-intrinsic properties and matrix confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Amit

    2018-04-12

    Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement. On 2D matrices, our calculations reproduce the classic biphasic dependence of migration speed on matrix stiffness and predict that cell types with higher force-generating ability do not slow down on very stiff matrices, thus disabling the biphasic response. We also predict that cell types defined by lower number of total receptors require stiffer matrices for optimal motility, which also limits the biphasic response. For a cell type with robust biphasic migration on 2D surface, simulations in channel-like confined environments of varying width and height predict faster migration in more confined matrices. Simulations performed in shallower channels predict that the biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration response is more robust on 2D micro-patterns as compared to the channel-like 3D confinement. Thus, variations in the dimensionality of matrix confinement alters the way migratory cells sense and respond to the matrix stiffness. Our calculations reveal new phenotypes of stiffness- and topography-sensitive cell migration that critically depend on both cell-intrinsic and matrix properties. These predictions may inform our understanding of various mechanosensitive modes of cell motility that could enable tumor invasion through topographically heterogeneous microenvironments. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Hearing loss in a patient with the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome and a novel mutation in the TK2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Ramon; Nascimento, Andrés; Colomer, Jaume; Lara, Mari C; López-Gallardo, Ester; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Montoya, Julio; Andreu, Antoni L; Briones, Paz; Pineda, Mercè

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS) is a devastating disorder of infancy caused by a significant reduction of the number of copies of mitochondrial DNA in one or more tissues. We report a Spanish patient with the myopathic form of MDS, harboring two mutations in the thymidine kinase 2 gene (TK2): a previously reported deletion (p.K244del) and a novel nucleotide duplication in the exon 2, generating a frameshift and premature stop codon. Sensorineural hearing loss was a predominant symptom in the patient and a novel feature of MDS due to TK2 mutations. The patient survived up to the age of 8.5 y, which confirms that survival above the age of 5 y is not infrequent in patients with MDS due to TK2 deficiency.

  18. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  19. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  1. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  2. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  3. Deep eutectic solvents as performance additives in biphasic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Dongming; Wang, Xuping; Zhou, Pengfei; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents act as surfactants in biphasic (hydrophobic/aqueous) reaction mixtures enabling higher interfacial surface areas at lower mechanical stress as compared to simple emulsions. Exploiting this effect the rate of a chemoenzymatic epoxidation reaction was increased more than

  4. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  5. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Falciparum malaria. It is associated with a significant risk of death and neurological sequelae. A biphasic clinical picture is associated with an even greater risk of neurological sequelae. Objective To examine the incidence and clinical ...

  6. Review of biphasic insulin aspart in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Raja-Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazia Raja-Khan, Sarah S Warehime, Robert A GabbayDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Penn State Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USABackground: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving glycemic control and preventing complications in patients with diabetes. In order to make insulin therapy more acceptable to patients, newer formulations of insulin have been developed, such as biphasic insulins. Biphasic insulins conveniently provide both prandial and basal insulin in a single injection. One of the most well-studied biphasic insulins is biphasic insulin aspart 70/30.Objective: Our goal was to review the current literature on the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms “biphasic insulin aspart” to identify clinical studies and reviews.Results: Biphasic insulin aspart more effectively reduces post-prandial glucose compared to other biphasic insulins and basal insulins. Compared to biphasic insulin aspart, fasting glucose levels are lower with NPH, similar with glargine, and similar or lower with biphasic human insulin. Treat-to-target trials have shown that a goal HbA1c below 6.5 or 7% can be achieved with biphasic insulin aspart. The risk of hypoglycemia is similar to or less than that seen with other biphasic insulins or NPH insulin.Conclusion: Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, insulin, diabetes

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  8. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  9. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  10. A new kinetic biphasic approach applied to biodiesel process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Many different papers have been published on the kinetics of the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts to produce biodiesel. All the proposed approaches are based on the assumption of a pseudo-monophasic system. The consequence of these approaches is that some experimental aspects cannot be described. For the reaction performed in batch conditions, for example, the monophasic approach is not able to reproduce the different plateau obtained by using different amount of catalyst or the induction time observed at low stirring rates. Moreover, it has been observed by operating in continuous reactors that micromixing has a dramatic effect on the reaction rate. At this purpose, we have recently observed that is possible to obtain a complete conversion to biodiesel in less than 10 seconds of reaction time. This observation is confirmed also by other authors using different types of reactors like: static mixers, micro-reactors, oscillatory flow reactors, cavitational reactors, microwave reactors or centrifugal contactors. In this work we will show that a recently proposed biphasic kinetic approach is able to describe all the aspects before mentioned that cannot be described by the monophasic kinetic model. In particular, we will show that the biphasic kinetic model can describe both the induction time observed in the batch reactors, at low stirring rate, and the very high conversions obtainable in a micro-channel reactor. The adopted biphasic kinetic model is based on a reliable reaction mechanism that will be validated by the experimental evidences reported in this work. (orig.)

  11. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-07-28

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  12. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  13. A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Zuleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23 obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC percentage values (better quality, closer contact in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic. The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration.

  14. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and

  15. Generic Model-Based Tailor-Made Design and Analysis of Biphasic Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    systems have a broad range of application, such as the manufacture of petroleum based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agro-bio products. Major considerations in the design and analysis of biphasic reaction systems are physical and chemical equilibria, kinetic mechanisms, and reaction rates. The primary...... contribution of this thesis is the development of a systematic modelling framework for the biphasic reaction system. The developed framework consists of three modules describing phase equilibria, reactions and mass transfer, and material balances of such processes. Correlative and predictive thermodynamic......Biphasic reaction systems are composed of immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases where reactants, products, and catalysts are partitioned. These biphasic conditions point to novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product separation. The biphasic...

  16. Biphasic 201thallium scintgraphy after dipyridamole in mitral valve diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoliner, R.; Dudczak, R.; Kronik, G.; Moesslacher, H.; Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of biphasic 201 thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole i.v. could neither prove nor exclude the presence of small focal lesions in the myocardium of 17 patients with mitral valve diseases. The frequent finding of a decrease in activity in the anterolateral myocardium is probably due to a relative increase in activity in the region of the inferior wall with superimposed areas of the papillary muscle and right ventricular myocardium. If the right ventricle is visualized in stress- or redistribution images, an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure can be accepted. According to Cohen's criteria, a grade 2 or 3 virtually proves the existence of pulmonary hypertension, a grade 1 makes this finding rather probable. The possibility of pulmonary hypertension can not be excluded if the right ventricular myocardium is not visualized. (orig.) [de

  17. Biphasic growth of orbital volume in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nan; Bi, Hua; Zhang, Bin; Li, Xue; Sun, Fengyuan; Qian, Xuehan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to map out the developmental curve of the orbital volume of Chinese children aged 1-15 years. CT scanning was performed on 109 children and the orbital volume, interlateral orbital rim distance (IORD), and extent of exophthalmos were measured on the CT images and plotted against age. The development of the orbit structure followed a biphasic pattern. The first growth phase was before 3 years and the second growth phase was between 7 years and 12 years of age. The growth speed in the first phase was about 3 times that of the second one (first vs second phase: 2.28 cm 3 /year vs 0.67 cm 3 /year for orbital volume, 5.01 mm/year vs 1.57 mm/year for IORD, 1.29 mm/year vs 0.42 mm/year for the exophthalmos). During development, there was no significant difference between the left and right orbits. There was no significant difference between boys and girls before 12 years of age. However, after 12 years of age, boys had significantly larger orbital volumes (22.16±2.28 cm 3 /year vs 18.57±1.16 cm 3 /year, pChinese children, the development of orbital volume follows a biphasic pattern and a sex difference becomes significant after the age of 12 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Paired associative stimulation targeting the tibialis anterior muscle using either mono or biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse form and, to determine whether...... a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1) suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11); (2) suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11) where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic......% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS. PAS using a biphasic pulse form at subthreshold intensities induces similar effects to conventional PAS....

  19. High-throughput bone and cartilage micropellet manufacture, followed by assembly of micropellets into biphasic osteochondral tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Futrega, Kathryn; Lott, William B; Klein, Travis Jacob; Cooper-White, Justin; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-09-01

    Engineered biphasic osteochondral tissues may have utility in cartilage defect repair. As bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have the capacity to make both bone-like and cartilage-like tissues, they are an ideal cell population for use in the manufacture of osteochondral tissues. Effective differentiation of MSC to bone-like and cartilage-like tissues requires two unique medium formulations and this presents a challenge both in achieving initial MSC differentiation and in maintaining tissue stability when the unified osteochondral tissue is subsequently cultured in a single medium formulation. In this proof-of-principle study, we used an in-house fabricated microwell platform to manufacture thousands of micropellets formed from 166 MSC each. We then characterized the development of bone-like and cartilage-like tissue formation in the micropellets maintained for 8-14 days in sequential combinations of osteogenic or chondrogenic induction medium. When bone-like or cartilage-like micropellets were induced for only 8 days, they displayed significant phenotypic changes when the osteogenic or chondrogenic induction medium, respectively, was swapped. Based on these data, we developed an extended 14-day protocol for the pre-culture of bone-like and cartilage-like micropellets in their respective induction medium. Unified osteochondral tissues were formed by layering 12,000 osteogenic micropellets and 12,000 chondrogenic micropellets into a biphasic structure and then further culture in chondrogenic induction medium. The assembled tissue was cultured for a further 8 days and characterized via histology. The micropellets had amalgamated into a continuous structure with distinctive bone-like and cartilage-like regions. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of micropellet assembly for the formation of osteochondral-like tissues for possible use in osteochondral defect repair.

  20. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro

  1. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  2. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Prevents Antigen-induced Biphasic Nasal Obstruction in Brown Norway Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kawasaki

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides a simple model of allergic biphasic nasal obstruction in BN rats, and also suggests that the PDE4 inhibitor may alleviate nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  3. Generation of useful energy from process fluids using the biphase turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The six largest energy consuming industries in the United States were surveyed to determine the energy savings that could result from applying the Biphase turbine to industrial process streams. A national potential energy savings of 58 million barrels of oil per year (technical market) was identified. This energy is recoverable from flashing gas liquid process streams and is separate and distinct from exhaust gas waste heat recovery. The industries surveyed in this program were the petroleum chemical, primary metals, paper and pulp, stone-clay-glass, and food. It was required to determine the applicability of the Biphase turbine to flashing operations connected with process streams, to determine the energy changes associated with these flashes if carried out in a Biphase turbine, and to determine the suitability (technical and economical feasibility) of applying the Biphase turbine to these processes.

  4. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Gur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations.

  5. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...... skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This report also shows that BMD may present with a normal CK....

  6. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  7. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated.

  8. Biphasic interactions between a cationic dendrimer and actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Florence, Alexander T

    2010-12-01

    Gene delivery systems face the problem not only of the route toward the cell and tissues in question, but also of the molecularly crowded environment of both the cytoplasm and the nucleus itself. One of the physical barriers in the cytoplasm for diffusing nanoparticles is an actin network. Here, we describe the finding that a self-fluorescent sixth generation cationic dendrimer (6 nm in diameter) interacts reversibly and possibly electrostatically with actin filaments in vitro. Not only does this interaction slow the diffusion of the dendrimer but it also affects actin polymerization in a biphasic manner. At low concentrations the dendrimer behaves like a G-binding actin protein, retarding actin polymerization, whereas at high concentrations the dendrimer acts as a nucleating protein accelerating the polymerization. Thus in vivo the diffusion of a dendrimer carrier such as this has both physical and chemical elements: by decreasing polymerization it might accelerate its own transport, and by enhancing actin polymerization retard it. This finding suggests that such a dendrimer may have a role as an anticancer agent through its inhibitory effect on actin polymerization.

  9. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: imarrucho@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  10. Biphasically Modulating the Activity of Carboxypeptidase G2 with Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2 has been used for cancer prodrug therapy to realize the targeted release of active drugs, but there yet lacks a means to modulate the CPG2 activity. Here ultrasound was used to modulate the CPG2 activity. Methods: The activity of insonated CPG2 was determined, and then underlying biochemical (i.e., monomer, dimer and conformation and ultrasonic (i.e., heat and cavitation mechanisms were explored. Results: Ultrasound (1.0 MHz increased or decreased the enzymatic activity; the activity decreased as zero- or first-order kinetics, depending on the intensity. L1 (10 W/cm2 for 200 s improved the activity via increasing the specific activity. L2 or L3 (20 W/cm2 for 1200 or 3000 s decreased the activity via disassembling the dimer, degrading the monomer, inducing glycosylation, transforming conformation and decreasing the specific activity. An increase or a slight decrease of activity attributable to 10 W/cm2 was reversible, but the activity decrease due to 20 W/cm2 was irreversible. The enzymatic modulation was realized via cavitation. Conclusion: Ultrasound can biphasically modulate the CPG2 activity, and can be employed in the CPG2-prodrug therapy to adjust the release and moles of active drugs.

  11. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  12. Design and evaluation of lornoxicam bilayered tablets for biphasic release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songa Ambedkar Sunil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of lornoxicam to achieve biphasic release pattern. A bilayered tablet, consisting of an immediate and controlled release layer, was prepared by direct compression technique. The controlled release effect was achieved by using various hydrophilic natural, semi synthetic and synthetic controlled release polymers such as xanthan gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyethylene oxide (PEO to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profiles showed the biphasic release behavior in which the immediate release (IR layer containing the lornoxicam was released within 15 minutes, whereas the controlled release (CR layer controlled the drug release for up to 24 h. All the bilayered tablets formulated have followed the zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst release. FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis (ANOVA showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver comprimidos bicamada de lornoxicam para atingir padrão de liberação bifásica. Preparou-se, por compressão direta, comprimido bicamada, consistindo de uma camada de liberação imediata e uma de liberação controlada. A liberação controlada foi obtida pelo uso de vários polímeros naturais hidrofílicos, semi-sintéticos e sintéticos, tais como goma xantana, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (HPMC e óxido de polietileno (PEO para modular a liberação do fármaco. Os perfis de liberação in vitro mostraram comportamento bifásico em que a camada de liberação imediata (IR contendo lornoxicam foi liberada em 15 minutos, enquanto a camada de liberação controlada (CR liberou o fármaco em mais de 24 horas, Todos os comprimidos bicamada

  13. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  14. Core-shell nanoreactors for efficient aqueous biphasic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Cardozo, Andrés F; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wenjing; Julcour, Carine; Lansalot, Muriel; Blanco, Jean-François; Gayet, Florence; Delmas, Henri; Charleux, Bernadette; Manoury, Eric; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2014-11-17

    Water-borne phosphine-functionalized core-cross-linked micelles (CCM) consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell were obtained as stable latexes by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) in water in a one-pot, three-step process. Initial homogeneous aqueous-phase copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (PEOMA) is followed by copolymerization of styrene (S) and 4-diphenylphosphinostyrene (DPPS), yielding P(MAA-co-PEOMA)-b-P(S-co-DPPS) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (M) by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), and final micellar cross-linking with a mixture of S and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The CCM were characterized by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to evaluate size, dispersity, stability, and the swelling ability of various organic substrates. Coordination of [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) to the core-confined phosphine groups was rapid and quantitative. The CCM and M latexes were then used, in combination with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ], to catalyze the aqueous biphasic hydroformylation of 1-octene, in which they showed high activity, recyclability, protection of the activated Rh center by the polymer scaffold, and low Rh leaching. The CCM latex gave slightly lower catalytic activity but significantly less Rh leaching than the M latex. A control experiment conducted in the presence of the sulfoxantphos ligand pointed to the action of the CCM as catalytic nanoreactors with substrate and product transport into and out of the polymer core, rather than as a surfactant in interfacial catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biphasic Rapamycin Effects in Lymphoma and Carcinoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Dao, Vinh; Padrón, Álvaro; Drerup, Justin M; Lao, Shunhua; Liu, Aijie; Hurez, Vincent; Curiel, Tyler J

    2017-01-15

    mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T-cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T-cell malignancies. Here, we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1-8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of antitumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T-cell-dependent fashion. However, typical rapamycin inhibited T-cell activation and tumor infiltration in vivo and failed to boost DD treatment effects. Low-dose (LD) rapamycin (75 μg/kg) increased potentially beneficial CD44hiCD62L + CD8 + central memory T cells in EL4 challenge, but without clinical benefit. LD rapamycin significantly enhanced DD treatment efficacy, but DD plus LD rapamycin treatment effects were independent of antitumor immunity. Instead, rapamycin upregulated EL4 IL2 receptor in vitro and in vivo, facilitating direct DD tumor cell killing. LD rapamycin augmented DD efficacy against B16 melanoma and a human B-cell lymphoma, but not against human Jurkat T-cell lymphoma or ID8agg ovarian cancer cells. Treatment effects correlated with IL2R expression, but mechanisms in some tumors were not fully defined. Overall, our data define a distinct, biphasic mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibition at doses that are clinically exploitable, including in T-cell lymphomas. Cancer Res; 77(2); 520-31. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  17. Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M

    1998-02-01

    The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.

  18. Equivalence between short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic material responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2007-06-01

    Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response deltatelasticity tensor, and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components.

  19. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (prain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (prain gardens. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Onset of white striping and progression into wooden breast as defined by myopathic changes underlying Pectoralis major growth. Estimation of growth parameters as predictors for stage of myopathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Reedy; Moraes, Luis; Wick, Macdonald; Lilburn, Michael Snell

    2018-02-01

    The broiler industry has incurred significant economic losses due to two muscle myopathies, white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB), affecting the Pectoralis major (P. major) of commercial broilers. The present study documented macroscopic changes occurring with age/growth in the P. major and P. minor muscles of commercial broilers from day 2 through day 46 (n = 27/day). Distinct myopathic aberrations observed in both breast muscles corresponded to the onset of WB. These distinct morphological changes were used as determinants in developing a ranking system, defining the ontogeny of WB as the following four stages: (1) WS, (2) petechial epimysium haemorrhages, (3) intramuscular haemorrhages and (4) ischaemia. A cumulative logit proportional odds model was used to relate the rank probabilities with the following growth parameters: body weight, P. major and P. minor weight/yield/length/width/depth. The best-fit model included P. major length/width/depth, P. minor width, P. major and P. minor yield as predictors for rank. Increasing P. major depth, P. minor width and P. major yield increased the odds of falling into higher ranks (more severe myopathy). Conversely, increasing P. major length, P. major width and P. minor yield increased the odds of falling into smaller ranks (less severe myopathy). This study describes the macroscopic changes associated with WB ontogeny in the development of a ranking system and the contribution of growth parameters in the determination of rank (WB severity). Results suggest that physical measurements inherent to selection for high-yielding broiler genotypes are contributing to the occurrence and severity of WS and WB.

  1. Pretreatment of Eucalyptus in biphasic system for furfural production and accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiudong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-01

    Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82.0% was achieved at 180°C for 60min. Surface of the pretreated Eucalyptus became relatively rough and loose, and its crystallinity index increased obviously due to the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. The pretreated Eucalyptus samples showed much higher enzymatic hydrolysis rates (26.2-70.7%) than the raw Eucalyptus (14.5%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  3. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  4. Effect of nasal continuous and biphasic positive airway pressure on lung volume in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; van der Burg, Pauline S.; Beuger, Sabine; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor regional changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), tidal volumes, and their ventilation distribution during different levels of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and nasal biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in stable preterm infants. By using electrical

  5. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  6. A randomized trial comparing monophasic and biphasic waveform shocks for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Dorian, Paul; Chapman, Fred W.; Schmitt, Paul W.; O'Grady, Sharon G.; Walker, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    Background We compared efficacy of and pain felt after biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and monophasic damped sine (MDS) shocks in patients undergoing external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Patients with AF were randomized to BTE or MDS waveform cardioversion. Successive

  7. Occurrence of amylose-lipid complexes in teff and maize starch biphasic pastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of amylose–lipid complexes was determined in maize and teff starch biphasic pastes i.e. peak viscosity pastes at short and prolonged pasting times. Maize and teff starches were pasted for 11.5 and 130 min with or without added stearic...

  8. Three dimensional biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposites for load bearing bioactive bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garai, Subhadra, E-mail: subha@nmlindia.org; Sinha, Arvind

    2016-02-01

    Mimicking matrix mediated bio-mineralization process, three dimensional blocks of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)) nanocomposites, having three different stoichiometries have been synthesized for possible application as load bearing synthetic bone graft or scaffolds. Biphasic blocks with three weight ratios of 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70 of HA and TCP respectively have been synthesized. Detailed structural and chemical characterization of the samples revealed a strong dependence of porosity and mechanical properties on the stoichiometry of biphasic blocks. Effect of physiological medium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the three different blocks has also been studied. Bioactivity of the BCP block, exhibiting highest compressive strength in air as well as in physiological medium, has been evaluated through adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells using different markers. - Highlights: • Developed a process for the synthesis of load bearing 3d- biphasic nanocomposites. • Synthesized nanocomposites exhibited in vitro osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity for bone marrow mesenchymal cells. • Developed process is a matrix mediated biomimetic one.

  9. A re-examination of the biphasic theory of skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A S; Hegarty, P V

    1977-01-01

    Because of the importance of fibre diameter measurements it was decided to re-evaluate the biphasic theory of skeletal muscle growth and development. This theory proposes an initial memophasic distribution of muscle fibres which changes to a biphasic distribution during development. The theory is based on observations made on certain muscles in mice, where two distinct populations of fibre diameters (20 and 40 micronm) contribute to the biphasic distribution. In the present investigation corss sections of frozen biceps brachii of mice in rigor mortis were examined. The rigor state was used to avoid complications produced by thaw-rigor contraction. The diameters of the outermost and innermost fibres were found to be significantly different. However, if the outer and inner fibres were combined to form one group, no significant difference between this group and other random groups was found. The distributions of all groups were monophasic. The diameters of isolated fibres from mice and rats also displayed a monophasic distribution. This evidence leads to the conclusion that the biphasic theory of muscle growth is untenable. Some of the variables which may occur in fibre size and shape are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:858691

  10. Biphasic single-reactor process for dehydration of xylose and hydrogenation of produced furfural

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The processes of xylose dehydration and the consecutive furfural hydrogenation have been combined in a single biphasic reactor. The dehydration was studied over Amberlyst-15 and the hydrogenation over a hydrophobic Ru/C catalyst. 1-Butanol, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and cyclohexane were used as

  11. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Kammouni, R.; Vázquez, M.; Lezama, L.; Kurlyandskaya, G.; Kraus, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 368, Nov (2014), 126-132 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic microwire * ferromagnetic resonance * microwave absorption * biphase magnetic system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  12. Hydroxyapatite/polylactide biphasic combination scaffold loaded with dexamethasone for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Appleford, Mark; Oh, Sunho; Ong, Joo L; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2011-12-15

    This study presents a novel design of a ceramic/polymer biphasic combination scaffold that mimics natural bone structures and is used as a bone graft substitute. To mimic the natural bone structures, the outside cortical-like shells were composed of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with a hollow interior using a polymeric template-coating technique; the inner trabecular-like core consisted of porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) that was loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) and was directly produced using a particle leaching/gas forming technique to create the inner diameter of the HA scaffold. It was observed that the HA and PLA parts of the fabricated HA/PLA biphasic scaffold contained open and interconnected pore structures, and the boundary between both parts was tightly connected without any gaps. It was found that the structure of the combination scaffold was analogous to that of natural bone based on micro-computed tomography analysis. Additionally, the dense, uniform apatite layer was formed on the surface of the HA/PLA biphasic scaffold through a biomimetic process, and DEX was successfully released from the PLA of the biphasic scaffold over a 1-month period. This release caused human embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells to proliferate, differentiate, produce ECM, and form tissue in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that this functionally graded scaffold is similar to natural bone and represents a potential bone-substitute material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alpha alumina synthesis by laser treatment of bi-phasic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Cenk, E-mail: cenk.aktas@inm-gmbh.de [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Lee, Juseok; Míro, Marina Martinez [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Barnoush, Afrooz [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Saarland University, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Veith, Michael [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic nanowires (Al-core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell) are prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using single source precursor (SSP) approach. Such bi-phasic nanostructures were heat-treated using an argon laser operating at visible wavelengths. Al core seems to act as an active binder, which might decrease the inhomogeneous heating and thermal gradients. Nanoindentation method is used to estimate the hardness of the laser treated surfaces. Hardness values and pop-in behaviour in loading-curve indicate a formation of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with very low defect density. It is believed that Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic layers exhibit a dynamic change by transforming into alumina after the laser irradiation and this leads to alteration of the optical absorption especially in the visible wavelength region. Following the full transformation to alumina, the surface reflects back the laser light which hinders inhomogeneous and excessive heating. In this context, laser treatment of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic nanowires provides a controlled sintering process which can open up various applications in different fields.

  14. Biphasic rate of CD4+ cell count decline during progression to AIDS correlates with HIV-1 phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, P. T.; Tersmette, M.; Roos, M. T.; Keet, R. P.; de Wolf, F.; Coutinho, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the kinetics of decline of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected asymptomatic homosexual men. CD4+ lymphocytes were enumerated in a cohort of 187 HIV-1-infected initially asymptomatic homosexual men seen at 3-month intervals over 5 years. During follow-up, 45 men progressed to AIDS

  15. Ultrasound in the Assessment of Myopathic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidman, C.M.; Alfen, N. van

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular ultrasound (US) augments a careful physical examination and electrodiagnostic evaluation in the evaluation of suspected myopathy. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle can identify abnormal echo intensity, size, and movement. Because it is painless and noninvasive, US can be used to evaluate

  16. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 ∼ 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic

  17. * Fabrication and Characterization of Biphasic Silk Fibroin Scaffolds for Tendon/Ligament-to-Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Tellado, Sònia; Bonani, Walter; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Foehr, Peter; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; van Griensven, Martijn

    2017-08-01

    Tissue engineering is an attractive strategy for tendon/ligament-to-bone interface repair. The structure and extracellular matrix composition of the interface are complex and allow for a gradual mechanical stress transfer between tendons/ligaments and bone. Thus, scaffolds mimicking the structural features of the native interface may be able to better support functional tissue regeneration. In this study, we fabricated biphasic silk fibroin scaffolds designed to mimic the gradient in collagen molecule alignment present at the interface. The scaffolds had two different pore alignments: anisotropic at the tendon/ligament side and isotropic at the bone side. Total porosity ranged from 50% to 80% and the majority of pores (80-90%) were ligament, enthesis, and cartilage markers significantly changed depending on pore alignment in each region of the scaffolds. In conclusion, the biphasic scaffolds fabricated in this study show promising features for tendon/ligament-to-bone tissue engineering.

  18. Anti-prelog reduction of prochiral carbonyl compounds by Oenococcus oeni in a biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Yan

    2006-07-01

    An aqueous-organic biphasic system was established and used with whole cells of Oenococcus oeni to reduce 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol. The conversion reached 99% when the Tris/borate buffer was increased from 50 mM to 300 mM in the aqueous phase. In addition, the conversion increased as the log P value of the organic solvent changed from 0.5 to 6.6. Under optimized conditions, the conversion of (R)-2-octanol reached 99% from 0.5 M 2-octanone with an optical purity of 99% e.e. The biphasic system allows the anti-Prelog reduction of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to furnish (R)-configurated alcohols in high optical purity as well.

  19. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Prosolov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.

  20. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50 and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal–bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal–bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D.

  1. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  2. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/β-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arahira, Takaaki; Maruta, Michito, E-mail: maruta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp; Matsuya, Shigeki

    2017-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate(β-TCP) is an excellent bone substitute with controllable bioresorbability. Fabrication of biphasic calcium phosphate with self-setting ability is expected to enhance its potential application as bone substitute. In this study, mixtures of α-TCP and β-TCP with various compositions were prepared through α-β phase transition of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C for various periods. These powders were mixed with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} at a P/L ratio of 2, and then hardened at 37 °C at 100% RH for up to 24 h. Material properties of biphasic HA/β-TCP cement with different α-TCP/β-TCP composition were characterized. These cements were also evaluated with respect to cell response in vitro using MC3T3-E1 cell lines. In conclusion, mechanical and biological properties of HA/β-TCP cement could be controlled by changing the heat treatment time of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C. In vitro results indicated that cell proliferation and ALP activity increased with increase β-TCP content. - Highlights: • We could fabricate biphasic HA/β-TCP cements using heat treated α-TCP powder. • It is easy to control the ratio of α-TCP to β-TCP changing the heat treatment time up to 48 h. • Both cell number and ALP activity increased with increase in β-TCP content. • In vitro results showed that β-TCP has superior cell affinity to HA.

  3. A phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve fiber: temporal and biphasic response properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eHorne

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a phenomenological model of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers (ANFs. The model reproduces the probabilistic and temporal properties of the ANF response to both monophasic and biphasic stimuli, in isolation. The main contribution of the model lies in its ability to reproduce statistics of the ANF response (mean latency, jitter, and firing probability under both monophasic and cathodic-anodic biphasic stimulation, without changing the model’s parameters. The response statistics of the model depend on stimulus level and duration of the stimulating pulse, reproducing trends observed in the ANF. In the case of biphasic stimulation, the model reproduces the effects of pseudomonophasic pulse shapes and also the dependence on the interphase gap (IPG of the stimulus pulse, an effect that is quantitatively reproduced. The model is fitted to ANF data using a procedure that uniquely determines each model parameter. It is thus possible to rapidly parameterize a large population of neurons to reproduce a given set of response statistic distributions.Our work extends the stochastic leaky integrate and fire (SLIF neuron, a well-studied phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated neuron. We extend the SLIF neuron so as to produce a realistic latency distribution by delaying the moment of spiking. During this delay, spiking may be abolished by anodic current. By this means, the probability of the model neuron responding to a stimulus is reduced when a trailing phase of opposite polarity is introduced. By introducing a minimum wait period that must elapse before a spike may be emitted, the model is able to reproduce the differences in the threshold level observed in the ANF for monophasic and biphasic stimuli. Thus, the ANF response to a large variety of pulse shapes are reproduced correctly by this model.

  4. Preparation of highly infective Leishmania promastigotes by cultivation on SNB-9 biphasic medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Nohýnková, E.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2011), s. 273-277 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA310/08/1697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania * SNB-9 * biphasic culture medium * parasite infectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2011

  5. A simulation study of the reaction of human heart to biphasic electrical shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemann Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article presents a study, which examines the effects of biphasic electrical shocks on human ventricular tissue. The effects of this type of shock are not yet fully understood. Animal experiments showed the superiority of biphasic shocks over monophasic ones in defibrillation. A mathematical computer simulation can increase the knowledge of human heart behavior. Methods The research presented in this article was done with different models representing a three-dimensional wedge of ventricular myocardium. The electrophysiology was described with Priebe-Beuckelmann model. The realistic fiber twist, which is specific to human myocardium was included. Planar electrodes were placed at the ends of the longest side of the virtual cardiac wedge, in a bath medium. They were sources of electrical shocks, which varied in magnitude from 0.1 to 5 V. In a second arrangement ring electrodes were placed directly on myocardium for getting a better view on secondary electrical sources. The electrical reaction of the tissue was generated with a bidomain model. Results The reaction of the tissue to the electrical shock was specific to the initial imposed characteristics. Depolarization appeared in the first 5 ms in different locations. A further study of the cardiac tissue behavior revealed, which features influence the response of the considered muscle. It was shown that the time needed by the tissue to be totally depolarized is much shorter when a biphasic shock is applied. Each simulation ended only after complete repolarization was achieved. This created the possibility of gathering information from all states corresponding to one cycle of the cardiac rhythm. Conclusions The differences between the reaction of the homogeneous tissue and a tissue, which contains cleavage planes, reveals important aspects of superiority of biphasic pulses. ...

  6. Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Developing and Testing a Biphasic Self-Medication Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and tested a moderated-mediation model of work stress and alcohol use, based on the biphasic (stimulant and sedative) effects of alcohol and the self-medication and stress-vulnerability models of alcohol use. The model proposes that exposure to work stressors can increase both negative affect and work fatigue, and that these two sources of strain can subsequently motivate the use of alcohol. However, the relations of negative affect and work fatigue to a...

  7. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Koval; A. Ye. Kulagin

    2006-01-01

    Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP) is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency) is calculated ...

  8. A case of mumps-related acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Kyoko; Shiihara, Takashi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Dowa, Yuri; Watanabe, Mio

    2017-10-01

    Mumps is a common childhood viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid gland. The prognosis is generally good, although some complications, such as encephalitis (0.1%), exist. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion is the most common type of acute encephalopathy. However, this type of encephalopathy has not been reported in association with mumps infection. A previously healthy 3-year-old Japanese boy had a brief convulsion after fever for 3days, and then had conscious disturbance and parotitis. After several days, he had a second brief convulsion and was admitted. Increased serum amylase levels and presence of anti-mumps immunoglobulin M antibody confirmed mumps parotitis. The patient had another brief seizure later the day of admission. He did not have status or cluster seizures, although the biphasic nature of his seizures, conscious disturbance between the seizures, no pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid, and brain magnetic resonance images were consistent with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. In Japan, the mumps vaccine is not administered as a part of routine immunizations. It thus has low coverage (30-40%), and as a result, mumps infections are still common. However, this is the first case of mumps-related acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. This case may be representative of only a minority of patients with mumps-associated central nervous system involvement. Nevertheless, this diagnostic possibility may be considered. In order to prevent mumps-related complications, routine mumps vaccination might be warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of the transport properties of metals in the biphase region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    Results of experiments on electrical wire explosion are presented and processes of stratum formation and decay are analyzed in this paper. A procedure of calculating the transport coefficients from the rate of stratum damping is described. It is demonstrated that values of the transport coefficients for metals are not an unambiguous function of the material state in the biphase region for characteristic times of ∼10 -7 s but depend on the process prehistory.

  10. Asthma phenotypes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Monica B; Covar, Ronina A

    2016-04-01

    This review describes the literature over the past 18 months that evaluated childhood asthma phenotypes, highlighting the key aspects of these studies, and comparing these studies to previous ones in this area. Recent studies on asthma phenotypes have identified new phenotypes on the basis of statistical analyses (using cluster analysis and latent class analysis methodology) and have evaluated the outcomes and associated risk factors of previously established early childhood asthma phenotypes that are based on asthma onset and patterns of wheezing illness. There have also been investigations focusing on immunologic, physiologic, and genetic correlates of various phenotypes, as well as identification of subphenotypes of severe childhood asthma. Childhood asthma remains a heterogeneous condition, and investigations into these various presentations, risk factors, and outcomes are important since they can offer therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Further investigation into the immunopathology and genetic basis underlying childhood phenotypes is important so therapy can be tailored accordingly.

  11. CO2 Absorption by Biphasic Solvents: Comparison with Lower Phase Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhicheng; Wang, Shujuan; Qi, Guojie; Liu, Jinzhao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Changhe

    2014-01-01

    The mixtures of 2 M 1,4-butanediamine (BDA) and 4 M 2-(diethylamino)-ethanol (DEEA) have been found to be promising biphasic solvents. This work identifies the composition of the lower phase using a DX-120 Ion Chromatograph (IC) and a Metrohm 809 Titrando auto titrator. The cyclic capacities, cyclic loadings and reaction products of the biphasic solvent are compared with those of the aqueous solution with the same amine concentration as the lower phase of the biphasic solvent at the rich loading ((2B4D) L ) using a fast screening facility and a JNM ECA-600 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometer (NMR). Their absorption rates at different loadings are also investigated using a Wetted Wall Column (WWC). The results show that the cyclic capacity and cyclic loading of (2B4D) L are almost the same as those of 2B4D. The absorption rate of (2B4D) L is higher than 2B4D at all the 3 tested loadings, except for the fresh solutions at CO 2 pressure lower than 10 kPa. NMR results show that the reaction products of (2B4D) L had more BDA bi-carbamate, less BDA and less BDA carbamate than 2B4D. The CO 2 reaction products of (2B4D) L had twice as much carbonate/bicarbonate as with 2B4D and less BDA carbamate. (authors)

  12. Paired Associative Stimulation Targeting the Tibialis Anterior Muscle using either Mono or Biphasic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Paired associative stimulation (PAS protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulse form and, to determine whether a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1 suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11; (2 suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11 where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic pulse form at 120% resting motor threshold (RMT; (3 subthreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 10 where PAS was applied as for (1 at 95% active motor threshold (AMT. The peak-to-peak motor evoked potentials (MEPs were quantified prior to, immediately following, and 30 min after the cessation of the intervention. TA MEP size increased significantly for all interventions immediately post (61% for suprathreshold PAbi-PAS, 83% for suprathreshold PAmono-PAS, 55% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS and 30 min after the cessation of the intervention (123% for suprathreshold PAbi-PAS, 105% for suprathreshold PAmono-PAS, 80% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS. PAS using a biphasic pulse form at subthreshold intensities induces similar effects to conventional PAS.

  13. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  14. Predictive feedback can account for biphasic responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke F M Jehee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic neural response properties, where the optimal stimulus for driving a neural response changes from one stimulus pattern to the opposite stimulus pattern over short periods of time, have been described in several visual areas, including lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, primary visual cortex (V1, and middle temporal area (MT. We describe a hierarchical model of predictive coding and simulations that capture these temporal variations in neuronal response properties. We focus on the LGN-V1 circuit and find that after training on natural images the model exhibits the brain's LGN-V1 connectivity structure, in which the structure of V1 receptive fields is linked to the spatial alignment and properties of center-surround cells in the LGN. In addition, the spatio-temporal response profile of LGN model neurons is biphasic in structure, resembling the biphasic response structure of neurons in cat LGN. Moreover, the model displays a specific pattern of influence of feedback, where LGN receptive fields that are aligned over a simple cell receptive field zone of the same polarity decrease their responses while neurons of opposite polarity increase their responses with feedback. This phase-reversed pattern of influence was recently observed in neurophysiology. These results corroborate the idea that predictive feedback is a general coding strategy in the brain.

