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Sample records for biphasic myopathic phenotype

  1. Biphasic myopathic phenotype of mouse DUX, an ORF within conserved FSHD-related repeats.

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    Darko Bosnakovski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is caused by contractions of D4Z4 repeats at 4q35.2 thought to induce misregulation of nearby genes, one of which, DUX4, is actually localized within each repeat. A conserved ORF (mDUX, embedded within D4Z4-like repeats, encoding a double-homeodomain protein, was recently identified on mouse chromosome 10. We show here that high level mDUX expression induces myoblast death, while low non-toxic levels block myogenic differentiation by down-regulating MyoD and Myf5. Toxicity and MyoD/Myf5 expression changes were competitively reversed by overexpression of Pax3 or Pax7, implying mechanistic similarities with the anti-myogenic activity of human DUX4. We tested the effect of mDUX expression on Xenopus development, and found that global overexpression led to abnormalities in gastrulation. When targeted unilaterally into blastomeres fated to become tail muscle in 16-cell embryos, mDUX caused markedly reduced tail myogenesis on the injected side. These novel cell and animal models highlight the myopathic nature of sequences within the FSHD-related repeat array.

  2. Myopathic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem Images Superficial anterior muscles References Borg K, Ensrud E. Myopathies. ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  3. Changes in muscle cell metabolism and mechanotransduction are associated with myopathic phenotype in a mouse model of collagen VI deficiency.

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    Sara De Palma

    Full Text Available This study identifies metabolic and protein phenotypic alterations in gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of Col6a1(-/- mice, a model of human collagen VI myopathies. All three muscles of Col6a1(-/- mice show some common changes in proteins involved in metabolism, resulting in decreased glycolysis and in changes of the TCA cycle fluxes. These changes lead to a different fate of α-ketoglutarate, with production of anabolic substrates in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, and with lipotoxicity in diaphragm. The metabolic changes are associated with changes of proteins involved in mechanotransduction at the myotendineous junction/costameric/sarcomeric level (TN-C, FAK, ROCK1, troponin I fast and in energy metabolism (aldolase, enolase 3, triose phosphate isomerase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase 1, parvalbumin, IDH1 and FASN. Together, these change may explain Ca(2+ deregulation, impaired force development, increased muscle-relaxation-time and fiber damage found in the mouse model as well as in patients. The severity of these changes differs in the three muscles (gastrocnemius

  4. Changes in Muscle Cell Metabolism and Mechanotransduction Are Associated with Myopathic Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Collagen VI Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Sara; Leone, Roberta; Grumati, Paolo; Vasso, Michele; Polishchuk, Roman; Capitanio, Daniele; Braghetta, Paola; Bernardi, Paolo; Bonaldo, Paolo; Gelfi, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies metabolic and protein phenotypic alterations in gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of Col6a1−/− mice, a model of human collagen VI myopathies. All three muscles of Col6a1−/− mice show some common changes in proteins involved in metabolism, resulting in decreased glycolysis and in changes of the TCA cycle fluxes. These changes lead to a different fate of α-ketoglutarate, with production of anabolic substrates in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, and with lipotoxicity in diaphragm. The metabolic changes are associated with changes of proteins involved in mechanotransduction at the myotendineous junction/costameric/sarcomeric level (TN-C, FAK, ROCK1, troponin I fast) and in energy metabolism (aldolase, enolase 3, triose phosphate isomerase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase 1, parvalbumin, IDH1 and FASN). Together, these change may explain Ca2+ deregulation, impaired force development, increased muscle-relaxation-time and fiber damage found in the mouse model as well as in patients. The severity of these changes differs in the three muscles (gastrocnemiusmass-to-tendon (myotendineous junction) ratio and to muscle morphology. PMID:23437220

  5. Biphasic IDH1 phenotype in a diffusely infiltrating glioma: implications for pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Yazmin; Varma, Hemant; Tsankova, Nadejda M

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations are early events in gliomagenesis, given their frequent occurrence in low-grade gliomas, diffuse expression within neoplastic cells, and lack of evidence for preceding TP53 mutations or 1p/19q co-deletion. We present an infiltrating glioma with mixed oligoastroglial morphology and biphasic molecular phenotype. Areas resembling oligodendroglioma by histology expressed mutant IDH1-R132H, and strong ATRX, Olig2, and PDGFR-α by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, astrocytic areas completely lacked the IDH1-R132H mutation, showed loss of nuclear ATRX expression, and only weakly expressed Olig2 and PDGFR-α. Co-deletion of 1p/19q was evident throughout, while p53 expression was largely negative. This case suggests that 1p/19q co-deletion may rarely precede IDH1 mutations or that IDH1 mutations may be secondarily lost, as demonstrated by IDH1-R132H positive and negative cells in a glioma with diffuse 1p/19q co-deletion. The uniquely biphasic molecular phenotype of this tumor supports the rare existence of true mixed oligoastrocytomas that may have significant prognostic and therapeutic implications. The case highlights the variable sequence of key molecular aberrations in gliomagenesis and the difficulty of targeting treatment to genetic profiles in inherently heterogeneous neoplasms.

  6. Freeman-Sheldon syndrome: a disorder of congenital myopathic origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanĕk, J; Janda, J; Amblerová, V; Losan, F

    1986-01-01

    Freeman-Sheldon syndrome was diagnosed in an unrelated adult man and woman, with severe abnormalities of the extremities but only slight anomalies of the face. Electromyography and muscle biopsy showed a myopathy which was classified as a congenital disproportion of fibre type and seemed to be the primary cause of the deformities. This allowed classification of the syndrome as a separate type of myopathic arthrogryposis.

  7. Evolution of a complex phenotype with biphasic ontogeny: Contribution of development versus function and climatic variation to skull modularity in toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Monique Nouailhetas; Marroig, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    The theory of morphological integration and modularity predicts that if functional correlations among traits are relevant to mean population fitness, the genetic basis of development will be molded by stabilizing selection to match functional patterns. Yet, how much functional interactions actually shape the fitness landscape is still an open question. We used the anuran skull as a model of a complex phenotype for which we can separate developmental and functional modularity. We hypothesized that functional modularity associated to functional demands of the adult skull would overcome developmental modularity associated to bone origin at the larval phase because metamorphosis would erase the developmental signal. We tested this hypothesis in toad species of the Rhinella granulosa complex using species phenotypic correlation pattern (P-matrices). Given that the toad species are distributed in very distinct habitats and the skull has important functions related to climatic conditions, we also hypothesized that differences in skull trait covariance pattern are associated to differences in climatic variables among species. Functional and hormonal-regulated modules are more conspicuous than developmental modules only when size variation is retained on species P-matrices. Without size variation, there is a clear modularity signal of developmental units, but most species have the functional model as the best supported by empirical data without allometric size variation. Closely related toad species have more similar climatic niches and P-matrices than distantly related species, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism. We infer that the modularity signal due to embryonic origin of bones, which happens early in ontogeny, is blurred by the process of growth that occurs later in ontogeny. We suggest that the species differing in the preferred modularity model have different demands on the orbital functional unit and that species contrasting in climate are subjected to

  8. [Educational and Professional Qualifications of Adults With Myotonic Dystrophies - A Misleading Perception by the Myopathic Face?].

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    Stahl, K; Wenninger, S; Schüller, A; Montagnese, F; Schoser, B

    2016-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophies types 1 and 2 (DM1 / DM2) are the most frequent inherited progressive, segmental progeroid, multisystemic neuromuscular diseases in adulthood. The executive impairment is one of the key disease features. The myopathic face triggers the general perception of DM1 patients being associated with a low educational level. We used a standardized questionnaire to evaluate educational levels in adults with genetically confirmed DM1 and DM2 in comparison to data of the general population. Investigated topics included the level of education, e. g. the highest university degree aquired. Out of a total cohort of 546 DM patients, 125 DM1 and 156 DM2 patients (51 %) participated in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between the two collectives as far as high school levels are concerned. 50.4 % of DM1 and 48.3 % of DM2 patients obtained the higher education entrance qualification compared to 29.6 % of the normal German population. However, there were significant differences between the two collectives in "spelling problems" (DM1 cohort: p = 0.039), "difficulty in mental arithmetic" (p = 0.043), and classification of patients "with learning difficulties" (p = 0.012). Misled by a myopathic face, many physicians associate myotonic dystrophy with cognitive deficiency. Based on our study, the minimal deviation between DM1 and DM2 and the normal German population indicates that the multisystemic disease does not significantly influence the maximum attainable level of education in adults with DM1. In summary, physicians should be aware that the general educational levels are rather normal in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and rethink their perception of DM1 patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Primary intrathoracic biphasic synovial sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Yilmaz; Koc, Mehmet; Kocak, Husnu; Kaya, Yusuf

    2012-05-01

    Synovial sarcomas are most frequently observed in the extremities. Although synovial sarcomas are the third most common histological type of soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Monophasic synovial sarcoma is the most commonly observed subtype. whereas the biphasic subtype is less common. We present our case which was diagnosed as biphasic synovial sarcoma located in the anterior mediastinum, which is considered to be a rare entity. The patient underwent surgical resection together with multimodal adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  10. Variable myopathic presentation in a single family with novel skeletal RYR1 mutation.

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    Ruben Attali

    Full Text Available We describe an autosomal recessive heterogeneous congenital myopathy in a large consanguineous family. The disease is characterized by variable severity, progressive course in 3 of 4 patients, myopathic face without ophthalmoplegia and proximal muscle weakness. Absence of cores was noted in all patients. Genome wide linkage analysis revealed a single locus on chromosome 19q13 with Zmax = 3.86 at θ = 0.0 and homozygosity of the polymorphic markers at this locus in patients. Direct sequencing of the main candidate gene within the candidate region, RYR1, was performed. A novel homozygous A to G nucleotide substitution (p.Y3016C within exon 60 of the RYR1 gene was found in patients. ARMS PCR was used to screen for the mutation in all available family members and in an additional 150 healthy individuals. This procedure confirmed sequence analysis and did not reveal the A to G mutation (p.Y3016C in 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Functional analysis on EBV immortalized cell lines showed no effect of the mutation on RyR1 pharmacological activation or the content of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the RyR1 protein in the patient's muscle concomitant with a reduction of the DHPRα1.1 protein. This novel mutation resulting in RyR1 protein decrease causes heterogeneous clinical presentation, including slow progression course and absence of centrally localized cores on muscle biopsy. We suggest that RYR1 related myopathy should be considered in a wide variety of clinical and pathological presentation in childhood myopathies.

  11. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  12. The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-1 displays a biphasic expression pattern.

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    Gabriella De Angelis

    Full Text Available The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-1 is encoded by pilus islet 1 (PI-1, which has three clonal variants (clade I, II and III and is present in about 30% of clinical pneumococcal isolates. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated that pilus-1 is involved in attachment to epithelial cells and virulence, as well as protection in mouse models of infection. Several reports suggest that pilus-1 expression is tightly regulated and involves the interplay of numerous genetic regulators, including the PI-1 positive regulator RlrA. In this report we provide evidence that pilus expression, when analyzed at the single-cell level in PI-1 positive strains, is biphasic. In fact, the strains present two phenotypically different sub-populations of bacteria, one that expresses the pilus, while the other does not. The proportions of these two phenotypes are variable among the strains tested and are not influenced by genotype, serotype, growth conditions, colony morphology or by the presence of antibodies directed toward the pilus components. Two sub-populations, enriched in pilus expressing or not expressing bacteria were obtained by means of colony selection and immuno-detection methods for five strains. PI-1 sequencing in the two sub-populations revealed the absence of mutations, thus indicating that the biphasic expression observed is not due to a genetic modification within PI-1. Microarray expression profile and western blot analyses on whole bacterial lysates performed comparing the two enriched sub-populations, revealed that pilus expression is regulated at the transcriptional level (on/off regulation, and that there are no other genes, in addition to those encoded by PI-1, concurrently regulated across the strains tested. Finally, we provide evidence that the over-expression of the RrlA positive regulator is sufficient to induce pilus expression in pilus-1 negative bacteria. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the observed biphasic pilus

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  14. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  15. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  16. Modeling and predictions of biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration altered by cell-intrinsic properties and matrix confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Amit

    2018-04-12

    Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement. On 2D matrices, our calculations reproduce the classic biphasic dependence of migration speed on matrix stiffness and predict that cell types with higher force-generating ability do not slow down on very stiff matrices, thus disabling the biphasic response. We also predict that cell types defined by lower number of total receptors require stiffer matrices for optimal motility, which also limits the biphasic response. For a cell type with robust biphasic migration on 2D surface, simulations in channel-like confined environments of varying width and height predict faster migration in more confined matrices. Simulations performed in shallower channels predict that the biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration response is more robust on 2D micro-patterns as compared to the channel-like 3D confinement. Thus, variations in the dimensionality of matrix confinement alters the way migratory cells sense and respond to the matrix stiffness. Our calculations reveal new phenotypes of stiffness- and topography-sensitive cell migration that critically depend on both cell-intrinsic and matrix properties. These predictions may inform our understanding of various mechanosensitive modes of cell motility that could enable tumor invasion through topographically heterogeneous microenvironments. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  18. Applications of ionic liquids in biphasic separation: Aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Pandey, Shubha; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-10-10

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving much attention in many fields of analytical chemistry because of their various interesting properties which distinguish them from volatile organic compounds. They offer both directional and non-directional forces towards a solute molecule and therefore act as excellent solvents for a wide range of polar and non-polar compounds. Because of the presence of various possible interactions, ILs easily undergo biphasic separation with water and other less polar/non-polar organic solvents. Their ability to create biphasic splitting makes them a promising candidate for liquid-liquid separation processes, such as aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria. Various aspects of ILs in these separation methods are discussed in view of the origin of physical forces responsible for the biphasic interactions, the effect of structural components, temperature, pressure, pH and additives. The specific advantages of using ILs in aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria in binary and ternary systems are discussed with a view to defining their future role in separation processes by giving major emphasis on developing non-toxic ILs with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ligand modification for mono- and biphasic oxosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerter, P.; Herrmann, W.A.; Baskakov, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. Chemie

    2006-07-01

    The use of aqueous/organic biphasic systems has attracted huge interest in catalytic reactions by transition metal complexes. [1,2,3] The biphasic systems have benefits in catalyst separation and recycling, and the reduction or elimination of organic solvents is also advantageous for the development of economical and environmentally friendly processes. The key for such biphasic catalysis is the use of water soluble phosphines as ligands. Since the launch of the commercial propylene hydroformylation process by Ruhrchemie/Rhone-Poulenc, sulfonated ligands such as TPPTS (1), and BINAS (2) have been widely used as ligands in hydroformylation, hydrogenation and related reactions catalyzed by transition metals. One of the draw backs of ligands 1 and 2 are corrosive production conditions and therefore unfavorable costs. With the synthesis of aminoacid based trishydroxymethylphosphine derivatives (THMP-aminoacid) we introduce to our knowledge a new group of water soluble and cheap to produce ligands [8]. The properties of catalysts based on these compounds in the hydroformylation reaction of propene are discussed in comparison to normally used catalyst systems. In a second part the performance of catalysts containing NHC-ligands in the hydroformylation of 1-octene is discussed [9]. These investigations show, that the activity can be influenced by the electron donating ability of the NHC ligand. Sterical variations on the NHC ligands have no effect on the selectivity performance of the the catalysts. (orig.)