  15. Low-High and High-Low Biphasic Injection Forms in Computed Tomography Examinations of the Upper Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Arana, E.; Tobarra, E.; Sierra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the influence of different biphasic and monophasic injection rate protocols in abdominal computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: A randomized, consecutive, parallel group study was designed and conducted in 60 patients studied with the same CT helical protocol. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: (A) monophasic (120 ml at 2.5 ml/s); (B) low-high biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2.5 ml/s); and (C) high-low biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2.5 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2 ml/s). All patients were injected with 300 mg I/ml non-ionic contrast media at a fixed delay time of 55 s. Contrast enhancement efficacy was evaluated by attenuation coefficient measurements. Results: Although non-significant, monophasic protocol enhancements were higher than biphasic protocol enhancements in all measurements except aortic bifurcation (p = 0.003). At this level, biphasic protocols obtained an increased mean enhancement from 7.6% to 2.5% compared to monophasic protocols. Conclusion: Monophasic contrast agent injection in helical CT of the upper abdomen produces a higher enhancement of parenchymal and venous structures. No significant difference was observed between low-high and high-low biphasic protocols

  16. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  17. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  18. Biphasic papillary renal cell carcinoma is a rare morphological variant with frequent multifocality: a study of 28 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Kiril; Athanazio, Daniel; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Yilmaz, Helene; Clouston, David; Agaimy, Abbas; Williamson, Sean R; Brimo, Fadi; Lopez, Jose I; Ulamec, Monika; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Kassem, Maysoun; Gupta, Nilesh; Hartmann, Arndt; Leroy, Xavier; Bashir, Samir Al; Yilmaz, Asli; Hes, Ondřej

    2018-04-01

    To further characterise biphasic squamoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a recently proposed variant of papillary RCC. We identified 28 tumours from multiple institutions. They typically showed two cell populations-larger cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and higher-grade nuclei, surrounded by smaller, amphophilic cells with scanty cytoplasm. The dual morphology was variable (median 72.5% of tumour, range 5-100%); emperipolesis was found in all cases. The male/female ratio was 2:1, and the median age was 55 years (range 39-86 years). The median tumour size was 20 mm (range 9-65 mm). Pathological stage pT1a was found in 21 cases, pT1b in three, and pT3a and pT3b in one each (two not available). Multifocality was found in 32%: multifocal biphasic RCC in one case, biphasic + papillary RCC in two cases, biphasic + clear cell RCC in three cases, biphasic + low-grade urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis in one case, and biphasic + Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in one case. Positive immunostains included: PAX8, cytokeratin (CK) 7, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase, epithelial membrane antigen, and vimentin. Cyclin D1 was expressed only in the larger cells. The Ki67 index was higher in the larger cells (median 5% versus ≤1%). Negative stains included: carbonic anhydrase 9, CD117, GATA-3, WT1, CK5/6, and CK20; CD10 and 34βE12 were variably expressed. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in two evaluated cases. Follow-up was available for 23 patients (median 24 months, range 1-244 months): 19 were alive without disease, one was alive with recurrence, and one had died of disease (two had died of other causes). Biphasic papillary RCC is a rare variant of papillary RCC, and is often multifocal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Switching from biphasic human insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes: results from the ASEAN subgroup of the A₁chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zanariah; Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne; Jain, Anand B; Goh, Su Yen; Soewondo, Pradana

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study. Indonesian, Malaysian, Filipino and Singaporean patients switched from BHI to BIAsp 30 at their physicians' discretion were included. The incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemia was the primary endpoint. Changes in hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), lipids, body weight and systolic blood pressure were also evaluated. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. For the 465 patients included (mean ± SD age: 56 ± 10.3 years, diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 7.1 years, baseline HbA1c: 9.4 ± 1.8%), the mean pre-study BHI dose was 0.62 ± 0.28 IU/kg and 63.4% were dosing BHI twice daily (bid). The mean baseline BIAsp 30 dose was 0.65 ± 0.27 U/kg, titrated up to 0.71 ± 0.28 U/kg over 24 weeks, and most patients continued bid dosing. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic episodes were reported. The proportion of patients reporting overall hypoglycaemia decreased significantly from 10.8% at baseline to 3.4% at Week 24 (p ASEAN subgroup poorly controlled on BHI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two novel MYH7 proline substitutions cause Laing Distal Myopathy-like phenotypes with variable expressivity and neck extensor contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein-Linial, Miora; Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Sadeh, Menachem; Dabby, Ron; Straussberg, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Dayan, Daniel; Leinwand, Leslie Anne; Birk, Ohad S

    2016-08-12

    Human skeletal muscles express three major myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms: MyHCIIx (MYH1) in fast type 2B muscle fibers, MyHCIIa (MYH2) in fast type 2A fibers and MyHCI/β-cardiac MyHC (MYH7) in slow type I skeletal fibers and cardiac ventricles. In line with its expression pattern, MYH7 mutations have been reported in association with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathies or a combination of both. We analyzed the clinical and molecular phenotype of two unrelated families of Jewish Moroccan ancestry that presented with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance of progressive Laing-like distal myopathy with non-specific myopathic changes, but uncommon marked contractures and wasting of the neck extensors. Clinical phenotyping, whole exome sequencing and restriction analysis, generation of mutants followed by cell culture transfection and imaging. Using whole exome sequencing we identified in both families two novel heterozygous proline substitutions located in exon 31 of MYH7 within its rod domain: c.4309G>C (p.Ala1437Pro) and c.4301G>C (p.Arg1434Pro). Here we show that the phenotype caused by these mutations includes marked cervical muscle contracture, and report that the severity of the phenotype varies significantly, to the extent of non-penetrance in one of the families. Finally, we provide evidence that both proline substitutions impair myosin self-assembly in non-muscle cells transfected with β-myosin constructs carrying the mutations, but do not prevent incorporation of the mutant molecules into the sarcomere. This study expands our clinical and molecular knowledge of MYH7 rod mutations causing skeletal myopathies, and underscores the importance of discussing disease penetrance during genetic counseling.

  1. Learning new meanings for known words: Biphasic effects of prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In acquiring word meanings, learners are often confronted by a single word form that is mapped to two or more meanings. For example, long after how to roller-“skate”, one may learn that “skate” is also a kind of fish. Such learning of new meanings for familiar words involves two potentially contrasting processes, relative to new form-new meaning learning: 1) Form-based familiarity may facilitate learning a new meaning, and 2) meaning-based interference may inhibit learning a new meaning. We examined these two processes by having native English speakers learn new, unrelated meanings for familiar (high frequency) and less familiar (low frequency) English words, as well as for unfamiliar (novel or pseudo-) words. Tracking learning with cued-recall tasks at several points during learning revealed a biphasic pattern: higher learning rates and greater learning efficiency for familiar words relative to novel words early in learning and a reversal of this pattern later in learning. Following learning, interference from original meanings for familiar words was detected in a semantic relatedness judgment task. Additionally, lexical access to familiar words with new meanings became faster compared to their exposure controls, but no such effect occurred for less familiar words. Overall, the results suggest a biphasic pattern of facilitating and interfering processes: Familiar word forms facilitate learning earlier, while interference from original meanings becomes more influential later. This biphasic pattern reflects the co-activation of new and old meanings during learning, a process that may play a role in lexicalization of new meanings. PMID:29399593

  2. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  3. Application of aqueous biphasic systems as strategy to purify tannase from Aspergillus tamarii URM 7115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Amanda Reges; Barros Oliveira, Flávio Manoel; Campos Leite, Tonny Cley; Evaristo da Silva Nascimento, Talita Camila; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida

    2017-10-21

    The aims of the current study are to assess the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, molar mass, pH, and citrate concentrations on aqueous biphasic systems based on 2 4 factorial designs, as well as to check their capacity to purify tannase secreted by Aspergillus tamarii URM 7115. Tannase was produced through submerged fermentation at 26°C for 67 h in Czapeck-Dox modified broth and added with yeast extract and tannic acid. The factorial design was followed to assess the influence of PEG molar mass (M PEG 600; 4,000 and 8,000 g/ mol), and PEG (C PEG 20.0; 22.0 and 24.0% w/w) and citrate concentrations (C CIT 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0%, w/w), as well as of pH (6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) on the response variables; moreover, partition coefficient (K), yield (Y), and purification factor (PF) were analyzed. The most suitable parameters to purify tannase secreted by A. tamarii URM 7115 through a biphasic system were 600 (g/mol) M PEG , 24% (w/w) C PEG , 15% (w/w) C CIT at pH 6.0 and they resulted in 6.33 enzyme partition, 131.25% yield, 19.80 purification factor and 195.08 selectivity. Tannase secreted by A. tamarii URM 7115 purified through aqueous biphasic systems composed of PEG/citrate can be used for industrial purposes, since it presents suitable purification factor and yield.

  4. Fabrication and tritium release property of Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao; Ran, Guangming; Wang, Hailiang; Dang, Chen; Huang, Zhangyi; Chen, Xiaojun; Lu, Tiecheng; Xiao, Chengjian

    2018-05-01

    Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles have been developed as an advanced tritium breeder due to the potential to combine the advantages of both Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4. Wet method was developed for the pebble fabrication and Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were successfully prepared by wet method using the powders synthesized by hydrothermal method. The tritium release properties of the Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were evaluated. The biphasic pebbles exhibited good tritium release property at low temperatures and the tritium release temperature was around 470 °C. Because of the isotope exchange reaction between H2 and tritium, the addition of 0.1%H2 to purge gas He could significantly enhance the tritium gas release and the fraction of molecular form of tritium increased from 28% to 55%. The results indicate that the Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles fabricated by wet method exhibit good tritium release property and hold promising potential as advanced breeder pebbles.

  5. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Stockmann, T. Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) borate anion (TB) was employed within a water| P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. Cs-137 is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is th...

  7. New biphasic monocomponent composite material obtained by the partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Joyce Rover; Silva, Ingrid S.V. da; Pasquini, Daniel; Santos, Daniele B. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose (CB), as well as the characterization of pure CB, oxypropylated CB (CBO) and oxypropylated CB after Soxhlet extraction with hexane (CBOE). The oxypropylation reaction was carried out by propylene oxide polymerization, catalyzed by KOH, in the presence of CB The CB samples, before and after modification, were subjected to analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was possible verify that the partial transformation of bacterial cellulose by inserting a layer of thermoplastic polymer on its surface occurred efficiently, obtaining a biphasic monocomponent composite material. (author)

  8. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90 produced the highest amount of conidia and the largest necrotic area on the two tested weeds when compared to its wild strain in the different biphasic media combinations. The study revealed that the biphasic system containing PDB + rice produced the highest bioherbicidal activities. Therefore, the phytotoxic metabolites from strain C1136 are suggested for large scale production of bioherbicides for the management of weeds in conventional farming to improve yield and enhance food security.

  9. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  10. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al 2 O 3 catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  12. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided

  13. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  14. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfoori, A., E-mail: klm.1985@yahoo.com [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Cell Bank, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliofkhazraei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained.

  15. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  16. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A.; Aliofkhazraei, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained

  17. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  19. Is there an Optimal Shape of the Defibrillation Shock: Constant Current vs. Pulsed Biphasic Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation are assessed and compared: the Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW, the Rectilinear Biphasic Waveform (RBW, and the "lossless" constant current (LLCC pulses. Two indices are introduced: 1 kf = W/W0 - the ratio between the delivered energy W and the energy W0 of a rectangular pulse with the same duration and electric charge; 2 ηC = W/WC0 - the level of utilizing the initially loaded capacitor energy WC0. The envisioned comparative study shows that ηC index is favorable for both PBW and LLCC, while kf of both RBW and LLCC demonstrates advantage over the PBW in the range of small inter-electrode thoracic impedances below 80 Ω. Some design considerations are also discussed. The attractive LLCC concept needs large and heavy inductive coil to support the constant current amplitude, besides it is capable to induce strong electromagnetic influences due to the complex current control. The RBW technology controls the delivery of current through a series of internal resistors which are, however, a source of high heat losses. The PBW implements controlled duty cycle of high-frequency chopped pulses to adapt the energy delivery in respect of the patient impedance measured at the beginning of the shock. PBW technology makes use of small capacitors which allows the construction of light weight and small-size portable devices for transthoracic defibrillation.

  20. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  1. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun, E-mail: 1044208419@qq.com; Mao, Hui, E-mail: rejoice222@163.com [Sichuan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2016-10-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  2. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: Kh_rezk966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mousa, Sahar M. [Chemistry Department, Science and Art College, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box 344, 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O. Box 12622, 11787 Cairo (Egypt); El Bassyouni, Gehan T. [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Medical Physics Department, College of Medicine, Taif University (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: • Ratio of HA and β-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. • HA partially decomposed into β-TCP with other bioactive phases. • Calcined HA at 900 °C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into β-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  3. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris S. Argyropoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-Halomethylfurfurals can be considered as platform chemicals of high reactivity making them useful for the preparation of a variety of important compounds. In this study, a one-pot route for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF in a simple and efficient (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 biphasic system has been investigated. Monosaccharides such as D-fructose, D-glucose and sorbose, disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose and polysaccharides such as cellulose were successfully converted into CMF in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. Our data shows that when using D-fructose the optimum yield of CMF was about 47%. This understanding allowed us to extent our work to biomaterials, such as wood powder and wood pulps with yields of CMF obtained being comparable to those seen with some of the enumerated mono and disaccharides. Overall, the proposed (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 optimized biphasic system provides a simple, mild, and cost-effective means to prepare CMF from renewable resources.

  4. Injectable TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose/biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Engie; Hassan, Mohammad L; Saniour, Sayed; Zaki, Dalia Yehia; Eldeftar, Mervat; Saba, Dalia; Zazou, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibrillated cellulose, obtained from rice straw agricultural wastes was used as a substrate for the preparation of a new injectable and mineralized hydrogel for bone regeneration. Tetramethyl pyridine oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose, was mineralized through the incorporation of a prepared and characterized biphasic calcium phosphate at a fixed ratio of 50 wt%. The TEMPO-oxidized rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and carboxylic content determination. The injectability and viscosity of the prepared hydrogel were evaluated using universal testing machine and rheometer testing, respectively. Cytotoxicity and alkaline phosphatase level tests on osteoblast like-cells for in vitro assessment of the biocompatibility were investigated. Results revealed that the isolated rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose is a nanocomposite of the cellulose nanofibers and silica nanoparticles. Rheological properties of the tested materials are suitable for use as injectable material and of nontoxic effect on osteoblast-like cells, as revealed by the positive alkaline phosphate assay. However, nanofibrillated cellulose/ biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel showed higher cytotoxicity and lower bioactivity test results when compared to that of nanofibrillated cellulose.

  5. Charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibits neurite extension of spiral ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Na; Liang, Qiong; Liu, Yuehong; Lai, Bin; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhengmin; Li, Shufeng

    2016-06-15

    Intracochlear application of exogenous or transgenic neurotrophins, such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), could promote the resprouting of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) neurites in deafened animals. These resprouting neurites might reduce the gap between cochlear implant electrodes and their targeting SGNs, allowing for an improvement of spatial resolution of electrical stimulation. This study is to investigate the impact of electrical stimulation employed in CI on the extension of resprouting SGN neurites. We established an in vitro model including the devices delivering charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation, and spiral ganglion (SG) dissociated culture treated with BDNF and NT-3. After electrical stimulation with varying durations and intensities, we quantified neurite lengths and Schwann cell densities in SG cultures. Stimulations that were greater than 50μA or longer than 8h significantly decreased SG neurite length. Schwann cell density under 100μA electrical stimulation for 48h was significantly lower compared to that in non-stimulated group. These electrical stimulation-induced decreases of neurite extension and Schwann cell density were attenuated by various types of voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blockers, or completely prevented by their combination, cadmium or calcium-free medium. Our study suggested that charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibited the extension of resprouting SGN neurites and decreased Schwann cell density in vitro. Calcium influx through multiple types of VDCCs was involved in the electrical stimulation-induced inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citro Gennaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT, treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy. Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 μs each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations.

  7. Online Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using Wavelet-Based Bi-Phase Correlation of Electrical Signals Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasoul; Shayegh, Farzaneh; Ghassemi, Fahimeh

    2015-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in order to predict seizures. Among these methods, the ones that quantify synchronization between brain areas, are the most important methods. However, to date, a practically acceptable result has not been reported. In this paper, we use a synchronization measurement method that is derived according to the ability of bi-spectrum in determining the nonlinear properties of a system. In this method, first, temporal variation of the bi-spectrum of different channels of electro cardiography (ECoG) signals are obtained via an extended wavelet-based time-frequency analysis method; then, to compare different channels, the bi-phase correlation measure is introduced. Since, in this way, the temporal variation of the amount of nonlinear coupling between brain regions, which have not been considered yet, are taken into account, results are more reliable than the conventional phase-synchronization measures. It is shown that, for 21 patients of FSPEEG database, bi-phase correlation can discriminate the pre-ictal and ictal states, with very low false positive rates (FPRs) (average: 0.078/h) and high sensitivity (100%). However, the proposed seizure predictor still cannot significantly overcome the random predictor for all patients.

  8. Isoattenuating insulinomas at biphasic contrast-enhanced CT: frequency, clinicopathologic features and perfusion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang; Xue, Hua-dan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; He, Yong-lan; Jin, Zheng-yu [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Yu-pei [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We aimed to determine the frequency of isoattenuating insulinomas, to investigate their clinicopathological features and to assess their regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient informed consent was waived. From July 2010 to June 2014, 170 patients (66 male, 104 female) with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT before surgery, and 129 of those patients also received preoperative whole-pancreas CT perfusion. A total of 181 tumours were proved histopathologically after surgery. Enhancement pattern and regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics were analyzed. Clinical features, tumour size and pathological grading were investigated. The frequency of isoattenuating tumours was 24.9 %. Tumour size and WHO grading was not significantly different between isoattenuating and hyperattenuating tumours. Tumour-free regions had identical blood flow (BF) regardless of their location (p = 0.35). Isoattenuating tumour-harbouring regions had lower BF compared with hyperattenuating tumour-harbouring regions; both showed higher BF compared with tumour-free neighbourhood regions (all p < 0.01). For patients with isoattenuating tumours, the overall hospital stay was longer (p < 0.01). A substantial subset of insulinomas were isoattenuating on biphasic CT. CT perfusion showed higher BF in tumour-harbouring regions compared to tumour-free regions, providing a clue for tumour regionalization. (orig.)

  9. Biphasic effect of citral, a flavoring and scenting agent, on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheqiong; Xi, Jinlei; Li, Jihong; Qu, Wen

    2009-10-01

    Although some central effects of citral have been reported, cognitive effects on spatial memory have not been investigated. The evidence showed that citral can regulate the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), which exerts a vital function in the development and maintenance of spatial memory. In this study, we applied Morris water maze to test the effect of citral on animals' spatial learning and memory. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect, we also measured the retinoic acid concentration in rats' hippocampus by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data implied biphasic effects of citral. The low dose (0.1 mg/kg) of citral improved the spatial learning capability, and enhanced the spatial reference memory of rats, whereas the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) was like to produce the opposite effects. Meanwhile, the low dose of citral increased the hippocampal retinoic acid concentration, while the high dose decreased it. Due to the quick elimination and non-bioaccumulation in the body, effects of citral on spatial memory in this study seemed to be indirect actions. The change in hippocampal retinoic acid concentration induced by different doses of citral might be responsible for the biphasic effect of citral on spatial learning and memory.

  10. A prospective, randomised and blinded comparison of first shock success of monophasic and biphasic waveforms in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alem, Anouk P.; Chapman, Fred W.; Lank, Paula; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that biphasic waveforms are more effective than monophasic waveforms for defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet their performance has only been compared in un-blinded studies. Methods and results: We compared the success of biphasic truncated

  11. Comparison of low-energy versus high-energy biphasic defibrillation shocks following prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P; Melnick, Sharon B; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    Since the initial development of the defibrillator, there has been concern that, while delivery of a large electric shock would stop fibrillation, it would also cause damage to the heart. This concern has been raised again with the development of the biphasic defibrillator. To compare defibrillation efficacy, postshock cardiac function, and troponin I levels following 150-J and 360-J shocks. Nineteen swine were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented with pressure catheters in the left ventricle, aorta, and right atrium. The animals were fibrillated for 6 minutes, followed by defibrillation with either low-energy (n = 8) or high-energy (n = 11) shocks. After defibrillation, chest compressions were initiated and continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Epinephrine, 0.01 mg/kg every 3 minutes, was given for arterial blood pressure < 50 mmHg. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded for four hours. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed and troponin I levels were measured at baseline and four hours following ventricular fibrillation (VF). Survival rates at four hours were not different between the two groups (low-energy, 5 of 8; high-energy, 7 of 11). Results for arterial blood pressure, positive dP/dt (first derivative of pressure measured over time, a measure of left ventricular contractility), and negative dP/dt at the time of lowest arterial blood pressure (ABP) following ROSC were not different between the two groups (p = not significant [NS]), but were lower than at baseline. All hemodynamic measures returned to baseline by four hours. Ejection fractions, stroke volumes, and cardiac outputs were not different between the two groups at four hours. Troponin I levels at four hours were not different between the two groups (12 +/- 11 ng/mL versus 21 +/- 26 ng/mL, p = NS) but were higher at four hours than at baseline (19 +/- 19 ng/mL versus 0.8 +/- 0.5 ng/mL, p < 0.05, groups combined). Biphasic 360-J shocks do not cause more cardiac damage

  12. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou, E-mail: elkammounirhimou@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lezama, Luis [Depto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kraus, Ludek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The microwave absorption phenomena of single and biphase magnetic microwires with soft magnetic behavior have been investigated as a function of DC applied magnetic field using two alternative techniques: (i) absorption measurements in the temperature range of 4–300 K using a spectrometer operating at X-band frequency, at 9.5 GHz, and (ii) room-temperature, RT, ferromagnetic resonance measurements in a network analyzer in the frequency range up to 20 GHz. Complementary low-frequency magnetic characterization was performed in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Studies have been performed for 8 μm diameter small-magnetostriction amorphous CoFeSiB single-phase microwire, coated by micrometric Pyrex layer, and after electroplating an external shell, 2 µm or 4 µm thick, of FeNi alloys. For single phase CoFeSiB microwire, a single absorption is observed, whose DC field dependence of resonance frequency at RT fits to a Kittel-law behavior for in-plane magnetized thin film. The temperature dependence behavior shows a monotonic increase in the resonance field, H{sub r}, with temperature. A parallel reduction of the circular anisotropy field, H{sub K}, is deduced from the temperature dependence of hysteresis loops. For biphase, CoFeSiB/FeNi, microwires, the absorption phenomena at RT also follow the Kittel condition. The observed opposite evolution with temperature of resonance field, H{sub r}, in 2 and 4 µm thick FeNi samples is interpreted considering the opposite sign of magnetostriction of the respective FeNi layers. The stress-induced magnetic anisotropy field, H{sub K}, in the FeNi shell is deduced to change sign at around 130 K. - Highlights: • A single absorption phenomenon is observed for single phase CoFeSiB. • The T dependence of the microwave behavior shows a monotonic increase of H{sub r} with T. • The absorption at RT follows the Kittel condition for biphase CoFe/FeNi microwires. • The T dependence of resonant field of CoFe/FeNi is interpreted to be

  13. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  14. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  15. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  16. Selective formation of biphasic thin films of metal–organic frameworks by potential-controlled cathodic electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minyuan Miller; Dinca, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Cathodic electrodeposition lends itself to the formation of biphasic metal–organic framework thin films at room temperature from single deposition baths using potential bias as the main user input. Depending on the applied potential, we selectively deposit two different phases as either bulk mixtures or bilayer films.

  17. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEMS FOR THE SEPARATIONS OF LIGNINS FROM CELLULOSE IN THE PAPER PULPING PROCESS. (R826732)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In efforts to apply a polymer-based aqueous biphasic system (ABS) extraction to the paper pulping process, the study of the distribution of various lignin and cellulosic fractions in ABS and the effects of temperature on system composition and solute partitioning have been inv...

  19. Chiral separation of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography with biphasic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    This work concentrates on a novel chiral separation technology named biphasic recognition applied to resolution of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic chiral recognition HSCCC was performed by adding lipophilic (−)-2-ethylhexyl tartrate in the organic stationary phase and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the aqueous mobile phase, which preferentially recognized the (−)-enantiomer and (+)-enantiomer, respectively. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether-water (9:1:10, v/v/v) with the above chiral selectors was selected according to the partition coefficient and separation factor of the target enantiomers. Various parameters involved in the chiral separation were investigated, namely the types of the chiral selector (CS); the concentration of each chiral selector; pH of the mobile phase; and the separation temperature. The mechanism involved in this biphasic recognition chiral separation by HSCCC was discussed. Langmuirian isotherm was employed to estimate the loading limits for each chiral selector. The overall experimental results show that the HSCCC separation of enantiomer based on biphasic recognition is much more efficient than the traditional monophasic recognition chiral separation, since it utilizes the cooperation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic chiral selectors. PMID:20303497

  20. Efficient asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide catalyzed by Mung bean epoxide hydrolases in ionic liquid-based biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Lou, Wen-Yong; Zong, Min-Hua

    2012-07-01

    The asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol using Mung bean epoxide hydrolases was, for the first time, successfully conducted in an ionic liquid (IL)-containing biphasic system. Compared to aqueous monophasic system, IL-based biphasic systems could not only dissolve the substrate, but also effectively inhibit the non-enzymatic hydrolysis, and therefore markedly improve the reaction efficiency. Of all the tested ILs, the best results were observed in the biphasic system containing C(4)MIM·PF(6), which exhibited good biocompatibility with the enzyme and was an excellent solvent for the substrate. In the C(4)MIM·PF(6)/buffer biphasic system, it was found that the optimal volume ratio of IL to buffer, reaction temperature, buffer pH and substrate concentration were 1/6, 35°C, 6.5 and 100 mM, respectively, under which the initial reaction rate, the yield and the product e.e. were 18.4 mM/h, 49.4% and 97.0%. The biocatalytic process was shown to be feasible on a 500-mL preparative scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Simplified Whole-Organ CT Perfusion Technique with Biphasic Acquisition: Preliminary Investigation of Accuracy and Protocol Feasibility in Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XiaoDong; Zhang, Jing; Quan, ChangBin; Tian, Yuan; Li, Hong; Ao, GuoKun

    2016-04-01

    To determine the feasibility and accuracy of a protocol for calculating whole-organ renal perfusion (renal blood flow [RBF]) and regional perfusion on the basis of biphasic computed tomography (CT), with concurrent dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) CT perfusion serving as the reference standard. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Biphasic CT of the kidneys, including precontrast and arterial phase imaging, was integrated with a first-pass dynamic volume CT protocol and performed and analyzed in 23 patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. The perfusion value derived from biphasic CT was calculated as CT number enhancement divided by the area under the arterial input function and compared with the DCE CT perfusion data by using the paired t test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation analysis was made between the RBF and the extent of renal artery stenosis. All postprocessing was independently performed by two observers and then averaged as the final result. Mean ± standard deviation biphasic and DCE CT perfusion data for RBF were 425.62 mL/min ± 124.74 and 419.81 mL/min ± 121.13, respectively (P = .53), and for regional perfusion they were 271.15 mL/min per 100 mL ± 82.21 and 266.33 mL/min per 100 mL ± 74.40, respectively (P = .31). Good correlation and agreement were shown between biphasic and DCE CT perfusion for RBF (r = 0.93; ±10% variation from mean perfusion data [P < .001]) and for regional perfusion (r = 0.90; ±13% variation from mean perfusion data [P < .001]). The extent of renal artery stenosis was negatively correlated with RBF with biphasic CT perfusion (r = -0.81, P = .012). Biphasic CT perfusion is clinically feasible and provides perfusion data comparable to DCE CT perfusion data at both global and regional levels in the kidney. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  2. A biphasic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones using a simplified packed-bed microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bogdan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the preparation and characterization of a simplified packed-bed microreactor using an immobilized TEMPO catalyst shown to oxidize primary and secondary alcohols via the biphasic Anelli-Montanari protocol. Oxidations occurred in high yields with great stability over time. We observed that plugs of aqueous oxidant and organic alcohol entered the reactor as plugs but merged into an emulsion on the packed-bed. The emulsion coalesced into larger plugs upon exiting the reactor, leaving the organic product separate from the aqueous by-products. Furthermore, the microreactor oxidized a wide range of alcohols and remained active in excess of 100 trials without showing any loss of catalytic activity.

  3. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous; Obtencao de ceramicas bifasicas densas e porosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S., E-mail: eliria@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Silva, K.L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Rezende, M.E. [Universidade Sao Francisco, Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Fraga, A.F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Marques, R.F.C. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  4. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-09

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  6. Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: a tumor with biphasic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, F.P.; Keren, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor. It is characterized by a large bulky mass in the middle third of the esophagus with a lobulated surface and local expansion of the esophagus. This lesion may be pedunculated and cause relatively little obstruction despite its bulk. The current view, based on ultrastructure and immunohistochemical evidence, has confirmed that the sarcomatous component of the squamous cell carcinoma originates from mesenchymal metaplasia of squamous cells. On the basis of this evidence and clinical behavior, it seems appropriate to consider carcinosarcoma and pseudosarcoma as equivalents and as variants of squamous cell carcinoma. Four patients with spindle-cell squamous carcinoma, an unusual subset of squamous carcinoma, are described, and the salient radiographic and pathologic features of this disorder's distinctive biphasic morphology are discussed

  7. Characterization of liver metastases: the efficacy of biphasic magnetic resonance imaging with ferucarbotran-enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Byun, J.H.; Won, H.J.; Kim, K.W.; Lee, S.S.; Lee, M.G.; Yun, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of biphasic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver with ferucarbotran-enhancement for the characterization of hepatic metastases. Materials and methods: Thirty-six patients underwent MRI of the liver with separate acquisition of double-contrast enhancement consisting of gadolinium and ferucarbotran. A total of 106 focal hepatic lesions (51 metastases, 31 cysts, 23 haemangiomas, and one eosinophilic abscess) were included. Two sets of MRI were analysed: (1) ferucarbotran set: ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-weighted (T1W) dynamic imaging combined with ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*-weighted (T2*W) delayed imaging and (2) double set: gadolinium-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging combined with ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*W delayed imaging. The diagnostic accuracy of the two sets was evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were compared using the McNemar test. The enhancement pattern of focal hepatic lesions was analysed on gadolinium and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging. Results: There was no significant difference in the accuracy of characterizing hepatic metastases between the two sets. Sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between the sets (p > 0.05). Peripheral rim enhancement was exhibited in 57% of metastatic lesions on ferucarbotran-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging. The majority (96%) of hepatic haemangiomas demonstrated typical peripheral nodular enhancement with progression on ferucarbotran-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging and were easily differentiated from metastases. Conclusion: Biphasic MRI of the liver with ferucarbotran-enhancement alone provided comparable diagnostic efficacy to double-contrast MRI for the characterization of hepatic metastases.

  8. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  9. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Koval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases, a PTR greater than 1:1 is called APRV (airway pressure release ventilation. In patients with ARDS maintained spontaneous breathing with BIPAP resulted in lower venous admixture and better arterial blood oxygenation as compared with A/C. Only a few studies with BIPAP have been performed in newborn and infants until now. We studied the use of BIPAP in newborn (body mass > 3kg and randomised 40 patients with respiratory failure for ventilation with BIPAP (n=20 or conventional mechanical ventilatory support (assist-control A/C — synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV (n=20. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM were collected for each patient. Fentanyl, diazepam, GABA were used as sedatives and adjusted in accordance with the Cook scale. We compared ventilatory parameters, information pertaining to pulmonary function and oxygen delivery, cardiac output, additional descriptors of organ system functions, duration and complications of ventilation and number and dosages of sedatives administered. All the patients that we intended to ventilate with BIPAP were successfully ventilated, we can conclude that biphasic ventilatory support suitable mode of ventilation for newborn with a decreased need of analgetics and sedatives than A/C. Finally, BIPAP is an a effective safe, and easy to use for personal mode of mechanical ventilatory support in newborn. 

  10. Influence of microstructure on low cycle fatigue in some single phase and biphasic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarz, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Centre SMS, URA CNRS 1884, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This overview deals with the effects of microstructural parameters in different single phase and biphasic stainless steels on short crack behaviour and on fatigue life in the low cycle regime. The effect of the grain size is investigated in a single phase austenitic stainless steel. Under plastic strain control, the fatigue life increases when the grain size decreases. The results are discussed by analysing the distributions of crack depths as a function of the grain size. The second type of material is a metastable austenitic steel which partially transforms into martensite during LCF at temperatures between -50 C and +120 C. The grain size of the initially single phase austenitic microstructure has a combined influence on the volume fraction of martensite produced during fatigue and on the fatigue life. In this case, the grain size effect is still considerable but totally indirect because all fatigue cracks grow exclusively in the martensite. The cyclic behaviour analysis in biphasic alloys in which two phases undergo plastic deformation during LCF is considerably more complex because the conventional concept of microstructural barriers cannot be applied. The possible damage patterns in a pair of grains with different mechanical properties are discussed on the example of a solution treated and aged superduplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel (SDSS). The hardening of one phase (ferrite) through ageing at 475 C changes the cyclic behaviour of the initial ''quasi single phase'' microstructure. Consequently, the fatigue life under plastic strain control decreases compared with the solution treated SDSS. The discussion is focussed on LCF damage mechanisms at the microstructure size scale with a particular accent put on the propagation of short cracks in the bulk. All the microstructures exhibit some common features with respect to the behaviour of short cracks. In particular a strong effect of microstructural barriers in the bulk and the

  11. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.

  12. Seizure characteristics of epilepsy in childhood after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain

  13. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  14. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    Biphasic nanoparticle mixtures composed of attractive and repulsive colloidal species enable the direct-write assembly of 3D structures with much finer features than those produced by pure colloidal gels. These mixtures rely on the use of comb polymer dispersants to render one particle population stable, while the other population is attractive. In this thesis, we systematically investigate the effects of comb polymer architecture and particle size ratio on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks with the overarching aim of further advancing the direct-write assembly of 3D colloidal structures. We first investigated the effects of both pure polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and comb polymer dispersants composed of a PMAA backbone with methoxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (mPEO) teeth of varying molecular weights on the stability of barium titanate (BaTiO 3) suspensions. While each dispersant imparts stability to BaTiO 3 nanoparticles at low ionic strength (teeth (MWteeth = 2000) provides stability at higher ionic strengths over a broad range of particle sizes and counterion valencies. These results provide guidelines for tailoring the molecular architecture and functionality of comb polymer dispersants for optimal stabilization of the repulsive particle population within the biphasic inks. Next, particle size effects on the rheological properties of biphasic nanoparticle suspensions are studied. Shear elastic modulus, shear yield stress, and compressive yield stress are measured for mixtures of varying total volume fraction, attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction, and particle size ratio between attractive and repulsive species. Our observations indicate that the repulsive particles hinder the formation of the attractive gel network. The time required for shear elastic modulus to approach a steady-state value increases with the fraction of repulsive species. Furthermore, this behavior becomes more significant with increasing

  15. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C.; Koenig, J.; Liu Li; Schuck, A.; Willich, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, interleukin-(IL)-1α and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-α and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1α and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute pneumonitis. (orig.)

  16. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  17. Square biphasic pulse deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: The BiP tremor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Sol; Almeida, Leonardo; Shahgholi, Leili; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Roper, Jaimie; Hass, Chris J; Akbar, Umer; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Raike, Robert S; Okun, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) utilizes regular, high frequency pulses to treat medication-refractory symptoms in essential tremor (ET). Modifications of DBS pulse shape to achieve improved effectiveness is a promising approach. The current study assessed the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of square biphasic pulse shaping as an alternative to conventional ET DBS. This pilot study compared biphasic pulses (BiP) versus conventional DBS pulses (ClinDBS). Eleven ET subjects with clinically optimized ventralis intermedius nucleus DBS were enrolled. Objective measures were obtained over 3 h while ON BiP stimulation. There was observed benefit in the Fahn-Tolosa Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) for BiP conditions when compared to the DBS off condition and to ClinDBS setting. Total TRS scores during the DBS OFF condition (28.5 IQR = 24.5-35.25) were significantly higher than the other time points. Following active DBS, TRS improved to (20 IQR = 13.8-24.3) at ClinDBS setting and to (16.5 IQR = 12-20.75) at the 3 h period ON BiP stimulation (p = 0.001). Accelerometer recordings revealed improvement in tremor at rest (χ 2  = 16.1, p = 0.006), posture (χ 2  = 15.9, p = 0.007) and with action (χ 2  = 32.1, p=<0.001) when comparing median total scores at ClinDBS and OFF DBS conditions to 3 h ON BiP stimulation. There were no adverse effects and gait was not impacted. BiP was safe, tolerable and effective on the tremor symptoms when tested up to 3 h. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a novel DBS waveform in the clinic setting. Larger prospective studies with longer clinical follow-up will be required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Selective use of the biphasic-contrast barium enema study for evaluation of colonic lesions: Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr.; Riddervold, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to determine the value of selective use of the biphasic contrast technique for a variety of indications. In a series of 571 double-contrast barium enema examinations, the examination was immediately followed by a single-contrast study in 85 cases. The biphasic procedure was performed to reexamine a colonic segment that was poorly evaluated initially because of diverticulosis (eta = 35), incomplete filling (eta = 28), or poor mucosal coating (eta = 26); or to verify or exclude a possible lesion identified during the double-contrast examination (eta = 22). The single-contrast study confirmed five polyps and excluded lesions in 17 cases with suspected polyps (eta = 5), strictures (eta = 4), and spasm (eta = 8). Six polyps not visualized on the double-contrast examination were detected with the single-contrast procedure

  19. Species dependent radiotracer study of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) using an aqueous biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, K.; Lahiri, S. [Chemical Sciences Div., Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2008-07-01

    The speciation study of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was carried out using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) based aqueous biphasic extraction system (ABS). Neutron activated Cr(III) and Cr(VI) salts were assayed in a HPGe detector before and after employing aqueous biphasic extraction. Different salts of various salting out abilities were taken as the salt rich phase. The best condition for extraction of Cr(VI) and the maximum differential attitude of ABS to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was observed when 2 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and PEG 4000 (50% w/w) solutions were used. Cr(III) can also be extracted by the PEG with prior complexation with diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone). The chromium dithizonate complex is quantitatively extracted by the PEG rich phase. (orig.)

  20. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Posterior mediastinal biphasic synovial sarcoma in a 12 year-old boy: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Madhumay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of biphasic synovial sarcoma of the mediastinum, a very rare tumor, in a 12-year-old boy with left-sided chest pain of 3 years duration at presentation. Chest X-ray showed left-sided opacity with loss of cardiac silhouette and the mediastinum deviated to the opposite side. Computed tomography (CT of thorax showed left-sided posterior mediastinal mass with left-sided pleural effusion and pleural thickening. CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the mass reported it as spindle cell variant of adenocarcinoma. Ultrasonography (USG of the whole abdomen revealed no abnormality. The mediastinal tumor was resected by left thoracotomy and histopathological report confirmed it to be a biphasic synovial sarcoma with capsule invasion at places.