  20. Biphasic activity of a jumping spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Individual variation is a ubiquitous and important factor that affects ecological dynamics. This study examined individual variation in the nest-use pattern of the jumping spider Phidippus audax. Although the jumping spider is a diurnal species, field observations in this study revealed that the majority of individuals remained in their nests during the day. An accompanying examination of the hunger level of the spiders revealed that spiders that remained in nests were more starved than those observed outside nests. If spiders actively forage when they are starved, as has been suggested by previous studies, one would expect to see the opposite trend (i.e., spiders that remained in nests are more satiated). Thus, the pattern observed in the field contradicts the known behavioral pattern of the spiders. An individual-based model was used to investigate the behavioral mechanism of the spider and the discrepancy found in the observations. A basic assumption of the model is that spiders possess distinct inactive and active phases (biphasic activity pattern), and transitions between the two phases are regulated by the hunger level of the spider. Data from a laboratory experiment were used to examine the assumptions of the model partially. The model was able to capture patterns observed in the data, suggesting that the pattern of transitions in biphasic activity is an important trait of the foraging behavior of the jumping spider.

  1. A Framework for the Modelling of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sin, Gürkan; O’Connell, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic reacting systems have a broad application range from organic reactions in pharmaceutical and agro-bio industries to CO 2 capture. However, mathematical modelling of biphasic reacting systems is a formidable challenge due to many phenomena underlying the process such as chemical equilibrium...

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems

  4. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  5. Biphasic Scaffolds from Marine Collagens for Regeneration of Osteochondral Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bernhardt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collagens of marine origin are applied increasingly as alternatives to mammalian collagens in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop a biphasic scaffold from exclusively marine collagens supporting both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and to find a suitable setup for in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSC. Methods: Biphasic scaffolds from biomimetically mineralized salmon collagen and fibrillized jellyfish collagen were fabricated by joint freeze-drying and crosslinking. Different experiments were performed to analyze the influence of cell density and TGF-β on osteogenic differentiation of the cells in the scaffolds. Gene expression analysis and analysis of cartilage extracellular matrix components were performed and activity of alkaline phosphatase was determined. Furthermore, histological sections of differentiated cells in the biphasic scaffolds were analyzed. Results: Stable biphasic scaffolds from two different marine collagens were prepared. An in vitro setup for osteochondral differentiation was developed involving (1 different seeding densities in the phases; (2 additional application of alginate hydrogel in the chondral part; (3 pre-differentiation and sequential seeding of the scaffolds and (4 osteochondral medium. Spatially separated osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSC was achieved in this setup, while osteochondral medium in combination with the biphasic scaffolds alone was not sufficient to reach this ambition. Conclusions: Biphasic, but monolithic scaffolds from exclusively marine collagens are suitable for the development of osteochondral constructs.

  6. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  7. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  8. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  9. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in ...

  10. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral Malaria. ... African Journal of Neurological Sciences ... Method We undertook a retrospective study of children admitted to Kilifi District Hospital with a history of impaired consciousness and Falciparum infection between January 1994 and December 2004.

  11. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Falciparum malaria. It is associated with a significant risk of death and neurological sequelae. A biphasic clinical picture is associated with an even greater risk of neurological sequelae. Objective To examine the incidence and clinical ...

  12. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  13. Review of biphasic insulin aspart in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Raja-Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazia Raja-Khan, Sarah S Warehime, Robert A GabbayDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Penn State Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USABackground: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving glycemic control and preventing complications in patients with diabetes. In order to make insulin therapy more acceptable to patients, newer formulations of insulin have been developed, such as biphasic insulins. Biphasic insulins conveniently provide both prandial and basal insulin in a single injection. One of the most well-studied biphasic insulins is biphasic insulin aspart 70/30.Objective: Our goal was to review the current literature on the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms “biphasic insulin aspart” to identify clinical studies and reviews.Results: Biphasic insulin aspart more effectively reduces post-prandial glucose compared to other biphasic insulins and basal insulins. Compared to biphasic insulin aspart, fasting glucose levels are lower with NPH, similar with glargine, and similar or lower with biphasic human insulin. Treat-to-target trials have shown that a goal HbA1c below 6.5 or 7% can be achieved with biphasic insulin aspart. The risk of hypoglycemia is similar to or less than that seen with other biphasic insulins or NPH insulin.Conclusion: Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, insulin, diabetes

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  15. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  16. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  17. Low-tilt monophasic and biphasic waveforms compared with standard biphasic waveforms in the transvenous defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Johan R; Darragh, Karen M; Walsh, Simon J; Allen, Desmond J; Scott, Michael; Stevenson, Michael; Adgey, Jennifer A A; Anderson, John M C J; Manoharan, Ganesh

    2014-03-01

    Commercially available implantable defibrillators utilize a high-tilt waveform. Studies in atrial fibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown improved defibrillation efficacy using low-tilt (LT) waveforms. We investigated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a LT waveform in the transvenous defibrillation of VF and hypothesized that it would be more efficacious than standard tilted biphasic (STB) waveforms. The investigation was performed in four phases in a porcine model: an efficacy study of LT monophasic waveforms (n = 9), an efficacy study of LT biphasic waveforms (n = 9), a comparison study between the most successful LT waveforms and clinically available STB waveforms (n = 15), and a safety study (n = 9). A total of 1,056 shocks were delivered (phase 1: 288, phase 2: 288, phase 3: 480). The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform was significantly more likely to successfully defibrillate than the LT monophasic and STB waveforms with an odds ratio of 122.3 (95% confidence interval: 32.5, 460.2, P defibrillation threshold (E50) for the LT 8/4-ms waveform was 12.7 J compared to 43.5 J and 45.5 J for STB waveforms 6/6 ms and 8/4 ms, respectively, and 47.7 J for LT 12-ms waveform. The LT 8/4-ms waveform had no lasting detrimental effect on cardiac function, and any transient hemodynamical or biochemical changes observed were comparable to those observed with STB waveforms. LT waveforms are effective and appear safe in transvenous defibrillation in a porcine model of VF. The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform is more efficacious than conventional waveforms. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Generic Model-Based Tailor-Made Design and Analysis of Biphasic Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    systems have a broad range of application, such as the manufacture of petroleum based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agro-bio products. Major considerations in the design and analysis of biphasic reaction systems are physical and chemical equilibria, kinetic mechanisms, and reaction rates. The primary...... different organic solvents leading to an improved and innovative design of the system.......Biphasic reaction systems are composed of immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases where reactants, products, and catalysts are partitioned. These biphasic conditions point to novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product separation. The biphasic...

  19. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...... evaluation revealed a deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene in both. This is the first description of patients with a exon 26 deletion of the dystrophin gene. Assuming the proband's comorbidity is unrelated, exon 26 deletion results in a very mild phenotype. This might be of interest in planning exon...

  20. Biphasic Insulin Analogues in Type 2 Diabetes: Expert Panel Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Akalın

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has reached pandemic levels all over the world, and the problem is still growing. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, in which insulin resistance and decrease in beta cell function accompany obesity. Early disorder, which ensues in clinical progression of the disease, is the defect of early phase insulin secretion. Patients have already lost approximately half of their beta cell reserve at the time of diagnosis. Aims of type 2 diabetes treatment are to eliminate hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance, to slow down beta cell destruction/depletion, to improve concomitant metabolic problems and to prevent complications. In treatment algorithms, insulin is evaluated as a replacement therapy at the following stage after life style changes (medical nutrition therapy, exercise and oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs options. Since beta cell depletion is present at initial stages of the disease, it transforms insulin therapy into an earlier approach in treatment stages. Premixed insulin forms are one of the proposed treatment options in patients with hyperglycemia that is not controlled by OADs. These types of insulins are developed to meet both basal and postprandial insulin requirements of patients. Currently, premixed human insulin forms are replaced by analogue insulin forms, which can mimic the physiological secretion in more acceptable manner. Biphasic analogue insulin is one of the readily available pre-mixed analogue insulin forms, an example of this, Biphasic Insulin aspart 30 which is the one of the premixed analoge insulin forms, contains 30% insulin aspart and 70% protaminated insulin aspart. Consensus recommending the individualized approach in insulin therapy implies that physicians should have more detailed information about the use of different insulin forms. Although a global consensus report about initiation, titration and intensification and the use

  1. A new kinetic biphasic approach applied to biodiesel process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Many different papers have been published on the kinetics of the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts to produce biodiesel. All the proposed approaches are based on the assumption of a pseudo-monophasic system. The consequence of these approaches is that some experimental aspects cannot be described. For the reaction performed in batch conditions, for example, the monophasic approach is not able to reproduce the different plateau obtained by using different amount of catalyst or the induction time observed at low stirring rates. Moreover, it has been observed by operating in continuous reactors that micromixing has a dramatic effect on the reaction rate. At this purpose, we have recently observed that is possible to obtain a complete conversion to biodiesel in less than 10 seconds of reaction time. This observation is confirmed also by other authors using different types of reactors like: static mixers, micro-reactors, oscillatory flow reactors, cavitational reactors, microwave reactors or centrifugal contactors. In this work we will show that a recently proposed biphasic kinetic approach is able to describe all the aspects before mentioned that cannot be described by the monophasic kinetic model. In particular, we will show that the biphasic kinetic model can describe both the induction time observed in the batch reactors, at low stirring rate, and the very high conversions obtainable in a micro-channel reactor. The adopted biphasic kinetic model is based on a reliable reaction mechanism that will be validated by the experimental evidences reported in this work. (orig.)

  2. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-07-28

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  3. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-04-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca 2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media.

  4. Bi-phasic hitting with constraints on impact velocity and temporal precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, S.R.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate how bi-phasic hitting movements are organized to comply with both impact and temporal precision constraints. 'Bi-phasic' refers to a sequential movement with a preparatory movement away from the interception location followed by a strike phase. The

  5. Biphasic Catalysis with Disaccharide Phosphorylases: Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of alpha-D-Glucosides Using Sucrose Phosphorylase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Winter, K.; Desmet, T.; Devlamynck, T.; Van Renterghem, L.; Verhaeghe, T.; Pelantová, Helena; Křen, Vladimír; Soetaert, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2014), s. 781-787 ISSN 1083-6160 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : biphasic systems * pyrogallol * biphasic catalysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2014

  6. Phenotype spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Frédéric; Seal, Gavin J

    2010-02-01

    The topological viewpoint on spaces of phenotypes presented in Stadler et al. (J Theor Biol 213:241-274, 2001) is revisited, and a quantified version is proposed. While necessary probabilistic information can be encoded in a topological- like fashion, it turns out that it is not reflected adequately by the concept of continuity. We propose alternative models, but the behavior of maps make these models non-topological in fundamental ways.

  7. Biphasic 201thallium scintgraphy after dipyridamole in mitral valve diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoliner, R.; Dudczak, R.; Kronik, G.; Moesslacher, H.; Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of biphasic 201 thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole i.v. could neither prove nor exclude the presence of small focal lesions in the myocardium of 17 patients with mitral valve diseases. The frequent finding of a decrease in activity in the anterolateral myocardium is probably due to a relative increase in activity in the region of the inferior wall with superimposed areas of the papillary muscle and right ventricular myocardium. If the right ventricle is visualized in stress- or redistribution images, an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure can be accepted. According to Cohen's criteria, a grade 2 or 3 virtually proves the existence of pulmonary hypertension, a grade 1 makes this finding rather probable. The possibility of pulmonary hypertension can not be excluded if the right ventricular myocardium is not visualized. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Labeled Chondrocytes Cultivated on a Type II Collagen–Chitosan/Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid Biphasic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Yih Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondral or osteochondral defects are still controversial problems in orthopedics. Here, chondrocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles were cultivated on a biphasic, type II collagen–chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold in an attempt to develop cultures with trackable cells exhibiting growth, differentiation, and regeneration. Rabbit chondrocytes were labeled with magnetic nanoparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron (TEM microscopy, and gene and protein expression analyses. The experimental results showed that the magnetic nanoparticles did not affect the phenotype of chondrocytes after cell labeling, nor were protein and gene expression affected. The biphasic type II collagen–chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold was characterized by SEM, and labeled chondrocytes showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the scaffold after cultivation onto the polymer. Cellular phenotype remained unaltered but with increased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, as indicated by cell staining, indicating chondrogenesis. Decreased SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (Sox-9 levels of cultured chondrocytes indicated that differentiation was associated with osteogenesis. These results are encouraging for the development of techniques for trackable cartilage regeneration and osteochondral defect repair which may be applied in vivo and, eventually, in clinical trials.

  9. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This report also shows that BMD may present with a normal CK....... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...

  10. Long-Term Survival of Leptospira in a Biphasic Culture Medium Containing Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donald M.; Varela-Díaz, Victor M.; Siniuk, Alicia A.

    1973-01-01

    A comparison was made of the survival of 28 leptospiral serotypes in Fletcher semisolid medium and in the same medium containing a basal layer of Fletcher medium plus 0.7% of agar and 0.5% of activated animal charcoal. A year after culture, more motile leptospires were observed by microscope examination in the biphasic medium. Two years after culture, 4 serotypes grown in the biphasic medium and 11 in Fletcher medium did not show motile cells. Nineteen of the serotypes maintained in Fletcher medium and 25 in the biphasic medium for 2 years grew on subculture into Fletcher medium. Subcultures from the biphasic medium showed the characteristic leptospiral ring growth earlier during the incubation period. PMID:4735486

  11. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Gur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations.

  12. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  13. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro

  14. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  15. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  16. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: imarrucho@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  17. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  18. Evolution of the optimum bidirectional (+/- biphasic) wave for defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, L A; Havel, W

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of the asymmetric bidirectional (+/- biphasic) current waveform has made it possible to achieve ventricular defibrillation with less energy and current than are needed with a unidirectional (monophasic) waveform. The symmetrical bidirectional (sinusoidal) waveform was used for the first human-heart defibrillation. Subsequent studies employed the underdamped and overdamped sine waves, then the trapezoidal (monophasic) wave. Studies were then undertaken to investigate the benefit of adding a second identical and inverted wave; little success rewarded these efforts until it was discovered that the second inverted wave needed to be much less in amplitude to lower the threshold for defibrillation. However, there is no physiologic theory that explains the mechanism of action of the bidirectional wave, nor does any theory predict the optimum amplitude and time dimensions for the second inverted wave. The authors analyze the research that shows that the threshold defibrillation energy is lowest when the charge in the second, inverted phase is slightly more than a third of that in the first phase. An ion-flux, spatial-K+ summation hypothesis is presented that shows the effect on myocardial cells of adding the second inverted current pulse.

  19. Functional properties of the isomorphic biphasic algal life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Carol S

    2006-10-01

    Many species of marine algae have life cycles that involve multiple separate, free-living phases that frequently differ in ploidy levels. These complex life cycles have received increasing scientific attention over the past few decades, due to their usefulness for both ecological and evolutionary studies. I present a synthesis of our current knowledge of the ecological functioning and evolutionary implications of the isomorphic, biphasic life cycles commonly found in many species of marine algae. There are both costs and benefits to life cycles with 2 morphologically similar but separate, free-living phases that differ in ploidy levels (haploids and diploids). Evolutionary theory predicts that the existence of subtle yet important differences between the phases may be what allows these life cycles to be maintained. Different phases of the same species can vary in abundance, in demographic parameters such as mortality and fecundity, in their physiology, and in their resistance to herbivory. Some taxonomic groups within the red algae have received significant attention toward these issues, while our knowledge of these properties for brown and green algae remains limited.

  20. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated.

  1. Onset of white striping and progression into wooden breast as defined by myopathic changes underlying Pectoralis major growth. Estimation of growth parameters as predictors for stage of myopathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Reedy; Moraes, Luis; Wick, Macdonald; Lilburn, Michael Snell

    2018-02-01

    The broiler industry has incurred significant economic losses due to two muscle myopathies, white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB), affecting the Pectoralis major (P. major) of commercial broilers. The present study documented macroscopic changes occurring with age/growth in the P. major and P. minor muscles of commercial broilers from day 2 through day 46 (n = 27/day). Distinct myopathic aberrations observed in both breast muscles corresponded to the onset of WB. These distinct morphological changes were used as determinants in developing a ranking system, defining the ontogeny of WB as the following four stages: (1) WS, (2) petechial epimysium haemorrhages, (3) intramuscular haemorrhages and (4) ischaemia. A cumulative logit proportional odds model was used to relate the rank probabilities with the following growth parameters: body weight, P. major and P. minor weight/yield/length/width/depth. The best-fit model included P. major length/width/depth, P. minor width, P. major and P. minor yield as predictors for rank. Increasing P. major depth, P. minor width and P. major yield increased the odds of falling into higher ranks (more severe myopathy). Conversely, increasing P. major length, P. major width and P. minor yield increased the odds of falling into smaller ranks (less severe myopathy). This study describes the macroscopic changes associated with WB ontogeny in the development of a ranking system and the contribution of growth parameters in the determination of rank (WB severity). Results suggest that physical measurements inherent to selection for high-yielding broiler genotypes are contributing to the occurrence and severity of WS and WB.

  2. Design and evaluation of lornoxicam bilayered tablets for biphasic release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songa Ambedkar Sunil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of lornoxicam to achieve biphasic release pattern. A bilayered tablet, consisting of an immediate and controlled release layer, was prepared by direct compression technique. The controlled release effect was achieved by using various hydrophilic natural, semi synthetic and synthetic controlled release polymers such as xanthan gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyethylene oxide (PEO to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profiles showed the biphasic release behavior in which the immediate release (IR layer containing the lornoxicam was released within 15 minutes, whereas the controlled release (CR layer controlled the drug release for up to 24 h. All the bilayered tablets formulated have followed the zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst release. FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis (ANOVA showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver comprimidos bicamada de lornoxicam para atingir padrão de liberação bifásica. Preparou-se, por compressão direta, comprimido bicamada, consistindo de uma camada de liberação imediata e uma de liberação controlada. A liberação controlada foi obtida pelo uso de vários polímeros naturais hidrofílicos, semi-sintéticos e sintéticos, tais como goma xantana, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (HPMC e óxido de polietileno (PEO para modular a liberação do fármaco. Os perfis de liberação in vitro mostraram comportamento bifásico em que a camada de liberação imediata (IR contendo lornoxicam foi liberada em 15 minutos, enquanto a camada de liberação controlada (CR liberou o fármaco em mais de 24 horas, Todos os comprimidos bicamada

  3. Biphasic Peptide Amphiphile Nanomatrix Embedded with Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Stimulated Osteoinductive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel M.; Patterson, Jessica L.; Vines, Jeremy B.; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprised of self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e. RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22077993

  4. Core-shell nanoreactors for efficient aqueous biphasic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Cardozo, Andrés F; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wenjing; Julcour, Carine; Lansalot, Muriel; Blanco, Jean-François; Gayet, Florence; Delmas, Henri; Charleux, Bernadette; Manoury, Eric; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2014-11-17

    Water-borne phosphine-functionalized core-cross-linked micelles (CCM) consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell were obtained as stable latexes by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) in water in a one-pot, three-step process. Initial homogeneous aqueous-phase copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (PEOMA) is followed by copolymerization of styrene (S) and 4-diphenylphosphinostyrene (DPPS), yielding P(MAA-co-PEOMA)-b-P(S-co-DPPS) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (M) by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), and final micellar cross-linking with a mixture of S and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The CCM were characterized by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to evaluate size, dispersity, stability, and the swelling ability of various organic substrates. Coordination of [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) to the core-confined phosphine groups was rapid and quantitative. The CCM and M latexes were then used, in combination with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ], to catalyze the aqueous biphasic hydroformylation of 1-octene, in which they showed high activity, recyclability, protection of the activated Rh center by the polymer scaffold, and low Rh leaching. The CCM latex gave slightly lower catalytic activity but significantly less Rh leaching than the M latex. A control experiment conducted in the presence of the sulfoxantphos ligand pointed to the action of the CCM as catalytic nanoreactors with substrate and product transport into and out of the polymer core, rather than as a surfactant in interfacial catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  6. An Ascending Ramp Biphasic Waveform Has a Lower Defibrillation Threshold and Releases Less Troponin I Than a Truncated Exponential Biphasic Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P.; Ruse, Richard B.; Bohanan, Scott J.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold (DFT), but also the amount of cardiac damage. Methods and Results DFTs were determined for 11 waveforms: 3 ascending ramp, 3 descending ramp, and 3 rectilinear first phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform in 6 pigs with electrodes in the RV apex and SVC. The ascending, descending and rectilinear waveforms had 4, 8 and 16 ms 1st phases and a 3.5 ms 2nd rectilinear phase half the voltage of the 1st phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% 1st phase and a 50% 2nd phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 s of VF with a single ≈ 30 J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8 ms ascending, 8 ms rectilinear wave and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hrs after the shock. The lowest energy DFT was for the 8 ms ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 SD J), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours postshock, troponin I in ng/ml was significantly less for the ascending ramp (0.80±0.54) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17 ±0.45). Conclusions The ascending ramp has a significantly lower DFT, and at ≈ 30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the DFT and the amount of cardiac damage. PMID:22865891

  7. Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M

    1998-02-01

    The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.

  8. Polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems: Inexpensive, nontoxic alternatives for Hanford tank remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Bauer, C.B.; Song, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chomko, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for cleaner, cheaper, safer separations technologies with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems stems from the inexpensive, nontoxic, nonflammable nature, and general availability of the PEG and inorganic salts which form them, and the lack of organic diluent. The authors have demonstrated that simulants of the highly alkaline waste stored at Westinghouse Hanford will induce biphase formation when contacted with aqueous PEG-2000 solutions. They have also demonstrated that the long lived and environmentally mobile radioactive ions 99 TcO 4 - and 129 I - can be partitioned from the salt rich to the PEG-rich phase in these aqueous biphasic systems. In addition, they have shown that Group 1 and 2 cation extraction can be accomplished from highly alkaline systems via addition of an appropriate water-soluble extractant. This paper focuses on the factors affecting the distribution ratios and the work on developing a viable separations process

  9. Biphasic Synergistic Gel Materials with Switchable Mechanics and Self-Healing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziguang; Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Kangjun; Zhuo, Shuyun; Fang, Ruochen; Zhang, Jianqi; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Mingjie

    2017-10-16

    A fabrication strategy for biphasic gels is reported, which incorporates high-internal-phase emulsions. Closely packed micro-inclusions within the elastic hydrogel matrix greatly improve the mechanical properties of the materials. The materials exhibit excellent switchable mechanics and shape-memory performance because of the switchable micro- inclusions that are incorporated into the hydrogel matrix. The produced materials demonstrated a self-healing capacity that originates from the noncovalent effect of the biphasic heteronetwork. The aforementioned characteristics suggest that the biphasic gels may serve as ideal composite gel materials with validity in a variety of applications, such as soft actuators, flexible devices, and biological materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Structurally and Functionally Biomimetic Biphasic Scaffold for Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Andrew Tsz Hang; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering offers high hopes for the treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Whereas scaffolds of the disc nucleus and annulus have been extensively studied, a truly biomimetic and mechanically functional biphasic scaffold using naturally occurring extracellular matrix is yet to be developed. Here, a biphasic scaffold was fabricated with collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), two of the most abundant extracellular matrix components in the IVD. Following fabrication, the scaffold was characterized and benchmarked against native disc. The biphasic scaffold was composed of a collagen-GAG co-precipitate making up the nucleus pulposus-like core, and this was encapsulated in multiple lamellae of photochemically crosslinked collagen membranes comprising the annulus fibrosus-like lamellae. On mechanical testing, the height of our engineered disc recovered by ~82-89% in an annulus-independent manner, when compared with the 99% recovery exhibited by native disc. The annulus-independent nature of disc height recovery suggests that the fluid replacement function of the engineered nucleus pulposus core might mimic this hitherto unique feature of native disc. Biphasic scaffolds comprised of 10 annulus fibrosus-like lamellae had the best overall mechanical performance among the various designs owing to their similarity to native disc in most aspects, including elastic compliance during creep and recovery, and viscous compliance during recovery. However, the dynamic mechanical performance (including dynamic stiffness and damping factor) of all the biphasic scaffolds was similar to that of the native discs. This study contributes to the rationalized design and development of a biomimetic and mechanically viable biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. PMID:26115332

  11. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  12. Paired associative stimulation targeting the tibialis anterior muscle using either mono or biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse form and, to determine whether...... a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1) suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11); (2) suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11) where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic...

  13. Micrometer-scale mixing with Pickering emulsions: biphasic reactions without stirring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Fu, Luman; Yang, Hengquan

    2014-02-01

    A general strategy that avoids stirring for organic/aqueous reactions involving solid catalysts is reported. The strategy involves converting a conventional biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion phase with micrometer-scale droplets ensuring good mixing. In test reactions, nitrotoluene reduction and epoxidation of allylic alcohols, the reaction efficiency is comparable to conventional stirrer-driven biphasic catalysis reaction systems. Short diffusion distances, arising from the compartmentalization of densely packed droplets, play an important role in boosting the reaction efficiency. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ultrasound in the Assessment of Myopathic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidman, C.M.; Alfen, N. van

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular ultrasound (US) augments a careful physical examination and electrodiagnostic evaluation in the evaluation of suspected myopathy. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle can identify abnormal echo intensity, size, and movement. Because it is painless and noninvasive, US can be used to evaluate

  15. Modeling Biphasic Environmental Decay of Pathogens and Implications for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Remais, Justin V; Collender, Philip A; Meza, Rafael; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2017-02-21

    As the appreciation for the importance of the environment in infectious disease transmission has grown, so too has interest in pathogen fate and transport. Fate has been traditionally described by simple exponential decay, but there is increasing recognition that some pathogens demonstrate a biphasic pattern of decay-fast followed by slow. While many have attributed this behavior to population heterogeneity, we demonstrate that biphasic dynamics can arise through a number of plausible mechanisms. We examine the identifiability of a general model encompassing three such mechanisms: population heterogeneity, hardening off, and the existence of viable-but-not-culturable states. Although the models are not fully identifiable from longitudinal sampling studies of pathogen concentrations, we use a differential algebra approach to determine identifiable parameter combinations. Through case studies using Cryptosporidium and Escherichia coli, we show that failure to consider biphasic pathogen dynamics can lead to substantial under- or overestimation of disease risks and pathogen concentrations, depending on the context. More reliable models for environmental hazards and human health risks are possible with an improved understanding of the conditions in which biphasic die-off is expected. Understanding the mechanisms of pathogen decay will ultimately enhance our control efforts to mitigate exposure to environmental contamination.

  16. Occurrence of amylose-lipid complexes in teff and maize starch biphasic pastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of amylose–lipid complexes was determined in maize and teff starch biphasic pastes i.e. peak viscosity pastes at short and prolonged pasting times. Maize and teff starches were pasted for 11.5 and 130 min with or without added stearic...