  2. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biphasic whole-cell synthesis of R-2-octanol with recycling of the ionic liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Dennewald, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Whole-cell biocatalysis in biphasic systems permits the synthesis of inhibiting chiral alcohols if appropriate non-water miscible ionic liquids are used. Taking the asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone to R-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli as a model reaction, a detailed characterisation of the biocatalytic reaction was performed with [HMPL][NTF] as ionic liquid. This made the asymmetric synthesis of R-2-octanol in a simple batch at a conversion > 99 % and at an enantiomeric excess >...

  4. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI; Julius Kola OLOKE; Gandham PRASAD; Moses ABALAKA; Emenike Onyebum IROKANULO

    2017-01-01

    Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90) produced th...

  5. A Biphasic Pleural Tumor with Features of an Epithelioid and Small Cell Mesothelioma: Morphologic and Molecular Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hackman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesotheliomas are generally classified into epithelioid, sarcomatoid, desmoplastic, and biphasic types with rare reports of a small cell form. These small cell variants display some morphologic overlap with desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs which generally occur within the abdominal cavity of young males and are defined by a characteristic t(11;22(p13;q12 translocation. However, there are rare reports of DSRCTs lacking this translocation. We present a 78-year-old man with a pleura-based biphasic neoplasm with features of both epithelioid mesothelioma and a small cell blastema-like neoplasm. The epithelioid portion showed IHC reactivity for pan cytokeratin, CK5/6, D2-40, and calretinin and the small cell portion marked with CD99, pan cytokeratin, WT1, FLI1, S100, CD200, MyoD1, and CD15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for the t(11;22(p13;q12 translocation disclosed loss of the EWSR1 gene in 94% of tumor cell nuclei, but there was no evidence of the classic translocation. Array based-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH confirmed the tumor had numerous chromosome copy number losses, including 11p15.5-p11.12 and 22q12.1-q13.33, with loss of the EWSR1 and WT1 gene regions. Herein, we report novel complex CGH findings in a biphasic tumor and review the molecular genetic alterations in both mesothelioma and DSRCTs.

  6. Design and development of a low-cost biphasic charge-balanced functional electric stimulator and its clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendkar, Chandrashekhar; Lenka, Prasanna K; Biswas, Abhishek; Kumar, Ratnesh; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2015-10-01

    Functional electric stimulators that produce near-ideal, charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveforms with interphase delay are considered safer and more efficacious than conventional stimulators. An indigenously designed, low-cost, portable FES device named InStim is developed. It features a charge-balanced biphasic single channel. The authors present the complete design, mathematical analysis of the circuit and the clinical evaluation of the device. The developed circuit was tested on stroke patients affected by foot drop problems. It was tested both under laboratory conditions and in clinical settings. The key building blocks of this circuit are low dropout regulators, a DC-DC voltage booster and a single high-power current source OP-Amp with current-limiting capabilities. This allows the device to deliver high-voltage, constant current, biphasic pulses without the use of a bulky step-up transformer. The advantages of the proposed design over the currently existing devices include improved safety features (zero DC current, current-limiting mechanism and safe pulses), waveform morphology that causes less muscle fatigue, cost-effectiveness and compact power-efficient circuit design with minimal components. The device is also capable of producing appropriate ankle dorsiflexion in patients having foot drop problems of various Medical Research Council scale grades.

  7. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Prinz

    Full Text Available The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  8. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Robert D; Willis, Catherine M; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Klüppel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  9. Aerosol Particle Interfacial Thermodynamics and Phase Partitioning Measurements Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari; Metcalf, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remain large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. Interfacial properties affect the ambient aerosol morphology, or internal structure of the particle, which in turn can affect the way a particle interacts with an environment of condensable clusters and organic vapors. To improve our ability to accurately predict ambient aerosol morphology, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Unfortunately, many techniques employed to measure interfacial properties do so in bulk solutions or in the presence of a ternary (e.g. solid) phase. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface or interfacial tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred.

  10. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  11. The Effect of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Coated Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft Material on Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jin-Ju; Bae, Eun-Bin; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun; Han, Dong-Wook; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-08-08

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as bone graft materials on bone regeneration. The rGO-coated BCP bone graft material was fabricatied by mixing rGO and BCP at various concentrations. The surface charge of rGO-coated BCP was measured to be -14.43 mV, which formed a static electrostatic interaction. Cell viabilities were significantly diminished at higher concentrations of ≥100 μg/mL. The calvarial defects of 48 rats were implanted rGO-coated BCPs at a weight ratio of 2:1000 (rGO2), 4:1000 (rGO4), and 10:1000 (rGO10), repectively. BCP was used as a control group. The micro-CT and histological analysis were performed to evaluate new bone formation at 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. The results showed that the new bone volume (mm³) was significantly higher in the experimental groups than in the control group. Histological analysis showed that new bone areas (%) were significantly higher in the rGO2 and rGO10 than in the control, and significantly higher in rGO4 than in the rGO2 and rGO10. Conclusively, the rGO-coated BCP was found to be effective on osteogenesis and the concentration of the composite was an important factor.

  12. Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure: a systematic review of definitional criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Hawkins, Martyn

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the definitional criteria for the pressure-limited and time-cycled modes: airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) available in the published literature. Systematic review. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases (1982-2006) were searched using the following terms: APRV, BIPAP, Bilevel and lung protective strategy, individually and in combination. Two independent reviewers determined the paper eligibility and abstracted data from 50 studies and 18 discussion articles. Of the 50 studies, 39 (78%) described APRV, and 11 (22%) described BIPAP. Various study designs, populations, or outcome measures were investigated. Compared to BIPAP, APRV was described more frequently as extreme inverse inspiratory:expiratory ratio [18/39 (46%) vs. 0/11 (0%), P = 0.004] and used rarely as a noninverse ratio [2/39 (5%) vs. 3/11 (27%), P = 0.06]. One (9%) BIPAP and eight (21%) APRV studies used mild inverse ratio (>1:1 to branding may further add to confusion. Generic naming of modes and consistent definitional parameters may improve consistency of patient response for a given mode and assist with clinical implementation.

  13. Enhanced refrigerant capacity in Gd-Al-Co microwires with a biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H. X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Xing, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Sun, J. F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sánchez Llamazares, J. L. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Belliveau, H.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H., E-mail: phanm@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Wang, H.; Qin, F. X. [Institute for Composites Science and Innovation (InCSI), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-02-29

    A class of biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous Gd{sub (50+5x)}Al{sub (30−5x)}Co{sub 20} (x = 0, 1, 2) microwires fabricated directly by melt-extraction is reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier function transform based analysis indicate the presence of a volume fraction (∼20%) of ∼10 nm sized nanocrystallities uniformly embedded in an amorphous matrix. The microwires possess excellent magnetocaloric properties, with large values of the isothermal entropy change (−ΔS{sub M} ∼ 9.7 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}), the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad} ∼ 5.2 K), and the refrigerant capacity (RC ∼ 654 J kg{sup −1}) for a field change of 5 T. The addition of Gd significantly alters T{sub C} while preserving large values of the ΔS{sub M} and RC. The nanocrystallites allow for enhanced RC as well as a broader operating temperature span of a magnetic bed for energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration.

  14. Microstructure and phase evolution during the dealloying of bi-phase Al–Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T.T.; Gao, Y.L.; Zhang, Z.H.; Zhai, Q.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Selective leaching of α-Al(Ag) and Ag 2 Al occurs simultaneously during dealloying. ► Diffusion of Al and vacancy controlled mechanism dominate the etching of Ag 2 Al. ► The coarsening of ligaments in NPS follows a time dependence of d ∝t 2/5 . - Abstract: The chemical dealloying of bi-phase Al-35Ag alloy has been investigated within the parting limit. The dealloying of α-Al(Ag) and Ag 2 Al commenced simultaneously, and all α-Al(Ag) and part of Ag 2 Al were dealloyed, leaving residual Ag 2 Al to be dealloyed afterwards. The dealloying of the residual Ag 2 Al is associated with vacancy controlled mechanism and diffusion of Al atoms. It is revealed that the diffusions of the Al and Ag atoms during dealloying are significant. The Ag skeletons formed at the initial stage, and became coarsened gradually with a time dependence of d ∝t 2/5 , illustrating the vital role of diffusion of Ag atoms.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of magnetic biphasic calcium sulfate-bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2015-08-01

    Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV–vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeO{sub x} oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment. - Highlights: • Biphasic calcium sulphate-bioactive glass containing iron was prepared. • Composite bioglass was superparamagnetic in nature. • All samples promoted the growth of apatite layer with Ca/P close to 1.67.

  16. Biphasic Regulation of Lipid Metabolism: A Meta-Analysis of Icodextrin in Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this systematic meta-analysis was to study the impact of icodextrin (ICO on lipid profiles. Methods. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature, and the Cochrane Library and Reference lists were searched (last search September 2014 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results. Searches identified 13 eligible trials with a total of 850 patients. The differentials of total cholesterol (TC and free fatty acid (FFA in the ICO group were greater than those in the GLU group. Metaregression analysis showed that TC levels positively correlated with its baseline levels. In the subgroup of patients with dialysis duration more than 6 months, TC and TG in the ICO group were less. In pooled data from cross-sectional studies, differential of TG in the ICO group was less. In the subgroup of patients with diabetes (Martikainen et al., 2005, Sniderman et al., 2014, and Takatori et al., 2011, differential of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in the ICO group was less. There was no significant effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, or lipoprotein(a. Conclusions. ICO may be beneficial to lipid metabolism, especially for its biphasic regulation of plasma TC levels.

  17. Biphasic dose responses in biology, toxicology and medicine: Accounting for their generalizability and quantitative features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The most common quantitative feature of the hormetic-biphasic dose response is its modest stimulatory response which at maximum is only 30–60% greater than control values, an observation that is consistently independent of biological model, level of organization (i.e., cell, organ or individual), endpoint measured, chemical/physical agent studied, or mechanism. This quantitative feature suggests an underlying “upstream” mechanism common across biological systems, therefore basic and general. Hormetic dose response relationships represent an estimate of the peak performance of integrative biological processes that are allometrically based. Hormetic responses reflect both direct stimulatory or overcompensation responses to damage induced by relatively low doses of chemical or physical agents. The integration of the hormetic dose response within an allometric framework provides, for the first time, an explanation for both the generality and the quantitative features of the hormetic dose response. -- Highlights: •The hormetic stimulation is at maximum 30–60% greater than control responses. •Hormesis is a measure of biological performance and plasticity. •The hormetic response is evolutionary based and highly generalizable. -- This paper provides a biologically based explanation for the generalizability/quantitative features of the hormetic dose response, representing a fundamental contribution to the field

  18. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B., E-mail: william.otero@hotmail.com, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  19. Liquid / liquid biphasic electrochemistry in ultra-turrax dispersed acetonitrile / aqueous electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Amemiya, Fumihiro; Atobe, Mahito; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Unstable acetonitrile | aqueous emulsions generated in situ with ultra-turrax agitation are investigated for applications in dual-phase electrochemistry. Three modes of operation for liquid / liquid aqueous-organic electrochemical processes are demonstrated with no intentionally added electrolyte in the organic phase based on (i) the formation of a water-soluble product in the aqueous phase in the presence of the organic phase, (ii) the formation of a product and ion transfer at the liquid / liquid-electrode triple phase boundary, and (iii) the formation of a water-insoluble product in the aqueous phase which then transfers into the organic phase. A three-electrode electrolysis cell with ultra-turrax agitator is employed and characterised for acetonitrile / aqueous 2 M NaCl two phase electrolyte. Three redox systems are employed in order to quantify the electrolysis cell performance. The one-electron reduction of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ in the aqueous phase is employed to determine the rate of mass transport towards the electrode surface and the effect of the presence of the acetonitrile phase. The one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene in acetonitrile is employed to study triple phase boundary processes. Finally, the one-electron reduction of cobalticenium cations in the aqueous phase is employed to demonstrate the product transfer from the electrode surface into the organic phase. Potential applications in biphasic electrosynthesis are discussed.

  20. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schachtner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

  1. Disrupted glutamate-glutamine cycle in acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Terai, Masaru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Yachiyo-shi (Japan); Mizuguchi, Masashi [The University of Tokyo, Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Barkovich, A.J. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most common subtype of infectious pediatric encephalopathy in Japan. It is sometimes difficult to make an early diagnosis of AESD; excitotoxicity is postulated to be the pathogenesis based on elevated glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) complex (Glx = Glu + Gln) observed on MR spectroscopy. It is uncertain whether Gln or Glu contributes to the elevated Glx, or whether MR spectroscopy is useful for an early diagnosis. Five Japanese patients with AESD (three boys and two girls, 1 year of age) were enrolled in this study. MR spectroscopy was acquired from the frontal white matter (repetition time (TR) of 5000 ms, echo time (TE) of 30 ms) with a 1.5- or 3.0-T scanner. MR spectroscopy was performed four times for two patients, three times for one patient, and two times for two patients. Quantification of Glu and Gln was performed using LCModel. Glu was elevated in three of four studies on days 1-4 and became normal or low afterward. Gln was normal in three studies on days 1-2, elevated in all seven studies on days 4-12, and became normal or low afterward. These findings suggest that MR spectroscopy may be useful for an early diagnosis. Acute Glu elevation changes to subacute Gln elevation, suggesting that a disrupted Glu-Gln cycle may play an important role. (orig.)

  2. [Development of biphasic drug-loading lipid emulsion of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Yan; Li, Xi; Lai, Xiu-Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Ya-Jing; Chu, Ting; Mao, Sheng-Jun

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility of simultaneously loading both liposoluble and water-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in emulsion was discussed, in order to provide new ideas in comprehensive application of effective components in S. miltiorrhiza in terms of technology of pharmaceutics. With tanshinone II (A) and salvianolic acid B as raw materials, soybean phospholipid and poloxamer 188 as emulsifiers, and glycerin as isoosmotic regulator, the central composite design-response surface method was employed to optimize the prescription. The coarse emulsion was prepared with the high-speed shearing method and then homogenized in the high pressure homogenizer. The biphasic drug-loading intravenous emulsion was prepared to investigate its pharmaceutical properties and stability. The prepared emulsion is orange-yellow, with the average diameter of 241 nm and Zeta potential of -35.3 mV. Specifically, the drug loading capacity of tanshinone II (A) and salvianolic acid B were 0.5 g x L(-1) and 1 g x L(-1), respectively, with a good stability among long-term retention samples. According to the results, the prepared emulsion could load liposoluble tanshinone II (A) and water-soluble salvianolic acid B simultaneously, which lays a pharmaceutical foundation for giving full play to the efficacy of S. miltiorrhiza.

  3. Possible biphasic sweating response during short-term heat acclimation protocol for tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antônio; Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Lima, Nilo Resende Viana; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sweat loss response during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives. Six healthy young male subjects, inhabitants of a tropical region, were heat acclimated by means of nine days of one-hour heat-exercise treatments (40+/-0 degrees C and 32+/-1% relative humidity; 50% (.)VO(2peak) on a cycle ergometer). On days 1 to 9 of heat acclimation whole-body sweat loss was calculated by body weight variation corrected for body surface area. On days 1 and 9 rectal temperature (T(re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) every 4 minutes. Heat acclimation was confirmed by reduced HR (day 1 rest: 77+/-5 b.min(-1); day 9 rest: 68+/-3 b.min(-1); day 1 final exercise: 161+/-15 b.min(-1); day 9 final exercise: 145+/-11 b.min(-1), p0.05) of the protocol. These findings are consistent with the heat acclimation induced adaptations and suggest a biphasic sweat response (an increase in the sweat rate in the middle of the protocol followed by return to initial values by the end of it) during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives.

  4. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy (α+β) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  5. Integration process of fermentation and liquid biphasic flotation for lipase separation from Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Revathy; Show, Pau Loke; Lee, Sze Ying; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) is an advanced recovery method that has been effectively applied for biomolecules extraction. The objective of this investigation is to incorporate the fermentation and extraction process of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia using flotation system. Initial study was conducted to compare the performance of bacteria growth and lipase production using flotation and shaker system. From the results obtained, bacteria shows quicker growth and high lipase yield via flotation system. Integration process for lipase separation was investigated and the result showed high efficiency reaching 92.29% and yield of 95.73%. Upscaling of the flotation system exhibited consistent result with the lab-scale which are 89.53% efficiency and 93.82% yield. The combination of upstream and downstream processes in a single system enables the acceleration of product formation, improves the product yield and facilitates downstream processing. This integration system demonstrated its potential for biomolecules fermentation and separation that possibly open new opportunities for industrial production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  7. Biphasic threat to femoral head perfusion in abduction: arterial hypoperfusion and venous congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefzadeh, David K. [Comer Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Doerger, Kirk [Radiology Associates of Northern Kentucky, Crestview Hills, KY (United States); Sullivan, Christopher [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Hip abduction can cause avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head in infants. To compare the US perfusion pattern of femoral head cartilage in neutral position with that in different degrees and duration of abduction, testing the venous congestion theory of post-abduction ischemia. In 20 neonates, the Doppler flow characteristics of the posterosuperior (PS) branch of the femoral head cartilage feeding vessels were evaluated in neutral and at 30 , 45 , and 60 abduction. In three neonates the leg was held in 45-degree abduction and flow was assessed at 5, 10, and 15 min. Male/female ratio was 11/9 with a mean age of 1.86 {+-} 0.7 weeks. The peak systolic velocities (PSV) declined in all three degrees of abduction. After 15 min of 45-degree abduction, the mean PSV declined and showed an absent or reversed diastolic component and undetectable venous return. No perfusion was detected at 60-degree abduction. Abduction-induced femoral head ischemia is biphasic and degree- and duration-dependent. In phase I there is arterial hypoperfusion and in phase II there is venous congestion. A new pathogeneses for femoral head ischemia is offered. (orig.)

  8. Nanoscopic characterization of the water vapor-salt interfacial layer reveals a unique biphasic adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; He, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-08-01

    Our quantitative understanding of water adsorption onto salt surfaces under ambient conditions is presently quite poor owing to the difficulties in directly characterizing this interfacial layer under these conditions. Here we determine the thickness of the interfacial layer on NaCl at different relative humidities (RH) based on a novel application of atomic force spectroscopy and capillary condensation theory. In particular, we take advantage of the microsecond-timescale of the capillary condensation process to directly resolve the magnitude of its contribution in the tip-sample interaction, from which the interfacial water thickness is determined. Further, to correlate this thickness with salt dissolution, we also measure surface conductance under similar conditions. We find that below 30% RH, there is essentially only the deposition of water molecules onto this surface, typical of conventional adsorption onto solid surfaces. However, above 30% RH, adsorption is simultaneous with the dissolution of ions, unlike conventional adsorption, leading to a rapid increase of surface conductance. Thus, water adsorption on NaCl is an unconventional biphasic process in which the interfacial layer not only exhibits quantitative differences in thickness but also qualitative differences in composition.

  9. Transient dysautonomia in an acute phase of encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimiya, Yuko; Kaku, Noriyuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Yamashita, Fumiya; Matsuoka, Wakato; Muraoka, Mamoru; Akamine, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Soichi; Torio, Michiko; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hidetoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-08-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection. Whereas the seizure was terminated by systemic infusion of midazolam, consciousness remained disturbed for the next 48h. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) evolved on 3days after the seizure. Therapeutic hypothermia was immediately introduced, however, the brain lesion extended to the whole subcortical white matters on day 8. The intermittent bilateral dilation of pupils with increased blood pressure and tachycardia were observed until day 12. Real-time monitoring of electroencephalograms ruled out the recurrent attacks of seizures. The abnormal signs of autonomic nervous system gradually ceased and never relapsed after recovery from the hypothermia. PSH or a transient condition of dysautonomia may emerge and persist during the acute phase of AESD. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  11. Biphasic insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67 582 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, D A; Bailey, C J

    1998-12-01

    BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is being developed as a short-acting anti-diabetic insulin secretagogue. The effect of BTS 67 582 on the phasic pattern of insulin release was assessed in anaesthetized normal rats by measuring arterial plasma insulin concentrations while arterial glucose concentrations were fixed at 6, 8.5 and 12.5 mM. Intravenous BTS 67 582 (10 mg kg(-1)) induced an immediate but transient increase in insulin concentrations which declined by 10 min (first phase). This was followed by a smaller but sustained increase in insulin concentrations (second phase). The increment from basal to peak insulin release (0-2 min) was independent of glucose, but the first phase was maintained for longer and the second phase was greater at the highest concentration of glucose (12.5 mM). BTS 67 582 also extended the first-phase insulin response to a standard intravenous glucose challenge and enhanced the rate of glucose disappearance by approximately 12%. Thus BTS 67 582 causes biphasic stimulation of insulin release and augments the insulin-releasing effect of glucose.

  12. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Leigh R.; Zalupski, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR and D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR and D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 ± 1.1 and -16.8 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  13. Biphasic Fluence-Response Curves for Phytochrome-Mediated Kalanchoë Seed Germination 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, Roger; Dedonder, Andrée; De Petter, Edwin; Van Wiemeersch, Luc; Fredericq, Henri; De Greef, Jan; Steyaert, Herman; Stevens, Hilde

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA3) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA3 induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA3 concentration. GA3 having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA3 appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal. PMID:16665187

  14. Biphasic effect of alcohol intake on the development of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Ono, Masafumi; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Chika; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Ono, Naofumi; Eguchi, Takahisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Chayama, Kazuaki; Saibara, Toshiji; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro

    2015-11-01

    Fatty liver is an important clinical feature not only in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, but in other chronic liver diseases as well. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and relationship between habitual alcohol intake and obesity in the development of fatty liver disease. We enrolled 8,029 subjects undergoing abdominal ultrasonography with general medical examinations, and analyzed the factors associated with fatty liver based on daily alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. For fatty liver, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were significant and independent risk factors. Heavy alcohol intake (50 g/day) was a significant risk factor for fatty liver in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.35). Analysis based on the presence or absence of obesity revealed that moderate alcohol intake was a significant negative risk factor for fatty liver in both male and female obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) subjects (OR, 0.74 for non-obese and 0.39 for obese patients, respectively). Heavy alcohol intake was also a significant negative risk factor in obese males (0.62). In contrast, heavy alcohol intake was a risk factor in non-obese males (OR, 1.29) and in all females (OR, 2.22 for non-obese and 6.6 for obese patients, respectively). The influence of alcohol intake on fatty liver differed depending on the level of alcohol consumption, gender, and the presence of obesity, and showed biphasic effects.

  15. Study on biphasic material model and mechanical analysis of knee joint cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, A; Sakashita, A [Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: nakatani@ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    A material model of articular cartilage is formulated, and fundamental problems are analyzed. The soft tissue is assumed to comprise two phases: solid and fluid. The biphasic theory proposed by Spilker and Suh (1990) to deal with such materials is reviewed, and some new additional analyses are carried out on the basis of this theory. Assuming the elasticity for the solid phase and introducing the pressure, which is defined by the product of the volume change and penalty coefficient, it is shown that the viscoelastic property of the soft tissue can be reproduced. A preferable solution is obtained for the solid phase by using the reduction integral, even if a high-order interpolation function is used. However, the high-order element cannot satisfactorily capture the velocity distribution of fluids. The pressure distribution is studied by assuming the change in the surface characteristics of the cartilage tissue with the progress of osteoarthritis. The pressure is strongly related to the lubrication conditions, i.e., perfect lubrication, perfect adhesion, and partial adhesion.

  16. From metabolome to phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kannangara, Rubini Maya

    2017-01-01

    for ideal vegetable protein production and for augmented β-glucan production. Seeds from three barley lines (Bomi, lys3.a and lys5.f) were sampled eight times during grain filling and analysed for metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The lys3.a mutation disrupts a regulator gene...... their successful application to link genetic and environmental factors with the seed phenotype of unique and agro-economically important barley models for optimal vegetable protein and dietary fibre production......., causing an increase in proteins rich in the essential amino acid lysine, while lys5.f carries a mutation in an ADP-glucose transporter gene leading to a significant increase in production of mixed-linkage β-glucan at the expense of α-glucan. Unique metabolic patterns associated with the tricarboxylic acid...

  17. Deep Learning for Plant Phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Plant Phenotyping is an emerging science which provides us the knowledge to better understand plants. Indeed, the study of the link between genetic background and environment in which plants develop can help us to determine cures for plants’ sicknesses and new ways to improve yields using limited resources. In this regard, one of the main aspects of Plant Phenotyping that were studied in the past, was Root Phenotyping, which is based on the study of the root architectures. In particular, toda...

  18. Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradaran, S.; Moghaddam, E.; Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman; Basirun, W.J.; Mehrali, M.; Sookhakian, M.; Hamdi, M.; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3 wt.% and 6 wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900 °C for 1 h. The GNP (0.5–2 wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15 h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150 °C and 160 MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5 days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5 wt.% was the optimum value. - Highlights: • Ni doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelets composite was investigated. • Mechanical and biological properties were evaluated. • Phase compositions and structural features were influenced noticeably by the Ni and GNPs. • The cytotoxicity of the Ni was improved with the addition of GNPs

  19. Time course of air hunger mirrors the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S H; Banzett, R B; Butler, J P

    2004-12-01

    Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by events between brain stem and cortical awareness, this hypothesis predicts that air hunger will exactly track ventilatory response. Thus, during sustained hypoxia, initial increase in air hunger would be followed by a progressive decline reflecting biphasic reflex ventilatory drive. To test this prediction, we applied a sharp-onset 20-min step of normocapnic hypoxia and compared dynamic response characteristics of air hunger with that of ventilation in 10 healthy subjects. Air hunger was measured during mechanical ventilation (minute ventilation = 9 +/- 1.4 l/min; end-tidal Pco(2) = 37 +/- 2 Torr; end-tidal Po(2) = 45 +/- 7 Torr); ventilatory response was measured during separate free-breathing trials in the same subjects. Discomfort caused by "urge to breathe" was rated every 30 s on a visual analog scale. Both ventilatory and air hunger responses were modeled as delayed double exponentials corresponding to a simple linear first-order response but with a separate first-order adaptation. These models provided adequate fits to both ventilatory and air hunger data (r(2) = 0.88 and 0.66). Mean time constant and time-to-peak response for the average perceptual response (0.36 min(-1) and 3.3 min, respectively) closely matched corresponding values for the average ventilatory response (0.39 min(-1) and 3.1 min). Air hunger response to sustained hypoxia tracked ventilatory drive with a delay of approximately 30 s. Our data provide further support for the corollary discharge hypothesis for air hunger.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro behavior of nanostructured diopside/biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezani, Samira; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Kharaziha, Mahshid [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavangarian, Fariborz, E-mail: f_tavangarian@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Program, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Penn State Harrisburg, Middletown, PA 17057 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A significant challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of 3D constructs serving as scaffolds to fill bone defects, support osteoblasts, and promote bone regeneration. In this paper, highly porous (∼79%) nanostructured diopside/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with interconnected porosity were developed using various diopside contents via space holder method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were utilized to evaluate different samples. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were studied as well. The results showed that the produced scaffolds had an average pore size and density of 200–340 μm and 2.5 ± 0.3–1.8 ± 0.3 gr/cm{sup 3}, respectively, depending on the diopside content. Besides, increasing the diopside content of scaffolds from 0 to 15 wt% enhanced the bioactivity, biodegradability, and compressive strength from 1.2 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.3 MPa, respectively. In addition, MTT assay also confirmed that the BCP15 scaffold (containing 15 wt% diopside) significantly promoted cell viability and cell adhesion compared to BCP0 scaffold. Overall, our study suggests that nanostructured diopside/BCP scaffolds with improved biological and mechanical properties could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Highly porous (∼79%) scaffolds were synthesized by space holder method. • Adding diopside nanopowder reduced the average pore size of the scaffolds. • Diopside increased the compressive strength of the scaffolds by three-times. • Nanostructured diopside/BCP scaffolds significantly promoted cell viability. • The nanostructured composite scaffold of BCP15 is cell-friendly.

  1. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx arising from compartmentalized electrical signals in dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bloodgood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory synapses on mammalian principal neurons are typically formed onto dendritic spines, which consist of a bulbous head separated from the parent dendrite by a thin neck. Although activation of voltage-gated channels in the spine and stimulus-evoked constriction of the spine neck can influence synaptic signals, the contribution of electrical filtering by the spine neck to basal synaptic transmission is largely unknown. Here we use spine and dendrite calcium (Ca imaging combined with 2-photon laser photolysis of caged glutamate to assess the impact of electrical filtering imposed by the spine morphology on synaptic Ca transients. We find that in apical spines of CA1 hippocampal neurons, the spine neck creates a barrier to the propagation of current, which causes a voltage drop and results in spatially inhomogeneous activation of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs on a micron length scale. Furthermore, AMPA and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively that are colocalized on individual spine heads interact to produce two kinetically and mechanistically distinct phases of synaptically evoked Ca influx. Rapid depolarization of the spine triggers a brief and large Ca current whose amplitude is regulated in a graded manner by the number of open AMPARs and whose duration is terminated by the opening of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK channels. A slower phase of Ca influx is independent of AMPAR opening and is determined by the number of open NMDARs and the post-stimulus potential in the spine. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx only occurs when AMPARs and NMDARs are coactive within an individual spine. These results demonstrate that the morphology of dendritic spines endows associated synapses with specialized modes of signaling and permits the graded and independent control of multiple phases of synaptic Ca influx.

  2. Microculture in biphasic medium with silicone-coated slides for isolation of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, H; Galván, F J; Contreras, C

    1996-09-01

    The study reported here, seeking to develop a simple, practical, sensitive, and inexpensive technique for microbial diagnosis of tuberculosis, used a combination of biphasic media and microculture techniques to augment the sensitivity of traditional culture methods. A total of 540 sputum samples (5 mL each) were obtained from 180 patients with suspected tuberculosis in Mexico City. These samples were treated with Hanks reagent, neutralized with 25% HCl, and centrifuged. In each case the resulting residue was combined with liquid media (Sula medium or a phosphate-buffered control solution) and was inoculated into a bottle containing a solid medium (Löwenstein-Jensen-Holm or Middlebrook). A silicone-coated slide appropriate for culture of hydrophobic mycobacteria was inserted in each bottle, and the cultures (examined weekly) were incubated at 37 degrees C until the first macroscopic bacterial growth was detected or for up to eight weeks if none was detected. When such growth was detected, or at the end of eight weeks, each slide was withdrawn from the bottle, sterilized, stained by Kinyoun's method, and examined microscopically. Following 2-4 weeks of incubation, macroscopic bacterial growth was detected in 71 bottles and was confirmed by microscopic examination of the corresponding slides. No macroscopic bacterial growth was found in any of the remaining 469 bottles, but microscopic growth was observed on 77 of the slides examined after eight weeks. The authors conclude that this method represents a noteworthy improvement over standard culture methods in terms of bacterial isolation and suggest that its case, economy, and practicality make it suitable for application in developing countries.

  3. Early Peritoneal Immune Response during Echinococcus granulosus Establishment Displays a Biphasic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide distributed helminth zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Human secondary cystic echinococcosis is caused by dissemination of protoscoleces after accidental rupture of fertile cysts and is due to protoscoleces ability to develop into new metacestodes. In the experimental model of secondary cystic echinococcosis mice react against protoscoleces producing inefficient immune responses, allowing parasites to develop into cysts. Although the chronic phase of infection has been analyzed in depth, early immune responses at the site of infection establishment, e.g., peritoneal cavity, have not been well studied. Because during early stages of infection parasites are thought to be more susceptible to immune attack, this work focused on the study of cellular and molecular events triggered early in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. Principal Findings Data obtained showed disparate behaviors among subpopulations within the peritoneal lymphoid compartment. Regarding B cells, there is an active molecular process of plasma cell differentiation accompanied by significant local production of specific IgM and IgG2b antibodies. In addition, peritoneal NK cells showed a rapid increase with a significant percentage of activated cells. Peritoneal T cells showed a substantial increase, with predominance in CD4+ T lymphocytes. There was also a local increase in Treg cells. Finally, cytokine response showed local biphasic kinetics: an early predominant induction of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-15), followed by a shift toward a Th2-type profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13). Conclusions Results reported here open new ways to investigate the involvement of immune effectors players in E. granulosus establishment, and also in the sequential promotion of Th1- toward Th2-type responses in experimental secondary cystic echinococcosis. These data would be relevant for designing rational therapies

  4. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ({sup 137}Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  5. Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradaran, S., E-mail: saeid_baradaran@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Moghaddam, E. [Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman, E-mail: bahman_nasiri@hotmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Center, Materials Engineering Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Institute of Nanotechnology& Catalysis Research (NanoCat), University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mehrali, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Sookhakian, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Hamdi, M. [Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alias, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3 wt.% and 6 wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900 °C for 1 h. The GNP (0.5–2 wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15 h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150 °C and 160 MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5 days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5 wt.% was the optimum value. - Highlights: • Ni doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelets composite was investigated. • Mechanical and biological properties were evaluated. • Phase compositions and structural features were influenced noticeably by the Ni and GNPs. • The cytotoxicity of the Ni was improved with the addition of GNPs.

  6. Response of stem cells from different origins to biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Sonja E; Glickman, Robert; da Silva, Wagner N; Arinzeh, Treena L; Kerkis, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics have been successfully applied in a broad variety of presentation forms and with different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). BCPs have been loaded with stem cells from different origins for bone tissue engineering purposes, but evidence of stem cell behavior on different compositions (various HA/β-TCP ratios) and physical features of BCPs is limited. We compared the adhesion, proliferation, viability and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on granular BCPs with equal HA/β-TCP ratio of diverse particle sizes and on porous blocks which had different chemical compositions. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was compared to adipose-derived (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC) stem cells, as well as to pre-osteoblasts on a particulate BCP. MSCs growing on granular BCPs demonstrated increased number as compared to MSCs growing on blocks. Cells proliferated to a greater extent on small granular BCPs, while large granular BCPs and blocks promoted cell differentiation. Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in osteogenesis was upregulated in MSCs on bioceramics in basal medium which indicates that BCPs may have osteoinductive potential. This was confirmed with the upregulation of osteochondrogenic markers, at different time points, when stem cells from various tissues were grown on the BCP. This study demonstrates that BCPs, depending on their physical features and chemical composition, modulate stem cell behavior, and that stem cells from different origins are inherently distinct in their gene expression profile and can be triggered toward osteochondrogenic fate by BCPs.

  7. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Pires, Inês; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials. (paper)

  8. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B.

    2015-01-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ( 137 Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  9. Biphasic stimulation of cellular calcium concentration by 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in rat thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, J.

    1988-01-01

    3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) produced a rapid and transient increase in 45 Ca uptake and cytoplasmic free calcium concentration in rat thymocytes, which is the most rapid effect of T 3 in this system. This effect was manifested in cells suspended in medium containing 1 mM calcium. The T 3 effect on 45 Ca uptake was evident at 15-30 s, reached maximum at 30-60 s, and returned to control values at 5 min. The T 3 effect on cytoplasmic free calcium concentration was seen after 30 s, reached maximum at 7 min, and returned to control values after 24 min. In cells suspended in Ca 2+ -free medium, T 3 produced a similar rapid increase in 45 Ca uptake, which was sustained for at least 60 min, but T 3 failed to change cytoplasmic free calcium concentration. Alprenolol (10 μM) blocked the stimulatory effects of T 3 on these two functions in a similar fashion. From these results, the authors suggest that in rat thymocytes T 3 influences cellular calcium economy through a biphasic mechanism in which T 3 first increases calcium uptake which, in turn, if followed by a release of calcium from intracellular pool(s), resulting in a further increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration and the activation of Ca 2+ -regulated systems. Moreover, the present study provides further support for the postulate that in the rat thymocyte calcium serves as the first messenger for the plasma membrane-mediated stimulatory effects of T 3 on several metabolic functions

  10. Low cadmium exposure triggers a biphasic oxidative stress response in mice kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, Sandy; Cuypers, Ann; Maringwa, John; Smeets, Karen; Horemans, Nele; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Kerkhove, Emmy

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to participate in the early processes of cadmium (Cd)-induced proximal tubular kidney damage. Mice were chronically exposed up to 23 weeks to low Cd concentrations (10 and 100 mg CdCl 2 /l) via the drinking water. Pro- and antioxidant gene expression levels, glutathione, ascorbate and lipid peroxidation levels were measured. Our study provided evidence for an early and a late stress response in the kidney. Metallothioneins were upregulated from 1 week of exposure on and they stayed important during the whole exposure period. After 8 weeks the expression of Bcl2 (anti-apoptotic), Prdx2 and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Sod1) was reduced in the group exposed to 100 mg CdCl 2 /l, which might indicate a response to Cd-stress. However glutathione, ascorbate and lipid peroxidation levels did not significantly change, and the overall redox balance remained stable. Stable Sod2 transcriptional levels suggested that an increased formation of superoxide anions, which can arise upon Cd-induced mitochondrial free radical generation, was not appearing. A second defence activation was observed after 23 weeks: i.e. an increase of catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), together with NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), of which the role has not been studied yet in Cd nephrotoxicity. These findings were in contrast with previous studies, where Cd-induced oxidative stress was detrimental when high Cd concentrations were applied. In conclusion our study provided evidence that a chronic exposure to low Cd concentrations triggered a biphasic defence activation in the kidney that might lead to adaptation and survival

  11. Influence of surface microstructure and chemistry on osteoinduction and osteoclastogenesis by biphasic calcium phosphate discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NL Davison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that surface microstructural dimensions can influence the osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates (CaPs, and osteoclasts may play a role in this process. We hypothesised that surface structural dimensions of ≤ 1 μm trigger osteoinduction and osteoclast formation irrespective of macrostructure (e.g., concavities, interconnected macropores, interparticle space or surface chemistry. To test this, planar discs made of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP: 80 % hydroxyapatite, 20 % tricalcium phosphate were prepared with different surface structural dimensions – either ~ 1 μm (BCP1150 or ~ 2-4 μm (BCP1300 – and no macropores or concavities. A third material was made by sputter coating BCP1150 with titanium (BCP1150Ti, thereby changing its surface chemistry but preserving its surface structure and chemical reactivity. After intramuscular implantation in 5 dogs for 12 weeks, BCP1150 formed ectopic bone in 4 out of 5 samples, BCP1150Ti formed ectopic bone in 3 out of 5 samples, and BCP1300 formed no ectopic bone in any of the 5 samples. In vivo, large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells densely colonised BCP1150, smaller osteoclast-like cells formed on BCP1150Ti, and osteoclast-like cells scarcely formed on BCP1300. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells cultured on the surface of BCP1150 and BCP1150Ti in the presence of osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator for NF-κB ligand proliferated then differentiated into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. However, cell proliferation, fusion, and TRAP activity were all significantly inhibited on BCP1300. These results indicate that of the material parameters tested – namely, surface microstructure, macrostructure, and surface chemistry – microstructural dimensions are critical in promoting osteoclastogenesis and triggering ectopic bone formation.