  17. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  18. A functional biphasic biomaterial homing mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Shao, Zhenxing; Zhu, Jingxian; Dai, Linghui; Man, Zhentao; Yuan, Lan; Chen, Haifeng; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2014-12-01

    Cartilage regeneration after trauma is still a great challenge for clinicians and researchers due to many reasons, such as joint load-bearing, synovial movement and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a functional biomaterial using a biphasic scaffold platform and a bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-specific affinity peptide. The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. This biphasic scaffold platform is functionalized with an affinity peptide targeting a cell source of interest, BMSCs. The presence of conjugated peptide gives this system a biological functionality towards BMSC-specific homing both in vitro and in vivo. The functional biomaterial can stimulate stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation during in vitro culture. Six months after in vivo implantation, compared with routine surgery or control scaffolds, the functional biomaterials induced superior cartilage repair without complications, as indicated by histological observations, magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical properties. Beyond cartilage repair, this functional biphasic scaffold may provide a biomaterial framework for one-step tissue engineering strategy by homing endogenous cells to stimulate tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recycling nanoparticle catalysts without separation based on a pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Zhang, Zhiming; Yang, Hengquan; Cheng, Fangqin; Du, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    A conceptually novel methodology is explored for in situ recycling of nanoparticle catalysts based on transforming a conventional organic/aqueous biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system (PEOBS). The suggested PEOBS exists as two phases, with the nanoparticle catalyst "anchored" in the Pickering emulsion phase, but is "continuous" between the organic phase and the continuous phase of the Pickering emulsion. Aqueous hydrogenations are used to evaluate the reaction performances of PEOBS, and the underlying principles of PEOBS are preliminarily elaborated. The unique properties of PEOBS lead to many intriguing findings, which are unlikely to be achieved in the reported biphasic systems. PEOBS exhibits more than a fourfold enhancement in catalysis efficiency in comparison with a conventional biphasic system. Impressively, PEOBS enables the organic product to be facilely isolated through simple decantation and the nanoparticle catalyst can be recycled in situ without the need for "separation". Its recycling effectiveness is justified by ten reaction cycles without significant catalyst loss. The simple protocol, in conjunction with the stability to simultaneously achieve high catalysis efficiency and excellent catalyst recyclability, makes PEOBS a promising methodology to develop more sustainable nanocatalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A pilot trial of square biphasic pulse deep brain stimulation for dystonia: The BIP dystonia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Ahmed, Bilal; Deeb, Wissam; Jesus, Sol De; Skinner, Jared; Terza, Matthew J; Akbar, Umer; Raike, Robert S; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Dystonia often has inconsistent benefits and requires more energy-demanding DBS settings. Studies suggest that squared biphasic pulses could provide significant clinical benefit; however, dystonia patients have not been explored. To assess safety and tolerability of square biphasic DBS in dystonia patients. This study included primary generalized or cervical dystonia patients with bilateral GPi DBS. Square biphasic pulses were implemented and patients were assessed at baseline, immediately postwashout, post-30-minute washout, 1 hour post- and 2 hours postinitiation of investigational settings. Ten participants completed the study. There were no patient-reported or clinician-observed side effects. There was improvement across time on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (χ 2  = 10.7; P = 0.031). Similar improvement was detected in objective gait measurements. Square biphasic stimulation appears safe and feasible in dystonia patients with GPi DBS. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effectiveness particularly in cervical and gait features. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Kammouni, R.; Vázquez, M.; Lezama, L.; Kurlyandskaya, G.; Kraus, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 368, Nov (2014), 126-132 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic microwire * ferromagnetic resonance * microwave absorption * biphase magnetic system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  2. Preparation of highly infective Leishmania promastigotes by cultivation on SNB-9 biphasic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, Milena; Nohýnková, Eva; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Protozoan hemoflagellates Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniases and an important biological model for study of host-pathogen interaction. A wide range of methods of Leishmania cultivation on both biphasic and liquid media is available. Biphasic media are considered to be superior for initial isolation of the parasites and obtaining high promastigote infectivity; however, liquid media are more suitable for large-scale experiments. The aim of the present study was the adaptation and optimization of the cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes on a biphasic SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood 9) medium that was originally developed for Trypanosoma cultivation and combines the advantages of biphasic and liquid media. SNB-9 medium is characterized with a large volume of the liquid phase, which facilitates the manipulation with the culture and provides parasite yields comparable to parasite yields on such liquid medium as Schneider's Insect Medium. We demonstrate that SNB-9 very considerably surpasses Schneider's Insect Medium in in vitro infectivity of the parasites. Additionally, we show that the ratio of apoptotic parasites, which are important for the infectivity of the inoculum, in Leishmania culture in SNB-9 is higher than in Leishmania culture in Schneider's Insect Medium. Thus, we demonstrate that the cultivation of Leishmania on SNB-9 reliably yields highly infective promastigotes suitable for experimental infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of defibrillation efficacy using biphasic waveforms delivered from various capacitances/pulse widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J H; Stotts, L J; Rosborough, J P; Frederick, H

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of the biphasic waveform shock for the defibrillation of the ventricular myocardium has been reported by researchers and physicians. Although many authors have suggested that biphasic waveforms delivered from lower capacitances and shorter pulse widths could result in the reduction of the energy required for successful defibrillation, no report has described the smallest capacitance and pulse width yielding the lowest DFT. In this study, we compared efficacies of the biphasic waveform shocks and DFT safety margins among five different capacitances (175 mu f, 125 mu f. 100 mu f. 75 mu f, and 50 mu f) combined with 1-3 pulse widths. These experiments performed in six dogs used an endocardial lead/subcutaneous patch defibrillation electrode system. The average DFTs at E50 for 175 mu f (6.5/3.5 ms), 125 mu f (6.5/3.5 ms), 100 mu f (6.0/3.0 ms), 75 mu f (4.0/2.0) ms, and 50 mu f (3.0/2.0 ms) were 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 14.0, and 16.5), respectively. These results indicate that a biphasic waveform delivered from a larger capacitance with a proper pulse width could achieve a higher defibrillation efficacy. All DFTs at E50 for all waveforms were compared to their deliverable energies and maximum stored energies. This comparison indicated a narrow DFT safety margin with capacitances below 100 mu f. Therefore, it is concluded that higher energy and higher leading edge voltage are required for a biphasic waveform delivered from a smaller capacitance with a shorter pulse width. Since the current capacitor technology provides a maximum voltage of 750 V using two capacitors in series, with the electrode impedance system used in this study, smaller capacitors appear to have a decreased probability of defibrillation success at a given energy.

  4. Biphasic versus monophasic waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddy, Steven C; Jennings, Paul A

    2016-02-10

    Transthoracic defibrillation is a potentially life-saving treatment for people with ventricular fibrillation (VF) and haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT). In recent years, biphasic waveforms have become more commonly used for defibrillation than monophasic waveforms. Clinical trials of internal defibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of short-duration arrhythmias of up to 30 seconds have demonstrated the superiority of biphasic waveforms over monophasic waveforms. However, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) involves a duration of VF/VT of several minutes before defibrillation is attempted. To determine the efficacy and safety of biphasic defibrillation waveforms, compared to monophasic, for resuscitation of people experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We searched the following electronic databases for potentially relevant studies up to 10 September 2014: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Also we checked the bibliographies of relevant studies and review articles, contacted authors of published reviews and reviewed webpages (including those of device manufacturers) relevant to the review topic. We handsearched the abstracts of conference proceedings for the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology, European Resuscitation Council, Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Regarding language restrictions, we did not apply any. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared biphasic and monophasic waveform defibrillation in adults with OHCA. Two review authors independently screened the literature search results. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trials and performed 'Risk of bias' assessments. We resolved any disagreements by discussion and consensus. The primary outcome was the risk of failure to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC

  5. Bi-phasic growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chemically defined medium at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovouzis, Nikolaos A; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Stoforos, Nikolaos G

    2014-09-01

    The present work reports a novel observation regarding the growth of L. monocytogenes in modified Welshimer's broth (MWB) at low temperatures. Specifically, the direct monitoring of the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A using plate count data revealed that the pathogen displays a bi-phasic growth pattern in MWB at 7 °C. This bi-phasic growth pattern is masked (not observed) when optical density (OD) measurements are used to monitor growth due to the inability of OD readings to detect L. monocytogenes population density increases up to 10(7) CFU/mL. This bi-phasic growth phenomenon was further investigated as a function of growth temperature (4 °C, 7 °C, 10 °C, 14 °C and 18 °C), medium composition (by altering the MWB composition by ten-fold increases in different sets of medium constituents), inoculum level (10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) CFU/mL) and L. monocytogenes strain (10 strains). The growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A in MWB at 7 °C, 10 °C and 14 °C was consistently bi-phasic and independent of growth rate; at 18 °C, growth was consistently mono-phasic (single-phase, typical sigmoid growth curves), whereas no growth was observed at 4 °C. The tested modifications in the composition of MWB did not influence the bi-phasic nature of L. monocytogenes Scott A growth at 7 °C, and, overall, we could not point out any strain-, or serotype-specific effects. On the other hand, the initial inoculum level appears to affect the form of the growth curve, as there was a shift towards mono-phasic growth in trials with increasing initial inocula. A mathematical model, based on a stepwise response and described through two sequential sigmoid curves, was used to describe bi-phasic growth and estimate the kinetic parameters of L. monocytogenes growth. An alternative hypothesis, based on the assumption of the existence of two subpopulations, possessing different growth kinetics, materialized under the stress imposed on L. monocytogenes cells due to the

  6. Muscle expression of mutant androgen receptor accounts for systemic and motor neuron disease phenotypes in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Constanza J; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Guo, Ling T; Hung, Gene; Tsunemi, Taiji; Ly, Linda; Tokunaga, Seiya; Lopez, Edith; Sopher, Bryce L; Bennett, C Frank; Shelton, G Diane; Cleveland, Don W; La Spada, Albert R

    2014-04-16

    X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is characterized by adult-onset muscle weakness and lower motor neuron degeneration. SBMA is caused by CAG-polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Pathological findings include motor neuron loss, with polyQ-AR accumulation in intranuclear inclusions. SBMA patients exhibit myopathic features, suggesting a role for muscle in disease pathogenesis. To determine the contribution of muscle, we developed a BAC mouse model featuring a floxed first exon to permit cell-type-specific excision of human AR121Q. BAC fxAR121 mice develop systemic and neuromuscular phenotypes, including shortened survival. After validating termination of AR121 expression and full rescue with ubiquitous Cre, we crossed BAC fxAR121 mice with Human Skeletal Actin-Cre mice. Muscle-specific excision prevented weight loss, motor phenotypes, muscle pathology, and motor neuronopathy and dramatically extended survival. Our results reveal a crucial role for muscle expression of polyQ-AR in SBMA and suggest muscle-directed therapies as effective treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multicompartment retinal ganglion cells response to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation: Simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Kameneva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole output neurons of the retina that carry information about a visual scene to the brain. By stimulating RGCs with electrical stimulation, it is possible to elicit a sensation of light for people with macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. To investigate the responses of RGCs to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation, we use previously constrained models of multi-compartment OFF RGCs. The morphologies of mouse RGCs are taken from the Chalupa set of the NeuroMorpho database. The cell models are divided into compartments representing the dendrites, soma and axon that vary between the cells. A total of 132 cells are simulated in the NEURON environment. Results show that the cell morphology plays an important role in the response characteristics of the cell to high frequency bi-phasic pulse train stimulation.

  8. Ionic-Liquid-Based Acidic Aqueous Biphasic Systems for Simultaneous Leaching and Extraction of Metallic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Matthieu; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Nicolas; Chainet, Eric; Tedjar, Farouk; Coutinho, Joao A P; Billard, Isabelle

    2018-02-05

    The first instance of an acidic aqueous biphasic system (AcABS) based on tributyltetradecyl phosphonium chloride ([P 44414 ][Cl]) and an acid is here reported. This AcABS exhibits pronounced thermomorphic behavior and is shown to be applicable to the extraction of metal ions from concentrated acidic solutions. Metal ions such as cobalt(II), iron(III), platinum(IV) and nickel(II) are found to partition preferentially to one of the phases of the acidic aqueous biphasic system and it is here shown that it successfully allows the difficult separation of Co II from Ni II , here studied at 24 and 50 °C. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  10. Biphasic catalysis using amphiphilic polyphenols-chelated noble metals as highly active and selective catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Yu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Liao, Xuepin

    2013-01-01

    In the field of catalysis, it is highly desired to develop novel catalysts that combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Here we disclose that the use of plant pholyphenol as amphiphilic large molecule ligand/stabilizer allows for the preparation of noble metal complex and noble metal nanoparticle catalysts. These catalysts are found to be highly selective and active in aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis of cinnamaldehyde and quinoline, and can be reused at least 3 times without significant loss of activity. Moreover, the catalytic activity and reusability of the catalysts can be rationally controlled by simply adjusting the content of polyphenols in the catalysts. Our strategy may be extended to design a wide range of aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis system. PMID:23863916

  11. Pseudo-biphasic extraction and liquid membrane transport of ionic solutes using micelle-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondre, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    Different aspects between micellar extraction and solvent extraction were discussed. One way of using micellar systems to perform metal ion extraction consists in solubilizing lipophilic complexing agents in the hydrophobic core of the micelles, similarly to their solubilization in the organic phase in classical biphasic extraction. Metal ions dissolved in the continuous phase will be complexed or not, depending on their affinity for the micelle-solubilized extractant, the microscopic micelle/water interface playing a part analogous to the macroscopic organic/water interface in biphasic extraction. The yields of extraction (after ultrafiltration of the micellar pseudo-phase) when parameters such as the extractant/metal ratio or the extractant hydrophobicity are changed, show similar trends as those reported in the case of solvent extraction, but only diluted solutions can be treated that way. 14 refs

  12. Biphasic catalysis using amphiphilic polyphenols-chelated noble metals as highly active and selective catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Yu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Liao, Xuepin

    2013-01-01

    In the field of catalysis, it is highly desired to develop novel catalysts that combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Here we disclose that the use of plant polyphenol as amphiphilic large molecule ligand/stabilizer allows for the preparation of noble metal complex and noble metal nanoparticle catalysts. These catalysts are found to be highly selective and active in aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis of cinnamaldehyde and quinoline, and can be reused at least 3 times without significant loss of activity. Moreover, the catalytic activity and reusability of the catalysts can be rationally controlled by simply adjusting the content of polyphenols in the catalysts. Our strategy may be extended to design a wide range of aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis system.

  13. Validation of a heterogeneous elastic-biphasic model for the numerical simulation of the PDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favino, Marco; Gross, Christian; Drolshagen, Marcel; Keilig, Ludger; Deschner, James; Bourauel, Christoph; Krause, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    An elastic-biphasic model for the simulation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the adjacent tooth is presented and investigated. The PDL is modelled as a biphasic material following the work of Ehlers and Markert (2001 ), whereas the tooth is modelled as a linear elastic body. A spatial discretisation scheme is proposed based on mixed finite elements for the spatial discretisation. Due to nonlinearity in the model, a predictor-corrector scheme is employed as a temporal discretisation scheme. In order to validate the PDL model, in vitro measurements are compared with numerical simulations. The numerical simulations are performed using geometries resulting from micro-CT scanner of the same porcine tooth, which was employed for the in vitro measurements.