  12. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, T Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-04-22

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB(-)) was employed within a water|P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. (137)Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6×10(11) at the w|P66614TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ(α), with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ(α) of 2 and 8.2×10(7), respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass spectra obtained by the direct injection of an emulsified water-organic solvent mixture into an electron spray ionization mass spectrometer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lingli; Fan Hongsong; Zhang Xingdong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi, E-mail: HANAGATA.Nobutaka@nims.go.j [Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in {beta}-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than {beta}-TCP.

  14. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  15. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  16. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S., E-mail: para_kanna@yahoo.com

    2015-11-15

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg{sup 2+} at the crystal lattice of β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The concentration of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg{sup 2+} precipitates as Mg(OH){sub 2} and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} is discarded from the investigation. - Highlights: • Aqueous co-precipitation of calcium deficient apatites with excess magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) additions. • Heat treatments beyond 800 °C results in the formation of biphasic apatite mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} gets accommodated at the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice of biphasic mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} additions exceeding stoichiometric value (Ca/P>1.67) results in its formation as MgO. • Mg{sup 2+} occupancy at β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice delays its allotropic conversion α-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} till 1350 °C.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  18. Deep Phenotyping: Deep Learning For Temporal Phenotype/Genotype Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Mohammad; Namin, Sarah; Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad; Brown, Tim; Borevitz, Justin

    2017-01-01

    High resolution and high throughput, genotype to phenotype studies in plants are underway to accelerate breeding of climate ready crops. Complex developmental phenotypes are observed by imaging a variety of accessions in different environment conditions, however extracting the genetically heritable traits is challenging. In the recent years, deep learning techniques and in particular Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Long-Short Term Memories (LSTMs), h...

  19. Micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone distribution in vivo in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustom, Laurence E; Boudou, Thomas; Lou, Siyu; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Nemke, Brett W; Lu, Yan; Markel, Mark D; Picart, Catherine; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2016-10-15

    The increasing demand for bone repair solutions calls for the development of efficacious bone scaffolds. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with both macropores and micropores (MP) have improved healing compared to those with macropores and no micropores (NMP), but the role of micropores is unclear. Here, we evaluate capillarity induced by micropores as a mechanism that can affect bone growth in vivo. Three groups of cylindrical scaffolds were implanted in pig mandibles for three weeks: MP were implanted either dry (MP-Dry), or after submersion in phosphate buffered saline, which fills pores with fluid and therefore suppresses micropore-induced capillarity (MP-Wet); NMP were implanted dry. The amount and distribution of bone in the scaffolds were quantified using micro-computed tomography. MP-Dry had a more homogeneous bone distribution than MP-Wet, although the average bone volume fraction, BVF‾, was not significantly different for these two groups (0.45±0.03 and 0.37±0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference in the radial bone distribution of NMP and MP-Wet, but the BVF‾, of NMP was significantly lower among the three groups (0.25±0.02). These results suggest that micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone regeneration by improving the homogeneity of bone distribution in BCP scaffolds. The explicit design and use of capillarity in bone scaffolds may lead to more effective treatments of large and complex bone defects. The increasing demand for bone repair calls for more efficacious bone scaffolds and calcium phosphate-based materials are considered suitable for this application. Macropores (>100μm) are necessary for bone ingrowth and vascularization. However, studies have shown that microporosity (micropore-induced capillarity had the potential to enhance bone growth in vivo. This work illustrates the positive effects of capillarity on bone regeneration in vivo; it demonstrates that micropore-induced capillarity significantly

  20. Biphasic electrical targeting plays a significant role in schwann cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Song, Yun Mi; Cho, Tae Hyung; Pan, Hui; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung June; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a promising technique for axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. However, long-term, continuous ES in the form of biphasic electric current (BEC) to stimulate axonal regeneration has rarely been attempted and the effects of BEC on Schwann cells are unknown. We hypothesized that long-term, continuous ES would trigger the activation of Schwann cells, and we therefore investigated the effect of BEC on the functional differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into Schwann cells, as well as the activity of primary Schwann cells. Differentiation of hMSCs into Schwann cells was determined by coculture with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line). We also investigated the in vivo effects of long-term ES (4 weeks) on axonal outgrowth of a severed sciatic nerve with a 7-mm gap after retraction of the nerve ends in rats by implanting an electronic device to serve as a neural conduit. PC12 cells cocultured with hMSCs electrically stimulated during culture in Schwann cell differentiation medium (Group I) had longer neurites and a greater percentage of PC12 cells were neurite-sprouting than when cocultured with hMSCs cultured in growth medium (control group) or unstimulated hMSCs in the same culture conditions as used for Group I (Group II). Group I cells showed significant upregulation of Schwann cell-related neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor compared to Group II cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Primary Schwann cells responded to continuous BEC with increased proliferation and the induction of nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, similar to Group I cells, and in addition, induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was observed. Immunohistochemical investigation of sciatic nerve regenerates revealed that BEC increased axonal outgrowth significantly. These results demonstrate that BEC enhanced the functional activity of

  1. Biphasic character of ribosomal translocation and non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the kinetics of mRNA translocation in the wild-type (WT) Escherichia coli ribosome, which is composed of a small 30 S and large 50 S subunit, and the ribosomes with mutations to some intersubunit bridges such as B1a, B4, B7a, and B8. The theoretical results reproduce well the available in vitro experimental data on the biphasic kinetics of the forward mRNA translocation catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G) hydrolyzing GTP, which can be best fit by the sum of two exponentials, and the monophasic kinetics of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation in the absence of the elongation factor, which can be best fit by a single-exponential function, in both the WT and mutant ribosomes. We show that both the mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the slow phase for the forward mRNA translocation and that in the rate of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation result from a reduction in the intrinsic energy barrier to resist the rotational movements between the two subunits, giving the same degree of increase in the two rates. The mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the fast phase for the forward mRNA translocation results mainly from the increase in the rate of the ribosomal unlocking, a conformational change in the ribosome that widens the mRNA channel for the mRNA translocation to take place, which could be partly due to the effect of the mutation on the intrasubunit 30S head rotation. Moreover, we study the translation rate of the WT and mutant ribosomes. It is shown that the translation rate versus the concentration of EF-G-GTP does not follow the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics, which is in sharp contrast to the general property of other enzymes that the rate of the enzymatic reaction versus the concentration of a substrate follows the MM kinetics. The physical origin of this non-MM kinetics for the ribosome is revealed.

  2. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AND BODY WEIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 4 No.3 2011. PHENOTYPIC ... because of its high meat quality and acceptance by her populace. The meat is ... commands high price in the restaurants and markets than other ...

  3. Biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoqing; Chen Rui; Yang Ping; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei; Liu Qizhan

    2007-01-01

    Biphasic dose-response relationship induced by environmental agents is often characterized with the effect of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Some studies showed that arsenite may induce cell proliferation and apoptosis via biphasic dose-response relationship in human cells; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the relationship between biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis and activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation may be stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 μM) arsenite but inhibited at higher concentrations (5 and 10 μM). When cell apoptosis was used as the endpoint, the concentration-response curves were changed to U-shapes. During stimulation phospho-JNK levels were significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 h after 0.1 or 0.5 μM arsenite exposure. Phospho-ERK1/2 levels were increased with different concentrations (0.1-10 μM) of arsenite at 6, 12, and 24 h. Blocking of JNK pathway with 20 μM SP600125 or ERK1/2 by 100 μM PD98059 significantly inhibited biphasic effect of arsenite in cells. Data in the present study suggest that activation of JNK and ERK1/2 may be involved in biphasic effect of arsenite when measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis in HELF cells. JNK activation seems to play a more critical role than ERK1/2 activation in the biphasic process

  4. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  6. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release.

  7. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lignocellulose fractionation into furfural and glucose by AlCl3-catalyzed DES/MIBK biphasic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kun; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Ying-Qiu; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Wang, Xing; Liu, Li

    2018-06-01

    Herein, an efficient DES/MIBK biphasic pretreatment system for preparation of furfural and fermentable glucose from lignocellulose was developed with AlCl 3 as catalysis. The low-cost and renewable DES (Choline chloride-Oxalic acid) served not only as a Brønsted acid catalyst, but also as a pretreatment solvent in present work, and MIBK as an extracting reagent which can increase the yield of furfural in DES phase. The effects of this biphasic pretreatment on the furfural yield and saccharification of the lignocellulose before and after pretreatment were explored using HPLC, HAPEC, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Under the best pretreatment condition (at 140 °C for 90 min), furfural could be obtained in 70.3% yield and 80.8% of the pretreated lignocellulose was saccharified, which was 8.4 times higher than that of the raw lignocellulose without pretreatment. In a word, this pretreatment system can be considered as a potential technique for efficient valorization of lignocellulose for production of furfural and fermentable glucose. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Nobuaki; Nabe, Takeshi; Shimazu, Masaji; Yoshino, Shin; Kohno, Shigekatsu

    2012-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL), an oriental medical mushroom, has been used in Asia for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the effect of GL on allergic rhinitis has not been well defined. The current study describes the inhibitory effect of GL on the biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated antigen challenge in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Intranasally sensitized guinea pigs were repeatedly challenged by inhalation of Japanese cedar pollen once every week. Ganoderma lucidum was orally administered once daily for 8 weeks from the time before the first challenge. The treatment with GL dose-dependently inhibited the early and late phase nasal blockage at the fifth to ninth antigen challenges. Furthermore, nasal hyperresponsiveness to intranasally applied leukotriene D₄ on 2 days after the eighth antigen challenge was also inhibited by the treatment with GL. However, Cry j 1-specific IgE antibody production was not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness were suppressed by the daily treatment with GL in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. These results suggest that GL may be a useful therapeutic drug for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Low temperature N,N-dimethylformamide-assisted synthesis and characterization of anatase-rutile biphasic nanostructured titania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estruga, M; Domenech, X; Ayllon, J A [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, C [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: joseantonio.ayllon@uab.es, E-mail: mestruga@qf.uab.cat

    2009-03-25

    Anatase and rutile biphasic nanostructured titania (TiO{sub 2}) has been synthesized via hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in an aqueous solution of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 80 deg. C for 16 h. The presence of DMF, which was partially hydrolyzed during the process, determined the formation of a biphasic material. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the presence of both anatase and rutile titania phases in a ratio of approx. 1:1. Transmission electron microscope analysis showed that rutile was present as radial flower-like nanorods, which were surrounded by anatase spherical nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter. Low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis showed the characteristic hysteresis loop of a mesoporous material. Specific surface area reached a value of 120 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the average pore diameter was 50 A. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that interstitial nitrogen was incorporated (0.35 at.%) during the annealing process. According to ultraviolet (UV)-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscope characterization, the N-doping caused a bandgap reduction from 3.0 to 2.9 eV. Photocatalytic activity of the material was tested for the degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange and 4-nitrophenol under near-UV and visible light radiation.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieda, Nicola; McInnes, Matthew D.F.; Cao, Lilly

    2014-01-01

    To use systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion (SEI) at contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. Several electronic databases were searched through October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted data. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. The primary 2 x 2 data were investigated with forest plot and ROC plot of sensitivity and specificity. Four studies met the inclusion criteria (307 patients). Considerable heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. Two studies from the same group of investigators demonstrated reasonable diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 59-80 % and specificity 87-99 %), while two others did not (sensitivity 0-6 %, specificity 93-100 %). Possible reasons for this include timing of biphasic MDCT and methods of interpretation but not size of lesion. SEI is a specific imaging finding of renal oncocytoma with highly variable sensitivity. This substantial heterogeneity across studies and between institutions suggests that further validation of this imaging finding is necessary prior to application in clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; McInnes, Matthew D.F.; Cao, Lilly [Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    To use systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion (SEI) at contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. Several electronic databases were searched through October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted data. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. The primary 2 x 2 data were investigated with forest plot and ROC plot of sensitivity and specificity. Four studies met the inclusion criteria (307 patients). Considerable heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. Two studies from the same group of investigators demonstrated reasonable diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 59-80 % and specificity 87-99 %), while two others did not (sensitivity 0-6 %, specificity 93-100 %). Possible reasons for this include timing of biphasic MDCT and methods of interpretation but not size of lesion. SEI is a specific imaging finding of renal oncocytoma with highly variable sensitivity. This substantial heterogeneity across studies and between institutions suggests that further validation of this imaging finding is necessary prior to application in clinical practice. (orig.)

  13. Injectable glycosaminoglycan-protein nano-complex in semi-interpenetrating networks: A biphasic hydrogel for hyaline cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Subramanian, Anuradha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2017-11-01

    Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration remains challenging due to its less intrinsic reparability. The study develops injectable biphasic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN) hydrogel impregnated with chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanoparticles for functional cartilage restoration. ChS loaded zein nanoparticles (∼150nm) prepared by polyelectrolyte-protein complexation were interspersed into injectable SIPNs developed by blending alginate with poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous microstructure (39.9±5.8μm pore diameter, 57.7±5.9% porosity), 92% swellability and >350Pa elastic modulus. Primary chondrocytes compatibility, chondrocyte-matrix interaction with cell-cell clustering and spheroidal morphology was demonstrated in ChS loaded hydrogel and long-term (42days) proliferation was also determined. Higher fold expression of cartilage-specific genes sox9, aggrecan and collagen-II was observed in ChS loaded hydrogel while exhibiting poor expression of collagen-I. Immunoblotting of aggregan and collagen II demonstrate favorable positive influence of ChS on chondrocytes. Thus, the injectable biphasic SIPNs could be promising composition-mimetic substitute for cartilage restoration at irregular defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of a Three-Dimensional Poroelastic BEM to Modeling the Biphasic Mechanics of Cell-Matrix Interactions in Articular Cartilage (REVISION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mansoor A; Guilak, Farshid

    2007-06-15

    Articular cartilage exhibits viscoelasticity in response to mechanical loading that is well described using biphasic or poroelastic continuum models. To date, boundary element methods (BEMs) have not been employed in modeling biphasic tissue mechanics. A three dimensional direct poroelastic BEM, formulated in the Laplace transform domain, is applied to modeling stress relaxation in cartilage. Macroscopic stress relaxation of a poroelastic cylinder in uni-axial confined compression is simulated and validated against a theoretical solution. Microscopic cell deformation due to poroelastic stress relaxation is also modeled. An extended Laplace inversion method is employed to accurately represent mechanical responses in the time domain.

  15. The expanding phenotype of mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Gurgel-Giannetti, Juliana

    2005-10-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain) continues to progress apace. In this review we provide an update of information regarding disorders that predominantly or exclusively affect skeletal muscle. Most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency, and mutations in genes that control mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance and structure such as POLG and TK2. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with altered lipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a putative secondary impairment of the respiratory chain remains to be documented. Concerning the 'other genome', the role played by mutations in protein encoding genes of mtDNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. It has also been confirmed that mutations in tRNA genes of mtDNA can cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and - contrary to conventional wisdom - these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, myalgia, cramps, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  16. Multi-scale osteointegration and neovascularization of biphasic calcium phosphate bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheeny K.

    Bone grafts are utilized clinically to guide tissue regeneration. Autologous bone and allogeneic bone are the current clinical standards. However, there are significant limitations to their use. To address the need for alternatives to autograft and allograft, researchers have worked to develop synthetic grafts, also referred to as scaffolds. Despite extensive efforts in this area, a gap persists between basic research and clinical application. In particular, solutions for repairing critical size and/or load-bearing defects are lacking. The aim of this thesis work was to address two critical barriers preventing design of successful tissue engineering constructs for bone regeneration within critical size and/or load-bearing defects. Those barriers are insufficient osteointegration and slow neovascularization. In this work, the effects of scaffold microporosity, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery and endothelial colony forming cell vasculogenesis were evaluated in the context of bone formation in vivo. This was accomplished to better understand the role of these factors in bone regeneration, which may translate to improvements in tissue engineering construct design. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with controlled macro- and microporosity were implanted in porcine mandibular defects. Evaluation of the BCP scaffolds after in vivo implantation showed, for the first time, osteocytes embedded in bone within scaffold micropores (macro and micro length scales, leaving no "dead space" or discontinuities of bone in the defect site. The scaffold forms a living composite upon integration with regenerating bone and this has significant implications with regard to improved scaffold mechanical properties. The presence of osteocytes within scaffold micropores is an indication of scaffold osteoinductivity because a chemotactic factor must be present to induce cell migration into pores on the order of the cell diameter. It is likely that the scaffold

  17. Childhood asthma-predictive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Mauger, David T; Lemanske, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Wheezing is a fairly common symptom in early childhood, but only some of these toddlers will experience continued wheezing symptoms in later childhood. The definition of the asthma-predictive phenotype is in children with frequent, recurrent wheezing in early life who have risk factors associated with the continuation of asthma symptoms in later life. Several asthma-predictive phenotypes were developed retrospectively based on large, longitudinal cohort studies; however, it can be difficult to differentiate these phenotypes clinically as the expression of symptoms, and risk factors can change with time. Genetic, environmental, developmental, and host factors and their interactions may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of the asthma phenotype over time. Key characteristics that distinguish the childhood asthma-predictive phenotype include the following: male sex; a history of wheezing, with lower respiratory tract infections; history of parental asthma; history of atopic dermatitis; eosinophilia; early sensitization to food or aeroallergens; or lower lung function in early life. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolomics reveals metabolic targets and biphasic responses in breast cancer cells treated by curcumin alone and in association with docetaxel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bayet-Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX. In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l(-1-28 µM- (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01, but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l(-1 -70 µM- (-49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and -56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025. At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (-60 to -80%, all, P<0.05. Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025, and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about -60%, P<0.025. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l(-1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  19. Biphasic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT in patients with recurrent and high-risk prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlmann, Carsten-Oliver; Meller, Birgit; Bouter, Caroline; Meller, Johannes [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goettingen (Germany); Ritter, Christian Oliver; Lotz, Joachim [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Stroebel, Philipp [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Trojan, Lutz; Hijazi, Sameh [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Urology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Binding of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC ({sup 68}Ga-PSMA) at prostate cancer (PC) cells increases over time. A biphasic protocol may help separating benign from tumor lesions. The aim of this study was the retrospective evaluation of a diagnostic incremental value of a dual-time point (biphasic) {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer. Retrospective analysis of 35 consecutive patients (49-78 years, median 71) with newly diagnosed PC (12/35) or recurrence of PC (23/35). PET/CT (Gemini TF16, Philips) was acquired 1 h and 3 h p. i. of 140-392 MBq (300 MBq median) {sup 68}Ga-PSMA, followed by a diagnostic contrast CT. PET findings were correlated with histology or unequivocal CT findings. Semiquantitative PET data (SUVmax, SUV mean) were acquired and target-to-background-ratios (T/B-ratio) were calculated for benign and malign lesions for both time points. Size of lymph nodes (LN) on diagnostic CT was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed for assessment of significant changes of semiquantitative PET-parameters over time and for correlation of size and uptake of lymph nodes. One hundred and four lesions were evaluated. Sixty lesions were referenced by histology or unequivocal CT findings, including eight (13.3 %) histopathologically benign lymph nodes, 12 (20 %) histopathologically lymph node metastases, 12 (20 %) primary tumors, three (5 %) local recurrences, and 25 (41.7 %) bone metastases. Forty-four lesions were axillary LN with normal CT-appearance. Benign lesions had significantly lower SUVmax and T/B-ratios compared with malignant findings. Malign lesions showed a significant increase of both parameters over time compared to benign findings. There was no correlation between LN size and SUVmax. The sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT regarding pelvic LN was 94 %, 99 %, 89 %, and 99.5 %, respectively. In contrast to benign tissues, the uptake of proven tumor lesions increases on {sup 68

  20. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  1. Stereoisomeric products of electrochemical reduction of heterocyclic Fischer aminocarbene Cr(0) complexes. Development of the electrochemistry-mass spectrometry tandem approach using biphasic (acetonitrile-hexane) preparative electrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Metelková, R.; Hoskovcová, I.; Polášek, Miroslav; Urban, Jiří; David, T.; Ludvík, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, APR 2015 (2015), s. 17-23 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/0727 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fischer aminocarbene complexes biphasic electrolysis * EC-MS * HPLC-NMR Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  2. Evaluation of parallel milliliter-scale stirred-tank bioreactors for the study of biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis with ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennewald, Danielle; Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    As clear structure-activity relationships are still rare for ionic liquids, preliminary experiments are necessary for the process development of biphasic whole-cell processes involving these solvents. To reduce the time investment and the material costs, the process development of such biphasic reaction systems would profit from a small-scale high-throughput platform. Exemplarily, the reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system was studied in a miniaturized stirred-tank bioreactor system allowing the parallel operation of up to 48 reactors at the mL-scale. The results were compared to those obtained in a 20-fold larger stirred-tank reactor. The maximum local energy dissipation was evaluated at the larger scale and compared to the data available for the small-scale reactors, to verify if similar mass transfer could be obtained at both scales. Thereafter, the reaction kinetics and final conversions reached in different reactions setups were analysed. The results were in good agreement between both scales for varying ionic liquids and for ionic liquid volume fractions up to 40%. The parallel bioreactor system can thus be used for the process development of the majority of biphasic reaction systems involving ionic liquids, reducing the time and resource investment during the process development of this type of applications. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Comparison of a soluble co-formulation of insulin degludec/insulin aspart vs biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niskanen, Leo; Leiter, Lawrence A; Franek, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a soluble co-formulation of insulin degludec (70%) and insulin aspart (IAsp: 30%). Here, we compare the efficacy and safety of IDegAsp, an alternative IDegAsp formulation (AF: containing 45% IAsp), and biphasic IAsp 30 (BIAsp 30)....

  4. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaokun [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Li, Teng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tang, Kan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhou, Xinpei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lu, Mi [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ounkham, Whalmany L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Spain, Stephen M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Frost, Brian J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lin, Hongfei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reaction mechanism is discussed.

  5. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    concentrations (less than 1 mM), QX-314 potently inhibited capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents with an IC₅₀ of 8.0 ± 0.6 μM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 exerts biphasic effects on TRPV1 channels, inhibiting capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents at lower...... channels. METHODS: The authors conducted an in vitro laboratory study in which they expressed TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and recorded cation currents with the two-electrode voltage clamp method. They used confocal microscopy for Ca²⁺ imaging in TRPV1 transient transfected tsA201...

  6. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  7. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  8. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: 12......-15 h., IV: 24-28 h. and V: 32-36 h. after removal of water and food. It was found that the PGE2 excretion rate changed in a biphasic pattern. During the first 2 experimental periods it increased. Thereafter it decreased towards the control value. There was an increase in PGE2 excretion with urinary...

  9. Amplification of a bi-phase shift-key modulated signal by a mm-wave FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Sheaffer, M.K.

    1991-10-01

    Bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) is a modulation scheme used in communications and radar in which the phase of a transmitted rf signal is switched in a coded pattern between discrete values differing by π radians. The transmitted information rate (in communications) or resolution (in imaging radar) depends on the rate at which the transmitted signal can be modulated. Modulation rates of greater than 1 GHz are generally desired. Although the instantaneous gain bandwidth of a mm-wave FEL amplifier can be much greater than 10 GHz, slippage may limit the BPSK modulation rate that can be amplified. Qualitative slippage arguments would limit the modulation rate to relatively low values; nevertheless, simulations with a time-dependent FEL code (GINGER) indicate that rates of 2 GHz or more are amplified without much loss in modulation integrity. In this paper we describe the effects of slippage in the simulations and discuss the limits of simple arguments

  10. The adhesion strength and residual stress of colloidal-sol gel derived β-Tricalcium-Phosphate/Fluoridated-Hydroxyapatite biphasic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Kui; Zhang, Sam; Weng Wenjian; Khor, Khiam Aik; Miao Shundong; Wang Yongsheng

    2008-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powders are embedded in a fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) matrix to form β-TCP-FHA composites via colloidal-sol gel method. This composite layer is deposited on top of a FHA layer to form a β-TCP-FHA/FHA biphasic coating. The effect of the nanosized powder on the residual stress is characterized through the X-ray diffraction peak shift. The powder incorporation increases the residual stress, while a large amount of β-TCP (Ca powder /Ca sol ratio is higher than 1/2) results in less gel shrinkage that partially compensates the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient and thus the residual stress. Despite the elevated residual stress as more powders are embedded, the coating adhesion strength remains virtually constant: around 430 mN-500 mN in scanning scratch test

  11. Structural and mechanical characterization of boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate produced by wet chemical method and subsequent thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Onder, E-mail: albayrakonder@mersin.edu.tr

    2016-03-15

    In the current study, boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics consisting of a mixture of boron doped hydroxyapatite (BHA) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) of varying BHA/β-TCP ratios were obtained after sintering stage. The effects of varying boron contents and different sintering temperatures on the BHA/β-TCP ratios and on the sinterability of the final products were investigated. Particle sizes and morphologies of the obtained precipitates were determined using SEM. XRD and FTIR investigation were conducted to detect the boron formation in the structure of HA and quantitative analysis was performed to determine the BHA/β-TCP ratio before and after sintering stage. In order to determine the sinterability of the obtained powders, pellets were prepared and sintered; the rates of densification were calculated and obtained results were correlated by SEM images. Also Vickers microhardness values of the sintered samples were determined. The experimental results verified that boron doped hydroxyapatite powders were obtained after sintering stage and the structure consists of a mixture of BHA and β-TCP. As the boron content used in the precipitation stage increases, β-TCP content of the BHA/β-TCP ratio increases but sinterability, density and microhardness deteriorate. As the sintering temperature increases, β-TCP content, density and microhardness of the samples increase and sinterability improves. - Highlights: • This is the first paper about boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics. • Boron doping affects the structural and mechanical properties. • BHA/β-TCP ratio can be adjustable with boron content and sintering temperature.

  12. Cancer: brain-regulated biphasic stress response induces cell growth or cell death to adapt to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.

  13. Distinct moieties underlie biphasic H+ gating of connexin43 channels, producing a pH optimum for intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciarena, Carolina D.; Malik, Akif; Swietach, Pawel; Moreno, Alonso P.; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Most mammalian cells can intercommunicate via connexin-assembled, gap-junctional channels. To regulate signal transmission, connexin (Cx) channel permeability must respond dynamically to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. One key stimulus is intracellular pH (pHi), which is modulated by a tissue’s metabolic and perfusion status. Our understanding of the molecular mechanism of H+ gating of Cx43 channels—the major isoform in the heart and brain—is incomplete. To interrogate the effects of acidic and alkaline pHi on Cx43 channels, we combined voltage-clamp electrophysiology with pHi imaging and photolytic H+ uncaging, performed over a range of pHi values. We demonstrate that Cx43 channels expressed in HeLa or N2a cell pairs are gated biphasically by pHi via a process that consists of activation by H+ ions at alkaline pHi and inhibition at more acidic pHi. For Cx43 channel–mediated solute/ion transmission, the ensemble of these effects produces a pHi optimum, near resting pHi. By using Cx43 mutants, we demonstrate that alkaline gating involves cysteine residues of the C terminus and is independent of motifs previously implicated in acidic gating. Thus, we present a molecular mechanism by which cytoplasmic acid–base chemistry fine tunes intercellular communication and establishes conditions for the optimal transmission of solutes and signals in tissues, such as the heart and brain.—Garciarena, C. D., Malik, A., Swietach, P., Moreno, A. P., Vaughan-Jones, R. D. Distinct moieties underlie biphasic H+ gating of connexin43 channels, producing a pH optimum for intercellular communication. PMID:29183963

  14. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fupo; Ren, Weiwei; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  15. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: fphebm@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmchenw@126.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  16. Biphasic Effect of Curcumin on Morphine Tolerance: A Preliminary Evidence from Cytokine/Chemokine Protein Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-An Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on morphine tolerance and the corresponding cytokine/chemokine changes. Male ICR mice were made tolerant to morphine by daily subcutaneous injection for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, low-dose or high-dose curcumin were administered 15 min after morphine injection, either acutely or chronically for 7 days to test the effect of curcumin on morphine-induced antinociception and development of morphine tolerance. On day 8, cumulative dose-response curves were generated and the 50% of maximal analgesic dose values were calculated and compared among groups. Corresponding set of mice were used for analyzing the cytokine responses by antibody-based cytokine protein array. Acute, high-dose curcumin enhanced morphine-induced antinociception. While morphine tolerance was attenuated by administration of low-dose curcumin following morphine injections for 7 days, it was aggravated by chronic high-dose curcumin following morphine injection, suggesting a biphasic effect of curcumin on morphine-induced tolerance. Of the 96 cytokine/chemokines analyzed by mouse cytokine protein array, 14 cytokines exhibited significant changes after the different 7-day treatments. Mechanisms for the modulatory effects of low-dose and high-dose curcumin on morphine tolerance were discussed. Even though curcumin itself is a neuroprotectant and low doses of the compound serve to attenuate morphine tolerance, high-doses of curcumin might cause neurotoxicity and aggravate morphine tolerance by inhibiting the expression of antiapoptotic cytokines and neuroprotective factors. Our results indicate that the effect of curcumin on morphine tolerance may be biphasic, and therefore curcumin should be used cautiously.

  17. TSDC and impedance spectroscopy measurements on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate biphasic bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezas, P. R.; Melo, B. M. G.; Costa, L. C.; Valente, M. A.; Lança, M. C.; Ventura, J. M. G.; Pinto, L. F. V.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Bone grafting and surgical interventions related with orthopaedic disorders consist in a big business, generating large revenues worldwide every year. There is a need to replace the biomaterials that currently still dominate this market, i.e., autografts and allografts, due to their disadvantages, such as limited availability, need for additional surgeries and diseases transmission possibilities. The most promising replacement materials are biomaterials with bioactive properties, such as the calcium phosphate-based bioceramics group. The bioactivity of these materials, i.e., the rate at which they promote the growth and directly bond with the new host biological bone, can be enhanced through their electrical polarization. In the present work, the electrical polarization features of pure hydroxyapatite (Hap), pure β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composites (HTCP) were analyzed by measuring thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC). The samples were thermoelectrically polarized at 500 °C under a DC electric field with a magnitude of 5 kV/cm. The biphasic samples were also polarized under electric fields with different magnitudes: 2, 3, 4 and 5 kV/cm. Additionally, the depolarization processes detected in the TSDC measurements were correlated with dielectric relaxation processes observed in impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements. The results indicate that the β-TCP crystalline phase has a considerable higher ability to store electrical charge compared with the Hap phase. This indicates that it has a suitable composition and structure for ionic conduction and establishment of a large electric charge density, providing great potential for orthopaedic applications.

  18. Biphase Cobalt-Manganese Oxide with High Capacity and Rate Performance for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Charles, Daniel S. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Xu, Wenqian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS). X-ray Science Division; Feygenson, Mikhail [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) outstation Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Teng, Xiaowei [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2017-11-22

    Manganese-based metal oxide electrode materials are of great importance in electrochemical energy storage for their favorable redox behavior, low cost and environmental-friendliness. However, their storage capacity and cycle life in aqueous Na-ion electrolytes is not satisfactory. In this paper, we report the development of a bi-phase cobalt-manganese oxide (Co-Mn-O) nanostructured electrode material, comprised of a layered MnO2.H2O birnessite phase and a (Co0.83Mn0.13Va0.04)tetra(Co0.38Mn1.62)octaO3.72 (Va: vacancy; tetra: tetrahedral sites; octa: octahedral sites) spinel phase, verified by neutron total scattering and pair distribution function analyses. The bi-phase Co-Mn-O material demonstrates an excellent storage capacity towards Na-ions in an aqueous electrolyte (121 mA h g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the half-cell and 81 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 after 5000 cycles in full-cells), as well as high rate performance (57 mA h g-1 a rate of 360 C). Electro-kinetic analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction measurements further confirm that the synergistic interaction between the spinel and layered phases, as well as the vacancy of the tetrahedral sites of spinel phase, contribute to the improved capacity and rate performance of the Co-Mn-O material by facilitating both diffusion-limited redox and capacitive charge storage processes.

  19. Biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30 in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Valensi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul ValensiDepartment of Endocrinology-Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Verdier Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Nord University, CRNH-IdF, Bondy, FranceAbstract: The pharmacological advantages of the rapid-acting analog, insulin aspart, over human insulin have contributed to the widespread prescription of the premix, biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30, in type 1 (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM. This article reviews the available literature on the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of BIAsp 30 in T1DM and T2DM from an online search of the PubMed database. Following injection, BIAsp 30 reaches higher plasma insulin levels more quickly than human premix or basal insulin, giving effective reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia. In T1DM patients, randomized controlled trials (RCTs have shown that HbA1c reduction is similar, but postprandial glycemic control is better, with BIAsp 30 than with human insulin regimens. In T2DM patients, lowering of HbA1c and postprandial hyperglycemia with BIAsp 30 compare favorably with optimized oral antidiabetes drug treatment, insulin glargine, and, in obese patients, human premix. An increase in minor hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 relative to basal insulin has been reported in T2DM patients, but major and nocturnal hypoglycemia rates are generally low. Findings from RCTs in T2DM patients are supported by large observational studies. In summary, BIAsp 30 once to three times daily represents a simple and effective tool for the modern management of diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, BIAsp 30, premix, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes

  20. Average current is better than peak current as therapeutic dosage for biphasic waveforms in a ventricular fibrillation pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Yu, Tao; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin

    2014-10-01

    Defibrillation current has been shown to be a clinically more relevant dosing unit than energy. However, the effects of average and peak current in determining shock outcome are still undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between average current, peak current and defibrillation success when different biphasic waveforms were employed. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in 22 domestic male pigs. Animals were then randomized to receive defibrillation using one of two different biphasic waveforms. A grouped up-and-down defibrillation threshold-testing protocol was used to maintain the average success rate of 50% in the neighborhood. In 14 animals (Study A), defibrillations were accomplished with either biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) or rectilinear biphasic waveforms. In eight animals (Study B), shocks were delivered using two BTE waveforms that had identical peak current but different waveform durations. Both average and peak currents were associated with defibrillation success when BTE and rectilinear waveforms were investigated. However, when pathway impedance was less than 90Ω for the BTE waveform, bivariate correlation coefficient was 0.36 (p=0.001) for the average current, but only 0.21 (p=0.06) for the peak current in Study A. In Study B, a high defibrillation success (67.9% vs. 38.8%, pcurrent (14.9±2.1A vs. 13.5±1.7A, pcurrent unchanged. In this porcine model of VF, average current was better than peak current to be an adequate parameter to describe the therapeutic dosage when biphasic defibrillation waveforms were used. The institutional protocol number: P0805. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotypic spectrum of GABRA1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Marini, Carla; Pfeffer, Siona

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To delineate phenotypic heterogeneity, we describe the clinical features of a cohort of patients with GABRA1 gene mutations. METHODS: Patients with GABRA1 mutations were ascertained through an international collaboration. Clinical, EEG, and genetic data were collected. Functional analy...

  2. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  3. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutati...

  4. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.

  5. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  6. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  7. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  8. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  9. From plant genomes to phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Marie; Gundlach, Heidrun; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus; Usadel, Björn; Schwacke, Rainer; Schmutzer, Thomas; Chen, Jinbo; Arend, Daniel; Oppermann, Markus; Weise, Stephan; Lange, Matthias; Fiorani, Fabio; Spannagl, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have greatly accelerated the rate of plant genome and applied breeding research. Despite this advancing trend, plant genomes continue to present numerous difficulties to the standard tools and pipelines not only for genome assembly but also gene annotation and downstream analysis.Here we give a perspective on tools, resources and services necessary to assemble and analyze plant genomes and link them to plant phenotypes.

  10. Phenotypic covariance at species' borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, M Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T

    2013-05-28

    Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species' borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species' borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future.

  11. Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak. (paper)

  12. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H 2 O 2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V 2 O 5 ) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  13. Study of the sensitising potential of various textile dyes using a biphasic murine local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, V; Platzek, T; Fink, H; Sonnenburg, A; Stahlmann, R

    2010-09-01

    Disperse dyes, which are suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres, are responsible for the great majority of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) cases to textile dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Briefly, mice were shaved over a surface of approximately 2 cm(2) on their backs and treated using a "sensitisation-challenge protocol". The shaved surface was treated once daily on days 1-3 with 50 microl of the test solution. Animals remained untreated on days 4-14. On days 15-17, mice were treated with 25 microl of the test solution on the dorsum of both ears. Mice were killed on day 19 with deep CO(2) anaesthesia, the lymph nodes prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations, were determined by flow cytometry. The results were compared to control group treated with the vehicle alone. Our results showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight. We also observed an increase in ear thickness and ear punch weight in most of the concentrations tested for various textile dyes. We observed a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells and an increase in CD19+, CD45+ and CD45+/1A+ cells in most of the cases, which is characteristic for allergens. The CD4+/CD69+ cells increased in only few experiments mainly with Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106. Based on our results, the disperse dyes could be arranged in four groups on the basis of their sensitising potency in the following decreasing order (in parenthesis: lowest concentration causing a significant increase in lymph node cell number): group 1, strong: Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106 (0.003%); group 2, moderate: Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Blue 1 (3%); group 3, weak: Disperse Orange 37 and

  14. Preparation of dexamethasone-loaded biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles/collagen porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Although bone is regenerative, its regeneration capacity is limited. For bone defects beyond a critical size, further intervention is required. As an attractive strategy, bone tissue engineering (bone TE) has been widely investigated to repair bone defects. However, the rapid and effective bone regeneration of large non-healing defects is still a great challenge. Multifunctional scaffolds having osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity are desirable to fasten functional bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, biomimetic composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release of dexamethasone (DEX) and the controlled pore structures were prepared for bone TE. DEX was introduced in the BCP NPs during preparation of the BCP NPs and hybridized with collagen scaffolds, which pore structures were controlled by using pre-prepared ice particulates as a porogen material. The composite scaffolds had well controlled and interconnected pore structures, high mechanical strength and a sustained release of DEX. The composite scaffolds showed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs when used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Subcutaneous implantation of the composite scaffolds at the dorsa of athymic nude mice demonstrated that they facilitated the ectopic bone tissue regeneration. The results indicated the DEX-loaded BCP NPs/collagen composite scaffolds had high potential for bone TE. Scaffolds play a crucial role for regeneration of large bone defects. Biomimetic scaffolds having the same composition of natural bone and a controlled release of osteoinductive factors are desirable for promotion of bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic CaP nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release nature of dexamethasone (DEX) were prepared and their porous structures were controlled by using ice particulates

  15. A feasible process for furfural production from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of corncob via biochar catalysts in a new biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aojie; Lin, Qixuan; Yan, Yuhuan; Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Runcang

    2016-09-01

    A feasible approach was developed to produce furfural from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of corncob via biochar catalysts as the solid acid catalyst in a new biphasic system with dichloromethane (DCM) as the organic phase and the concentrated pre-hydrolysis liquor (CPHL) containing NaCl as the aqueous phase. The biochar catalyst possessing many acidity groups (SO3H, COOH and phenolic OH groups) was prepared by the carbonization and sulfonation process of the corncob hydrolyzed residue. The influence of the catalytic condition on furfural yield and selectivity was comparatively studied. It was found that 81.14% furfural yield and 83.0% furfural selectivity were obtained from CPHL containing 5wt% xylose using this biochar catalyst in the CPHL-NaCl/DCM biphasic system at 170°C for 60min. In addition, with the regeneration process, this catalyst displayed the high performance and excellent recyclability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiufang; Song, Dan; Gu, Li; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Here, we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At lower concentrations, fluoxetine downregulates gene expression of Cav-1, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases activity of PI3K/AKT, and elevates GSK-3β phosphorylation thus suppressing its activity. At higher concentrations, fluoxetine acts in an inverse fashion. As expected, fluoxetine at lower concentrations increased while at higher concentrations decreased glycogen content in astrocytes. Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug.