  14. Biphasic and boundary lubrication mechanisms in artificial hydrogel cartilage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Teruo; Yarimitsu, Seido; Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Sawae, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Various studies on the application of artificial hydrogel cartilage to cartilage substitutes and artificial joints have been conducted. It is expected in clinical application of artificial hydrogel cartilage that not only soft-elastohydrodynamic lubrication but biphasic, hydration, gel-film and boundary lubrication mechanisms will be effective to sustain extremely low friction and minimal wear in daily activities similar to healthy natural synovial joints with adaptive multimode lubrication. In this review article, the effectiveness of biphasic lubrication and boundary lubrication in hydrogels in thin film condition is focused in relation to the structures and properties of hydrogels. As examples, the tribological behaviors in three kinds of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with high water content are compared, and the importance of lubrication mechanism in biomimetic artificial hydrogel cartilage is discussed to extend the durability of cartilage substitute. © IMechE 2015.

  15. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50 and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal–bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal–bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D.

  16. A hybrid composite system of biphasic calcium phosphate granules loaded with hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruq, Omar; Kim, Boram; Padalhin, Andrew R; Lee, Gun Hee; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2017-10-01

    An ideal bone substitute should be made of biocompatible materials that mimic the structure, characteristics, and functions of natural bone. Many researchers have worked on the fabrication of different bone scaffold systems including ceramic-polymer hybrid system. In the present study, we incorporated hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel to micro-channeled biphasic calcium phosphate granules as a carrier to improve cell attachment and proliferation through highly interconnected porous structure. This hybrid system is composed of ceramic biphasic calcium phosphate granules measuring 1 mm in diameter with seven holes and hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogel. This combination of biphasic calcium phosphate and hyaluronic acid-gelatin retained suitable characteristics for bone regeneration. The resulting scaffold had a porosity of 56% with a suitable pore sizes. The mechanical strength of biphasic calcium phosphate granule increased after loading hyaluronic acid-gelatin from 4.26 ± 0.43 to 6.57 ± 0.25 MPa, which is highly recommended for cancellous bone substitution. Swelling and degradation rates decreased in the hybrid scaffold compared to hydrogel due to the presence of granules in hybrid scaffold. In vitro cytocompatibility studies were observed by preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cell line and the result revealed that biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin significantly increased cell growth and proliferation compared to biphasic calcium phosphate granules. Analysis of micro-computed tomography data and stained tissue sections from the implanted samples showed that the hybrid scaffold had good osseointegration and better bone formation in the scaffold one and two months postimplantation. Histological section confirmed the formation of dense collagenous tissue and new bone in biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin scaffolds at two months. Our study demonstrated that such hybrid biphasic calcium phosphate/hyaluronic acid-gelatin scaffold is a

  17. Preparation of highly infective Leishmania promastigotes by cultivation on SNB-9 biphasic medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Nohýnková, E.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2011), s. 273-277 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA310/08/1697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania * SNB-9 * biphasic culture medium * parasite infectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2011

  18. Nitric oxide interacts with salicylate to regulate biphasic ethylene production during the hypersensitive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Luis A J; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Hall, Michael A; Smith, Aileen R

    2008-11-01

    C(2)H(4) is associated with plant defense, but its role during the hypersensitive response (HR) remains largely uncharacterized. C(2)H(4) production in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) following inoculation with HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pathovars measured by laser photoacoustic detection was biphasic. A first transient rise (C(2)H(4)-I) occurred 1 to 4 h following inoculation with HR-eliciting, disease-forming, and nonpathogenic strains and also with flagellin (flg22). A second (avirulence-dependent) rise, at approximately 6 h (C(2)H(4)-II), was only seen with HR-eliciting strains. Tobacco leaves treated with the C(2)H(4) biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, suggested that C(2)H(4) influenced the kinetics of a HR. Challenging salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco lines and tissues exhibiting systemic acquired resistance suggested that C(2)H(4) production was influenced by salicylic acid (SA). Disrupted expression of a C(2)H(4) biosynthesis gene in salicylate hydroxylase tobacco plants implicated transcriptional control as a mechanism through which SA regulates C(2)H(4) production. Treating leaves to increase oxidative stress or injecting with SA initiated monophasic C(2)H(4) generation, but the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside initiated biphasic rises. To test whether NO influenced biphasic C(2)H(4) production during the HR, the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was coinoculated with the avirulent strain of P. syringae pv phaseolicola into tobacco leaves. The first transient C(2)H(4) rise appeared to be unaffected by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but the second rise was reduced. These data suggest that NO and SA are required to generate the biphasic pattern of C(2)H(4) production during the HR and may influence the kinetics of HR formation.

  19. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Koval; A. Ye. Kulagin

    2006-01-01

    Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP) is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency) is calculated ...

  20. Large change in voltage at phase reversal improves biphasic defibrillation thresholds. Parallel-series mode switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Y; Mowrey, K A; Nadzam, G R; Hills, D G; Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E; Donohoo, A M; Wilkoff, B L; Tchou, P J

    1996-10-01

    Multiple factors contribute to an improved defibrillation threshold of biphasic shocks. The leading-edge voltage of the second phase may be an important factor in reducing the defibrillation threshold. We tested two experimental biphasic waveforms with large voltage changes at phase reversal. The phase 2 leading-edge voltage was twice the phase 1 trailing-edge voltage. This large voltage change was achieved by switching two capacitors from parallel to series mode at phase reversal. Two capacitors were tested (60/15 microfarads [microF] and 90/22.5 microF) and compared with two control biphasic waveforms for which the phase 1 trailing-edge voltage equaled the phase 2 leading-edge voltage. The control waveforms were incorporated into clinical (135/135 microF) or investigational devices (90/90 microF). Defibrillation threshold parameters were evaluated in eight anesthetized pigs by use of a nonthoracotomy transvenous lead to a can electrode system. The stored energy at the defibrillation threshold (ion joules) was 8.2 +/- 1.5 for 60/15 microF (P voltage changes at phase reversal caused by parallel-series mode switching appeared to improve the ventricular defibrillation threshold in a pig model compared with a currently available biphasic waveform. The 60/15-microF capacitor performed as well as the 90/ 22.5-microF capacitor in the experimental waveform. Thus, smaller capacitors may allow reduction in device size without sacrificing defibrillation threshold energy requirements.

  1. A simulation study of the reaction of human heart to biphasic electrical shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemann Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article presents a study, which examines the effects of biphasic electrical shocks on human ventricular tissue. The effects of this type of shock are not yet fully understood. Animal experiments showed the superiority of biphasic shocks over monophasic ones in defibrillation. A mathematical computer simulation can increase the knowledge of human heart behavior. Methods The research presented in this article was done with different models representing a three-dimensional wedge of ventricular myocardium. The electrophysiology was described with Priebe-Beuckelmann model. The realistic fiber twist, which is specific to human myocardium was included. Planar electrodes were placed at the ends of the longest side of the virtual cardiac wedge, in a bath medium. They were sources of electrical shocks, which varied in magnitude from 0.1 to 5 V. In a second arrangement ring electrodes were placed directly on myocardium for getting a better view on secondary electrical sources. The electrical reaction of the tissue was generated with a bidomain model. Results The reaction of the tissue to the electrical shock was specific to the initial imposed characteristics. Depolarization appeared in the first 5 ms in different locations. A further study of the cardiac tissue behavior revealed, which features influence the response of the considered muscle. It was shown that the time needed by the tissue to be totally depolarized is much shorter when a biphasic shock is applied. Each simulation ended only after complete repolarization was achieved. This created the possibility of gathering information from all states corresponding to one cycle of the cardiac rhythm. Conclusions The differences between the reaction of the homogeneous tissue and a tissue, which contains cleavage planes, reveals important aspects of superiority of biphasic pulses. ...

  2. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  3. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rachelle Therese Hassarati; Leslie John Foster; Rylie Adelle Green; Rylie Adelle Green

    2016-01-01

    The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), i...

  4. Low-High and High-Low Biphasic Injection Forms in Computed Tomography Examinations of the Upper Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Arana, E.; Tobarra, E.; Sierra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the influence of different biphasic and monophasic injection rate protocols in abdominal computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: A randomized, consecutive, parallel group study was designed and conducted in 60 patients studied with the same CT helical protocol. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: (A) monophasic (120 ml at 2.5 ml/s); (B) low-high biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2.5 ml/s); and (C) high-low biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2.5 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2 ml/s). All patients were injected with 300 mg I/ml non-ionic contrast media at a fixed delay time of 55 s. Contrast enhancement efficacy was evaluated by attenuation coefficient measurements. Results: Although non-significant, monophasic protocol enhancements were higher than biphasic protocol enhancements in all measurements except aortic bifurcation (p = 0.003). At this level, biphasic protocols obtained an increased mean enhancement from 7.6% to 2.5% compared to monophasic protocols. Conclusion: Monophasic contrast agent injection in helical CT of the upper abdomen produces a higher enhancement of parenchymal and venous structures. No significant difference was observed between low-high and high-low biphasic protocols

  5. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  6. Synchronized oscillations of dimers in biphasic charged fd-virus suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K; Piao, S H; Choi, H J

    2016-08-01

    Micron-sized colloidal spheres that are dispersed in an isotropic-nematic biphasic host suspension of charged rods (fd-virus particles) are shown to spontaneously form dimers, which exhibit a synchronized oscillatory motion. Dimer formation is not observed in the monophase of isotropic and nematic suspensions. The synchronized oscillations of dimers are connected to the inhomogeneous state of the host suspension of charged rods (fd viruses) where nematic domains are in coexistence with isotropic regions. The synchronization of oscillations occurs in bulk states, in the absence of an external field. With a low field strength of an applied electric field, the synchronization is rather reduced, but it recovers again when the field is turned off. In this Rapid Communication, we report this observation as an example of the strange attractor, occurring in the mixture of PS (polystyrene) dimers in an isotropic-nematic coexistence biphasic fd-virus network. Furthermore, we highlight that the synchronization of PS-dimer oscillations is the result of a global bifurcation diagram, driven by a delicate balance between the short-attractive "twisted" interaction of PS dimers and long-ranged electrostatic repulsive interactions of charged fd rods. The interest is then in the local enhancement of "twist-nematic" elasticity in reorientation of the dimer oscillations. An analysis of image-time correlations is provided with the data movies and Fourier transforms of averaged orientations for the synchronized oscillations of dimers in the biphasic I-N coexistence concentration of charged fd-virus suspensions.

  7. Genotype to phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malcolm, Sue; Goodship, Timothy H. J

    2001-01-01

    ... Disorders Molecular Genetics of Hypertension Human Gene EvolutionAnalysis of Multifactorial Disease Transcription Factors Molecular Genetics of Cancer, Second edition Genotype to Phenotype, second e...

  8. 16-Channel biphasic current-mode programmable charge balanced neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Zhong, Shunan; Morizio, James

    2017-08-14

    Neural stimulation is an important method used to activate or inhibit action potentials of the neuronal anatomical targets found in the brain, central nerve and peripheral nerve. The neural stimulator system produces biphasic pulses that deliver balanced charge into tissue from single or multichannel electrodes. The timing and amplitude of these biphasic pulses are precisely controlled by the neural stimulator software or imbedded algorithms. Amplitude mismatch between the anodic current and cathodic current of the biphasic pulse will cause permanently damage for the neural tissues. The main goal of our circuit and layout design is to implement a 16-channel biphasic current mode programmable neural stimulator with calibration to minimize the current mismatch caused by inherent complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing processes. This paper presents a 16-channel constant current mode neural stimulator chip. Each channel consists of a 7-bit controllable current DAC used as sink and source current driver. To reduce the LSB quantization error and the current mismatch, an automatic calibration circuit and flow diagram is presented in this paper. There are two modes of operation of the stimulator chip-namely, stimulation mode and calibration mode. The chip also includes a digital interface used to control the stimulator parameters and calibration levels specific for each individual channel. This stimulator Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm High-Voltage CMOS technology that allows for ±20 V power supply. The full-scale stimulation current was designed to be at 1 mA per channel. The output current was shown to be constant throughout the timing cycles over a wide range of electrode load impedances. The calibration circuit was also designed to reduce the effect of CMOS process variation of the P-channel metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS) and N-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) devices that will

  9. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  10. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  11. Two novel MYH7 proline substitutions cause Laing Distal Myopathy-like phenotypes with variable expressivity and neck extensor contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein-Linial, Miora; Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Sadeh, Menachem; Dabby, Ron; Straussberg, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Dayan, Daniel; Leinwand, Leslie Anne; Birk, Ohad S

    2016-08-12

    Human skeletal muscles express three major myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms: MyHCIIx (MYH1) in fast type 2B muscle fibers, MyHCIIa (MYH2) in fast type 2A fibers and MyHCI/β-cardiac MyHC (MYH7) in slow type I skeletal fibers and cardiac ventricles. In line with its expression pattern, MYH7 mutations have been reported in association with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathies or a combination of both. We analyzed the clinical and molecular phenotype of two unrelated families of Jewish Moroccan ancestry that presented with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance of progressive Laing-like distal myopathy with non-specific myopathic changes, but uncommon marked contractures and wasting of the neck extensors. Clinical phenotyping, whole exome sequencing and restriction analysis, generation of mutants followed by cell culture transfection and imaging. Using whole exome sequencing we identified in both families two novel heterozygous proline substitutions located in exon 31 of MYH7 within its rod domain: c.4309G>C (p.Ala1437Pro) and c.4301G>C (p.Arg1434Pro). Here we show that the phenotype caused by these mutations includes marked cervical muscle contracture, and report that the severity of the phenotype varies significantly, to the extent of non-penetrance in one of the families. Finally, we provide evidence that both proline substitutions impair myosin self-assembly in non-muscle cells transfected with β-myosin constructs carrying the mutations, but do not prevent incorporation of the mutant molecules into the sarcomere. This study expands our clinical and molecular knowledge of MYH7 rod mutations causing skeletal myopathies, and underscores the importance of discussing disease penetrance during genetic counseling.

  12. Enhancing productivity for cascade biotransformation of styrene to (S)-vicinal diol with biphasic system in hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Wu, Shuke; Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee; Li, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation is a green and useful tool for sustainable and selective chemical synthesis. However, it often suffers from the toxicity and inhibition from organic substrates or products. Here, we established a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor (HFMB)-based aqueous/organic biphasic system, for the first time, to enhance the productivity of a cascade biotransformation with strong substrate toxicity and inhibition. The enantioselective trans-dihydroxylation of styrene to (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, catalyzed by Escherichia coli (SSP1) coexpressing styrene monooxygenase and an epoxide hydrolase, was performed in HFMB with organic solvent in the shell side and aqueous cell suspension in the lumen side. Various organic solvents were investigated, and n-hexadecane was found as the best for the HFMB-based biphasic system. Comparing to other reported biphasic systems assisted by HFMB, our system not only shield much of the substrate toxicity but also deflate the product recovery burden in downstream processing as the majority of styrene stayed in organic phase while the diol product mostly remained in the aqueous phase. The established HFMB-based biphasic system enhanced the production titer to 143 mM, being 16-fold higher than the aqueous system and 1.6-fold higher than the traditional dispersive partitioning biphase system. Furthermore, the combination of biphasic system with HFMB prevents the foaming and emulsification, thus reducing the burden in downstream purification. HFMB-based biphasic system could serve as a suitable platform for enhancing the productivity of single-step or cascade biotransformation with toxic substrates to produce useful and valuable chemicals.

  13. Switching from biphasic human insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes: results from the ASEAN subgroup of the A₁chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zanariah; Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne; Jain, Anand B; Goh, Su Yen; Soewondo, Pradana

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study. Indonesian, Malaysian, Filipino and Singaporean patients switched from BHI to BIAsp 30 at their physicians' discretion were included. The incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemia was the primary endpoint. Changes in hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), lipids, body weight and systolic blood pressure were also evaluated. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. For the 465 patients included (mean ± SD age: 56 ± 10.3 years, diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 7.1 years, baseline HbA1c: 9.4 ± 1.8%), the mean pre-study BHI dose was 0.62 ± 0.28 IU/kg and 63.4% were dosing BHI twice daily (bid). The mean baseline BIAsp 30 dose was 0.65 ± 0.27 U/kg, titrated up to 0.71 ± 0.28 U/kg over 24 weeks, and most patients continued bid dosing. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic episodes were reported. The proportion of patients reporting overall hypoglycaemia decreased significantly from 10.8% at baseline to 3.4% at Week 24 (p ASEAN subgroup poorly controlled on BHI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic switching in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  15. One gene, many phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available "Phenotype" is the visible or quantifiable effect of the expression of a gene, whereas the specific genetic constitution responsible for a phenotype is called "genotype". It was hoped that phenotype could be accurately predicted if the genotype could be characterized. But, the relationship between the genotype and phenotype is not straightforward. Similar genetic lesions can have entirely different phenotypes. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of diseases. The extent to which it will be possible to relate findings at the DNA level to the clinical phenotype is difficult to delineate on many occasions. The elucidation of mechanisms underlying genotype-phenotype discrepancies is important as it will influence the use of DNA-based tests in the diagnosis, therapy and counseling of individuals affected with genetic disorders. This issue is pertinent to almost every aspect of medical practice and research in this post-genome era. In this article, we have tried to summarize those factors which are responsible for varied manifestations of lesion(s in a single gene.

  16. Fabrication of multilayer ZrO₂-biphasic calcium phosphate-poly-caprolactone unidirectional channeled scaffold for bone tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibakar; So-Ra, Son; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo; Lee, Byong Taek

    2013-09-01

    We developed a continuously porous scaffold with laminated matrix and bone-like microstructure by a multi-pass extrusion process. In this scaffold, tetragonal ZrO₂, biphasic calcium phosphate and poly-caprolactone layers were arranged in a co-axially laminated unit cell with a channel in the center. The entire matrix phase had a laminated microstructure of alternate lamina of tetragonal ZrO₂, biphasic calcium phosphate and poly-caprolactone--biphasic calcium phosphate with optimized designed thickness and channeled porosity. Each of the continuous pores was coaxially encircled by the poly-caprolactone--biphasic calcium phosphate layer, biphasic calcium phosphate layer and finally tetragonal ZrO₂ layer, one after the other. Before extrusion, 5 vol% graphite powder was mixed with tetragonal ZrO₂ to ensure pores in the outer layer and connectivity among the lamellas. The design strategy is aimed to incorporate a lamellar microstructure like the natural bone in the macro-scaled ceramic body to investigate the strengthening phenomenon and pave the way for fabricating complex microstructure of natural bone could be applied for whole bone replacement. The final fabricated scaffold had a compressive strength of 12.7 MPa and porosity of 78 vol% with excellent cell viability, cell attachment and osteocalcin and collagen expression from cultured MG63 cells on scaffold.

  17. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stepped defibrillation waveform is substantially more efficient than the 50/50% tilt biphasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Karlheinz; Denman, Russell A; Moulder, J Christopher; Mouchawar, Gabriel; Stoeppler, Christoph; Becker, Torsten; Weise, Udo; Anskey, Emma J; Burnett, Helen E; Kroll, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    Even with biphasic waveforms, patients with high defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) still are seen; thus, improved defibrillation waveforms may be of clinical utility. The stepped waveform has three parts: the first portion is positive with two capacitors in parallel, the second is positive with the capacitors in series, and the last portion is negative, also with the capacitors in series. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of improved defibrillation waveforms. We measured the delivered energy DFT in 20 patients in a dual-site study using the stepped waveform and a 50/50% tilt biphasic truncated exponential as the control. All shocks were delivered using an arbitrary waveform defibrillator, which was programmed to mimic two 220-microF capacitors (110 microF in series and 440 microF in parallel). The peak voltage at DFT was reduced in 19 of the 20 patients. The median peak voltage was reduced by 32.0%, from 472 V to 321 V (P voltage and energy were reduced by 25.3% and 20.2%, respectively. On average, the stepped waveform was able to defibrillate as well as the 50/50% tilt biphasic, with 33% more energy. The benefit was more pronounced in patients with either a lower ejection fraction or a superior vena cava coil. The benefit of the stepped waveform had an inverse quadratic correlation with the resistance (r(2) = 0.47), suggesting that the capacitance values chosen for the stepped waveform were close to optimal for a 35-Omega resistance. The stepped waveform reduced the DFT compared to the 50/50% tilt waveform in this preliminary study.

  19. Development of calcium phosphate/sulfate biphasic cement for vital pulp therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Chun; Chang, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Tang; Hsu, Chung-King; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been used widely to repair bone defects because of its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, the poor handling properties, low initial mechanical strength, and long setting time of CPC limit its application in vital pulp therapy (VPT). The aim of this study was to synthesize biphasic calcium phosphate/sulfate cements and evaluate the feasibility of applying these cements in VPT. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of CPC were improved by mixing the cement with various amounts of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH). The hydration products and crystalline phases of the materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the physical properties, such as the setting time, compressive strength, viscosity, and pH were determined. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 and lactase dehydrogenase were used to evaluate cell viability and cytotoxicity. The developed CPC (CPC/CSH cement), which contains 50wt% CSH cement, exhibited no obvious temperature increase or pH change during setting when it was used as a paste. The initial setting time of the CPC/CSH biphasic cement was substantially shorter than that of CPC, and the initial mechanical strength was 23.7±5.6MPa. The CPC/CSH cement exhibited higher viscosity than CPC and, thus, featured acceptable handling properties. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the relative peak intensity for hydroxyapatite increased, and the intensity for calcium sulfate dehydrate decreased as the amount of CPC was increased. The cell viability and cytotoxicity test results indicated that the CPC/CSH cement did not harm dental pulp cells. The developed CPC/CSH biphasic cement exhibits substantial potential for application in VPT. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Lagrange multiplier mixed finite element formulation for three-dimensional contact of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taiseung; Spilker, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) contact finite element formulation has been developed for biological soft tissue-to-tissue contact analysis. The linear biphasic theory of Mow, Holmes, and Lai (1984, J. Biomech., 17(5), pp. 377-394) based on continuum mixture theory, is adopted to describe the hydrated soft tissue as a continuum of solid and fluid phases. Four contact continuity conditions derived for biphasic mixtures by Hou et al. (1989, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 111(1), pp. 78-87) are introduced on the assumed contact surface, and a weighted residual method has been used to derive a mixed velocity-pressure finite element contact formulation. The Lagrange multiplier method is used to enforce two of the four contact continuity conditions, while the other two conditions are introduced directly into the weighted residual statement. Alternate formulations are possible, which differ in the choice of continuity conditions that are enforced with Lagrange multipliers. Primary attention is focused on a formulation that enforces the normal solid traction and relative fluid flow continuity conditions on the contact surface using Lagrange multipliers. An alternate approach, in which the multipliers enforce normal solid traction and pressure continuity conditions, is also discussed. The contact nonlinearity is treated with an iterative algorithm, where the assumed area is either extended or reduced based on the validity of the solution relative to contact conditions. The resulting first-order system of equations is solved in time using the generalized finite difference scheme. The formulation is validated by a series of increasingly complex canonical problems, including the confined and unconfined compression, the Hertz contact problem, and two biphasic indentation tests. As a clinical demonstration of the capability of the contact analysis, the gleno-humeral joint contact of human shoulders is analyzed using an idealized 3D geometry. In the joint, both glenoid and humeral head

  1. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  2. Investigation of the salting-out of polyethylene glycol-2000 in aqueous biphasic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodziak, E.; Zhang, J.; Rogers, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the potential for the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems in the separation of metal ions in such diverse fields as nuclear medicine, nuclear waste, and hydrometallurgy. PEG-based ABS may provide cheaper, cleaner, safer separation technologies. In order to realize this potential, we need to expand the number of known phase-forming salts and investigate their interactions with PEG. Phase diagrams are an invaluable tool for this purpose. In this presentation, systematic investigation of the salting-out ability of several phase-forming salts will be presented and their behavior discussed

  3. Biphasic cardiac output changes during onset of spinal anaesthesia in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, C S; Hesselbjerg, L; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z

    2007-01-01

    ended when the patients were ready for surgery, or if ephedrine was given to raise the mean arterial pressure. RESULTS: Cardiac output increased initially reaching a maximum after a mean of 7 min. The average increase was 1.1 L min(-1) (P... mmHg on average. At the end of data collection, cardiac output decreased 0.5 L min(-1) from baseline (P=0.02). Mean arterial pressure decreased progressively in all patients, and only minimal changes in heart rate were found. CONCLUSIONS: Using this high time-resolution method, we detected biphasic...

  4. Effect of changing capacitors between phases of a biphasic defibrillation shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G P; Rollins, D L; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of changing capacitor values between phases of a biphasic waveform with the goal of lowering leading edge voltage (LEV), total delivered energy (TDE), and total stored energy (TSE). Defibrillation thresholds were determined in 18 open-chest swine using epicardial patch electrodes. In part I, three combinations of capacitors were tested: 150:150 microF; 150:300 microF; and 300:150 microF. Waveform durations were 6/0, 6/2, 6/4, 6/6, and 6/8 ms. In part II, phase 1 capacitance was 150 microF. Three phase 2 capacitance values were used: 150 microF; 75 microF; and 37.5 microF. Phase 2 LEV was a multiple of phase 1 trailing edge voltage: x 0.5; x 0.75; x 1; x 2; x 3; and x 4. A 3.5/2.0 ms biphasic waveform was used. In part III, thresholds were determined for two sets of capacitor values, which can be created by switching a pair of capacitors from in parallel to in series, 150:37.5 microF and 300:75 microF, and nine waveform durations, 4/0, 4/2, 4/4, 6/0, 6/3, 6/6, 8/0, 8/4 and 8/8 ms. In part I, the 300:150 microF system defibrillated with the lowest LEV, TDE and TSE were not different for any of the biphasic waveforms tested except for the 6/8 ms, which was higher. In part II, there was no difference in LEV among any of the three phase 2 capacitor values. LEV was lowest for the x 2, x 3, x 4 multipliers. Peak voltage was lowest for the x 1 and x 2 multipliers. TDE was lowest for the x 0.5, x 0.75, x 1, and x 2 multipliers. In part III, the 300:75 microF system defibrillated at a lower LEV than did the 150:37.5 microF system. The 150:37.5 microF system defibrillated at a lower total delivered energy than did the 300:75 microF. These results suggest that defibrillation can be accomplished with lower LEV, TDE, and TSE if two capacitors are switched from a parallel configuration to a series configuration between phases of the biphasic waveform.

  5. New biphasic monocomponent composite material obtained by the partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Joyce Rover; Silva, Ingrid S.V. da; Pasquini, Daniel; Santos, Daniele B. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose (CB), as well as the characterization of pure CB, oxypropylated CB (CBO) and oxypropylated CB after Soxhlet extraction with hexane (CBOE). The oxypropylation reaction was carried out by propylene oxide polymerization, catalyzed by KOH, in the presence of CB The CB samples, before and after modification, were subjected to analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was possible verify that the partial transformation of bacterial cellulose by inserting a layer of thermoplastic polymer on its surface occurred efficiently, obtaining a biphasic monocomponent composite material. (author)

  6. Biphasic catalytic conversion of fructose by continuous hydrogenation of HMF over a hydrophobic ruthenium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanliang; Du, Zhongtian; Ma, Jiping; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The production of chemicals directly from sugars is an important step in biomass conversion. Herein, tetrahydro-2,5-furandimethanol (THFDM), obtained from fructose, is formed by using a combination of acid and hydrophobic Ru/SiO2 in a water/cyclohexane biphasic system. Two key factors enable the high selectivity towards THFDM: modifying the hydrogenation catalyst so that it has hydrophobic properties, and the continuous hydrogenation of generated 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in the cyclohexane phase. Moreover, the selectivity towards THFDM is found to depend strongly on the acid catalyst used. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramics for Bone Regeneration and Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Ellen Lobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP have been sought after as biomaterials for the reconstruction of bone defects in maxillofacial, dental and orthopaedic applications. They have demonstrated proven biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, safety and predictability in in vitro, in vivo and clinical models. More recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that BCP can be osteoinductive. In the field of tissue engineering, they represent promising scaffolds capable of carrying and modulating the behavior of stem cells. This review article will highlight the latest advancements in the use of BCP and the characteristics that create a unique microenvironment that favors bone regeneration.

  8. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90 produced the highest amount of conidia and the largest necrotic area on the two tested weeds when compared to its wild strain in the different biphasic media combinations. The study revealed that the biphasic system containing PDB + rice produced the highest bioherbicidal activities. Therefore, the phytotoxic metabolites from strain C1136 are suggested for large scale production of bioherbicides for the management of weeds in conventional farming to improve yield and enhance food security.