  17. Knowledge-based analysis of phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoendorf, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism, and they are widely recorded in biology and medicine. To facilitate data integration, ontologies that formally describe phenotypes are being developed in several domains. I will describe a formal framework to describe phenotypes. A formalized theory of phenotypes is not only useful for domain analysis, but can also be applied to assist in the diagnosis of rare genetic diseases, and I will show how our results on the ontology of phenotypes is now applied in biomedical research.

  18. NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Maren R; Lloyd, K C Kent; Cline, Gary W; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-01

    The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community's needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses.

  19. Comparative Efficacies of Collagen-Based 3D Printed PCL/PLGA/?-TCP Composite Block Bone Grafts and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kyoung-Sub; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Ho Yun; Jin, Songwan; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yun, Won-Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone regeneration and space maintaining ability of three-dimensional (3D) printed bone grafts with conventional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). After mixing polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in a 4:4:2 ratio, PCL/PLGA/?-TCP particulate bone grafts were fabricated using 3D printing technology. Fabricated particulate bone grafts were mixed with atelocollagen to produce collagen-based PCL/P...

  20. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mun-Hwan Lee; Changkook You; Kyo-Han Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell p...

  1. The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Sebastian; Vasilevsky, Nicole A.; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; McMurry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. The three components of the Human PhenotypeOntology (HPO; www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) project are the phenotype vocabulary, disease-phenotype annotations and the algorithms that operate on these. These components are being used for computational deep phenotyping and precision medicine as well as integration of clinical data into translational research. The HPO is being increasingly adopted as a standard for phenotypic abnormalities by diverse groups such as international rare disease organizations, registries, clinical labs, biomedical resources, and clinical software tools and will thereby contribute toward nascent efforts at global data exchange for identifying disease etiologies. This update article reviews the progress of the HPO project since the debut Nucleic Acids Research database article in 2014, including specific areas of expansion such as common (complex) disease, new algorithms for phenotype driven genomic discovery and diagnostics, integration of cross-species mapping efforts with the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, an improved quality control pipeline, and the addition of patient-friendly terminology.

  2. Phenotypic variability in Meesmann's dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    symptoms often include blurred vision and ocular irritation. Typical cases may be entirely free of complaints. Intermittent pain episodes, such as occur in recurrent erosion syndrome, are not the rule. Genetic sequencing indicated a familial relationship with the originally described Meesmann family......'s dystrophy occurs worldwide. The largest family described is the original German one, now supplemented with a Danish branch. Despite the presence of an identical genetic defect, the clinical phenotype varies. This suggests that non-KRT12-related mechanisms are responsible for the variation....

  3. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaag, A A; Grunnet, L G; Arora, G P

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2...... of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2...

  4. A promising tritium breeding material: Nanostructured 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chen; Yang, Mao; Gong, Yichao; Feng, Lan; Wang, Hailiang; Shi, Yanli; Shi, Qiwu; Qi, Jianqi; Lu, Tiecheng

    2018-03-01

    As an advanced tritium breeder material for the fusion reactor blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic has attracted widely attention due to its merits. In this paper, the uniform precursor powders were prepared by hydrothermal method, and nanostructured 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were fabricated by an indirect wet method at the first time. In addition, the composition dependence (x/y) of their microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the crush load of biphasic ceramic pebbles was better than that of single phase ceramic pebbles under identical conditions. The 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 ceramic pebbles have good morphology, small grain size (90 nm), satisfactory crush load (37.8 N) and relative density (81.8 %T.D.), which could be a promising breeding material in the future fusion reactor.

  5. Facile synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate microspheres with engineered surface topography for controlled delivery of drugs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkesh, Ibrahim; Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Azami, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Baharvand, Hossein; Mohammadi, Javad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban

    2017-09-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) microspheres are of great interest due to their high stability and osteoinductive properties at specific compositions. However, the need for optimal performance at a unique composition limits their flexibility for tuning drug release by modulation of bulk properties and presents the question of engineering surface topography as an alternative. It is necessary to have a facile method to control surface topography at a defined bulk composition. Here, we have produced BCP microspheres with different surface topographies that have the capability to be used as tunable drug release systems. We synthesized calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) microparticles by precipitating calcium and phosphate ions onto ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) templates. The morphology and surface topography of CDHA microparticles were controlled using process parameters, which governed nucleation and growth. These parameters included template concentration, heat rate, and stirring speed. Under low heat rate and static conditions, we could obtain spherical microparticles with long and short nanosheets on their surfaces at low and high EDTA concentrations, respectively. These nanostructured microspheres were subsequently crystallized by thermal treatment to produce EDTA-free BCP microspheres with intact morphology. These biocompatible BCP microspheres were highly effective in loading and prolonged release of both small molecule [dexamethasone (Dex)] and protein [bovine serum albumin (BSA)] models. This strategy has enabled us to control the surface topography of BCP microspheres at defined compositions and holds tremendous promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biphasic Estradiol-induced AKT Phosphorylation Is Modulated by PTEN via MAP Kinase in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo; Trentalance, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We reported previously in HepG2 cells that estradiol induces cell cycle progression throughout the G1–S transition by the parallel stimulation of both PKC-α and ERK signaling molecules. The analysis of the cyclin D1 gene expression showed that only the MAP kinase pathway was involved. Here, the presence of rapid/nongenomic, estradiol-regulated, PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, its modulation by the levels of the tumor suppressor PTEN, its cross-talk with the ERK pathway, and its involvement in DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 gene promoter activity have all been studied in HepG2 cells. 17β-Estradiol induced the rapid and biphasic phosphorylation of AKT. These phosphorylations were independent of each other, being the first wave of activation independent of the estrogen receptor (ER), whereas the second was dependent on ER. Both activations were dependent on PI3K activity; furthermore, the ERK pathway modulated AKT phosphorylation by acting on the PTEN levels. The results showed that the PI3K pathway, as well as ER, were strongly involved in both G1–S progression and cyclin D1 promoter activity by acting on its proximal region (-254 base pairs). These data indicate that in HepG2 cells, different rapid/nongenomic estradiol-induced signal transduction pathways modulate the multiple steps of G1–S phase transition. PMID:12808053

  7. Synthesis of bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Liu, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao; Fang, Ning; Wang, Xian-Hong; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified nanoemulsion process using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles were studied by TEM/HRTEM and XRD. The nanoparticles manifest soft ferromagnetic and/or near superparamagnetic behavior with a small coercivity of ~19 Oe at room temperature. The corresponding magnetic hysteresis curves were elucidated by the modified Langevin equation. The FTIR study confirms the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules on the surface of the nanoparticles. The UV-vis and PL results reveal the well-behaved absorption bands including surface plasmon resonance and multiple visible fingerprint photoluminescent emissions of the nanoparticles dispersed in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents. Moreover, the processes of solvent dispersion-collection of the nanoparticles were demonstrated for application readiness of such core-shell nanostructures.

  8. Investigation of structural resorption behavior of biphasic bioceramics with help of gravimetry, μCT, SEM, and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Michael; Amacher, Fabienne; Bradbury, Christopher R; Molenberg, Aart

    2016-04-01

    Resorbable bone substitute materials are widely used for bone augmentation after tumor resection, parallel to implant placement, or in critical size bone defects. In this study, the structural dissolution of a biphasic calcium phosphate bone substitute material with a hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratio of 60/40 was investigated by repeatedly placing porous blocks in EDTA solution at 37 °C. At several time points, the blocks were investigated by SEM, µCT, and gravimetry. It was found that always complete 2-3 µm sized grains were removed from the structure and that the β-TCP is dissolved more rapidly. This selective dissolution of the β-TCP grains was confirmed by XRD measurements. The blocks were eroded from the outside toward the center. The structure remained mechanically stable because the central part showed a delayed degradation and because the slower dissolving HA grains preserved the integrity of the structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Analyzing the effects of instillation volume on intravesical delivery using biphasic solute transport in a deformable geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean G; Griffith, Boyce E; Zaharoff, David A

    2018-04-05

    Ailments of the bladder are often treated via intravesical delivery-direct application of therapeutic into the bladder through a catheter. This technique is employed hundreds of thousands of times every year, but protocol development has largely been limited to empirical determination. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of intravesical delivery performed to date have been restricted to static geometries and have not accounted for bladder deformation. This study uses a finite element analysis approach with biphasic solute transport to investigate several parameters pertinent to intravesical delivery including solute concentration, solute transport properties and instillation volume. The volume of instillation was found to have a substantial impact on the exposure of solute to the deeper muscle layers of the bladder, which are typically more difficult to reach. Indeed, increasing the instillation volume from 50-100 ml raised the muscle solute exposure as a percentage of overall bladder exposure from 60-70% with higher levels achieved for larger instillation volumes. Similar increases were not seen for changes in solute concentration or solute transport properties. These results indicate the role that instillation volume may play in targeting particular layers of the bladder during an intravesical delivery.

  10. The biphasic effect of extracellular glucose concentration on carbachol-induced fluid secretion from mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terachi, Momomi; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Sugita, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Cholinergic agonists evoke elevations of the cytoplasmic free-calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) to stimulate fluid secretion in salivary glands. Salivary flow rates are significantly reduced in diabetic patients. However, it remains elusive how salivary secretion is impaired in diabetes. Here, we used an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique to characterize the dependency of salivary flow rates on extracellular glucose concentration and activities of glucose transporters expressed in the glands. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced sustained fluid secretion, the rates of which were modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration in a biphasic manner. Both lowering the extracellular glucose concentration to less than 2.5 mM and elevating it to higher than 5 mM resulted in decreased CCh-induced fluid secretion. The CCh-induced salivary flow was suppressed by phlorizin, an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) located basolaterally in submandibular acinar cells, which is altered at the protein expression level in diabetic animal models. Our data suggest that SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake in acinar cells is required to maintain the fluid secretion by sustaining Cl - secretion in real-time. High extracellular glucose levels may suppress the CCh-induced secretion of salivary fluid by altering the activities of ion channels and transporters downstream of [Ca 2+ ] i signals. © 2018 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets for visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Raja, V.; Shiamala, L.; Jaffar Ali, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present characterization of biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles and its graphene nanocomposite synthesized by cost effective, hydrothermal method. The structural properties and morphology of the samples were characterized by series of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Introducing high surface area graphene could suppress the electron hole pair recombination rate in the nanocomposite. Further, the nanocomposite shows red-shift of the absorption edge and contract of the band gap from 2.98 eV to 2.85 eV. We have characterized its photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight and UV filtered sunlight irradiation. Data reveal graphene-TiO2 composite exhibit about 15 and 3.5 folds increase in degradability of Congo red and Methylene Blue dyes, respectively, comparison to pristine TiO2. This underscores the marginal effect of UV component of sunlight on the degradation ability of composite, implying its increased efficiency in harnessing visible region of solar spectrum. We have thus developed a visible light active graphene composite catalyst that can degrade both cationic and anionic dyes and making it potentially useful in environmental remediation and water splitting applications, under direct sunlight.

  12. Azolla along a phosphorus gradient: biphasic growth response linked to diazotroph traits and phosphorus-induced iron chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmink, Ralph J M; Harpenslager, Sarah F; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Dijk, Gijs; Peters, Roy C J H; Lamers, Leon P M; van Kempen, Monique M L

    2018-03-13

    Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N 2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l -1 . Diazotrophic N sequestration increased upon P addition, and rates were three times higher at high P than at low P. At 10 µmol P l -1 , N sequestration rates reached its maximum and A. filiculoides growth became saturated. Due to luxury consumption, P sequestration rates increased until 50 µmol P l -1 . At higher P concentrations (≥50 µmol l -1 ), however, chlorosis occurred that seems to be caused by iron- (Fe-), and not by N-deficiency. We demonstrate that traits of the complete symbiosis in relation to P and Fe availability determine plant performance, stressing the role of nutrient stoichiometry. The results are discussed regarding Azolla's potential use in a bio-based economy.

  13. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webler, Geovana D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano [Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Fonseca, Eduardo J.S., E-mail: eduardo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity.

  14. Involuntary movements and coma as the prognostic marker for acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyoung; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torio, Michiko; Kaku, Noriyuki; Ichimiya, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Soichi; Baba, Haruhisa; Sakai, Yasunari; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Kira, Ryutaro; Hara, Toshiro; Ohga, Shouichi

    2016-11-15

    Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) occurs in children associated with infection. It is characterized by a prolonged febrile seizure in the first phase, and a cluster of seizures, deterioration of consciousness and the white matter lesions with reduced diffusion in the second phase. The patients often have severe neurological sequelae, but the prognostic indicators remain unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of AESD patients who subsequently exhibited severe neurological sequelae. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings along with the brain imaging in patients who had severe (n=8) and non-severe neurodevelopmental outcomes (n=12). Severe group more frequently showed coma (p=0.014) or involuntary movements including dystonia and oral dyskinesia (p=0.018) before the second phase than non-severe group. Severe group exhibited higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase than non-severe group (p=0.001). Quantitatively assessed MRI in the second phase revealed that severe group had more extensive lesions than non-severe group, in the anterior (p=0.015) and posterior parts (p=0.011) of the cerebrum and basal ganglia (p=0.020). Early appearing involuntary movements or coma might account for the extension of acute brain lesions and the poor neurological outcomes in AESD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non steady-state descriptions of drug permeation through stratum corneum. I. The biphasic brick-and-mortar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, M; Lieckfeldt, R; Wittum, G; Mazurkevich, G; Lee, G

    1996-03-01

    The diffusion equation should be solved for the non-steady-state problem of drug diffusion within a two-dimensional, biphasic stratum corneum membrane having homogeneous lipid and corneocyte phases. A numerical method was developed for a brick-and-mortar SC-geometry, enabling an explicit solution for time-dependent drug concentration within both phases. The lag time and permeability were calculated. It is shown how the barrier property of this model membrane depends on relative phase permeability, corneocyte alignment, and corneocyte-lipid partition coefficient. Additionally, the time-dependent drug concentration profiles within the membrane can be observed during the lag and steady-state phases. The model SC-membrane predicts, from purely morphological principles, lag times and permeabilities that are in good agreement with experimental values. The long lag times and very small permeabilities reported for human SC can only be predicted for a highly-staggered corneocyte geometry and corneocytes that are 1000 times less permeable than the lipid phase. Although the former conclusion is reasonable, the latter is questionable. The elongated, flattened corneocyte shape renders lag time and permeability insensitive to large changes in their alignment within the SC. Corneocyte/lipid partitioning is found to be fundamentally different to SC/donor partitioning, since increasing drug lipophilicity always reduces both lag time and permeability.

  16. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  17. Biphasic regulation of intracellular calcium by gemfibrozil contributes to inhibiting L6 myoblast differentiation: implications for clinical myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Yang, Julin; Gonzalez, Frank J; Cheng, Gary Q; Dai, Renke

    2011-02-18

    Gemfibrozil is the most myotoxic fibrate drug commonly used for dyslipidemia, but the mechanism is poorly understood. The current study revealed that gemfibrozil inhibits myoblast differentiation through the regulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) as revealed in L6 myoblasts by use of laser scan confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using Fluo-4 AM as a probe. Gemfibrozil at 20-400 μM, could regulate [Ca(2+)]i in L6 cells in a biphasic manner, and sustained reduction was observed when the concentration reached 200 μM. Inhibition of L6 differentiation by gemfibrozil was concentration-dependent with maximal effect noted between 200 and 400 μM, as indicated by creatine kinase activities and the differentiation index, respectively. In differentiating L6 myoblasts, gemfibrozil at concentrations below 400 μM led to no significant signs of apoptosis or cytotoxicity, whereas differentiation, inhibited by 200 μM gemfibrozil, was only partially recovered. A good correlation was noted between gemfibrozil concentrations that regulate [Ca(2+)]i and inhibit L6 myoblasts differentiation, and both are within the range of total serum concentrations found in the clinic. These data suggest a potential pharmacodynamic effect of gemfibrozil on myogenesis as a warning sign, in addition to the complex pharmacokinetic interactions. It is also noteworthy that mobilization of [Ca(2+)]i by gemfibrozil may trigger complex biological responses besides myocyte differentiation. Information revealed in this study explores the mechanism of gemfibrozil-induced myotoxicity through the regulation of intracellular calcium.

  18. Engineering amount of cell-cell contact demonstrates biphasic proliferative regulation through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Darren S.; Liu, Wendy F.; Shen, Colette J.; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cell-cell contact via VE-cadherin plays an important role in regulating numerous cell functions, including proliferation. However, using different experimental approaches to manipulate cell-cell contact, investigators have observed both inhibition and stimulation of proliferation depending on the adhesive context. In this study, we used micropatterned wells combined with active positioning of cells by dielectrophoresis in order to investigate whether the number of contacting neighbors affected the proliferative response. Varying cell-cell contact resulted in a biphasic effect on proliferation; one contacting neighbor increased proliferation, while two or more neighboring cells partially inhibited this increase. We also observed that cell-cell contact increased the formation of actin stress fibers, and that expression of dominant negative RhoA (RhoN19) blocked the contact-mediated increase in stress fibers and proliferation. Furthermore, examination of heterotypic pairs of untreated cells in contact with RhoN19-expressing cells revealed that intracellular, but not intercellular, tension is required for the contact-mediated stimulation of proliferation. Moreover, engagement of VE-cadherin with cadherin-coated beads was sufficient to stimulate proliferation in the absence of actual cell-cell contact. In all, these results demonstrate that cell-cell contact signals through VE-cadherin, RhoA, and intracellular tension in the actin cytoskeleton to regulate proliferation

  19. Mechanism of biphasic charge recombination and accumulation in TiO2 mesoporous structured perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yi; Wang, Yi; Yu, Man; Han, Jun; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Qin, Yujun

    2016-04-28

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells are becoming the next big thing in the photovoltaic field owing to their rapidly developing photoelectric conversion performance. Herein, mesoporous structured perovskite devices with various perovskite grain sizes are fabricated by a sequential dropping method, and the charge recombination dynamics is investigated by transient optical-electric measurements. All devices exhibit an overall power conversion efficiency around 15%. More importantly, a biphasic trap-limited charge recombination process is proposed and interpreted by taking into account the specific charge accumulation mechanism in perovskite solar cells. At low Fermi levels, photo-generated electrons predominately populate in the perovskite phase, while at high Fermi levels, most electrons occupy traps in mesoporous TiO2. As a result, the dynamics of charge recombination is, respectively, dominated by the perovskite phase and mesoporous TiO2 in these two cases. The present work would give a new perspective on the charge recombination process in meso-structured perovskite solar cells.

  20. Biphasic regulation of development of the high-affinity saxitoxin receptor by innervation in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.J.; Catterall, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Specific binding of 3 H-saxitoxin (STX) was used to quantitate the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. In adult triceps surae, a single class of sites with a KD . 2.9 nM and a density of 21 fmol/mg wet wt was detected. The density of these high-affinity sites increased from 2.0 fmol/mg wet wt to the adult value in linear fashion during days 2-25 after birth. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 11 or 17 reduced final saxitoxin receptor site density to 10.4 or 9.2 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively, without changing KD. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 5 did not alter the subsequent development of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 5-9 and accelerated the increase of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 9-13. After day 13, saxitoxin receptor development abruptly ceased and the density of saxitoxin receptor sites declined to 11 fmol/wg wet wt. These results show that the regulation of high-affinity saxitoxin receptor site density by innervation is biphasic. During the first phase, which is independent of continuing innervation, the saxitoxin receptor density increases to 47-57% of the adult level. After day 11, the second phase of development, which is dependent on continuing innervation, gives rise to the adult density of saxitoxin receptors

  1. A fast quadrature-based numerical method for the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic model of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebner, Michael; Haider, Mansoor A

    2010-06-18

    A new and efficient method for numerical solution of the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) model of articular cartilage is presented. Development of the method is based on a composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature approximation of the continuous spectrum relaxation function that leads to an exponential series representation. The separability property of the exponential terms in the series is exploited to develop a numerical scheme that can be reduced to an update rule requiring retention of the strain history at only the previous time step. The cost of the resulting temporal discretization scheme is O(N) for N time steps. Application and calibration of the method is illustrated in the context of a finite difference solution of the one-dimensional confined compression BPVE stress-relaxation problem. Accuracy of the numerical method is demonstrated by comparison to a theoretical Laplace transform solution for a range of viscoelastic relaxation times that are representative of articular cartilage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biphasic fluence-response curves for phytochrome-mediated kalanchoë seed germination : sensitization by gibberellic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, R; Dedonder, A; De Petter, E; Van Wiemeersch, L; Fredericq, H; De Greef, J; Steyaert, H; Stevens, H

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA(3)) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA(3) induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA(3) concentration. GA(3) having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA(3) appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal.

  3. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Geovana D.; Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano; Fonseca, Eduardo J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity

  4. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Suk Moon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assay (14 days of incubation and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P<0.05. Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose.

  5. Parametric response mapping of contrast-enhanced biphasic CT for evaluating tumour viability of hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Kaercher, Daniel; Hasdemir, Davut; Kaireit, Till; Lutat, Carolin; Meyer, Bernhard C.; Wacker, Frank K.; Rodt, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Murray, Tim [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Vogel, Arndt [Hannover Medical School, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the feasibility and role of parametric response mapping (PRM) for quantitative assessment of regional contrast-enhancement patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Biphasic CT of 19 patients receiving repetitive conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE) for intermediate stage HCC were retrospectively analysed at baseline and follow-up at 3, 6, and 9 months. Voxel-based registration of arterial and porto-venous phases, with segmentation of the largest target lesion was performed. Frequency distribution plots of density-pairs of segmented voxels were generated. To differentiate necrotic, hypervascular and non-hypervascular tumour, and lipiodol/calcification, thresholds of 30, 100, and 300 HU were applied. Changes in density frequency plots over time were analysed and compared to response and assessment criteria (WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST) and survival. PRM was feasible in all cases. Tumour volumes and hypervascular/non-hypervascular volume ratio showed significant longitudinal decrease (p < 0.05). Hypervascular volume at baseline was inversely correlated to survival (R = -0.57, p = 0.005). The only predictive parameter following cTACE to show significant survival difference was the change of the viable/non-viable ratio (p = 0.044), whereas common response assessment criteria showed no significant difference in survival. PRM allows a quantitative and more precise assessment of regional tumour vascularisation patterns and may be helpful for TACE treatment planning and response assessment. (orig.)

  6. ACE phenotyping in Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Sergei M; Tikhomirova, Victoria E; Metzger, Roman; Naperova, Irina A; Bukina, Tatiana M; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Tayebi, Nahid; Gayfullin, Nurshat M; Schwartz, David E; Samokhodskaya, Larisa M; Kost, Olga A; Sidransky, Ellen

    2018-04-01

    Gaucher disease is characterized by the activation of splenic and hepatic macrophages, accompanied by dramatically increased levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). To evaluate the source of the elevated blood ACE, we performed complete ACE phenotyping using blood, spleen and liver samples from patients with Gaucher disease and controls. ACE phenotyping included 1) immunohistochemical staining for ACE; 2) measuring ACE activity with two substrates (HHL and ZPHL); 3) calculating the ratio of the rates of substrate hydrolysis (ZPHL/HHL ratio); 4) assessing the conformational fingerprint of ACE by evaluating the pattern of binding of monoclonal antibodies to 16 different ACE epitopes. We show that in patients with Gaucher disease, the dramatically increased levels of ACE originate from activated splenic and/or hepatic macrophages (Gaucher cells), and that both its conformational fingerprint and kinetic characteristics (ZPHL/HHL ratio) differ from controls and from patients with sarcoid granulomas. Furthermore, normal spleen was found to produce high levels of endogenous ACE inhibitors and a novel, tightly-bound 10-30 kDa ACE effector which is deficient in Gaucher spleen. The conformation of ACE is tissue-specific. In Gaucher disease, ACE produced by activated splenic macrophages differs from that in hepatic macrophages, as well as from macrophages and dendritic cells in sarcoid granulomas. The observed differences are likely due to altered ACE glycosylation or sialylation in these diseased organs. The conformational differences in ACE may serve as a specific biomarker for Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the efficacy of escalating higher biphasic versus low biphasic energy defibrillations in patients presenting with cardiac arrest in the in-hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkataraman Anantharaman,1 Seow Yian Tay,2 Peter George Manning,3 Swee Han Lim,1 Terrance Siang Jin Chua,4 Mohan Tiru,5 Rabind Antony Charles,1 Vidya Sudarshan1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 3Emergency Medicine Department, National University Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre, 5Accident and Emergency Department, Changi General Hospital, Singapore Background: Biphasic defibrillation has been practiced worldwide for >15 years. Yet, consensus does not exist on the best energy levels for optimal outcomes when used in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT.Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 235 adult cardiac arrest patients with VF/VT was conducted in the emergency and cardiology departments. One group received low-energy (LE shocks at 150–150–150 J and the other escalating higher-energy (HE shocks at 200–300–360 J. If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was not achieved by the third shock, LE patients crossed over to the HE arm and HE patients continued at 360 J. Primary end point was ROSC. Secondary end points were 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival.Results: Both groups were comparable for age, sex, cardiac risk factors, and duration of collapse and VF/VT. Of the 118 patients randomized to the LE group, 48 crossed over to the HE protocol, 24 for persistent VF, and 24 for recurrent VF. First-shock termination rates for HE and LE patients were 66.67% and 64.41%, respectively (P=0.78, confidence interval: 0.65–1.89. First-shock ROSC rates were 25.64% and 29.66%, respectively (P=0.56, confidence interval: 0.46–1.45. The 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival rates were 85.71%, 74.29%, and 62.86% for first-shock ROSC LE patients and 70.00%, 50.00%, and 46.67% for first-shock ROSC HE patients, respectively. Conversion rates for further shocks at 200 J and

  8. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  9. The phenotypic variance gradient - a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Bundgaard, Jørgen; Loeschcke, Volker; Barker, James Stuart Flinton

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary ecologists commonly use reaction norms, which show the range of phenotypes produced by a set of genotypes exposed to different environments, to quantify the degree of phenotypic variance and the magnitude of plasticity of morphometric and life-history traits. Significant differences among the values of the slopes of the reaction norms are interpreted as significant differences in phenotypic plasticity, whereas significant differences among phenotypic variances (variance or coefficient of variation) are interpreted as differences in the degree of developmental instability or canalization. We highlight some potential problems with this approach to quantifying phenotypic variance and suggest a novel and more informative way to plot reaction norms: namely "a plot of log (variance) on the y-axis versus log (mean) on the x-axis, with a reference line added". This approach gives an immediate impression of how the degree of phenotypic variance varies across an environmental gradient, taking into account the consequences of the scaling effect of the variance with the mean. The evolutionary implications of the variation in the degree of phenotypic variance, which we call a "phenotypic variance gradient", are discussed together with its potential interactions with variation in the degree of phenotypic plasticity and canalization.

  10. Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Shahbazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT). We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen. Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups. Forty-eight patients (23 males, 25 females, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase. The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients

  11. Biphasic activation of liver regeneration-associated signals in an early stage after portal vein branch ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Kawai, Toru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Nagino, Masato; Oda, Koji; Nimura, Yuji; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    At an early stage in liver regeneration, a variety of factors including transcriptional factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and proto-oncogenes are activated or expressed. However, these responses are affected by surgical stress in the conventional portal vein branch ligation model (PVL). We sought to determine the net activation of early regeneration-associated signals after PVL using a newly developed non-surgical stress PVL model. Male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups, a stress-PVL (sPVL) model with laparotomy and portal vein branch ligation, and a non-stress-PVL (nsPVL) one subjected to portal vein branch ligation 1 week after laparotomy in which the effects of surgical stress were subsided. The activation of transcriptional factors and expression of immediate early genes were analyzed at an early time point (within 24 h) by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. A monophasic upregulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) peaked at 3 h after sPVL was observed. In contrast, the expression pattern of these factors was biphasic (first peak at 0.5-1 h, second peak at 3-6 h) in nsPVL group. The expression pattern of immediate early genes showed a similar trend between sPVL and nsPVL. cDNA array analysis for the non-ligated lobe at 2 h after PVL revealed a much higher gene activation in sPVL than in nsPVL. These results indicate that previously observed activation pattern of regeneration-associated signals after PVL is significantly affected by the effect of laparotomy and our results using nsPVL model may more accurately represent liver regeneration-associated signal pattern

  12. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Kumar, Shekhar; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-01-01

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  13. Biphasic functional regulation in hippocampus of rat with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Bang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO in rats has been commonly used for the study of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Despite the apparent cognitive dysfunction in rats with BCCAO, the molecular markers or pathways involved in the pathological alternation have not been clearly identified. METHODS: Temporal changes (sham, 21, 35, 45, 55 and 70 days in gene expression in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO were measured using time-course microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analyses were performed to identify the functional involvement of temporally regulated genes in BCCAO. RESULTS: Two major gene expression patterns were observed in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO. One pattern, which was composed of 341 early up-regulated genes after the surgical procedure, was dominantly involved in immune-related biological functions (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.01. Another pattern composed of 182 temporally delayed down-regulated genes was involved in sensory perception such as olfactory and cognition functions (FDR<0.01. In addition to the two gene expression patterns, the temporal change of GO and the pathway activities using all differentially expressed genes also confirmed that an immune response was the main early change, whereas sensory functions were delayed responses. Moreover, we identified FADD and SOCS3 as possible core genes in the sensory function loss process using text-based mining and interaction network analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The biphasic regulatory mechanism first reported here could provide molecular evidence of BCCAO-induced impaired memory in rats as well as mechanism of the development of vascular dementia.

  14. Aqueous biphasic systems containing PEG-based deep eutectic solvents for high-performance partitioning of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Yang, Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, 16 kinds of novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and quaternary ammonium salts, were coupled with Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs) to extract RNA. The phase forming ability of ABSs were comprehensively evaluated, involving the effects of various proportions of DESs' components, carbon chain length and anions species of quaternary ammonium salts, average molecular weights of PEG and inorganic salts nature. Then the systems were applied in RNA extraction, and the results revealed that the extraction efficiency values were distinctly enhanced by relatively lower PEG content in DESs, smaller PEG molecular weights, longer carbon chain of quaternary ammonium salts and more hydrophobic inorganic salts. Then the systems composed of [TBAB][PEG600] and Na 2 SO 4 were utilized in the influence factor experiments, proving that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant force for RNA extraction. Therefore, back-extraction efficiency values ranging between 85.19% and 90.78% were obtained by adjusting the ionic strength. Besides, the selective separation of RNA and tryptophane (Trp) was successfully accomplished. It was found that 86.19% RNA was distributed in the bottom phase, while 72.02% Trp was enriched in the top phase in the novel ABSs. Finally, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to further investigate the extraction mechanism. The proposed method reveals the outstanding feasibility of the newly developed ABSs formed by PEG-based DESs and inorganic salts for the green extraction of RNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian Felix; Fasser, Mariette; Polzer, Hans; Sieb, Michael; Regauer, Markus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias; Blauth, Michael

    2013-01-14

    Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. 60 patients, aged 18-40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for

  16. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumbach Sebastian Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various

  17. Methyl jasmonate-induced emission of biogenic volatiles is biphasic in cucumber: a high-resolution analysis of dose dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifan; Ye, Jiayan; Li, Shuai; Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-07-20

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a key airborne elicitor activating jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways, including induction of stress-related volatile emissions, but how the magnitude and timing of these emissions scale with MeJA dose is not known. Treatments with exogenous MeJA concentrations ranging from mild (0.2 mM) to lethal (50 mM) were used to investigate quantitative relationships among MeJA dose and the kinetics and magnitude of volatile release in Cucumis sativus by combining high-resolution measurements with a proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and GC-MS. The results highlighted biphasic kinetics of elicitation of volatiles. The early phase, peaking in 0.1-1 h after the MeJA treatment, was characterized by emissions of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway volatiles and methanol. In the subsequent phase, starting in 6-12 h and reaching a maximum in 15-25 h after the treatment, secondary emissions of LOX compounds as well as emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were elicited. For both phases, the maximum emission rates and total integrated emissions increased with applied MeJA concentration. Furthermore, the rates of induction and decay, and the duration of emission bursts were positively, and the timing of emission maxima were negatively associated with MeJA dose for LOX compounds and terpenoids, except for the duration of the first LOX burst. These results demonstrate major effects of MeJA dose on the kinetics and magnitude of volatile response, underscoring the importance of biotic stress severity in deciphering the downstream events of biological impacts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  19. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J.; Chen, L. F.; Wang, J. A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H2O2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V5+/(V4+ + V5+) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V2O5) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V2O5/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  20. A bidirectional association between the gut microbiota and CNS disease in a biphasic murine model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Sara L; Kasper, Eli J; Keever, Abigail; Liljenberg, Caleb; Kirby, Trevor; Magori, Krisztian; Kasper, Lloyd H; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier

    2017-11-02

    The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS). This non-obese diabetic (NOD) model of EAE develops a biphasic pattern of disease that more closely resembles the human condition when transitioning from relapsing-remitting (RR)-MS to SP-MS. We compared the gut microbiome of NOD mice with either mild or severe disease to that of non-immunized control mice. We found that the mice which developed a severe secondary form of EAE harbored a dysbiotic gut microbiome when compared with the healthy control mice. Furthermore, we evaluated whether treatment with a cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics would modify the outcome of the progressive stage of EAE in the NOD model. Our results indicated reduced mortality and clinical disease severity in mice treated with antibiotics compared with untreated mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that there are reciprocal effects between experimental CNS inflammatory demyelination and modification of the microbiome providing a foundation for the establishment of early therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiome that could potentially limit disease progression.

  1. Aqueous biphasic systems composed of ionic liquids and sodium carbonate as enhanced routes for the extraction of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos F C; Mourão, Teresa; Neves, Catarina M S S; Lima, Alvaro S; Boal-Palheiros, Isabel; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) using ionic liquids (ILs) offer an alternative approach for the extraction, recovery, and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two aqueous liquid phases. In this work, the ability of a wide range of ILs to form ABS with aqueous solutions of Na2 CO3 was evaluated. The ABS formed by IL + water + Na2 CO3 were determined at 25°C, and the respective solubility curves, tie-lines, and tie-line lengths are reported. The studied ILs share the common chloride anion, allowing the IL cation core, the cation isomerism, the presence of functionalized groups, and alkyl side chain length effects to be evaluated. An increase in the cation side alkyl chain length leads to a higher ability for liquid-liquid demixing whereas different positional isomers and the presence of an allyl group have no major influence in the phase diagrams behavior. Quaternary phosphonium- and ammonium-based fluids are more able to form an ABS when compared with imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidium-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of an aromatic cation core has no major contribution to the formation of ABS when compared to the respective nonaromatic counterparts. Finally, to appraise on the systems applicability in downstream processing, selected systems were used for the partitioning of tetracyclines (neutral and salt forms) - a class of antibiotics produced by bacteria fermentation. Single-step extraction efficiencies for the IL-rich phase were always higher than 99% and confirm the great potential of ILs to be applied in the biotechnological field. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Mechanisms and rules of anion partition into ionic liquids: phenolate ions in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-19

    It is important to understand the mechanisms and general rules of ion partitioning in hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL)/water biphasic systems in order to predict the extractability of an ionic species with various ILs. In this study, we have investigated the partition of picrate ion (target anion, T(-)) from aqueous sodium picrate solutions into several ILs and the accompanying changes in aqueous concentrations of the IL component cation (C(+)) and anion (A(-)) at 298.2 K. The main ILs examined are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) decreased and increased, respectively, with the extraction of T(-) into the IL phase. From the standpoint of equilibrium, the partition behavior of T(-) can be explained both by the anion exchange with A(-) in the IL phase and by the ion pair extraction with C(+) in the aqueous phase. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) are governed by the solubility product of the IL (K(sp)). The distribution ratio of T(-) is expressed as a function of Δ[T(-)](W), namely, the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(-) in the aqueous phase; the distribution ratio of T(-) is nearly constant when Δ[T(-)](W) < K(sp)(1/2), but decreases with increasing Δ[T(-)](W) in the larger Δ[T(-)](W) region. The equilibrium constants of the ion pair extraction and the ion exchange extraction have been determined for picrate and other phenolate ions whose partition data were previously reported. The dependences of the extraction constants and extractability on the kinds of IL component ions can be quantitatively explained on the basis of the variations of K(sp).

  3. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  4. Cattle phenotypes can disguise their maternal ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C

    2017-06-26

    Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P cattle with a Bos taurus phenotype. The phenotype of cattle is not always related to their mtDNA profiles. MtDNA profiles should be considered for breeding programmes as they also influence phenotypic traits and reproductive capacity in terms of oocyte quality.

  5. A mitochondrial tRNA(Met) mutation causing developmental delay, exercise intolerance and limb girdle phenotype with onset in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten; Rafiq, Jabin

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with exercise intolerance, learning difficulty, and muscle weakness in a limb girdle distribution. She had delayed achievement of motor milestones and difficulties with social interaction at pre-school age. Muscle biopsy showed no myopathic or dystrophic features...

  6. The Human Phenotype Ontology project: linking molecular biology and disease through phenotype data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, S.; Doelken, S.C.; Mungall, C.J.; Bauer, S.; Firth, H.V.; Bailleul-Forestier, I.; Black, G.C.M.; Brown, D.L.; Brudno, M.; Campbell, J.; FitzPatrick, D.R.; Eppig, J.T.; Jackson, A.P.; Freson, K.; Girdea, M.; Helbig, I.; Hurst, J.A.; Jahn, J.; Jackson, L.G.; Kelly, A.M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Mansour, S.; Martin, C.L.; Moss, C.; Mumford, A.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Park, S.M.; Riggs, E.R.; Scott, R.H.; Sisodiya, S.; Vooren, S. van der; Wapner, R.J.; Wilkie, A.O.; Wright, C.F.; Silfhout, A.T. van; Leeuw, N. de; Vries, B. de; Washingthon, N.L.; Smith, C.L.; Westerfield, M.; Schofield, P.; Ruef, B.J.; Gkoutos, G.V.; Haendel, M.; Smedley, D.; Lewis, S.E.; Robinson, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) project, available at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org, provides a structured, comprehensive and well-defined set of 10,088 classes (terms) describing human phenotypic abnormalities and 13,326 subclass relations between the HPO classes. In addition we have

  7. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-09

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenotypes of organ involvement in sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schupp, Jonas Christian; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Bargagli, Elena; Mihailović-Vučinić, Violeta; Rottoli, Paola; Grubanovic, Aleksandar; Müller, Annegret; Jochens, Arne; Tittmann, Lukas; Schnerch, Jasmin; Olivieri, Carmela; Fischer, Annegret; Jovanovic, Dragana; Filipovic, Snežana; Videnovic-Ivanovic, Jelica; Bresser, Paul; Jonkers, René; O'Reilly, Kate; Ho, Ling-Pei; Gaede, Karoline I.; Zabel, Peter; Dubaniewicz, Anna; Marshall, Ben; Kieszko, Robert; Milanowski, Janusz; Günther, Andreas; Weihrich, Anette; Petrek, Martin; Kolek, Vitezslav; Keane, Michael P.; O'Beirne, Sarah; Donnelly, Seamas; Haraldsdottir, Sigridur Olina; Jorundsdottir, Kristin B.; Costabel, Ulrich; Bonella, Francesco; Wallaert, Benoît; Grah, Christian; Peroš-Golubičić, Tatjana; Luisetti, Mauritio; Kadija, Zamir; Pabst, Stefan; Grohé, Christian; Strausz, János; Vašáková, Martina; Sterclova, Martina; Millar, Ann; Homolka, Jiří; Slováková, Alena; Kendrick, Yvonne; Crawshaw, Anjali; Wuyts, Wim; Spencer, Lisa; Pfeifer, Michael; Valeyre, Dominique; Poletti, Venerino; Wirtz, Hubertus; Prasse, Antje; Schreiber, Stefan; Krawczak, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a highly variable, systemic granulomatous disease of hitherto unknown aetiology. The GenPhenReSa (Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Sarcoidosis) project represents a European multicentre study to investigate the influence of genotype on disease phenotypes in sarcoidosis. The baseline

  9. Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1 use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2 two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3 two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO; these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

  10. Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. MM Phiri, T Kaile, FM Goma. Abstract. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between presence of haptoglobin phenotypes and hypertension in indigenous Zambian patients ...

  11. Knowledge-based analysis of phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoendorf, Robert

    2016-01-01

    a formal framework to describe phenotypes. A formalized theory of phenotypes is not only useful for domain analysis, but can also be applied to assist in the diagnosis of rare genetic diseases, and I will show how our results on the ontology

  12. The Neuroanatomy of the Autistic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Cherine; Meguid, Nagwa A.; Nashaat, Neveen H.; Yoon, Uicheul; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Evans, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The autism phenotype is associated with an excess of brain volume due in part to decreased pruning during development. Here we aimed at assessing brain volume early in development to further elucidate previous findings in autism and determine whether this pattern is restricted to idiopathic autism or shared within the autistic phenotype (fragile X…

  13. Evolving phenotypic networks in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Evolved gene networks are constrained by natural selection. Their structures and functions are consequently far from being random, as exemplified by the multiple instances of parallel/convergent evolution. One can thus ask if features of actual gene networks can be recovered from evolutionary first principles. I review a method for in silico evolution of small models of gene networks aiming at performing predefined biological functions. I summarize the current implementation of the algorithm, insisting on the construction of a proper "fitness" function. I illustrate the approach on three examples: biochemical adaptation, ligand discrimination and vertebrate segmentation (somitogenesis). While the structure of the evolved networks is variable, dynamics of our evolved networks are usually constrained and present many similar features to actual gene networks, including properties that were not explicitly selected for. In silico evolution can thus be used to predict biological behaviours without a detailed knowledge of the mapping between genotype and phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjusting phenotypes by noise control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung H Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically identical cells can show phenotypic variability. This is often caused by stochastic events that originate from randomness in biochemical processes involving in gene expression and other extrinsic cellular processes. From an engineering perspective, there have been efforts focused on theory and experiments to control noise levels by perturbing and replacing gene network components. However, systematic methods for noise control are lacking mainly due to the intractable mathematical structure of noise propagation through reaction networks. Here, we provide a numerical analysis method by quantifying the parametric sensitivity of noise characteristics at the level of the linear noise approximation. Our analysis is readily applicable to various types of noise control and to different types of system; for example, we can orthogonally control the mean and noise levels and can control system dynamics such as noisy oscillations. As an illustration we applied our method to HIV and yeast gene expression systems and metabolic networks. The oscillatory signal control was applied to p53 oscillations from DNA damage. Furthermore, we showed that the efficiency of orthogonal control can be enhanced by applying extrinsic noise and feedback. Our noise control analysis can be applied to any stochastic model belonging to continuous time Markovian systems such as biological and chemical reaction systems, and even computer and social networks. We anticipate the proposed analysis to be a useful tool for designing and controlling synthetic gene networks.

  15. Federated Tensor Factorization for Computational Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Sun, Jimeng; Yu, Hwanjo; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-01-01

    Tensor factorization models offer an effective approach to convert massive electronic health records into meaningful clinical concepts (phenotypes) for data analysis. These models need a large amount of diverse samples to avoid population bias. An open challenge is how to derive phenotypes jointly across multiple hospitals, in which direct patient-level data sharing is not possible (e.g., due to institutional policies). In this paper, we developed a novel solution to enable federated tensor factorization for computational phenotyping without sharing patient-level data. We developed secure data harmonization and federated computation procedures based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Using this method, the multiple hospitals iteratively update tensors and transfer secure summarized information to a central server, and the server aggregates the information to generate phenotypes. We demonstrated with real medical datasets that our method resembles the centralized training model (based on combined datasets) in terms of accuracy and phenotypes discovery while respecting privacy. PMID:29071165

  16. Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Himanen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.

  17. A new injectable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and nano hydroxyapatite, crosslinked with chromium acetate, as scaffold for cartilage regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushki, N.; Tavassoli, H.; Katbab, A. A.; Katbab, P.; Bonakdar, S.

    2015-05-01

    Polymer scaffolds are applied in the field of tissue engineering as three dimensional structures to organize cells and present stimuli to direct generation of a desired damaged tissue. In situ gelling scaffolds have attracted great attentions, as they are structurally similar to the extra cellular matrix (ECM). In the present work, attempts have been made to design and fabricate a new injectable and crosslinkable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), chromium acetate as crosslink agent and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) as reinforcing and bioactive agent for repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage. The distinct characteristic of HPAM is the presence of carboxylate anion groups on its backbone which allows to engineer the structure of the hydrogel for the desired bioactivity with appropriate cells differentiation towards both soft and hard (bone) tissues. The synthesized hydrogel exhibited bifunctional behavior which was derived by its biphasic structure in which one phase was loaded with nano hydroxyapatite to provide integration capability by subchondral bones and fix the hydrogel at cartilage defect without a need for suturing. The other phase differentiates the rabbit adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards soft tissue. Rheomechanical spectrometry (RMS) was employed to study the kinetic of the gelation including induction time and rate, as well as to measure the ultimate elastic modulus of the optimum crosslinked hydrogel. Surface tension measurement was also performed to tailor the surface characteristics of the gels. In vitro culturing of the cells inside the crosslinked hydrogel revealed high viability and high differentiation of the encapsulated rabbit stem cells, providing that the chromium acetate level was kept below 0.2 wt%. Based on the obtained results, the designed and fabricated biphasic hydrogel exhibited high potential as carrier for the stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering application

  18. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  19. The Nature of Stable Insomnia Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Urban, community-based. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the “neither criterion” phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. Conclusions: By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With

  20. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease

  1. Semantic Disease Gene Embeddings (SmuDGE): phenotype-based disease gene prioritization without phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In the past years, several methods have been developed to incorporate information about phenotypes into computational disease gene prioritization methods. These methods commonly compute the similarity between a disease's (or patient's) phenotypes and a database of gene-to-phenotype associations to find the phenotypically most similar match. A key limitation of these methods is their reliance on knowledge about phenotypes associated with particular genes which is highly incomplete in humans as well as in many model organisms such as the mouse. Results: We developed SmuDGE, a method that uses feature learning to generate vector-based representations of phenotypes associated with an entity. SmuDGE can be used as a trainable semantic similarity measure to compare two sets of phenotypes (such as between a disease and gene, or a disease and patient). More importantly, SmuDGE can generate phenotype representations for entities that are only indirectly associated with phenotypes through an interaction network; for this purpose, SmuDGE exploits background knowledge in interaction networks comprising of multiple types of interactions. We demonstrate that SmuDGE can match or outperform semantic similarity in phenotype-based disease gene prioritization, and furthermore significantly extends the coverage of phenotype-based methods to all genes in a connected interaction network.

  2. Semantic Disease Gene Embeddings (SmuDGE): phenotype-based disease gene prioritization without phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2018-04-30

    In the past years, several methods have been developed to incorporate information about phenotypes into computational disease gene prioritization methods. These methods commonly compute the similarity between a disease\\'s (or patient\\'s) phenotypes and a database of gene-to-phenotype associations to find the phenotypically most similar match. A key limitation of these methods is their reliance on knowledge about phenotypes associated with particular genes which is highly incomplete in humans as well as in many model organisms such as the mouse. Results: We developed SmuDGE, a method that uses feature learning to generate vector-based representations of phenotypes associated with an entity. SmuDGE can be used as a trainable semantic similarity measure to compare two sets of phenotypes (such as between a disease and gene, or a disease and patient). More importantly, SmuDGE can generate phenotype representations for entities that are only indirectly associated with phenotypes through an interaction network; for this purpose, SmuDGE exploits background knowledge in interaction networks comprising of multiple types of interactions. We demonstrate that SmuDGE can match or outperform semantic similarity in phenotype-based disease gene prioritization, and furthermore significantly extends the coverage of phenotype-based methods to all genes in a connected interaction network.

  3. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. ► Endothelial VEGFR levels are

  4. Development of Bi-phase sodium-oxygen-hydrogen chemical equilibrium calculation program (BISHOP) using Gibbs free energy minimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi

    1999-08-01

    In order to analyze the reaction heat and compounds due to sodium combustion, the multiphase chemical equilibrium calculation program for chemical reaction among sodium, oxygen and hydrogen is developed in this study. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP; which denotes Bi-Phase, Sodium - Oxygen - Hydrogen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the special merits that easily add and change chemical species, and generally deal many thermochemical reaction systems in addition to constant temperature and pressure one. Three new methods are developed for solving multi-phase sodium reaction system in this study. One is to construct equation system by simplifying phase, and the other is to expand the Gibbs free energy minimization method into multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the effective searching method for the minimum value. Chemical compounds by the combustion of sodium in the air are calculated using BISHOP. The Calculated temperature and moisture conditions where sodium-oxide and hydroxide are formed qualitatively agree with the experiments. Deformation of sodium hydride is calculated by the program. The estimated result of the relationship between the deformation temperature and pressure closely agree with the well known experimental equation of Roy and Rodgers. It is concluded that BISHOP can be used for evaluated the combustion and deformation behaviors of sodium and its compounds. Hydrogen formation condition of the dump-tank room at the sodium leak event of FBR is quantitatively evaluated by BISHOP. It can be concluded that to keep the temperature of dump-tank room lower is effective method to suppress the formation of hydrogen. In case of choosing the lower inflammability limit of 4.1 mol% as the hydrogen concentration criterion, formation reaction of sodium hydride from sodium and hydrogen is facilitated below the room temperature of 800 K, and concentration of hydrogen

  5. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  6. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  7. Redefining Aging in HIV Infection Using Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoff, David M; Goodkin, Karl; Jeste, Dilip; Marquine, Maria

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i.e., disability, frailty, accelerated aging, successful aging) are also discussed in relation to comorbid aging and cognitive aging. The main findings that emerged from this review are as follows: (1) the phenotypes, comorbid aging and cognitive aging, are distinct from each other, yet overlapping; (2) associative relationships are the rule in HIV for comorbid and cognitive aging phenotypes; and (3) HIV behavioral interventions for both comorbid aging and cognitive aging have been limited. Three paths for research progress are identified for phenotype-defined aging/HIV research (i.e., clinical and behavioral specification, biological mechanisms, intervention targets), and some important research questions are suggested within each of these research paths.

  8. Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes. (paper)

  9. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  10. Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biessels, G J; Bril, V; Calcutt, N A

    2014-01-01

    NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy...... with a discussion on the merits and limitations of a unified approach to phenotyping rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and a consensus formed on the definition of the minimum criteria required for establishing the presence of the disease. A neuropathy phenotype in rodents was defined as the presence...

  11. Synthesis and Cell Seeding Assessment of Novel Biphasic Nano Powder in the CaO–MgO–SiO2 System for Bone Implant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Marzban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: CaO–MgO–SiO2 system bioceramics possess good characteristics for hard tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to synthesize the nano powder by using a sol-gel method and evaluate of bioactivity in the cells culture. Methods: To characterize of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and to evaluate the bioactivity sample cell seeding and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay were performed. Results: X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that the biphasic powder was obtained at 1300°C for 2 h by using a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM image showed that powder particle size was about 45 nm. Besides, cell culture results indicated that the percentage of viability values was increased by the extension of period. Conclusions: found that the sample is cytocompatible and has cell proliferation potential in culture medium. The present study demonstrates that, the biphasic CaO–MgO–SiO2 system can be used to achieve novel bioactive materials for bone implant application.

  12. Hepatitis C virus core protein expression leads to biphasic regulation of the p21 cdk inhibitor and modulation of hepatocyte cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau; Mudryj, Maria; Guadalupe, Moraima; Dandekar, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein is implicated in viral pathogenesis by the modulation of hepatocyte gene expression and function. To determine the effect of Core protein on the cell-cycle control of hepatocytes, a HepG2 cell line containing a Flag-tagged Core under the control of an inducible promoter was generated. Initial Core protein expression included the presence of unprocessed (191 aa) and processed (173 aa) forms of the Core proteins with the processed form becoming dominant later. Expression of the 191 aa form of Core protein corresponded to an increase in the expression of the p21, a decrease in cdk2-dependent kinase activity, and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S-phase along with an accumulation of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle. As the processed form accumulated, the p21 levels started to decline, suggesting that Core protein regulates p21 expression in a biphasic manner. These findings implicate Core protein in potentially modulating hepatocyte cell cycle differentially in the early stages of infection through biphasic regulation of p21 cdk kinase inhibitor

  13. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Casablanca cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farouqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Casablanca, Morocco. Results: A total of 495 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 231, insulin detemir (n = 151, insulin aspart (n = 19, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 53 and other insulin combinations (n = 41. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.2% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.3%, insulin users: −1.8%. Major hypoglycaemia was observed in the insulin naïve group after 24 weeks. SADRs were reported in 1.2% of insulin naïve and 2.1% of insulin user groups. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  14. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Kolkata cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Kolkata, India. Results: A total of 576 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 417, insulin detemir (n = 70, insulin aspart (n = 55, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 19 and other insulin combinations (n = 15. At baseline, glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.6% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.3%, insulin users: −1.4%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  15. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husain, Mainul; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally...... to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure....... transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also...... differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3d, increasing again at 14d, and then persisting to 42d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent...

  16. Biosynthesis of tert-butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate by carbonyl reductase from Rhodosporidium toruloides in mono and biphasic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Lin; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Jin, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-01

    tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5S)-CDHH) is the key intermediate for synthesis of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Carbonyl reductase exhibits excellent activity toward tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) to synthesize (3R,5S)-CDHH. In this study, a whole cell biosynthesis reaction system to produce (3R,5S)-CDHH was constructed in organic solvents. A solution of 10% (v/v) Tween-80 was introduced to the reaction system as a co-solvent, which greatly enhanced biotransformation process, giving 98.9% yield, >99% ee and 1.8-fold higher space time yield in 5 h bioconversion of 1 M (S)-CHOH, compared with 98.7% yield and >99% ee in 9 h bioconversion of a purely aqueous reaction system. Moreover, a water-octanol biphasic reaction system was built and 20% of octanol was added as reservoir of substrate resulting in 98% yield, >99% ee and 4.08 mmol L -1  h -1  g -1 (wet cell weight) space time yield. This study paved a way for the whole cell biosynthesis of (3R,5S)-CDHH in mono and biphasic media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Mumbai cohort of the A1chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwalkar, P G; Gupta, Vishal; Kovil, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Mumbai, India. A total of 2112 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 1561), insulin detemir (n = 313), insulin aspart (n = 144), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 53) and other insulin combinations (n = 41). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 8.7%) and insulin user (mean HbA1c: 9.2%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: -1.4%, insulin users: -1.8%). SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  18. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Broznić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold-pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ- in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  19. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    Summary The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways. PMID:27904410

  20. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  1. New biphasic solvent system based on cyclopentyl methyl ether for the purification of a non-polar synthetic peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Borie, Nicolas; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, Florence; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-06-01

    A new type 1 ternary biphasic system composed of cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide and water was developed, characterized and successfully used for the purification of a lipophilic, protected peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography. The protected peptide is an 8-mer, key intermediate in bivalirudin (Angiomax®) synthesis and shows a very low solubility in the solvents usually used in liquid chromatography. All ionic groups, except the N-terminal end of the peptide, are protected by a benzyl group. The purification of this peptide was achieved with a purity of about 99.04% and a recovery of 94% using the new ternary biphasic system cyclopentyl methyl ether/dimethylformamide/water (49:40:11, v/v) in the descending pH-zone refining mode with triethylamine (28 mM) as the retainer and methanesulfonic acid (18 mM) as the eluter. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Appraisal of the sensitising potential of orally and dermally administered mercaptobenzothiazole by a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Varun; Wanner, Reinhard; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used while manufacturing natural rubber products. Our study deals with assessing its allergenic potential following dermal and oral routes of exposure, using a biphasic local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice were treated with MBT (dermally 3, 10, 30% concentrations in DMSO; orally 1, 10, 100 mg/kg doses in corn oil) on the back (dermal study) or through oral administration (oral study) on days 1-3 followed by auricular application of 3, 10 and 30% concentrations, respectively, on days 15-17. End points determined on day 19 included ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count, and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+, CD45+). After dermal application of 3% or 10% solution, a significant increase in cell count and lymph node weight along with significant decrease in CD8+ cells was observed. After initial oral administration of 1 mg/kg, we noticed a significant amplification in cell count. Following oral administration of 10 mg/kg, we observed a similar increase in cell count and lymph node weight. The results of our study show that the modified biphasic LLNA protocol can be used to study the sensitising potential of a compound also following the oral route of exposure.

  3. Investigation of the sensitising and cross-sensitising potential of textile dyes and beta-lactam antibiotics using a biphasic mice local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Varun; Schreiber, Clemens; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2009-07-01

    We used a modified protocol of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) to study the cross-sensitising potential of (a) textile dye disperse yellow 3 and its metabolite 2-amino-p-cresol, (b) two antibiotics, penicillin G and cefotiam. The test substances were applied in a biphasic manner, i.e. first on the shaved skin of the back followed by application on the dorsal side of the ears after 2 weeks. The end-points analysed included thickness and weight of an ear-biopsy, weight and cell number of the draining lymph node, and lymphocyte cell surface markers analysed by flow-cytometry. Disperse yellow 3 and its metabolite significantly altered the various end-points at both the tested concentrations (0.5 and 1%), thus demonstrating the sensitising potential of the two substances. The cross-sensitisation study showed significant modulation in the tested variables in the treated group as compared to the control, signifying cross-sensitisation potential of the two substances. Penicillin G and cefotiam showed significant changes in various end-points, pointing towards their sensitising potential. However, even at 50% concentration of the beta-lactams no significant change in any end-point indicating absence of cross-reactivity of the antibiotics was noticed. We conclude that a biphasic, modified protocol of the LLNA is a suitable approach to test for a cross-reactivity potential of two related compounds.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of C-arm CT during selective transcatheter angiography for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with intravenous contrast-enhanced, biphasic, dynamic MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashihara, Hiroki; Osuga, Keigo; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Maeda, Noboru; Hori, Masatoshi; Kim, Tonsok; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    This study was aimed to compare the accuracy, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of C-arm CT (CACT) during selective transcatheter angiography with those of multidetector CT (MDCT) in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this prospective study, 30 patients (mean age, 73 years) with unresectable HCC were examined with CACT before chemoembolisation. Images of a combination of CACT during arterial portography (CACTAP) and dual-phase CACT during hepatic arteriography (CACTHA) was obtained and images of intravenous contrast-enhanced, biphasic, dynamic, MDCT was also obtained beforehand. Three blinded observers independently reviewed CACT and MDCT. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) method. Sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV) were analyzed with the paired t-test. In the mean area under the AFROC curve (Az), there was no significant difference between MDCT and CACT (MDCT, mean Az value, 0.83; CACT, 0.85, respectively) (P = 0.32). There was also no significant difference between the two techniques in sensitivity (MDCT, mean 0.65; CACT, 0.60) and PPV (MDCT, mean 0.98; CACT, 0.97) (P = 0.40, P = 0.68, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of CACT was equivalent to that of biphasic CT in the diagnosis of HCC. (orig.)

  5. The Combination of GIS and Biphasic to Better Predict In Vivo Dissolution of BCS Class IIb Drugs, Ketoconazole and Raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Naoto; Drelich, Adam J; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-01-01

    The formulation developments and the in vivo assessment of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drugs are challenging due to their low solubility and high permeability in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since the GI environment influences the drug dissolution of BCS class II drugs, the human GI characteristics should be incorporated into the in vitro dissolution system to predict bioperformance of BCS class II drugs. An absorptive compartment may be important in dissolution apparatus for BCS class II drugs, especially for bases (BCS IIb) because of high permeability, precipitation, and supersaturation. Thus, the in vitro dissolution system with an absorptive compartment may help predicting the in vivo phenomena of BCS class II drugs better than compendial dissolution apparatuses. In this study, an absorptive compartment (a biphasic device) was introduced to a gastrointestinal simulator. This addition was evaluated if this in vitro system could improve the prediction of in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs, ketoconazole and raloxifene, and subsequent absorption. The gastrointestinal simulator is a practical in vivo predictive tool and exhibited an improved in vivo prediction utilizing the biphasic format and thus a better tool for evaluating the bioperformance of BCS class IIb drugs than compendial apparatuses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  7. Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the Bakosi/Baweri and other pig breeds ( Sus scrofa Domesticus ) in the humid forest with monomodal rainfall agro-ecological zone of Cameroon.

  8. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  9. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization

  10. Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome: A phenotype analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paolacci, Stefano; Bertola, Debora; Franco, José; Mohammed, Shehla; Tartaglia, Marco; Wollnik, Bernd; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2017-01-01

    Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by growth retardation, lipodystrophy, a distinctive face, and dental anomalies. Patients reported to date demonstrate a remarkable variability in phenotype, which hampers diagnostics. We performed a literature

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE One gene, many phenotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Phenotype descriptions are valuable information right at the interface of medi- cine and biology. ... the interaction of alleles at different loci. Modifier genes. 5. ... the amount of normal protein is called ..... Institute, using computer simulations,.

  12. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection

    KAUST Repository

    Siepielski, Adam M.; Gotanda, Kiyoko M.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Diamond, Sarah E.; DiBattista, Joseph; Carlson, Stephanie Marie

    2013-01-01

    the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data

  13. Phenotypic variability among strains of Pasteurella multocida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... extended phenotypic characterization methods supported by DNA ... septicaemia African (Obudu) strain (E:2) which are currently employed as ...

  14. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...... of atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of atypical disease patterns in new-onset pediatric UC using the Paris classification....

  15. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  16. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Balhoff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge.Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices.Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  17. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhoff, James P; Dahdul, Wasila M; Kothari, Cartik R; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mabee, Paula; Midford, Peter E; Westerfield, Monte; Vision, Todd J

    2010-05-05

    Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge. Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices. Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  18. Muscle as an osteoinductive niche for local bone formation with the use of a biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, D. B.; Gupta, A.; Petersen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We have observed clinical cases where bone is formed in the overlaying muscle covering surgically created bone defects treated with a hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial. Our objective was to investigate the osteoinductive potential of the biomaterial and to determine if growth...... factors secreted from local bone cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of muscle cells. Materials and Methods: We seeded mouse skeletal muscle cells C2C12 on the hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial and the phenotype of the cells was analysed. To mimic surgical conditions with leakage of extra...

  19. Age is associated with asthma phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Eduardo V; Lima, Aline; Almeida, Paula C A; de Jesus, Juliana P V; Lima, Valmar B; Scichilone, Nicola; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between age and asthma phenotypes is important as population is ageing, asthma is becoming common in older ages and recently developed treatments for asthma are guided by phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether age is associated with specific asthma phenotypes. This is a cross-sectional study. We included subjects with asthma of varied degrees of severity. Subjects underwent spirometry, skin prick test to aeroallergens, answered the Asthma Control Questionnaire and had blood samples collected. We performed binary logistic regression analysis to evaluate whether age is associated with asthma phenotypes. We enrolled 868 subjects. In comparison with subjects ≤ 40 years, older subjects had high odds of irreversible airway obstruction (from 41 to 64 years, OR: 1.83 (95% CI: 1.32-2.54); ≥65 years, OR: 3.45 (2.12-5.60)) and severe asthma phenotypes (from 41 to 64 years, OR: 3.23 (2.26-4.62); ≥65 years, OR: 4.55 (2.39-8.67)). Older subjects had low odds of atopic (from 41 to 64 years, OR: 0.56 (0.39-0.79); ≥65 years, OR: 0.47 (0.27-0.84)) and eosinophilic phenotypes (from 41 to 64 years, OR: 0.63 (0.46-0.84); ≥65 years, OR: 0.39 (0.24-0.64)). Older subjects with asthma have low odds of atopic and eosinophilic phenotypes, whereas they present high odds of irreversible airway obstruction and severe asthma. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Validation of a closed bi-phasic extraction system and of the pancake probe as instruments to radiopharmaceutical quality control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.L.N.; Okamoto, M.R.Y.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ferraro, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is not a common practice in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. One frequent limitation is that the well counter, used to radioactivity measurement of chromatographic strips, is not available in most services. On the other hand, it's mandatory that all services have a pancake probe to control contaminations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quality control (QC) of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals using a pancake probe, including chromatography of 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-DMSA-V, 99m Tc-Pyp, 99m Tc-ECD, 99m Tc-Dextran, 99m Tc-colloid. Also, we had available a solvent extraction methods using a multi-use closed bi-phasic system to 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI, to replace the classical single-use open bi-phasic system. Material and Methods: Classical chromatographic well counter reading and solvent extraction radiochemical controls were used as standards. To variant radiation reading method, pancake probe was covered with a lead disk 3 mm thick, with a 40x10 mm slit; the activity on chromatographic strips (80x10 mm) was read over the slit. The multi-use closed bi-phasic system was done closing the extremities of a 5 or 10 mL glass pipette using flame in the point side, and rubber septa in the other side. The pipette was filled with 2.5 or 3 mL, both organic solvent and aqueous NaCl 0.9 %; then two or three drops of the sample were applied and the tube shook during 30 seconds. Two minutes after, the activity was measured over each phase using the pancake detector. The same solvent mixture was used 3 times, with 48 h interval to allow radioactivity decay. Results: Radiochemical purity determined by the classical or the modified procedures showed Pearson's correlation of 0.973 (n=17) to chromatography; 0.993 to ECD (n=14) extraction and 0.919 to MIBI (n=21) extraction. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the pancake can be used as a detection instrument in 99m Tc

  1. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Mainul; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Saber, Anne T.; Jensen, Keld A.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Williams, Andrew; Wallin, Håkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 162 μg CBNPs alongside vehicle controls. Lung tissues were examined 3 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, and 42 days (d) post-exposure. Global gene expression and pulmonary inflammation were assessed. DNA damage was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissue using the comet assay. Increased neutrophil influx was observed at all time-points. DNA strand breaks were increased in BAL cells 3 h post-exposure, and in lung tissues 2–5 d post-exposure. Approximately 2600 genes were differentially expressed (± 1.5 fold; p ≤ 0.05) across all time-points in the lungs of exposed mice. Altered transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3 h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3 d, increasing again at 14 d, and then persisting to 42 d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42 d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure. - Highlights: • A single exposure to CBNPs induced expression changes in over 2600 genes in mouse lungs. • Altered genes were associated with immune-inflammatory and acute phase responses. • Several genes were involved in DNA

  2. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Mainul, E-mail: mainul.husain@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kyjovska, Zdenka O., E-mail: zky@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie, E-mail: julie.bourdon-lacombe@hc-sc.gc.ca [Water and Air Quality Bureau, Safe Environments Directorate, HECSB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Keld A., E-mail: kaj@arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 162 μg CBNPs alongside vehicle controls. Lung tissues were examined 3 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, and 42 days (d) post-exposure. Global gene expression and pulmonary inflammation were assessed. DNA damage was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissue using the comet assay. Increased neutrophil influx was observed at all time-points. DNA strand breaks were increased in BAL cells 3 h post-exposure, and in lung tissues 2–5 d post-exposure. Approximately 2600 genes were differentially expressed (± 1.5 fold; p ≤ 0.05) across all time-points in the lungs of exposed mice. Altered transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3 h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3 d, increasing again at 14 d, and then persisting to 42 d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42 d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure. - Highlights: • A single exposure to CBNPs induced expression changes in over 2600 genes in mouse lungs. • Altered genes were associated with immune-inflammatory and acute phase responses. • Several genes were involved in DNA

  3. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla

    2006-01-01

    middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. K-means cluster analysis revealed two distinct biphasic gene expression patterns that contained 44 genes (including 18 immediate early genes), involved in cell signaling and plasticity (i.e. MAP2K7, Sprouty2, Irs-2, Homer1, GPRC5B, Grasp). The first gene...

  4. A histomorphometric and micro-computed tomography study of bone regeneration in the maxillary sinus comparing biphasic calcium phosphate and deproteinized cancellous bovine bone in a human split-mouth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, G.L.; Overman, J.R.; Farre-Guasch, E.; Korstjens, C.M.; Hartman, B.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The gain of mineralized bone was compared between deproteinized bovine bone allograft (DBA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) for dental implant placement. Study Design Five patients with atrophic maxillae underwent bilateral sinus elevation with DBA (Bio-Oss) and BCP (Straumann

  5. Overeating phenotypes in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overeating phenotypes and their correlates in overweight and obese children. One hundred and seventeen treatment-seeking overweight and obese 8-12year-old children and their parents completed the study. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and measurements of height and weight. Parents and children completed questionnaires that evaluated satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, negative affect eating, external eating and eating in the absence of hunger. Latent profile analysis was used to identify heterogeneity in overeating phenotypes in the child participants. Latent classes were then compared on measures of demographics, obesity status and nutritional intake. Three latent classes of overweight and obese children were identified: High Satiety Responsive, High Food Responsive, and Moderate Satiety and Food Responsive. Results indicated that the High Food Responsive group had higher BMI and BMI-Z scores compared to the High Satiety Responsive group. No differences were found among classes in demographics or nutritional intake. This study identified three overeating phenotypes, supporting the heterogeneity of eating patterns associated with overweight and obesity in treatment-seeking children. These finding suggest that these phenotypes can potentially be used to identify high risk groups, inform prevention and intervention targets, and develop specific treatments for these behavioral phenotypes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Anti-M antibodies: Biphasic (reactive at room temperature and at 37°C: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi P Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-M antibody, which is not reactive at 37°C, is not clinically significant. Reports of clinically significant anti-M antibodies causing hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn (HDFN and delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR are available. We report 13 cases of anti-M antibodies reactive at room temperature (RT and at 37°C. These were found in patients of varied age groups (11 months to 85 years with varied clinical diagnosis. All the female patients were multigravida. In all cases, antibody screening was positive at RT as well as at the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT phase. Providing “M”-antigen negative transfusions is the best therapy in this situation. Provision of red blood cell (RBC antigen phenotyped donor registry shall ensure quick provision of antigen-negative blood for transfusion in emergency situations.

  7. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite, β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Particles to Act as Local Delivery Carriers of Curcumin: Loading, Release and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Xidaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA, β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and two biphasic mixtures (BCPs of the two was performed by means of wet precipitation. The resulting crystals were characterized and the BCP composition was analyzed and identified as 13% HA—87% TCP and 41% HA—59% TCP. All samples were treated with curcumin solutions, and the degree of curcumin loading and release was found to be proportional to the TCP content of the ceramic. No further cytotoxicity was observed upon MG-63 treatment with the curcumin-loaded ceramics. Finally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells was found to increase with increasing content of TCP, which provides an encouraging proof of concept for the use of curcumin-loaded synthetic biomaterials in bone remodeling.

  8. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Le Guenic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  9. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guenic, Sarah; Gergela, David; Ceballos, Claire; Delbecq, Frederic; Len, Christophe

    2016-08-22

    Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  10. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell proliferation and ALP activity on the modified BCP scaffolds. The modified microporous surfaces showed low contact angles and large surface areas, which enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. Coating of the BCP scaffolds with type I collagen led to enhanced cell-material interactions and improved MG63 functions, such as spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. The micropore/collagen-coated scaffold showed the highest rate of cell response. These results indicate that a combination of micropores and collagen enhances cellular function on bioengineered bone allograft tissue.

  11. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2×3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily......: Carotid IMT change did not differ between 3 insulin regimens despite differences in HbA1c, weight gain and insulin doses. The trial only reached 46% of planned sample size and lack of power may therefore have affected our results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00657943....

  12. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce...... an optimal trait) to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, or that plasticity may have inherent significant costs. Yet numerous experimental studies have not detected widespread costs. Explicitly differentiating plasticity costs from phenotype costs, we re-evaluate fundamental questions of the limits...... to the evolution of plasticity and of generalists vs specialists. We advocate for the view that relaxed selection and variable selection intensities are likely more important constraints to the evolution of plasticity than the costs of plasticity. Some forms of plasticity, such as learning, may be inherently...

  13. Phenotype Development in Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Camilla; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent comorbidities and a wide spectrum of phenotype presentations. This study aimed to describe the development of phenotypes in TS and tic-related impairment in a large longitudinal study of 226 children and adolescents...... followed up after 6 years. The participants were clinically examined to assess tic severity and impairment, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The development in phenotypes changed toward less comorbidity with 40% TS-only (no OCD or ADHD) (TS without...... OCD or ADHD) at baseline and 55% at follow-up.Tic-related impairment was expected to improve with an age-related tic decline, but surprisingly the impairment score did not reflect the tic decline. Sex, vocal and motor tics, and OCD and ADHD severity were highly significantly correlated...

  14. Delineating the GRIN1 phenotypic spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Johannes R; Geider, Kirsten; Helbig, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    consequences of GRIN1 mutations were investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous de novo GRIN1 mutations in 14 individuals and reviewed the phenotypes of all 9 previously reported patients. These 23 individuals presented with a distinct phenotype of profound developmental delay......, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity...... impairment as well as oculomotor and movement disorders being discriminating phenotypic features. Loss of NMDA receptor function appears to be the underlying disease mechanism. The identification of both heterozygous and homozygous mutations blurs the borders of dominant and recessive inheritance of GRIN1...

  15. Semi-supervised Learning for Phenotyping Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dligach, Dmitriy; Miller, Timothy; Savova, Guergana K

    2015-01-01

    Supervised learning is the dominant approach to automatic electronic health records-based phenotyping, but it is expensive due to the cost of manual chart review. Semi-supervised learning takes advantage of both scarce labeled and plentiful unlabeled data. In this work, we study a family of semi-supervised learning algorithms based on Expectation Maximization (EM) in the context of several phenotyping tasks. We first experiment with the basic EM algorithm. When the modeling assumptions are violated, basic EM leads to inaccurate parameter estimation. Augmented EM attenuates this shortcoming by introducing a weighting factor that downweights the unlabeled data. Cross-validation does not always lead to the best setting of the weighting factor and other heuristic methods may be preferred. We show that accurate phenotyping models can be trained with only a few hundred labeled (and a large number of unlabeled) examples, potentially providing substantial savings in the amount of the required manual chart review.