  9. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  10. A Simplified Whole-Organ CT Perfusion Technique with Biphasic Acquisition: Preliminary Investigation of Accuracy and Protocol Feasibility in Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XiaoDong; Zhang, Jing; Quan, ChangBin; Tian, Yuan; Li, Hong; Ao, GuoKun

    2016-04-01

    To determine the feasibility and accuracy of a protocol for calculating whole-organ renal perfusion (renal blood flow [RBF]) and regional perfusion on the basis of biphasic computed tomography (CT), with concurrent dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) CT perfusion serving as the reference standard. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Biphasic CT of the kidneys, including precontrast and arterial phase imaging, was integrated with a first-pass dynamic volume CT protocol and performed and analyzed in 23 patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. The perfusion value derived from biphasic CT was calculated as CT number enhancement divided by the area under the arterial input function and compared with the DCE CT perfusion data by using the paired t test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation analysis was made between the RBF and the extent of renal artery stenosis. All postprocessing was independently performed by two observers and then averaged as the final result. Mean ± standard deviation biphasic and DCE CT perfusion data for RBF were 425.62 mL/min ± 124.74 and 419.81 mL/min ± 121.13, respectively (P = .53), and for regional perfusion they were 271.15 mL/min per 100 mL ± 82.21 and 266.33 mL/min per 100 mL ± 74.40, respectively (P = .31). Good correlation and agreement were shown between biphasic and DCE CT perfusion for RBF (r = 0.93; ±10% variation from mean perfusion data [P perfusion (r = 0.90; ±13% variation from mean perfusion data [P CT perfusion (r = -0.81, P = .012). Biphasic CT perfusion is clinically feasible and provides perfusion data comparable to DCE CT perfusion data at both global and regional levels in the kidney. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  11. Biphasic magnetic nanoparticles-nanovesicle hybrids for chemotherapy and self-controlled hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Manashjit; Sarma, Haladhar D; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Banerjee, Rinti

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to develop magnetic nanovesicles for chemotherapy and self-controlled hyperthermia that prevent overheating of tissues. Magnetic nanovesicles containing paclitaxel and a dextran-coated biphasic suspension of La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (magnetic nanoparticles) were developed. Encapsulation efficiencies of magnetic nanoparticles and paclitaxel were 67 ± 5 and 83 ± 3%, respectively. Sequential release performed at 37°C for 1 h followed by 44°C for another 1 h (as expected for intratumoral injection), showed a cumulative release of 6.6% (109.6 µg), which was above the IC50 of the drug. In an alternating current magnetic field, the temperature remained controlled at 44°C and a synergistic cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and hyperthermia was observed in MCF-7 cells. Magnetic nanovesicles containing biphasic suspensions La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating paclitaxel have potential for combined self-controlled hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

  12. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  13. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided

  14. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 407, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Chih [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan [Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Tien, Yin-Chun [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 407, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction.

  15. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  16. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is there an Optimal Shape of the Defibrillation Shock: Constant Current vs. Pulsed Biphasic Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation are assessed and compared: the Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW, the Rectilinear Biphasic Waveform (RBW, and the "lossless" constant current (LLCC pulses. Two indices are introduced: 1 kf = W/W0 - the ratio between the delivered energy W and the energy W0 of a rectangular pulse with the same duration and electric charge; 2 ηC = W/WC0 - the level of utilizing the initially loaded capacitor energy WC0. The envisioned comparative study shows that ηC index is favorable for both PBW and LLCC, while kf of both RBW and LLCC demonstrates advantage over the PBW in the range of small inter-electrode thoracic impedances below 80 Ω. Some design considerations are also discussed. The attractive LLCC concept needs large and heavy inductive coil to support the constant current amplitude, besides it is capable to induce strong electromagnetic influences due to the complex current control. The RBW technology controls the delivery of current through a series of internal resistors which are, however, a source of high heat losses. The PBW implements controlled duty cycle of high-frequency chopped pulses to adapt the energy delivery in respect of the patient impedance measured at the beginning of the shock. PBW technology makes use of small capacitors which allows the construction of light weight and small-size portable devices for transthoracic defibrillation.

  18. Optimized FIR filters for digital pulse compression of biphase codes with low sidelobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, M.; Kuloor, R.; Sagayaraj, M. J.

    In miniaturized radars where power, real estate, speed and low cost are tight constraints and Doppler tolerance is not a major concern biphase codes are popular and FIR filter is used for digital pulse compression (DPC) implementation to achieve required range resolution. Disadvantage of low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) of biphase codes can be overcome by linear programming for either single stage mismatched filter or two stage approach i.e. matched filter followed by sidelobe suppression filter (SSF) filter. Linear programming (LP) calls for longer filter lengths to obtain desirable PSR. Longer the filter length greater will be the number of multipliers, hence more will be the requirement of logic resources used in the FPGAs and many time becomes design challenge for system on chip (SoC) requirement. This requirement of multipliers can be brought down by clustering the tap weights of the filter by kmeans clustering algorithm at the cost of few dB deterioration in PSR. The cluster centroid as tap weight reduces logic used in FPGA for FIR filters to a great extent by reducing number of weight multipliers. Since k-means clustering is an iterative algorithm, centroid for weights cluster is different in different iterations and causes different clusters. This causes difference in clustering of weights and sometimes even it may happen that lesser number of multiplier and lesser length of filter provide better PSR.

  19. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citro Gennaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT, treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy. Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 μs each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations.

  1. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong Mei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques - ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material's fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r . Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η - E A relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties.

  2. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al 2 O 3 catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  3. Differential Biphasic Transcriptional Host Response Associated with Coevolution of Hemagglutinin Quasispecies of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Manchanda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe influenza associated with strong symptoms and lung inflammation can be caused by intra-host evolution of quasispecies with aspartic acid or glycine in hemagglutinin position 222 (HA-222D/G; H1 numbering. To gain insights into the dynamics of host response to this coevolution and to identify key mechanisms contributing to copathogenesis, the lung transcriptional response of BALB/c mice infected with an A(H1N1pdm09 isolate consisting HA-222D/G quasispecies was analyzed from day 1 to 12 post infection (p.i. At day 2 p.i. 968 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected. The DEG number declined to 359 at day 4 and reached 1001 at day 7 p.i. prior to recovery. Interestingly, a biphasic expression profile was shown for the majority of these genes. Cytokine assays confirmed these results on protein level exemplarily for two key inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 6. Using a reverse engineering strategy, a regulatory network was inferred to hypothetically explain the biphasic pattern for selected DEGs. Known regulatory interactions were extracted by Pathway Studio 9.0 and integrated during network inference. The hypothetic gene regulatory network revealed a positive feedback loop of Ifng, Stat1, and Tlr3 gene signaling that was triggered by the HA-G222 variant and correlated with a clinical symptom score indicating disease severity.

  4. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: Kh_rezk966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mousa, Sahar M. [Chemistry Department, Science and Art College, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box 344, 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O. Box 12622, 11787 Cairo (Egypt); El Bassyouni, Gehan T. [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Medical Physics Department, College of Medicine, Taif University (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: • Ratio of HA and β-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. • HA partially decomposed into β-TCP with other bioactive phases. • Calcined HA at 900 °C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into β-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  5. Isoattenuating insulinomas at biphasic contrast-enhanced CT: frequency, clinicopathologic features and perfusion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang; Xue, Hua-dan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; He, Yong-lan; Jin, Zheng-yu [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Yu-pei [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We aimed to determine the frequency of isoattenuating insulinomas, to investigate their clinicopathological features and to assess their regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient informed consent was waived. From July 2010 to June 2014, 170 patients (66 male, 104 female) with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT before surgery, and 129 of those patients also received preoperative whole-pancreas CT perfusion. A total of 181 tumours were proved histopathologically after surgery. Enhancement pattern and regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics were analyzed. Clinical features, tumour size and pathological grading were investigated. The frequency of isoattenuating tumours was 24.9 %. Tumour size and WHO grading was not significantly different between isoattenuating and hyperattenuating tumours. Tumour-free regions had identical blood flow (BF) regardless of their location (p = 0.35). Isoattenuating tumour-harbouring regions had lower BF compared with hyperattenuating tumour-harbouring regions; both showed higher BF compared with tumour-free neighbourhood regions (all p < 0.01). For patients with isoattenuating tumours, the overall hospital stay was longer (p < 0.01). A substantial subset of insulinomas were isoattenuating on biphasic CT. CT perfusion showed higher BF in tumour-harbouring regions compared to tumour-free regions, providing a clue for tumour regionalization. (orig.)

  6. Biphasic liquid interface derived magnetite nanocrystals: synthesis, properties and growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Hou, Chuanxin; Fan, Yuqi; Dang, Feng; Li, Bao-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocubes were synthesized from a water-toluene biphasic liquid system. The Fe3O4 nuclei generated in aqueous phase were transferred into the toluene solution by modifying oleic acid (OLA) at the organic–inorganic interface. Well-dispersed Fe3O4 nanocubes with a size of 20 nm were prepared in this process. Octylamine was found to play a dominant role in controlling the dispersibility, morphology and particle size of nanocubes. Only alkylamine with proper chain length had effects on the morphology control in the biphasic liquid synthesis system. The remanence (7.04 emu g‑1) and coercivity (170 Oe) of the nanocubes were 3 times higher than those (the remanence and coercivity value were 2.03 emu g‑1 and 68 Oe) of irregular particles. Magnetite (Fe3O4) iron oxide nanoparticles can be used in various fields, including developing biomarker detection systems for disease diagnosis, ferrofluids, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), energy storage, sensing, etc.

  7. Long and short range order structural analysis of In-situ formed biphasic calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Ju Dong; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) have attracted considerable attention as a bone graft substitute. In this study, BCP were prepared by aqueous co-precipitation and calcination method. The crystal phases of in-situ formed BCP consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were controlled by the degree of calcium deficiency of precursors. The long and short range order structures of biphasic mixtures was investigated using Rietveld refinement technique and high resolution Raman spectroscopy. The refined structural parameters of in-situ formed BCP confirmed that all the investigated structures have crystallized in the corresponding hexagonal (space group P63/m) and rhombohedral (space group R3c) structures. The crystal phases, Ca/P molar ratio, and lattice parameters of in-situ formed BCP consisting of HAp and β-TCP were controlled by the degree of calcium deficiency of calcium phosphate precursors. The significant short range order structural change of BCP was determined by Raman analysis. The long and short range order structural changes of in-situ formed BCP might be due to the coexistence of β-TCP and HAp crystal phases.

  8. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  9. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G. [University Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L. [University Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  10. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  11. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  12. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassarati, Rachelle T; Foster, L John R; Green, Rylie A

    2016-01-01

    The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes. The CH utilized in this study was a biosynthetic hydrogel consisting of methacrylated poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA), heparin and gelatin through which poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was electropolymerised. OECs cultured on Pt and CH surfaces were subjected to biphasic ES. Image-based cytometry yielded little significant difference between the viability and cell cycle of OECs cultured on the stimulated and passive samples. The significantly lower voltages measured across the CH electrodes (147 ± 3 mV) compared to the Pt (317 ± 5 mV), had shown to influence a higher percentage of viable cells on CH (91-93%) compared to Pt (78-81%). To determine the functionality of these cells following electrical stimulation, OECs co-cultured with PC12 cells were found to support neural cell differentiation (an indirect measure of neurotrophic factor production) following ES.

  13. Influence of Biphasic Stimulation on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Neuroprosthetic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Therese Hassarati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES, inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH coated electrodes. The CH utilised in this study was a biosynthetic hydrogel consisting of methacrylated poly(vinyl-alcohol (PVA, heparin and gelatin through which poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT was electropolymerised. OECs cultured on Pt and CH surfaces were subjected to biphasic ES. Image-based cytometry yielded little significant difference between the viability and cell cycle of OECs cultured on the stimulated and passive samples. The significantly lower voltages measured across the CH electrodes (147 ± 3 mV compared to the Pt (317 ± 5 mV, had shown to influence a higher percentage of viable cells on CH (91 - 93 % compared to Pt (78 - 81 %. To determine the functionality of these cells following electrical stimulation, OECs co-cultured with PC12 cells were found to support neural cell differentiation (an indirect measure of neurotrophic factor production following ES.

  14. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A.; Aliofkhazraei, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained

  15. Comparison between short train, monophasic and biphasic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Terao, Yasuo; Yuasa, Kaoru; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2005-03-01

    To compare motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by short train, monophasic, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations (rTMS) with those by short train, biphasic rTMS. Subjects were 13 healthy volunteers. Surface electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) in several different stimulation conditions. We gave both monophasic and biphasic rTMS over the motor cortex at a frequency of 0.5, 1, 2 or 3Hz. To study excitability changes of the spinal cord, we also performed 3Hz rTMS at the foramen magnum level [Ugawa Y, Uesaka Y, Terao Y, Hanajima R, Kanazawa I. Magnetic stimulation of corticospinal pathways at the foramen magnum level in humans. Ann Neurol 1994;36:618-24]. We measured the size and latency of each of 20 MEPs recorded in the different stimulation conditions. 2 or 3Hz stimulation with either monophasic or biphasic pulses evoked MEPs that gradually increased in amplitude with the later MEPs being significantly larger than the earlier ones. Monophasic rTMS showed much more facilitation than biphasic stimulation, particularly at 3Hz. Stimulation at the foramen magnum level at 3Hz elicited fairly constant MEPs. The enhancement of cortical MEPs with no changes of responses to foramen magnum level stimulation suggests that the facilitation occurred at the motor cortex. We hypothesize that monophasic TMS has a stronger short-term effect during repetitive stimulation than biphasic TMS because monophasic pulses preferentially activate one population of neurons oriented in the same direction so that their effects readily summate. Biphasic pulses in contrast may activate several different populations of neurons (both facilitatory and inhibitory) so that summation of the effects is not so clear as with monophasic pulses. When single stimuli are applied, however, biphasic TMS is thought to be more powerful than monophasic TMS because the peak-to-peak amplitude of stimulus pulse is higher and its duration is

  16. Ru-Catalyzed Estragole Isomerization under Homogeneous and Ionic Liquid Biphasic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The isomerization of estragole to trans-anethole is an important reaction and is industrially performed using an excess of NaOH or KOH in ethanol at high temperatures with very low selectivity. Simple Ru-based transition-metal complexes, under homogeneous, ionic liquid (IL)-supported (biphasic) and “solventless” conditions, can be used for this reaction. The selectivity of this reaction is more sensitive to the solvent/support used than the ligands associated with the metal catalyst. Thus, under the optimized reaction conditions, 100% conversion can be achieved in the estragole isomerization, using as little as 4 × 10–3 mol % (40 ppm) of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in toluene, reflecting a total turnover number (TON) of 25 000 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 500 min–1 at 80 °C. Using a dimeric Ru precursor, [RuCl(μ-Cl)(η3:η3-C10H16)]2, in ethanol associated with P(OEt)3, a TON of 10 000 and a TOF of 125 min–1 are obtained with 100% conversion and 99% selectivity. These two Ru catalytic systems can be transposed to biphasic IL systems by using ionic-tagged P-ligands such as 1-(3-(diphenylphosphanyl)propyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide immobilized in 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide with up to 99% selectivity and almost complete estragole conversion. However, the reaction is much slower than that performed under solventless or homogeneous conditions. The use of ionic-tagged ligands significantly reduces the Ru leaching to the organic phase, compared to that in reactions performed under homogeneous conditions, where the catalytic system loses catalytic performance after the second recycling. Detailed kinetic investigations of the reaction catalyzed by [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] indicate that a simplified kinetic model (a monomolecular reversible first-order reaction) is adequate for fitting the homogeneous reaction at 80 °C and under biphasic conditions. However, the kinetics of