  16. Relationship between endophenotype and phenotype in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitelaar Jan K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors relate to psychiatric disorders through the effect of intermediating, vulnerability traits called endophenotypes. The study had a threefold aim: to examine the predictive validity of an endophenotypic construct for the ADHD diagnosis, to test whether the magnitude of group differences at the endophenotypic and phenotypic level is comparable, and to investigate whether four factors (gender, age, IQ, rater bias have an effect (moderation or mediation on the relation between endophenotype and phenotype. Methods Ten neurocognitive tasks were administered to 143 children with ADHD, 68 non-affected siblings, and 120 control children (first-borns and 132 children with ADHD, 78 non-affected siblings, and 113 controls (second-borns (5 – 19 years. The task measures have been investigated previously for their endophenotypic viability and were combined to one component which was labeled 'the endophenotypic construct': one measure representative of endophenotypic functioning across several domains of functioning. Results The endophenotypic construct classified children with moderate accuracy (about 50% for each of the three groups. Non-affected children differed as much from controls at the endophenotypic as at the phenotypic level, but affected children displayed a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Although a potentially moderating effect (age and several mediating effects (gender, age, IQ were found affecting the relation between endophenotypic construct and phenotype, none of the effects studied could account for the finding that affected children had a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Conclusion Endophenotypic functioning is moderately predictive of the ADHD diagnosis, though findings suggest substantial overlap exists between endophenotypic functioning in the groups of affected children, non-affected siblings, and controls. Results suggest other

  17. Phenotypic Approaches to Drought in Cassava: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eOkogbenin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12 - 18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance

  18. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Rajasthan cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Rajasthan, India. Results: A total of 477 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 340, insulin detemir (n = 90, insulin aspart (n = 37, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 7 and other insulin combinations (n = 2. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −0.9%, insulin users: −1.2%. Major hypoglycaemic events decreased from 0.5 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group while no change from baseline (1.3 events/patients-year was observed for insulin users. SADRs were not reported in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  19. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Song, Doo-Hoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-01-01

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering

  20. Synthesis of furfural from xylose, xylan, and biomass using AlCl3·6H2O in biphasic media via xylose isomerization to xylulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Hu, Chang-Wei; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2012-02-13

    Furfural was prepared in high yields (75 %) from the reaction of xylose in a water-tetrahydrofuran biphasic medium containing AlCl(3)·6H2O and NaCl under microwave heating at 140 °C. The reaction profile revealed the formation of xylulose as an intermediate en route to the dehydration product (furfural). The reaction under these conditions reached completion in 45 min. The aqueous phase containing AlCl(3)·6H(2)O and NaCl could be recycled multiple times (>5) without any loss of activity or selectivity for furfural. Extension of this biphasic reaction system to include xylan as the starting material afforded furfural in 64 % yield. The use of corn stover, pinewood, switchgrass, and poplar gave furfural in 55, 38, 56, and 64 % yield, respectively, at 160 °C. Even though AlCl(3)·6H(2)O did not affect the conversion of crystalline cellulose, moderate yields of the by-product 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were noted. The highest HMF yield of 42 % was obtained from pinewood. The coproduction of HMF and furfural from biomass was attributed to the weakening of the cellulose network in the biomass, as a result of hemicellulose hydrolysis. The multifunctional capacity of AlCl(3)·6H(2)O (hemicellulose hydrolysis, xylose isomerization, and xylulose dehydration) in combination with its ease of recyclability make it an attractive candidate/catalyst for the selective synthesis of furfural from various biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. B-Raf and CRHR1 internalization mediate biphasic ERK1/2 activation by CRH in hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Juan J; Inda, Carolina; Senin, Sergio; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Refojo, Damián; Giacomini, Damiana; Turck, Christoph W; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Silberstein, Susana

    2013-03-01

    CRH is a key regulator of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral response to stress. CRH-stimulated CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates ERK1/2 depending on intracellular context. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CRH activates ERK1/2 in limbic areas of the mouse brain (hippocampus and basolateral amygdala). ERK1/2 is an essential mediator of hippocampal physiological processes including emotional behavior, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CRH activates ERK1/2 in hippocampal neurons, we used the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. We document for the first time that ERK1/2 activation in response to CRH is biphasic, involving a first cAMP- and B-Raf-dependent early phase and a second phase that critically depends on CRHR1 internalization and β-arrestin2. By means of mass-spectrometry-based screening, we identified B-Raf-associated proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with endogenous B-Raf after CRHR1 activation. Using molecular and pharmacological tools, the functional impact of selected B-Raf partners in CRH-dependent ERK1/2 activation was dissected. These results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins, protein kinase A, and Rap1, are essential for early CRH-induced ERK1/2 activation, whereas dynamin and vimentin are required for the CRHR1 internalization-dependent phase. Both phases of ERK1/2 activation depend on calcium influx and are affected by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inactivation. Thus, this report describes the dynamics and biphasic nature of ERK1/2 activation downstream neuronal CRHR1 and identifies several new critical components of the CRHR1 signaling machinery that selectively controls the early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation, thus providing new potential therapeutic targets for stress-related disorders.

  2. Study of hMSC proliferation and differentiation on Mg and Mg–Sr containing biphasic β-tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satish S.; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic mixtures of either Mg"2"+ or combined Mg"2"+ and Sr"2"+ cation substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were prepared using a low temperature chemical phosphatizing and hydrolysis reaction approach. Scaffolds prepared using the cation substituted calcium phosphates were capable of supporting similar levels of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in comparison to commercially available β-TCP. The concentrations of Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and PO_4"3"− released from these scaffolds were also within the ranges desired from previous reports to support both hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, hMSCs cultured directly on scaffolds prepared with only Mg"2"+ substituted β-TCP were capable of supporting statistically significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin expression in comparison to all compositions containing both Mg"2"+ and Sr"2"+, and commercially available β-TCP. hMSCs cultured in the presence of scaffold extracts also exhibited similar trends in the expression of osteogenic markers as was observed during direct culture. Therefore, it was concluded that the enhanced differentiation observed was due to the release of bioactive ions rather than the surface microstructure. The role of these ions on transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenic protein signaling was also evaluated using a PCR array. It was concluded that the release of these ions may support enhanced differentiation through SMAD dependent TGF-β and BMP signaling. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mg and Mg-Sr containing biphasic beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics • Magnesium substitution influences ALP activity compared to strontium content. • Solution extract plays a more dominant role on hMSC differentiation. • Direct and indirect Mg and Mg-Sr TCP culture show similar OPG and OPN expression.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of Ag+- and Cu2+-doped biphasic hydroxyapatite/α-tricalcium phosphate obtained from hydrothermally synthesized Ag+- and Cu2+-doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanović, Željko; Jokić, Bojan; Veljović, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Kojić, Vesna; Petrović, Rada; Janaćković, Djordje

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders doped with Ag + or Cu 2+ were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in order to obtain biomaterial with an antimicrobial effect. The synthesis was performed with two contents of dopant (Ag + or Cu 2+ ) by considering both the antimicrobial activities and biocompatibility of the powders. The doped HAp was annealed at 1200 °C for 2 h with the intention of investigating the influence of doping with Ag + and Cu 2+ on the creation of the biphasic HAp/α-tricalcium phosphate (HAp/α-TCP) and determining the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the obtained biphasic powders. Analyses of all powders, undoped and doped HAp and HAp/α-TCP, were performed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The in vitro antibacterial activities of the powders were evaluated against: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. All powders showed good antimicrobial activity but generally the powders of doped HAp/α-TCP had more uniform results against all pathogenic microorganisms than the powders of doped HAp. In vitro biocompatibility tests, MTT and DET, were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of Ag + - and Cu 2+ -doped HAp/α-TCP with MRC-5 human fibroblast cells. These tests confirmed that powders do not have a cytotoxic effect. The HAp/α-TCP powders doped with the lower content of Ag + and Cu 2+ showed especially good biocompatibility. Antimicrobial and biocompatibility tests recommend the Ag + - and Cu 2+ -doped HAp/α-TCP as promising material for use in reconstructive surgery of bone.

  4. Study of hMSC proliferation and differentiation on Mg and Mg–Sr containing biphasic β-tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satish S., E-mail: sss42@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Roy, Abhijit, E-mail: abr20@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Boeun [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Craniofacial Regeneration, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biphasic mixtures of either Mg{sup 2+} or combined Mg{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} cation substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were prepared using a low temperature chemical phosphatizing and hydrolysis reaction approach. Scaffolds prepared using the cation substituted calcium phosphates were capable of supporting similar levels of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in comparison to commercially available β-TCP. The concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} released from these scaffolds were also within the ranges desired from previous reports to support both hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, hMSCs cultured directly on scaffolds prepared with only Mg{sup 2+} substituted β-TCP were capable of supporting statistically significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin expression in comparison to all compositions containing both Mg{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}, and commercially available β-TCP. hMSCs cultured in the presence of scaffold extracts also exhibited similar trends in the expression of osteogenic markers as was observed during direct culture. Therefore, it was concluded that the enhanced differentiation observed was due to the release of bioactive ions rather than the surface microstructure. The role of these ions on transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenic protein signaling was also evaluated using a PCR array. It was concluded that the release of these ions may support enhanced differentiation through SMAD dependent TGF-β and BMP signaling. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mg and Mg-Sr containing biphasic beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics • Magnesium substitution influences ALP activity compared to strontium content. • Solution extract plays a more dominant role on hMSC differentiation. • Direct and indirect Mg and Mg-Sr TCP culture show similar OPG and OPN expression.

  5. Phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of local chicken populations was carried out in Benin on 326 chickens of the Forest ecological area and 316 of the Savannah ecological area, all were 7 months old at least. The collection of blood for the molecular typing was achieved on 121 ...

  6. Evidence for a Broad Autism Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Groot (Kristel); J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe broad autism phenotype implies the existence of a continuum ranging from individuals displaying almost no autistic traits to severely impaired diagnosed individuals. Recent studies have linked this variation in autistic traits to several domains of functioning. However, studies

  7. phenotype correlation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-06-21

    Jun 21, 2014 ... children with autism and to correlate them with different phenotypes. Subjects and ... of impairments in communication, reciprocal social interac- tions, and ... isolation was obtained from peripheral blood samples using the spin ... IQ, while ten of them (50%) had mild mental retardation and six patients (30%) ...

  8. Phenotype Presentation of Hypophosphatemic Rickets in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Brusgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2010-01-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a group of rare disorders caused by excessive renal phosphate wasting. The purpose of this cross-sectional study of 38 HR patients was to characterize the phenotype of adult HR patients. Moreover, skeletal and endodontic severity scores were defined to assess poss...

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  10. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). ... discriminatory analysis, principal components, coordinate and cluster analysis .... were employed with 10.000 simulations to attribute significance values to ...... association analysis of protein and oil content in food-grade soybeans ...

  11. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  12. Worm Phenotype Ontology: Integrating phenotype data within and beyond the C. elegans community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yook Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caenorhabditis elegans gene-based phenotype information dates back to the 1970's, beginning with Sydney Brenner and the characterization of behavioral and morphological mutant alleles via classical genetics in order to understand nervous system function. Since then C. elegans has become an important genetic model system for the study of basic biological and biomedical principles, largely through the use of phenotype analysis. Because of the growth of C. elegans as a genetically tractable model organism and the development of large-scale analyses, there has been a significant increase of phenotype data that needs to be managed and made accessible to the research community. To do so, a standardized vocabulary is necessary to integrate phenotype data from diverse sources, permit integration with other data types and render the data in a computable form. Results We describe a hierarchically structured, controlled vocabulary of terms that can be used to standardize phenotype descriptions in C. elegans, namely the Worm Phenotype Ontology (WPO. The WPO is currently comprised of 1,880 phenotype terms, 74% of which have been used in the annotation of phenotypes associated with greater than 18,000 C. elegans genes. The scope of the WPO is not exclusively limited to C. elegans biology, rather it is devised to also incorporate phenotypes observed in related nematode species. We have enriched the value of the WPO by integrating it with other ontologies, thereby increasing the accessibility of worm phenotypes to non-nematode biologists. We are actively developing the WPO to continue to fulfill the evolving needs of the scientific community and hope to engage researchers in this crucial endeavor. Conclusions We provide a phenotype ontology (WPO that will help to facilitate data retrieval, and cross-species comparisons within the nematode community. In the larger scientific community, the WPO will permit data integration, and

  13. Phenotypic equilibrium as probabilistic convergence in multi-phenotype cell population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Quan Jiang

    Full Text Available We consider the cell population dynamics with n different phenotypes. Both the Markovian branching process model (stochastic model and the ordinary differential equation (ODE system model (deterministic model are presented, and exploited to investigate the dynamics of the phenotypic proportions. We will prove that in both models, these proportions will tend to constants regardless of initial population states ("phenotypic equilibrium" under weak conditions, which explains the experimental phenomenon in Gupta et al.'s paper. We also prove that Gupta et al.'s explanation is the ODE model under a special assumption. As an application, we will give sufficient and necessary conditions under which the proportion of one phenotype tends to 0 (die out or 1 (dominate. We also extend our results to non-Markovian cases.

  14. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions: The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between......Background and Aims: The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important....... Methods: Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity...

  15. Decomposing phenotype descriptions for the human skeletal phenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane; Zankl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of the last few years there has been a significant amount of research performed on ontology-based formalization of phenotype descriptions. The intrinsic value and knowledge captured within such descriptions can only be expressed by taking advantage of their inner structure that implicitly combines qualities and anatomical entities. We present a meta-model (the Phenotype Fragment Ontology) and a processing pipeline that enable together the automatic decomposition and conceptualization of phenotype descriptions for the human skeletal phenome. We use this approach to showcase the usefulness of the generic concept of phenotype decomposition by performing an experimental study on all skeletal phenotype concepts defined in the Human Phenotype Ontology.

  16. Advanced phenotyping and phenotype data analysis for the plant growth and development study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Matiur eRahaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in the consumption of food, feed, fuel and to ensure global food security for rapidly growing human population, there is need to breed high yielding crops that can adapt to future climate. To solve these global issues, novel approaches are required to provide quantitative phenotypes to elucidate the genetic basis of agriculturally import traits and to screen germplasm with super performance in function under resource-limited environment. At present, plant phenomics has offered and integrated suite technologies for understanding the complete set of phenotypes of plants, towards the progression of the full characteristics of plants with whole sequenced genomes. In this aspect, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed that enables to capture extensive and intensive phenotype data from non-destructive imaging over time. These developments advance our view on plant growth and performance with responses to the changing climate and environment. In this paper, we present a brief review on currently developed high-throughput plant phenotyping infrastructures based on imaging techniques and corresponding principles for phenotype data analysis.

  17. ABO blood group phenotype frequency estimation using molecular phenotyping in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Oldt, R F; Valdivia, L; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2017-11-01

    A much larger sample (N = 2369) was used to evaluate a previously reported distribution of the A, AB and B blood group phenotypes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from six different regional populations. These samples, acquired from 15 different breeding and research facilities in the United States, were analyzed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay that targets single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for the macaque A, B and AB phenotypes. The frequency distributions of blood group phenotypes of the two species differ significantly from each other and significant regional differentiation within the geographic ranges of each species was also observed. The B blood group phenotype was prevalent in rhesus macaques, especially those from India, while the frequencies of the A, B and AB phenotypes varied significantly among cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions. The Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, despite having originated in Indonesia, showed significant (P ≪ .01) divergence from the Indonesian animals at the ABO blood group locus. Most Mauritian animals belonged to the B blood group while the Indonesian animals were mostly A. The close similarity in blood group frequency distributions between the Chinese rhesus and Indochinese cynomolgus macaques demonstrates that the introgression between these two species extends beyond the zone of intergradation in Indochina. This study underscores the importance of ABO blood group phenotyping of the domestic supply of macaques and their biospecimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Elucidating the genotype–phenotype map by automatic enumeration and analysis of the phenotypic repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The gap between genotype and phenotype is filled by complex biochemical systems most of which are poorly understood. Because these systems are complex, it is widely appreciated that quantitative understanding can only be achieved with the aid of mathematical models. However, formulating models and measuring or estimating their numerous rate constants and binding constants is daunting. Here we present a strategy for automating difficult aspects of the process. Methods: The strategy, based on a system design space methodology, is applied to a class of 16 designs for a synthetic gene oscillator that includes seven designs previously formulated on the basis of experimentally measured and estimated parameters. Results: Our strategy provides four important innovations by automating: (1) enumeration of the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes for a system; (2) generation of parameter values for any particular phenotype; (3) simultaneous realization of parameter values for several phenotypes to aid visualization of transitions from one phenotype to another, in critical cases from functional to dysfunctional; and (4) identification of ensembles of phenotypes whose expression can be phased to achieve a specific sequence of functions for rationally engineering synthetic constructs. Our strategy, applied to the 16 designs, reproduced previous results and identified two additional designs capable of sustained oscillations that were previously missed. Conclusions: Starting with a system’s relatively fixed aspects, its architectural features, our method enables automated analysis of nonlinear biochemical systems from a global perspective, without first specifying parameter values. The examples presented demonstrate the efficiency and power of this automated strategy. PMID:26998346

  19. Elucidating the genotype-phenotype map by automatic enumeration and analysis of the phenotypic repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    The gap between genotype and phenotype is filled by complex biochemical systems most of which are poorly understood. Because these systems are complex, it is widely appreciated that quantitative understanding can only be achieved with the aid of mathematical models. However, formulating models and measuring or estimating their numerous rate constants and binding constants is daunting. Here we present a strategy for automating difficult aspects of the process. The strategy, based on a system design space methodology, is applied to a class of 16 designs for a synthetic gene oscillator that includes seven designs previously formulated on the basis of experimentally measured and estimated parameters. Our strategy provides four important innovations by automating: (1) enumeration of the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes for a system; (2) generation of parameter values for any particular phenotype; (3) simultaneous realization of parameter values for several phenotypes to aid visualization of transitions from one phenotype to another, in critical cases from functional to dysfunctional; and (4) identification of ensembles of phenotypes whose expression can be phased to achieve a specific sequence of functions for rationally engineering synthetic constructs. Our strategy, applied to the 16 designs, reproduced previous results and identified two additional designs capable of sustained oscillations that were previously missed. Starting with a system's relatively fixed aspects, its architectural features, our method enables automated analysis of nonlinear biochemical systems from a global perspective, without first specifying parameter values. The examples presented demonstrate the efficiency and power of this automated strategy.

  20. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sidi; Krinsky, Benjamin H.; Long, Manyuan

    2014-01-01

    During the course of evolution, genomes acquire novel genetic elements as sources of functional and phenotypic diversity, including new genes that originated in recent evolution. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the evolution and phenotypic effects of new genes. In particular, an emerging picture is that new genes, despite being present in the genomes of only a subset of species, can rapidly evolve indispensable roles in fundamental biological processes, including development, reproduction, brain function and behaviour. The molecular underpinnings of how new genes can develop these roles are starting to be characterized. These recent discoveries yield fresh insights into our broad understanding of biological diversity at refined resolution. PMID:23949544

  1. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poittevin, Marine; Lozeron, Pierre; Hilal, Rose; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of cerebral blood flow after stroke induces cerebral tissue injury through multiple mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in blood vessel walls play a key role in cerebral blood flow control. Cerebral ischemia triggers these cells to switch to a phenotype that will be either detrimental or beneficial to brain repair. Moreover, SMC can be primarily affected genetically or by toxic metabolic molecules. After stroke, this pathological phenotype has an impact on the incidence, pattern, severity, and outcome of the cerebral ischemic disease. Although little research has been conducted on the pathological role and molecular mechanisms of SMC in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases, some therapeutic targets have already been identified and could be considered for further pharmacological development. We examine these different aspects in this review.

  3. Phenotype development in TgHD minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellederová, Zdeňka; Vidinská, Daniela; Mačáková, Monika; Kučerová, S.; Bohuslavová, Božena; Sedláčková, M.; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Baxa, Monika; Ardan, Taras; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 11-11 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : phenotype * minipig model of Huntington ´s disease * reproductive failure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  5. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  6. NF1 Neuronal Genotype Phenotype Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    interesting results from the Drosophila functional assays, at present we have decided to focus our attention on selected NF1 patient missense mutations...complexity of NF1 disease phenotypes in different tissues, age and sex dependency of symptoms, impact of environmental factors and genetic heterogeneity...suggesting the role of modifier genes [12]. This work aims to shed light on this issue by studying the functional consequences of selected NF1

  7. HIV coreceptor phenotyping in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Swenson, Luke C; Harrigan, P Richard

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of CCR5 antagonists increases the options available for constructing antiretroviral regimens. However, this option is coupled with the caveat that patients should be tested for HIV coreceptor tropism prior to initiating CCR5 antagonist-based therapy. Failure to screen for CXCR4 usage increases the risk of using an ineffective drug, thus reducing the likelihood of viral suppression and increasing their risk for developing antiretroviral resistance. This review discusses current and future methods of determining HIV tropism, with a focus on their utility in the clinical setting for screening purposes. Some of these methods include recombinant phenotypic tests, such as the Monogram Trofile assay, as well as genotype-based predictors, heteroduplex tracking assays, and flow cytometry based methods. Currently, the best evidence supports the use of phenotypic methods, although other methods of screening for HIV coreceptor usage prior to the administration of CCR5 antagonists may reduce costs and increase turnaround time over phenotypic methods. The presence of low levels of X4 virus is a challenge to all assay methods, resulting in reduced sensitivity in clinical, patient-derived samples when compared to clonally derived samples. Gaining a better understanding of the output of these assays and correlating them with clinical progression and therapy response will provide some indication on how both genotype-based, and phenotypic assays for determining HIV coreceptor usage can be improved. In addition, leveraging new technologies capable of detecting low-level minority species may provide the most significant advances in ensuring that individuals with low levels of dual/mixed tropic virus are not inadvertently prescribed CCR5 antagonists.

  8. One gene, many phenotypes | Shawky | Egyptian Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mechanisms underlying genotype-phenotype discrepancies is important, as it will move clinical genetics towards predictive medicine, allowing better selection of therapeutic strategies and individualized counseling of persons affected with genetic disorders. Keywords: Gene, phenotype, mosaicism, epigenetics, pleiotropy ...

  9. Phenotypic Variability in the Coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Lebrato, Mario; Stoll, Heather M; Iglesias-Rodriguez, Debora; Müller, Marius N; Méndez-Vicente, Ana; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Coccolithophores are a vital part of oceanic phytoplankton assemblages that produce organic matter and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) containing traces of other elements (i.e. Sr and Mg). Their associated carbon export from the euphotic zone to the oceans' interior plays a crucial role in CO2 feedback mechanisms and biogeochemical cycles. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi has been widely studied as a model organism to understand physiological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in marine sciences. Here, we show the inter-strain variability in physiological and biogeochemical traits in 13 strains of E. huxleyi from various biogeographical provinces obtained from culture collections commonly used in the literature. Our results demonstrate that inter-strain genetic variability has greater potential to induce larger phenotypic differences than the phenotypic plasticity of single strains cultured under a broad range of variable environmental conditions. The range of variation found in physiological parameters and calcite Sr:Ca highlights the need to reconsider phenotypic variability in paleoproxy calibrations and model parameterizations to adequately translate findings from single strain laboratory experiments to the real ocean.

  10. Phenotypic Variability in the Coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Blanco-Ameijeiras

    Full Text Available Coccolithophores are a vital part of oceanic phytoplankton assemblages that produce organic matter and calcium carbonate (CaCO3 containing traces of other elements (i.e. Sr and Mg. Their associated carbon export from the euphotic zone to the oceans' interior plays a crucial role in CO2 feedback mechanisms and biogeochemical cycles. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi has been widely studied as a model organism to understand physiological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in marine sciences. Here, we show the inter-strain variability in physiological and biogeochemical traits in 13 strains of E. huxleyi from various biogeographical provinces obtained from culture collections commonly used in the literature. Our results demonstrate that inter-strain genetic variability has greater potential to induce larger phenotypic differences than the phenotypic plasticity of single strains cultured under a broad range of variable environmental conditions. The range of variation found in physiological parameters and calcite Sr:Ca highlights the need to reconsider phenotypic variability in paleoproxy calibrations and model parameterizations to adequately translate findings from single strain laboratory experiments to the real ocean.

  11. A simple phenotypic classification for celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Sood

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims : Celiac disease is a global health problem. The presentation of celiac disease has unfolded over years and it is now known that it can manifest at different ages, has varied presentations, and is prone to develop complications, if not managed properly. Although the Oslo definitions provide consensus on the various terminologies used in literature, there is no phenotypic classification providing a composite diagnosis for the disease. Methods : Various variables identified for phenotypic classification included age at diagnosis, age at onset of symptoms, clinical presentation, family history and complications. These were applied to the existing registry of 1,664 patients at Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India. In addition, age was evaluated as below 15 and below 18 years. Cross tabulations were used for the verification of the classification using the existing data. Expert opinion was sought from both international and national experts of varying fields. Results : After empirical verification, age at diagnosis was considered appropriate in between A1 (<18 and A2 (≧18. The disease presentation has been classified into 3 types–P1 (classical, P2 (non-classical and P3 (asymptomatic. Complications were considered as absent (C0 or present (C1. A single phenotypic classification based on these 3 characteristics, namely age at the diagnosis, clinical presentation, and intestinal complications (APC classification was derived. Conclusions : APC classification (age at diagnosis, presentation, complications is a simple disease explanatory classification for patients with celiac disease aimed at providing a composite diagnosis.

  12. Dissecting phenotypic variation among AIS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Minghua; Wang Jiucun; Zhang Zhen; Zhao Zhimin; Zhang Rongmei; Hu Xiaohua; Tan Tao; Luo Shijing; Luo Zewei

    2005-01-01

    We have created genital skin fibroblast cell lines directly from three patients in a Chinese family affected by androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). All patients in the family share an identical AR Arg 840 Cys mutant but show different disease phenotypes. By using the cell lines, we find that the mutation has not influenced a normal androgen-binding capacity at 37 deg C but has reduced the affinity for androgens and may cause thermolability of the androgen-receptor complex. The impaired nuclear trafficking of the androgen receptor in the cell lines is highly correlated with the severity of donors' disease phenotype. The transactivity of the mutant is substantially weakened and the extent of the reduced transactivity reflects severity of the donors' disease symptom. Our data reveal that although etiology of AIS is monogenic and the mutant may alter the major biological functions of its wild allele, the function of the mutant AR can also be influenced by the different genetic backgrounds and thus explains the divergent disease phenotypes

  13. The phenotypic spectrum of congenital Zika syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Miguel; Feitosa, Ian M L; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Pessoa, André L S; França, Giovanny V A; García-Alix, Alfredo; Doriqui, Maria J R; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Sanseverino, Maria V T; Neri, João I C F; Pina-Neto, João M; Santos, Emerson S; Verçosa, Islane; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Medeiros, Paula F V; Kerbage, Saile C; Silva, André A; van der Linden, Vanessa; Martelli, Celina M T; Cordeiro, Marli T; Dhalia, Rafael; Vianna, Fernanda S L; Victora, Cesar G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2017-04-01

    In October 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH). In response, the Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics established a task force (SBGM-ZETF) to study the phenotype of infants born with microcephaly due to ZIKV congenital infection and delineate the phenotypic spectrum of this newly recognized teratogen. This study was based on the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging of 83 infants born during the period from July, 2015 to March, 2016 and registered by the SBGM-ZETF. All 83 infants had significant findings on neuroimaging consistent with ZIKV congenital infection and 12 had confirmed ZIKV IgM in CSF. A recognizable phenotype of microcephaly, anomalies of the shape of skull and redundancy of the scalp consistent with the Fetal Brain Disruption Sequence (FBDS) was present in 70% of infants, but was most often subtle. In addition, features consistent with fetal immobility, ranging from dimples (30.1%), distal hand/finger contractures (20.5%), and feet malpositions (15.7%), to generalized arthrogryposis (9.6%), were present in these infants. Some cases had milder microcephaly or even a normal head circumference (HC), and other less distinctive findings. The detailed observation of the dysmorphic and neurologic features in these infants provides insight into the mechanisms and timings of the brain disruption and the sequence of developmental anomalies that may occur after prenatal infection by the ZIKV. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Associations between phenotypes of preeclampsia and thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berks, Durk; Duvekot, Johannes J; Basalan, Hillal; De Maat, Moniek P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Willy

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of preeclampsia with thrombophilia are conflicting. Clinical heterogeneity of the disease may be one of the explanations. The present study addresses the question whether different phenotypes of preeclampsia are associated with thrombophilia factors. Study design We planned a retrospective cohort study. From 1985 until 2010 women with preeclampsia were offered postpartum screening for the following thrombophilia factors: anti-phospholipid antibodies, APC-resistance, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteineamia, factor V Leiden and Prothrombin gene mutation. Hospital records were used to obtain information on phenotypes of the preeclampsia and placental histology. We identified 844 women with singleton pregnancies who were screened for thrombophilia factors. HELLP complicated 49% of pregnancies; Fetal growth restriction complicated 61% of pregnancies. Early delivery (preeclampsia was associated with protein S deficiency (p=0.01). Fetal growth restriction was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (ppreeclampsia was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p=0.01). Extensive placental infarction (>10%) was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (ppreeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction, are associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Other phenotypes of preeclampsia, especially HELLP syndrome, were not associated with thrombophilia. We advise only to test for anti-phospholipid antibodies after early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction. We suggest enough evidence is presented to justify no further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic variants influencing phenotypic variance heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Weronica E; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Karlsson, Torgny; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Johansson, Åsa

    2018-03-01

    Most genetic studies identify genetic variants associated with disease risk or with the mean value of a quantitative trait. More rarely, genetic variants associated with variance heterogeneity are considered. In this study, we have identified such variance single-nucleotide polymorphisms (vSNPs) and examined if these represent biological gene × gene or gene × environment interactions or statistical artifacts caused by multiple linked genetic variants influencing the same phenotype. We have performed a genome-wide study, to identify vSNPs associated with variance heterogeneity in DNA methylation levels. Genotype data from over 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and DNA methylation levels at over 430 000 CpG sites, were analyzed in 729 individuals. We identified vSNPs for 7195 CpG sites (P mean DNA methylation levels. We further showed that variance heterogeneity between genotypes mainly represents additional, often rare, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the respective vSNP and for some vSNPs, multiple low frequency variants co-segregating with one of the vSNP alleles. Therefore, our results suggest that variance heterogeneity of DNA methylation mainly represents phenotypic effects by multiple SNPs, rather than biological interactions. Such effects may also be important for interpreting variance heterogeneity of more complex clinical phenotypes.

  16. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  17. Cluster analysis in phenotyping a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, C C; Sa-Couto, P; Todo-Bom, A; Bousquet, J

    2015-09-03

    Unbiased cluster analysis using clinical parameters has identified asthma phenotypes. Adding inflammatory biomarkers to this analysis provided a better insight into the disease mechanisms. This approach has not yet been applied to asthmatic Portuguese patients. To identify phenotypes of asthma using cluster analysis in a Portuguese asthmatic population treated in secondary medical care. Consecutive patients with asthma were recruited from the outpatient clinic. Patients were optimally treated according to GINA guidelines and enrolled in the study. Procedures were performed according to a standard evaluation of asthma. Phenotypes were identified by cluster analysis using Ward's clustering method. Of the 72 patients enrolled, 57 had full data and were included for cluster analysis. Distribution was set in 5 clusters described as follows: cluster (C) 1, early onset mild allergic asthma; C2, moderate allergic asthma, with long evolution, female prevalence and mixed inflammation; C3, allergic brittle asthma in young females with early disease onset and no evidence of inflammation; C4, severe asthma in obese females with late disease onset, highly symptomatic despite low Th2 inflammation; C5, severe asthma with chronic airflow obstruction, late disease onset and eosinophilic inflammation. In our study population, the identified clusters were mainly coincident with other larger-scale cluster analysis. Variables such as age at disease onset, obesity, lung function, FeNO (Th2 biomarker) and disease severity were important for cluster distinction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. General quantitative analysis of stress partitioning and boundary conditions in undrained biphasic porous media via a purely macroscopic and purely variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpieri, Roberto; Travascio, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi's postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using

  19. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahandzhieva, Katya; Maurer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  20. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VO{sub X}/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Chen, L.F., E-mail: lchen@ipn.mx [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J. [Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catálisis y Polímeros, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo No. 180, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  1. Phase III Study on Efficacy and Safety of Triple Combination (Exenatide/Metformin/Biphasic Insulin Aspart) Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ke; Lv, Chunmei; Ji, Zongwen; Wang, Yishu; Wang, Haifeng; Bai, Ying; Liu, Yaping

    2016-02-03

    Exenatide, metformin (MET), and biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIA30) have been widely used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, each of these medications has significant adverse effects, which limit their utilization. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple combination (exenatide/metformin/biphasic insulin aspart) therapy for T2DM. Two hundred patients with poorly controlled T2DM were randomly divided into the low-dose (0.5 μg exenatide, 0.05 U·kg·d BIA30, and 0.01 g MET twice daily) and normal-dose (2 μg exenatide, 0.2 U·kg·d BIA30, and 0.05 g MET twice daily) groups for 48 weeks of treatment. Of note, 82 and 90 individuals from the low-dose and normal-dose groups, respectively, completed the study. The levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and resistin were measured. The normal-dose treatment was more effective at lowering hemoglobin A1c levels than the low-dose therapy (HbA1c changes of -2.5 ± 0.19% and -0.8 ± 0.07%, respectively) after 48 weeks. The maximum weight decrease was 0.9 kg in the low-dose group and 4.0 kg in the normal-dose group. The triple combination therapy increased the levels of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin and reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. No significant difference in the adverse effects was found between the low-dose and normal-dose groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the investigated triple combination therapy for T2MD is therefore an effective and safe therapeutic strategy.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  2. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Zaman, Luis; Ofria, Charles; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms fr...

  3. EMPReSS: European mouse phenotyping resource for standardized screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eain C J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Lad, Heena V; Blake, Andrew; Weekes, Joseph; Hancock, John M

    2005-06-15

    Standardized phenotyping protocols are essential for the characterization of phenotypes so that results are comparable between different laboratories and phenotypic data can be related to ontological descriptions in an automated manner. We describe a web-based resource for the visualization, searching and downloading of standard operating procedures and other documents, the European Mouse Phenotyping Resource for Standardized Screens-EMPReSS. Direct access: http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk e.green@har.mrc.ac.uk.

  4. Numerical analyses of the effect of a biphasic thermosyphon vapor channel sizes on the heat transfer intensity when heat removing from a power transformer of combined heat and power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurpeiis Atlant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analyses of the effect of a biphasic thermosyphon vapor channel sizes on the heat transfer intensity was conducted when heat removing from an oil tank of a power transformer of combined heat and power station (CHP. The power transformer cooling system by the closed biphasic thermosyphon was proposed. The mathematical modeling of heat transfer and phase transitions of coolant in the thermosyphon was performed. The problem of heat transfer is formulated in dimensionless variables “velocity vorticity vector – current function – temperature” and solved by finite difference method. As a result of numerical simulation it is found that an increase in the vapor channel length from 0.15m to 1m leads to increasing the temperature difference by 3.5 K.

  5. Syndromic (phenotypic diarrhea in early infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodemer Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD, also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN. To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorphism including prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism. Hairs are woolly, easily removed and poorly pigmented. Severe and persistent diarrhea starts within the first 6 months of life (≤ 1 month in most cases and is accompanied by severe malabsorption leading to early and relentless protein energy malnutrition with failure to thrive. Liver disease affects about half of patients with extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis. There is currently no specific biochemical profile, though a functional T-cell immune deficiency with defective antibody production was reported. Microscopic analysis of the hair show twisted hair (pili torti, aniso- and poilkilotrichosis, and trichorrhexis nodosa. Histopathological analysis of small intestine biopsy shows non-specific villous atrophy with low or no mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and no specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium. The etiology remains unknown. The frequent association of the disorder with parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggests a genetic origin with an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. Early management consists of total PN. Some infants have a rather milder phenotype with partial PN dependency or require only enteral feeding. Prognosis of this syndrome is poor, but most patients now survive, and about half of the patients may be weaned from PN at adolescence, but experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Disease name

  6. Predictable Phenotypes of Antibiotic Resistance Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, M; Andersson, D I

    2018-05-15

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria represent a major threat to our ability to treat bacterial infections. Two factors that determine the evolutionary success of antibiotic resistance mutations are their impact on resistance level and the fitness cost. Recent studies suggest that resistance mutations commonly show epistatic interactions, which would complicate predictions of their stability in bacterial populations. We analyzed 13 different chromosomal resistance mutations and 10 host strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli to address two main questions. (i) Are there epistatic interactions between different chromosomal resistance mutations? (ii) How does the strain background and genetic distance influence the effect of chromosomal resistance mutations on resistance and fitness? Our results show that the effects of combined resistance mutations on resistance and fitness are largely predictable and that epistasis remains rare even when up to four mutations were combined. Furthermore, a majority of the mutations, especially target alteration mutations, demonstrate strain-independent phenotypes across different species. This study extends our understanding of epistasis among resistance mutations and shows that interactions between different resistance mutations are often predictable from the characteristics of the individual mutations. IMPORTANCE The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria imposes an urgent threat to public health. The ability to forecast the evolutionary success of resistant mutants would help to combat dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Previous studies have shown that the phenotypic effects (fitness and resistance level) of resistance mutations can vary substantially depending on the genetic context in which they occur. We conducted a broad screen using many different resistance mutations and host strains to identify potential epistatic interactions between various types of resistance mutations and to determine the effect of strain

  7. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Northern Tunisia cohort of the A1chieve study

    OpenAIRE

    Blouza, Samira; Jamoussi, Henda

    2013-01-01

    Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Northern Tunisia. Results: A total of 443 patients were enrolle...

  8. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation Using of their Enantioselective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    AZZAM, Khaldun; ABDALLAH, Hassan; HALIM, Hairul; AHMAD, Maizatul; SHAIBAH, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simula...

  9. GGCX-Associated Phenotypes: An Overview in Search of Genotype-Phenotype Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Y. G. De Vilder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-carboxylation, performed by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX, is an enzymatic process essential for activating vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP with important functions in various biological processes. Mutations in the encoding GGCX gene are associated with multiple phenotypes, amongst which vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency (VKCFD1 is best known. Other patients have skin, eye, heart or bone manifestations. As genotype–phenotype correlations were never described, literature was systematically reviewed in search of patients with at least one GGCX mutation with a phenotypic description, resulting in a case series of 47 patients. Though this number was too low for statistically valid correlations—a frequent problem in orphan diseases—we demonstrate the crucial role of the horizontally transferred transmembrane domain in developing cardiac and bone manifestations. Moreover, natural history suggests ageing as the principal determinant to develop skin and eye symptoms. VKCFD1 symptoms seemed more severe in patients with both mutations in the same protein domain, though this could not be linked to a more perturbed coagulation factor function. Finally, distinct GGCX functional domains might be dedicated to carboxylation of very specific VKDP. In conclusion, this systematic review suggests that there indeed may be genotype–phenotype correlations for GGCX-related phenotypes, which can guide patient counseling and management.

  10. Mixed phenotype (T/B/myeloid) extramedullary blast crisis as an initial presentation of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xin; Qing, Annie; Ji, Ping; French, Samuel W; Mason, Holli

    2018-04-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome generated by the reciprocal translocation t(9,22)(q34;q11). The natural progression of the disease follows a biphasic or triphasic course. Most cases of CML are diagnosed in the chronic phase. Extramedullary blast crisis rarely occurs during the course of CML, and is extremely rare as the initial presentation of CML. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old female with enlarged neck lymph nodes and fatigue. She was diagnosed with B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with possible mixed phenotype (B/myeloid) by right neck lymph node biopsy at an outside hospital. However, review of her peripheral blood smear and her bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed features consistent with CML, which was confirmed by PCR and karyotyping. An ultrasound-guided right cervical lymph node core biopsy showed a diffuse infiltrate of blasts, near totally replacing the normal lymph node tissue, admixed with some hematopoietic cells including megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors and maturing myeloid cells. By flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, the blasts expressed CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD5, CD7, CD56, TdT, CD10 (weak, subset), CD19 (subset), CD79a, PAX-5 (subset), CD34, CD38, CD117 (subset), HLA-DR (subset), CD11b, CD13 (subset), CD33 (subset), and weak cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase, without co-expression of surface CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD22, CD14, CD15, CD16 and CD64, consistent with blasts with mixed phenotype (T/B/myeloid). A diagnosis of extramedullary blast crisis of CML was made. Chromosomal analysis performed on the lymph node biopsy tissue revealed multiple numerical and structural abnormalities including the Ph chromosome (46-49,XX,add(1)(p34),add(3)(p25),add(5)(q13),-6,t(9;22)(q34;q11.2),+10,-15,add(17)(p11.2),+19, +der(22)t(9;22),+mar[cp8]). After completion of one cycle of combined chemotherapy plus dasatinib treatment, she was transferred to City of Hope

  11. Late-onset running biphasically improves redox balance, energy- and methylglyoxal-related status, as well as SIRT1 expression in mouse hippocampus.

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    Stefano Falone

    Full Text Available Despite the active research in this field, molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced beneficial effects on brain physiology and functions are still matter of debate, especially with regard to biological processes activated by regular exercise affecting the onset and progression of hippocampal aging in individuals unfamiliar with habitual physical activity. Since such responses seem to be mediated by changes in antioxidative, antiglycative and metabolic status, a possible exercise-induced coordinated response involving redox, methylglyoxal- and sirtuin-related molecular networks may be hypothesized. In this study, hippocampi of CD1 mice undergoing the transition from mature to middle age were analyzed for redox-related profile, oxidative and methylglyoxal-dependent damage patterns, energy metabolism, sirtuin1 and glyoxalase1 expression after a 2- or 4-mo treadmill running program. Our findings suggested that the 4-mo regular running lowered the chance of dicarbonyl and oxidative stress, activated mitochondrial catabolism and preserved sirtuin1-related neuroprotection. Surprisingly, the same cellular pathways were negatively affected by the first 2 months of exercise, thus showing an interesting biphasic response. In conclusion, the duration of exercise caused a profound shift in the response to regular running within the rodent hippocampus in a time-dependent fashion. This research revealed important details of the interaction between exercise and mammal hippocampus during the transition from mature to middle age, and this might help to develop non-pharmacological approaches aimed at retarding brain senescence, even in individuals unfamiliar with habitual exercise.

  12. Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP of hydroxyapatite (HA and tricalcium phosphate (TCP as bone substitutes: Importance of physicochemical characterizations in biomaterials studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP: Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research” [1]. This article provides in depth study of BCP bone substitutes as valuable option in the field of tissue engineering. However, there are discrepancies in the literature regarding the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP and the ideal balance between different phase compositions for enhanced bone tissue engineering (M. Ebrahimi, M.G. Botelho, S.V. Dorozhkin, 2016; M. Ebrahimi, P. Pripatnanont, S. Suttapreyasri, N. Monmaturapoj, 2014 [1,2]. This is found to be mainly because of improper characterization of BCP bioceramics in basic studies and lack of standard study protocols in in vitro and in vivo research. This data article along with original article provide the basic data required for ideal characterization of BCP and other bioceramics in an attempt to provide basic standardized protocols for future studies.

  13. Low-Temperature Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase/Brookite Biphasic Nanoparticles with High Surface Area and Visible-Light Performance

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    Liang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doping in combination with the brookite phase or a mixture of TiO2 polymorphs nanomaterials can enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Generally, nitrogen-dopedanatase/brookite mixed phases TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal or solvothermal method need to be at high temperature and with long time heating treatment. Furthermore, the surface areas of them are low (<125 m2/g. There is hardly a report on the simple and direct preparation of N-doped anatase/brookite mixed phase TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel method at low heating temperature. In this paper, the nitrogen-doped anatase/brookite biphasic nanoparticles with large surface area (240 m2/g were successfully prepared using sol-gel method at low temperature (165 °C, and with short heating time (4 h under autogenous pressure. The obtained sample without subsequent annealing at elevated temperatures showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO with 4.2-, 9.6-, and 7.5-fold visible light activities compared to P25 and the amorphous samples heated in muffle furnace with air or in tube furnace with a flow of nitrogen at 165 °C, respectively. This result was attributed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping, mixed crystalline phases, and high surface area.

  14. A Human Clinical, Histological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Study on Biphasic HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Sinjari, Bruna; Shibli, Jamil A; Mangano, Francesco; Hamisch, Sabine; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-06-01

    By mixing hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics can be obtained, and by varying their ratio it is possible to tailor the characteristics of the biomaterial. The aim of the present human study was to evaluate the histological and radiographical aspects of bone formation in maxillary sinus augmentation using a 30/70 HA-beta-TCP with a reticular structure. A total of 12 patients, undergoing two-stage sinus augmentation procedure using HA-beta-TCP at a ratio of 30/70, were included in the present study. After a 6-month healing period, during implant insertion, radiographical analysis was performed, and then the bone core biopsies were harvested and processed for histology. At radiographic evaluation, the bone gain was on average 6.85 ± 0.60 mm. HA-beta-TCP 30/70 appeared to be lined by newly formed bone, with no gaps at the interface. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 26 ± 2% of residual grafted biomaterial, 29 ± 3% of newly formed bone, and 45 ± 2% of marrow spaces. The present results indicate histologically the high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of HA-beta-TCP 30/70, and clinically its successful use for sinus augmentation procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Decontamination Using a Desiccant with Air Powder Abrasion Followed by Biphasic Calcium Sulfate Grafting: A New Treatment for Peri-Implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is characterized by inflammation and crestal bone loss in the tissues surrounding implants. Contamination by deleterious bacteria in the peri-implant microenvironment is believed to be a major factor in the etiology of peri-implantitis. Prior to any therapeutic regenerative treatment, adequate decontamination of the peri-implant microenvironment must occur. Herein we present a novel approach to the treatment of peri-implantitis that incorporates the use of a topical desiccant (HYBENX, along with air powder abrasives as a means of decontamination, followed by the application of biphasic calcium sulfate combined with inorganic bovine bone material to augment the intrabony defect. We highlight the case of a 62-year-old man presenting peri-implantitis at two neighboring implants in positions 12 and 13, who underwent access flap surgery, followed by our procedure. After an uneventful 2-year healing period, both implants showed an absence of bleeding on probing, near complete regeneration of the missing bone, probing pocket depth reduction, and clinical attachment gain. While we observed a slight mucosal recession, there was no reduction in keratinized tissue. Based on the results described within, we conclude that the use of HYBENX and air powder abrasives, followed by bone defect grafting, represents a viable option in the treatment of peri-implantitis.

  16. A rare case of anal carcinosarcoma with human papilloma virus infection in both biphasic tumor elements: An immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Richard A; Bradshaw, Azore-Dee; Cassai, Nicholas; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhou, David; Fu, Tinghao; Lee, Peng; Pei, Zhiheng; Wieczorek, Rosemary

    2016-12-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the anus is rare and has yet to be reportedly associated with the keratinocyte-specific Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). We describe a case of anal carcinosarcoma with HPV infection in both the epithelial and mesenchymal components of the tumor by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) and further supported by electron microscopy (EM). Microscopic examination of the tumor showed nests of poorly-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid features intermixed with a hypercellular, atypical spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the epithelial component was positive for AE1/AE3, p63, CK5/6 and p16, whilst the mesenchymal component was positive for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and focally positive for desmin and p16, consistent with carcinosarcoma. The tumor was negative for GATA-3, CK7 and CK20. CISH demonstrated that the tumor was positive for high risk HPV (subtype 16/18) in both tumor components. EM further supported the presence of intracellular virus particles (~50 nm) that is compatible with HPV infection. Infection of both epithelial and mesenchymal tumor components by HPV has not been previously observed in the gastrointestinal tract. This finding may represent initial epithelial HPV infection with subsequent divergent tumoral differentiation and suggests the presence of viral replication in both biphasic tumor components.

  17. Modeling the impact of prostate edema on LDR brachytherapy: a Monte Carlo dosimetry study based on a 3D biphasic finite element biomechanical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountris, K. A.; Bert, J.; Noailly, J.; Rodriguez Aguilera, A.; Valeri, A.; Pradier, O.; Schick, U.; Promayon, E.; Gonzalez Ballester, M. A.; Troccaz, J.; Visvikis, D.

    2017-03-01

    Prostate volume changes due to edema occurrence during transperineal permanent brachytherapy should be taken under consideration to ensure optimal dose delivery. Available edema models, based on prostate volume observations, face several limitations. Therefore, patient-specific models need to be developed to accurately account for the impact of edema. In this study we present a biomechanical model developed to reproduce edema resolution patterns documented in the literature. Using the biphasic mixture theory and finite element analysis, the proposed model takes into consideration the mechanical properties of the pubic area tissues in the evolution of prostate edema. The model’s computed deformations are incorporated in a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate their effect on post-operative dosimetry. The comparison of Day1 and Day30 dosimetry results demonstrates the capability of the proposed model for patient-specific dosimetry improvements, considering the edema dynamics. The proposed model shows excellent ability to reproduce previously described edema resolution patterns and was validated based on previous findings. According to our results, for a prostate volume increase of 10-20% the Day30 urethra D10 dose metric is higher by 4.2%-10.5% compared to the Day1 value. The introduction of the edema dynamics in Day30 dosimetry shows a significant global dose overestimation identified on the conventional static Day30 dosimetry. In conclusion, the proposed edema biomechanical model can improve the treatment planning of transperineal permanent brachytherapy accounting for post-implant dose alterations during the planning procedure.

  18. Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumberkandgai A. Vivekanand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloridebenzene (BPMACB was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE using potassium persulphate (PPS as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries.

  19. Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient′s body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient′s body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.

  20. A rare case of anal carcinosarcoma with human papilloma virus infection in both biphasic tumor elements: An immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Hickman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcoma of the anus is rare and has yet to be reportedly associated with the keratinocyte-specific Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. We describe a case of anal carcinosarcoma with HPV infection in both the epithelial and mesenchymal components of the tumor by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH and further supported by electron microscopy (EM. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed nests of poorly-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid features intermixed with a hypercellular, atypical spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the epithelial component was positive for AE1/AE3, p63, CK5/6 and p16, whilst the mesenchymal component was positive for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and focally positive for desmin and p16, consistent with carcinosarcoma. The tumor was negative for GATA-3, CK7 and CK20. CISH demonstrated that the tumor was positive for high risk HPV (subtype 16/18 in both tumor components. EM further supported the presence of intracellular virus particles (~50 nm that is compatible with HPV infection. Infection of both epithelial and mesenchymal tumor components by HPV has not been previously observed in the gastrointestinal tract. This finding may represent initial epithelial HPV infection with subsequent divergent tumoral differentiation and suggests the presence of viral replication in both biphasic tumor components. Keywords: Carcinosarcoma, Human Papilloma Virus, Gastrointestinal

  1. Alternative (Potentially Green) Separations Media: Aqueous Biphasic and Related Systems Extending the Frontier Final Report For Period September 1, 2002 January 31, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Robin D

    2007-06-25

    Through the current DoE-BES funding, we have extended our fundamental understanding of the critical phase separation of aqueous polymer solutions at the molecular level, and have developed a similar understanding of their application as novel solvent systems. Our principal aims included mode of delivery of the aqueous biphasic system (ABS) solvent system and the application of this system to problems of reactive extraction. In the former case we have developed novel solid phase analogues, in the form of cross-linked polyethylene glycol hydrogels, and in the latter case we have examined the role that ABS might play in reaction engineering, with a view to greener, simpler, and safer processes. We have also developed a new salt/salt ABS and have extended our understanding of this system as well. The major outcomes are as follows: (1) Through the use of variable temperature phase diagrams, coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the phases, a better understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation was obtained. Evidence to the existence and role of an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) (or both) in these systems was gained. With variable temperature solute partitioning, thermodynamic parameters were calculated, and inter-system comparisons were made. Through the use of Abraham's linear solvation energy regression (LSER) the solvent-solute properties of liquid/liquid ABS were examined. We have shown that ABS are indeed very tunable and LSERs have been used as a tool to compare these systems to traditional organic/water and other liquid/liquid systems. (2) We have successfully shown the development of novel reaction media for chemical synthesis and reaction; Aqueous Biphasic Reactive Extraction (ABRE). As a proof of concept, we have shown the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene in an ABS, which represents an important development in the exploitation of this technology

  2. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guido Mangano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results.

  3. Insight into Aluminum Sulfate-Catalyzed Xylan Conversion into Furfural in a γ-Valerolactone/Water Biphasic Solvent under Microwave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Yi-Han; Zhu, Sheng-Zhen; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2017-10-23

    A simple and efficient biphasic system with an earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was used to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield of up to 87.8 % under microwave conditions. Strikingly, the metal salt Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion, owing to a combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity and its ability to promote good phase separation. The critical role of the SO 4 2- anion was first analyzed, which resulted in the aforementioned characteristics when combined with the Al 3+ cation. The mixed solvent system with γ-valerolactone (GVL) as the organic phase provided the highest furfural yield, resulting from its good dielectric properties and dissolving capacity, which facilitated the absorption of microwave energy and promoted mass transfer. Mechanistic studies suggested that the xylan-to-furfural conversion proceeded mainly through a hydrolysis-isomerization-dehydration pathway and the hexa-coordinated Lewis acidic [Al(OH) 2 (aq)] + species were the active sites for xylose-xylulose isomerization. Detailed kinetic studies of the subreaction for the xylan conversion revealed that GVL regulates the reaction rates and pathways by promoting the rates of the key steps involved for furfural production and suppressing the side reactions for humin production. Finally, the Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 catalyst was used for the production of furfural from several lignocellulosic feedstocks, revealing its great potential for other biomass conversions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hydrogen bond basicity of ionic liquids and molar entropy of hydration of salts as major descriptors in the formation of aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Dinis, Teresa B V; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2018-05-23

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and conventional salts have been largely investigated and successfully used in separation processes, for which the determination of the corresponding ternary phase diagrams is a prerequisite. However, due the large number of ILs that can be prepared and their high structural versatility, it is impossible to experimentally cover and characterize all possible combinations of ILs and salts that may form ABS. The development of tools for the prediction and design of IL-based ABS is thus a crucial requirement. Based on a large compilation of experimental data, a correlation describing the formation of IL-based ABS is shown here, based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction energies of ILs (EHB) obtained by the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) and the molar entropy of hydration of the salt ions. The ability of the proposed model to predict the formation of novel IL-based ABS is further ascertained.

  5. Bone Formation with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral or Biphasic Calcium Phosphate in the Presence of Autologous Platelet Lysate: Comparative Investigation in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Chakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes alone or supplemented with platelet-derived concentrates are widely used to promote bone regeneration but their potency remains controversial. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the regenerative potential of preparations containing autologous platelet lysate (APL and particles of either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, two bone substitutes with different resorption patterns. Rabbit APL was prepared by freeze-thawing a platelet suspension. Critical-size defects in rabbit femoral condyle were filled with DBBM or DBBM+APL and BCP or BCP+APL. Rabbits were sacrificed after six weeks and newly formed bone and residual implanted material were evaluated using nondemineralized histology and histomorphometry. New bone was observed around particles of all fillers tested. In the defects filled with BCP, the newly formed bone area was greater (70%; P<0.001 while the residual material area was lower (60%; P<0.001 than that observed in those filled with DBBM. New bone and residual material area of defects filled with either APL+DBBM or APL+BCP were similar to those observed in those filled with the material alone. In summary, osteoconductivity and resorption of BCP were greater than those of DBBM, while APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not have an additional benefit.

  6. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrocatalytic Production of C3-C4 Compounds by Conversion of CO2 on a Chloride-Induced Bi-Phasic Cu2O-Cu Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwa; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-12-01

    Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently received considerable attention as one of the most feasible CO2 utilization techniques. In particular, copper and copper-derived catalysts have exhibited the ability to produce a number of organic molecules from CO2. Herein, we report a chloride (Cl)-induced bi-phasic cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and metallic copper (Cu) electrode (Cu2OCl) as an efficient catalyst for the formation of high-carbon organic molecules by CO2 conversion, and identify the origin of electroselectivity toward the formation of high-carbon organic compounds. The Cu2OCl electrocatalyst results in the preferential formation of multi-carbon fuels, including n-propanol and n-butane C3-C4 compounds. We propose that the remarkable electrocatalytic conversion behavior is due to the favorable affinity between the reaction intermediates and the catalytic surface. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Biological characteristic effects of human dental pulp stem cells on poly-ε-caprolactone-biphasic calcium phosphate fabricated scaffolds using modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsupa, Natkrita; Nuntanaranont, Thongchai; Kamolmattayakul, Suttatip; Thuaksuban, Nuttawut

    2017-02-01

    Craniofacial bone defects such as alveolar cleft affect the esthetics and functions that need bone reconstruction. The advanced techniques of biomaterials combined with stem cells have been a challenging role for maxillofacial surgeons and scientists. PCL-coated biphasic calcium phosphate (PCL-BCP) scaffolds were created with the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition (mMSMD) technique and merged with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to fulfill the component of tissue engineering for bone substitution. In the present study, the objective was to test the biocompatibility and biofunctionalities that included cell proliferation, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, alizarin red staining for mineralization, and histological analysis. The results showed that mMSMD PCL-BCP scaffolds were suitable for hDPSCs viability since the cells attached and spread onto the scaffold. Furthermore, the constructs of induced hDPSCs and scaffolds performed ALP activity and produced osteocalcin and mineralized nodules. The results indicated that mMSMD PCL-BCP scaffolds with hDPSCs showed promise in bone regeneration for treatment of osseous defects.

  10. Comparision between biphasic helical CT and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR in the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions in cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, J.; Martin, J.; Donoso, L.; Falco, J.; Rue, M.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the agreement between biphasic helical computerized tomography (BHCT) and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) in the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions in a group of cirrhotic patients. A prospective study was done in 50 cirrhotic patients suspected of having hepatocarcinoma (HC) on the basis of ultrasonographic images evaluated by means of BHCT and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR using fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequences (110-135/4/90 degree centigree). The images were assessed jointly by four radiologists. Between the two techniques, a total of 83 lesions were detected. MR disclosed more lesions (n=79) than BHCT (n=67) (p<0.005). Moreover, 25 of the lesions that were visible by both techniques were more clearly evident in MR images (p<0.01). MR correctly classified 6 of 7 benign lesions (85%) and 49 of 66 malignant ones (74%). BHCT correctly classifed 2 of 7 benign lesions (28%) and 32 of 66 malignant ones (48%). The sensitivities of MR and BHCT for the characterization of these lesions were 74% and 48%, respectively (p=0.0009), while the respective specificities were 86% and 29% (P<0.001). Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR with FLASH sequences is more efficient than BHCT in the detection and characterization of focal lesions in cirrhotic patients. (Author) 37 refs

  11. The biphasic effect of triiodothyronine compared to bone resorbing effect of PTH on bone modelling of mouse long bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soskolne, W.A.; Schwartz, Z.; Goldstein, M.; Ornoy, A.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the effects of T3 on fetal long bone modelling the radii and ulnae of 16 day old fetal mice were grown in vitro for two days. Their growth, mineralization, and resorption were assessed by measuring diaphyseal length, calcium and phosphorus content, hydroxyproline content, and the release of incorporated 45 Ca. The effects of T3 were compared to the effects of 1-34 PTH, a known resorbing agent, on the same system. Devitalized bones were used as a control. The results showed that T3 had a biphasic effect. At high concentrations (10(-5) M-10(-6) M) T3 inhibited the growth of the bones as indicated by their diaphyseal length and hydroxyproline content. Calcium and phosphorus content were significantly decreased while 45 Ca release was increased. Similar effects were also found after the addition of 1-34 PTH to the media. However, T3, at lower concentrations (10(-7) M-10(-9) M), stimulated the growth and calcification of the bones as indicated by an increase in diaphyseal length and the hydroxyproline, calcium, and phosphorus content. 45 Ca release was significantly decreased at these concentrations. Neither T3 nor 1-34 PTH affected devitalized bones in the same system. The results suggest that at physiological concentrations, T3 has a direct, anabolic effect on bone, which may explain its major role in the growth process of various species. At high doses, however, T3 stimulates bone resorption in a way similar to PTH

  12. Plant phenomics and the need for physiological phenotyping across scales to narrow the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grosskinsky, D. K.; Svensgaard, J.; Christensen, S.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 18 (2015), s. 5429-5440 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : External phenotype * genome–environment–management interaction * genome–phenome map * internal phenotype * phenomics * physiological traits * physiology * plant phenotyping * predictors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  13. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S.; Brix, Hans; Sorrell, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important. Here the primary adaptive strategy in three non-native, clonally reproducing macrophytes (Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and Lagarosiphon major) in New Zealand freshwaters were examined and an attempt was made to link observed differences in plant morphology to local variation in habitat conditions. Methods Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity of these same populations was also quantified. Key Results For all three species, greater variation in plant characteristics was found before they were grown in standardized conditions. Moreover, field populations displayed remarkably little genetic variation and there was little interaction between habitat conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained

  14. Genotype-phenotype associations in obesity dependent on definition of the obesity phenotype.

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    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Holst, Claus; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies of associations of variants in the genes UCP2, UCP3, PPARG2, CART, GRL, MC4R, MKKS, SHP, GHRL, and MCHR1 with obesity, we have used a case-control approach with cases defined by a threshold for BMI. In the present study, we assess the association of seven abdominal, peripheral, and overall obesity phenotypes, which were analyzed quantitatively, and thirteen candidate gene polymorphisms in these ten genes in the same cohort. Obese Caucasian men (n = 234, BMI >or= 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly sampled non-obese group (n = 323), originally identified at the draft board examinations, were re-examined at median ages of 47.0 or 49.0 years by anthropometry and DEXA scanning. Obesity phenotypes included BMI, fat body mass index, waist circumference, waist for given BMI, intra-abdominal adipose tissue, hip circumference and lower body fat mass (%). Using logistic regression models, we estimated the odds for defined genotypes (dominant or recessive genetic transmission) in relation to z-scores of the phenotypes. The minor (rare) allele for SHP 512G>C (rs6659176) was associated with increased hip circumference. The minor allele for UCP2 Ins45bp was associated with increased BMI, increased abdominal obesity, and increased hip circumference. The minor allele for UCP2 -866G>A (rs6593669) was associated with borderline increased fat body mass index. The minor allele for MCHR1 100213G>A (rs133072) was associated with reduced abdominal obesity. None of the other genotype-phenotype combinations showed appreciable associations. If replicated in independent studies with focus on the specific phenotypes, our explorative studies suggest significant associations between some candidate gene polymorphisms and distinct obesity phenotypes, predicting beneficial and detrimental effects, depending on compartments for body fat accumulation. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism.

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    Miguel A Fortuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences, which can form 512 different phenotypes. These phenotypes are distinguished by different Boolean logic functions they can compute, as well as by the complexity of these functions. We observe several properties with parallels in natural systems, such as connected genotype networks and asymmetric phenotypic transitions. The likely common cause is robustness to genotypic change. We describe an intriguing tension between phenotypic complexity and evolvability that may have implications for biological evolution. On the one hand, genotypic change is more likely to yield novel phenotypes in more complex organisms. On the other hand, the total number of novel phenotypes reachable through genotypic change is highest for organisms with simple phenotypes. Artificial evolving systems can help us study aspects of biological evolvability that are not accessible in vastly more complex natural systems. They can also help identify properties, such as robustness, that are required for both human-designed artificial systems and synthetic biological systems to be evolvable.

  16. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Ofria, Charles; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences), which can form 512 different phenotypes. These phenotypes are distinguished by different Boolean logic functions they can compute, as well as by the complexity of these functions. We observe several properties with parallels in natural systems, such as connected genotype networks and asymmetric phenotypic transitions. The likely common cause is robustness to genotypic change. We describe an intriguing tension between phenotypic complexity and evolvability that may have implications for biological evolution. On the one hand, genotypic change is more likely to yield novel phenotypes in more complex organisms. On the other hand, the total number of novel phenotypes reachable through genotypic change is highest for organisms with simple phenotypes. Artificial evolving systems can help us study aspects of biological evolvability that are not accessible in vastly more complex natural systems. They can also help identify properties, such as robustness, that are required for both human-designed artificial systems and synthetic biological systems to be evolvable.

  17. The phenotypic plasticity of developmental modules

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    Aabha I. Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisms develop and evolve in a modular fashion, but how individual modules interact with the environment remains poorly understood. Phenotypically plastic traits are often under selection, and studies are needed to address how traits respond to the environment in a modular fashion. In this study, tissue-specific plasticity of melanic spots was examined in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Results Although the size of the abdominal melanic bands varied according to rearing temperatures, wing melanic bands were more robust. To explore the regulation of abdominal pigmentation plasticity, candidate genes involved in abdominal melanic spot patterning and biosynthesis of melanin were analyzed. While the knockdown of dopa decarboxylase (Ddc led to lighter pigmentation in both the wings and the abdomen, the shape of the melanic elements remained unaffected. Although the knockdown of Abdominal-B (Abd-B partially phenocopied the low-temperature phenotype, the abdominal bands were still sensitive to temperature shifts. These observations suggest that regulators downstream of Abd-B but upstream of DDC are responsible for the temperature response of the abdomen. Ablation of wings led to the regeneration of a smaller wing with reduced melanic bands that were shifted proximally. In addition, the knockdown of the Wnt signaling nuclear effector genes, armadillo 1 and armadillo 2, altered both the melanic bands and the wing shape. Thus, the pleiotropic effects of Wnt signaling may constrain the amount of plasticity in wing melanic bands. Conclusions We propose that when traits are regulated by distinct pre-patterning mechanisms, they can respond to the environment in a modular fashion, whereas when the environment impacts developmental regulators that are shared between different modules, phenotypic plasticity can manifest as a developmentally integrated system.

  18. Cardiac Phenotype of Prehypertrophic Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sabrina; Kozor, Rebecca; Baig, Shanat; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Medina-Menacho, Katia; Rosmini, Stefania; Captur, Gabriella; Tchan, Michel; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Murphy, Elaine; Lachmann, Robin; Ramaswami, Uma; Edwards, Nicola C; Hughes, Derralynn; Steeds, Richard P; Moon, James C

    2018-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare and treatable X-linked lysosomal storage disorder. Cardiac involvement determines outcomes; therefore, detecting early changes is important. Native T1 by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is low, reflecting sphingolipid storage. Early phenotype development is familiar in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but unexplored in FD. We explored the prehypertrophic cardiac phenotype of FD and the role of storage. A prospective, international multicenter observational study of 100 left ventricular hypertrophy-negative FD patients (mean age: 39±15 years; 19% male) and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (mean age: 40±14 years; 25% male) who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including native T1 and late gadolinium enhancement, and 12-lead ECG. In FD, 41% had a low native T1 using a single septal region of interest, but this increased to 59% using a second slice because early native T1 lowering was patchy. ECG abnormalities were present in 41% and twice as common with low native T1 (53% versus 24%; P =0.005). When native T1 was low, left ventricular maximum wall thickness, indexed mass, and ejection fraction were higher (maximum wall thickness 9±1.5 versus 8±1.4 mm, P gadolinium enhancement was more likely when native T1 was low (27% versus 6%; P =0.01). FD had higher maximal apical fractal dimensions compared with healthy volunteers (1.27±0.06 versus 1.24±0.04; P <0.005) and longer anterior mitral valve leaflets (23±2 mm versus 21±3 mm; P <0.005). There is a detectable prehypertrophic phenotype in FD consisting of storage (low native T1), structural, functional, and ECG changes. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Sample size calculation in metabolic phenotyping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Elise; Navratil, Vincent; Blaise, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    The number of samples needed to identify significant effects is a key question in biomedical studies, with consequences on experimental designs, costs and potential discoveries. In metabolic phenotyping studies, sample size determination remains a complex step. This is due particularly to the multiple hypothesis-testing framework and the top-down hypothesis-free approach, with no a priori known metabolic target. Until now, there was no standard procedure available to address this purpose. In this review, we discuss sample size estimation procedures for metabolic phenotyping studies. We release an automated implementation of the Data-driven Sample size Determination (DSD) algorithm for MATLAB and GNU Octave. Original research concerning DSD was published elsewhere. DSD allows the determination of an optimized sample size in metabolic phenotyping studies. The procedure uses analytical data only from a small pilot cohort to generate an expanded data set. The statistical recoupling of variables procedure is used to identify metabolic variables, and their intensity distributions are estimated by Kernel smoothing or log-normal density fitting. Statistically significant metabolic variations are evaluated using the Benjamini-Yekutieli correction and processed for data sets of various sizes. Optimal sample size determination is achieved in a context of biomarker discovery (at least one statistically significant variation) or metabolic exploration (a maximum of statistically significant variations). DSD toolbox is encoded in MATLAB R2008A (Mathworks, Natick, MA) for Kernel and log-normal estimates, and in GNU Octave for log-normal estimates (Kernel density estimates are not robust enough in GNU octave). It is available at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/repository, with a tutorial at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/wiki. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Two Clinical Phenotypes in Polycythemia Vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Jerry L.; Considine, Michael; Williams, Donna M.; Talbot, Conover C.; Rogers, Ophelia; Moliterno, Alison R.; Jie, Chunfa; Ochs, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polycythemia vera is the ultimate phenotypic consequence of the V617F mutation in Janus kinase 2 (encoded by JAK2), but the extent to which this mutation influences the behavior of the involved CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells is unknown. METHODS We analyzed gene expression in CD34+ peripheral-blood cells from 19 patients with polycythemia vera, using oligonucleotide microarray technology after correcting for potential confounding by sex, since the phenotypic features of the disease differ between men and women. RESULTS Men with polycythemia vera had twice as many up-regulated or down-regulated genes as women with polycythemia vera, in a comparison of gene expression in the patients and in healthy persons of the same sex, but there were 102 genes with differential regulation that was concordant in men and women. When these genes were used for class discovery by means of unsupervised hierarchical clustering, the 19 patients could be divided into two groups that did not differ significantly with respect to age, neutrophil JAK2 V617F allele burden, white-cell count, platelet count, or clonal dominance. However, they did differ significantly with respect to disease duration; hemoglobin level; frequency of thromboembolic events, palpable splenomegaly, and splenectomy; chemotherapy exposure; leukemic transformation; and survival. The unsupervised clustering was confirmed by a supervised approach with the use of a top-scoring-pair classifier that segregated the 19 patients into the same two phenotypic groups with 100% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS Removing sex as a potential confounder, we identified an accurate molecular method for classifying patients with polycythemia vera according to disease behavior, independently of their JAK2 V617F allele burden, and identified previously unrecognized molecular pathways in polycythemia vera outside the canonical JAK2 pathway that may be amenable to targeted therapy. PMID:25162887

  1. Wolfram syndrome: new mutations, different phenotype.

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    Concetta Aloi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolfram Syndrome (WS is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness identified by the acronym "DIDMOAD". The WS gene, WFS1, encodes a transmembrane protein called Wolframin, which recent evidence suggests may serve as a novel endoplasmic reticulum calcium channel in pancreatic β-cells and neurons. WS is a rare disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1/550.000 children, with a carrier frequency of 1/354. The aim of our study was to determine the genotype of WS patients in order to establish a genotype/phenotype correlation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We clinically evaluated 9 young patients from 9 unrelated families (6 males, 3 females. Basic criteria for WS clinical diagnosis were coexistence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy occurring before 15 years of age. Genetic analysis for WFS1 was performed by direct sequencing. Molecular sequencing revealed 5 heterozygous compound and 3 homozygous mutations. All of them were located in exon 8, except one in exon 4. In one proband only an heterozygous mutation (A684V was found. Two new variants c.2663 C>A and c.1381 A>C were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study increases the spectrum of WFS1 mutations with two novel variants. The male patient carrying the compound mutation [c.1060_1062delTTC]+[c.2663 C>A] showed the most severe phenotype: diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy (visual acuity 5/10, deafness with deep auditory bilaterally 8000 Hz, diabetes insipidus associated to reduced volume of posterior pituitary and pons. He died in bed at the age of 13 years. The other patient carrying the compound mutation [c.409_424dup16]+[c.1381 A>C] showed a less severe phenotype (DM, OA.

  2. Methods for Analyzing Multivariate Phenotypes in Genetic Association Studies

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    Qiong Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate phenotypes are frequently encountered in genetic association studies. The purpose of analyzing multivariate phenotypes usually includes discovery of novel genetic variants of pleiotropy effects, that is, affecting multiple phenotypes, and the ultimate goal of uncovering the underlying genetic mechanism. In recent years, there have been new method development and application of existing statistical methods to such phenotypes. In this paper, we provide a review of the available methods for analyzing association between a single marker and a multivariate phenotype consisting of the same type of components (e.g., all continuous or all categorical or different types of components (e.g., some are continuous and others are categorical. We also reviewed causal inference methods designed to test whether the detected association with the multivariate phenotype is truly pleiotropy or the genetic marker exerts its effects on some phenotypes through affecting the others.

  3. Mechanistic phenotypes: an aggregative phenotyping strategy to identify disease mechanisms using GWAS data.

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    Jonathan D Mosley

    Full Text Available A single mutation can alter cellular and global homeostatic mechanisms and give rise to multiple clinical diseases. We hypothesized that these disease mechanisms could be identified using low minor allele frequency (MAF<0.1 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs associated with "mechanistic phenotypes", comprised of collections of related diagnoses. We studied two mechanistic phenotypes: (1 thrombosis, evaluated in a population of 1,655 African Americans; and (2 four groupings of cancer diagnoses, evaluated in 3,009 white European Americans. We tested associations between nsSNPs represented on GWAS platforms and mechanistic phenotypes ascertained from electronic medical records (EMRs, and sought enrichment in functional ontologies across the top-ranked associations. We used a two-step analytic approach whereby nsSNPs were first sorted by the strength of their association with a phenotype. We tested associations using two reverse genetic models and standard additive and recessive models. In the second step, we employed a hypothesis-free ontological enrichment analysis using the sorted nsSNPs to identify functional mechanisms underlying the diagnoses comprising the mechanistic phenotypes. The thrombosis phenotype was solely associated with ontologies related to blood coagulation (Fisher's p = 0.0001, FDR p = 0.03, driven by the F5, P2RY12 and F2RL2 genes. For the cancer phenotypes, the reverse genetics models were enriched in DNA repair functions (p = 2×10-5, FDR p = 0.03 (POLG/FANCI, SLX4/FANCP, XRCC1, BRCA1, FANCA, CHD1L while the additive model showed enrichment related to chromatid segregation (p = 4×10-6, FDR p = 0.005 (KIF25, PINX1. We were able to replicate nsSNP associations for POLG/FANCI, BRCA1, FANCA and CHD1L in independent data sets. Mechanism-oriented phenotyping using collections of EMR-derived diagnoses can elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms.

  4. Developmental sculpting of social phenotype and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2004-04-01

    Early developmental variables engender behavioral and neural variation, especially in species in which embryonic environment determines gonadal sex. In the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, the incubation temperature of the egg (IncT) determines gonadal sex. Moreover, IncT affects the sexual differentiation of the individual and, consequently, within-sex variation. Individuals hatched from eggs incubated at an IncT that produces predominantly males are more masculinized than same-sex counterparts from IncTs that produce predominantly females. Here we review how gonadal sex and IncT interact to affect behavioral, endocrinological, and neural phenotype in the leopard gecko and influence phenotypic plasticity following hormone administration or social experience. We discuss the hormonal dependence of sex- and IncT-dependent behavioral and neural morphological and metabolic differences and highlight the parallels between IncT effects in geckos and intrauterine position effects in rodents. We argue that the leopard gecko is an important model of how the process of sex determination can affect sexual differentiation and of selection forces underlying the evolution of sex ratios. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Refractory versus resistant hypertension: Novel distinctive phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Gharpure, Nitin; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is defined as blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg treated with ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, if tolerated. Refractory hypertension is a novel phenotype of severe antihypertensive treatment failure. The proposed definition for refractory hypertension, i.e. BP >140/90 mmHg with use of ≥5 different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) has been applied inconsistently. In comparison to RHTN, refractory hypertension seems to be less prevalent than RHTN. This review focuses on current knowledge about this novel phenotype compared with RHTN including definition, prevalence, mechanisms, characteristics and comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk. In patients with RHTN excess fluid retention is thought to be a common mechanism for the development of RHTN. Recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that refractory hypertension may be more of neurogenic etiology due to increased sympathetic activity as opposed to excess fluid retention. Treatment recommendations for RHTN are generally based on use and intensification of diuretic therapy, especially with the combination of a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic and an MRA. Based on findings from available studies, such an approach does not seem to be a successful strategy to control BP in patients with refractory hypertension and effective sympathetic inhibition in such patients, either with medications and/or device based approaches may be needed. PMID:29034321

  6. A vestibular phenotype for Waardenburg syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. O.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Allen, K.; Gianna, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate vestibular abnormalities in subjects with Waardenburg syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective record review. SETTING: Tertiary referral neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two adult white subjects with clinical diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (10 type I and 12 type II). INTERVENTIONS: Evaluation for Waardenburg phenotype, history of vestibular and auditory symptoms, tests of vestibular and auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of phenotyping, results of vestibular and auditory symptom review (history), results of vestibular and auditory function testing. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were women, and 5 were men. Their ages ranged from 21 to 58 years (mean, 38 years). Sixteen of the 22 subjects sought treatment for vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance. For subjects with vestibular symptoms, the results of vestibuloocular tests (calorics, vestibular autorotation, and/or pseudorandom rotation) were abnormal in 77%, and the results of vestibulospinal function tests (computerized dynamic posturography, EquiTest) were abnormal in 57%, but there were no specific patterns of abnormality. Six had objective sensorineural hearing loss. Thirteen had an elevated summating/action potential (>0.40) on electrocochleography. All subjects except those with severe hearing loss (n = 3) had normal auditory brainstem response results. CONCLUSION: Patients with Waardenburg syndrome may experience primarily vestibular symptoms without hearing loss. Electrocochleography and vestibular function tests appear to be the most sensitive measures of otologic abnormalities in such patients.

  7. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  9. [Mexican phenotype and genotype Vibrio cholerae 01].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, S; Gutiérrez Cogno, L; Rodríguez Angeles, G; del Rio Zolezzi, A; Valdespino González, J L; Sepúlveda Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the phenotypical and genotypical characterization of 26922 Vibrio cholerae 01 strains isolated in Mexico from 1991 to 1993. All strains isolated were El Tor biovar. Strains were sensitive to antibiotics excluding furazolidone, streptomycin and sulfisoxasole to which we found resistance in 97% and we are using this characteristic as epidemiological markers. We detected a marked change in frequency of Inaba serotype from 1991, when it was dominant, with 99.5%, until 1992 when Ogawa serotype turned to be dominant with 95% of isolates. All Vibrio cholerae 01 strains, except one Ogawa strain, were to igenic, and V. choleraeno 01 were not toxigenic by ELISA, PCR and cell culture tests. Dominant ribotype was 5, but we found some strains with 6a pattern and two with ribotype 12. We are searching for ribotype 2 among hemolytic strains in order to learn if there is any relation to Gulf Coast strains prevalent in the USA, but until now we have not found any V. cholerae ribotype 2 in our isolates. Even if rapid tests are recommended for immediate diagnosis of cholera, it is necessary to continue bacterial isolation in order to have strains for phenotyping and genotyping studies that may support epidemiological analysis.