  17. COMPARISON OF LOW-ENERGY VERSUS HIGH-ENERGY BIPHASIC DEFIBRILLATION SHOCKS FOLLOWING PROLONGED VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P.; Melnick, Sharon B.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Since the initial development of the defibrillator, there has been concern that, while delivery of a large electric shock would stop fibrillation, it would also cause damage to the heart. This concern has been raised again with the development of the biphasic defibrillator. Objective To compare defibrillation efficacy, postshock cardiac function, and troponin I levels following 150-J and 360-J shocks. Methods Nineteen swine were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented with pressure catheters in the left ventricle, aorta, and right atrium. The animals were fibrillated for 6 minutes, followed by defibrillation with either low-energy (n = 8) or high-energy (n = 11) shocks. After defibrillation, chest compressions were initiated and continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Epinephrine, 0.01 mg/kg every 3 minutes, was given for arterial blood pressure <50 mmHg. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded for four hours. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed and troponin I levels were measured at baseline and four hours following ventricular fibrillation (VF). Results Survival rates at four hours were not different between the two groups (low-energy, 5 of 8; high-energy, 7 of 11). Results for arterial blood pressure, positive dP/dt (first derivative of pressure measured over time, a measure of left ventricular contractility), and negative dP/dt at the time of lowest arterial blood pressure (ABP) following ROSC were not different between the two groups (p = not significant [NS]), but were lower than at baseline. All hemodynamic measures returned to baseline by four hours. Ejection fractions, stroke volumes, and cardiac outputs were not different between the two groups at four hours. Troponin I levels at four hours were not different between the two groups (12 ± 11 ng/mL versus 21 ± 26 ng/mL, p = NS) but were higher at four hours than at baseline (19 ± 19 ng/mL versus 0.8 ± 0.5 ng/mL, p < 0.05, groups combined). Conclusion Biphasic

  18. [An alternative biphasic nutrient medium for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy Gökmen, Ayşegül; Öncel, Koray; Özdemir, Oğuz Alp; Pektaş, Bayram; Çavuş, İbrahim; Güngör, Serdar; Uzun, Berrin; Kaya, Selçuk; Karaca, Şemsettin; Yula, Erkan; Demirci, Mustafa; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by the Leishmania spp. parasites, is a disease characterized by nodulo-ulcerative lesions in the skin. CL is transmitted to humans by infected sandflies during blood sucking, and is endemic in about 98 countries over the world. The demonstration of amastigotes via microscopic examination, and the growth of promastigotes in NNN (Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle) medium are gold standard methods for laboratory diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the biphasic NNN medium that is frequently used in routine laboratories with the biphasic nutrient medium that can be prepared easily in microbiology laboratories, for the growth of promastigotes. In the study, the aspiration fluid sample was used as clinical sample which was obtained from the skin lesion of a 47-year-old female patient admitted to İzmir Katip Celebi Ataturk Education and Research Hospital dermatology outpatient clinic and pre-diagnosed as CL. The aspirate sample taken from the lesion was evaluated with microscopy, cultivation in two different media and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) methods. In microscopic examination Leishmania amastigotes were observed in Giemsa-stained smears prepared from the aspiration fluid. In Rt-PCR performed by using specific primers and probes targeting ITS1 region of Leishmania parasite, a melting-curve compatible with L.tropica was detected. For cultivation, triple inoculations of the aspirate sample into NNN (NNN + RPMI 1640 + 10% fetal calf serum) and nutrient media (nutrient agar + nutrient broth + 10% fetal calf serum) were used. The cultures were incubated at 27°C for 10 days, and the number of propagated promastigotes were counted on the third, seventh and tenth days. The growth of Leishmania promastigotes was detected in both media on the third day. The number of promastigotes grown in NNN medium on the third, seventh and tenth days were 105/ml, 106/ml and 108/ml, respectively. Those values in nutrient medium were 106/ml

  19. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou, E-mail: elkammounirhimou@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lezama, Luis [Depto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kraus, Ludek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The microwave absorption phenomena of single and biphase magnetic microwires with soft magnetic behavior have been investigated as a function of DC applied magnetic field using two alternative techniques: (i) absorption measurements in the temperature range of 4–300 K using a spectrometer operating at X-band frequency, at 9.5 GHz, and (ii) room-temperature, RT, ferromagnetic resonance measurements in a network analyzer in the frequency range up to 20 GHz. Complementary low-frequency magnetic characterization was performed in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Studies have been performed for 8 μm diameter small-magnetostriction amorphous CoFeSiB single-phase microwire, coated by micrometric Pyrex layer, and after electroplating an external shell, 2 µm or 4 µm thick, of FeNi alloys. For single phase CoFeSiB microwire, a single absorption is observed, whose DC field dependence of resonance frequency at RT fits to a Kittel-law behavior for in-plane magnetized thin film. The temperature dependence behavior shows a monotonic increase in the resonance field, H{sub r}, with temperature. A parallel reduction of the circular anisotropy field, H{sub K}, is deduced from the temperature dependence of hysteresis loops. For biphase, CoFeSiB/FeNi, microwires, the absorption phenomena at RT also follow the Kittel condition. The observed opposite evolution with temperature of resonance field, H{sub r}, in 2 and 4 µm thick FeNi samples is interpreted considering the opposite sign of magnetostriction of the respective FeNi layers. The stress-induced magnetic anisotropy field, H{sub K}, in the FeNi shell is deduced to change sign at around 130 K. - Highlights: • A single absorption phenomenon is observed for single phase CoFeSiB. • The T dependence of the microwave behavior shows a monotonic increase of H{sub r} with T. • The absorption at RT follows the Kittel condition for biphase CoFe/FeNi microwires. • The T dependence of resonant field of CoFe/FeNi is interpreted to be

  20. Application of the e-KT-UNIFAC Model for the Improved and Innovative Design of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kim, Sun H.; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic reacting systems contain effectively immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases in which reactants, products, and catalysts can partition. These conditions allow novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product(s) separation. A systematic modeli...... of epoxidation of palm oil and production of furan derivatives....

  1. Role of apparent pKa of carboxylic acids in lipase-catalyzed esterifications in biphasic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez de Maria, Pablo; Fernandez-Alvaro, Elena; ten Kate, Antoon; Bargeman, Gerrald

    2009-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed esterifications in biphasic media (heptane–water, 1:1) were conducted by using Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) as biocatalyst. Different carboxylic acids (from acetic to lauric) were thus esterified with 1-butanol at different pH values (2–10). For all carboxylic acids tested,

  2. Chiral separation of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography with biphasic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    This work concentrates on a novel chiral separation technology named biphasic recognition applied to resolution of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic chiral recognition HSCCC was performed by adding lipophilic (−)-2-ethylhexyl tartrate in the organic stationary phase and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the aqueous mobile phase, which preferentially recognized the (−)-enantiomer and (+)-enantiomer, respectively. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether-water (9:1:10, v/v/v) with the above chiral selectors was selected according to the partition coefficient and separation factor of the target enantiomers. Various parameters involved in the chiral separation were investigated, namely the types of the chiral selector (CS); the concentration of each chiral selector; pH of the mobile phase; and the separation temperature. The mechanism involved in this biphasic recognition chiral separation by HSCCC was discussed. Langmuirian isotherm was employed to estimate the loading limits for each chiral selector. The overall experimental results show that the HSCCC separation of enantiomer based on biphasic recognition is much more efficient than the traditional monophasic recognition chiral separation, since it utilizes the cooperation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic chiral selectors. PMID:20303497

  3. Kinetic studies on the Rhizomucor miehei lipase catalyzed esterification reaction of oleic acid with 1-butanol in a biphasic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G.N.; Winkelman, J.G.M.; de Vries, Johannes; Heeres, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the esterification of oleic acid with 1 -butanol catalyzed by free Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic system was studied in a batch reactor. The reaction appeared to proceed via a Ping Pong bi-bi mechanism with I -butanol inhibition. The kinetic constants of the model were

  4. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  5. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  6. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre...

  7. The DFNA10 phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, E. de; Huygen, P.L.M.; Wayne, S.; Smith, R.J.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the DFNA10 phenotype based on data from 25 hearing-impaired persons coming from a large American pedigree segregating for deafness at the DFNA10 locus (chromosome 6q22.3-23.2). Cross-sectional analysis of air conduction threshold-on-age data from all available

  8. Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

  9. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  10. Osteoinduction of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds in a nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramond, T; Corre, P; Borget, P; Moreau, F; Guicheux, J; Daculsi, G; Weiss, P

    2014-10-01

    Bioceramics combined with isolated stem cells, or with total bone marrow, constitute the main strategies under consideration in the field of bone tissue engineering. In the present preclinical study, two biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds currently on the market, MBCP® and MBCP+®, with different hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate ratio, were implanted ectopically in a nude mouse model. These scaffolds were supplemented either with human mesenchymal stromal cells, or with human total bone marrow, or rat total bone marrow. Biomaterials alone were found to have potentially low, but non-zero, osteoinductive properties, while biomaterials associated with total bone marrow consistently improved osteoinduction in comparison with high concentrations of isolated human stromal cells. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Effect of nanostructure on osteoinduction of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liao, Xiaoling; Zheng, Li; Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Zhe; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2012-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of the nanostructure of calcium phosphate ceramics on osteoinductive potential, porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with a nano- or submicron structure were prepared via microwave sintering and compared to conventional BCP ceramics. The selective protein adsorption of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme (LSZ) and the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro was investigated. Porous BCP nanoceramics showed higher ability to adsorb proteins, especially low molecular weight protein of LSZ, than conventional BCP ceramics, and the BCP nanoceramics promoted bone sialoprotein expression more than conventional BCP did. Further in vivo study to investigate ectopic bone formation and bone repair efficiency proved the highly osteoinductive potential of nanostructured BCP ceramics. The results suggest that nanostructured BCP ceramics have the potential to become a new generation of bioceramics for bone tissue engineering grafts. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Deok-Won; Kang, Eun Young; Jeong, Won Jae; Lee, Boram; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Hak Jun; Park, Kyeongsoon; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN-) eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation. PMID:26221587

  13. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  14. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous; Obtencao de ceramicas bifasicas densas e porosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S., E-mail: eliria@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Silva, K.L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Rezende, M.E. [Universidade Sao Francisco, Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Fraga, A.F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Marques, R.F.C. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  15. A new biphasic osteoinductive calcium composite material with a negative Zeta potential for bone augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewski Oliver

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants.

  16. Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: a tumor with biphasic morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agha, F.P.; Keren, D.F.

    1985-09-01

    Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor. It is characterized by a large bulky mass in the middle third of the esophagus with a lobulated surface and local expansion of the esophagus. This lesion may be pedunculated and cause relatively little obstruction despite its bulk. The current view, based on ultrastructure and immunohistochemical evidence, has confirmed that the sarcomatous component of the squamous cell carcinoma originates from mesenchymal metaplasia of squamous cells. On the basis of this evidence and clinical behavior, it seems appropriate to consider carcinosarcoma and pseudosarcoma as equivalents and as variants of squamous cell carcinoma. Four patients with spindle-cell squamous carcinoma, an unusual subset of squamous carcinoma, are described, and the salient radiographic and pathologic features of this disorder's distinctive biphasic morphology are discussed.

  17. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-09

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium salts of polyoxometalate anions: Fluorous biphasic oxidation catalysis with and without fluorous solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayan, Galia; Fish, Richard H.; Neumann, Ronny

    2003-05-28

    Perfluorinated quaternary ammonium cations, [CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 7}(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sub 3}CH{sub 3}N{sup +} (RFN{sup +}), were synthesized and used as counter cations for the [WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 12-} (M = Mn(II), Zn(II)), polyoxometalate. The (RFN{sup +}){sub 12}[WZnM{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(ZnW9O{sub 34}){sub 2}] compounds were fluorous biphasic catalysts for alcohol and alkenol oxidation, and alkene epoxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Reaction protocols with or without a fluorous solvent were tested. The catalytic activity and selectivity was affected both by the hydrophobicity of the solvent and the substrate.

  19. A biphasic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones using a simplified packed-bed microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bogdan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the preparation and characterization of a simplified packed-bed microreactor using an immobilized TEMPO catalyst shown to oxidize primary and secondary alcohols via the biphasic Anelli-Montanari protocol. Oxidations occurred in high yields with great stability over time. We observed that plugs of aqueous oxidant and organic alcohol entered the reactor as plugs but merged into an emulsion on the packed-bed. The emulsion coalesced into larger plugs upon exiting the reactor, leaving the organic product separate from the aqueous by-products. Furthermore, the microreactor oxidized a wide range of alcohols and remained active in excess of 100 trials without showing any loss of catalytic activity.

  20. Tunable biphasic drug release from ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports a new type of drug-loaded core-shell nanofibers that provide tunable biphasic release of quercetin. The nanofibers were fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process, in which a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated concentric spinneret was employed. Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as the polymer matrices to form the shell and core parts of the nanofibers, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanofibers had linear morphologies and core-shell structures. The quercetin was found to be present in the nanofibers in the amorphous physical status, on the basis of X-ray diffraction results. In vitro release profiles showed that the PVP shell very rapidly freed its drug cargo into the solution, while the EC core provided the succedent sustained release. Variation of the drug loading permitted the release profiles to be tuned. PMID:24940180

  1. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Koval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases, a PTR greater than 1:1 is called APRV (airway pressure release ventilation. In patients with ARDS maintained spontaneous breathing with BIPAP resulted in lower venous admixture and better arterial blood oxygenation as compared with A/C. Only a few studies with BIPAP have been performed in newborn and infants until now. We studied the use of BIPAP in newborn (body mass > 3kg and randomised 40 patients with respiratory failure for ventilation with BIPAP (n=20 or conventional mechanical ventilatory support (assist-control A/C — synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV (n=20. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM were collected for each patient. Fentanyl, diazepam, GABA were used as sedatives and adjusted in accordance with the Cook scale. We compared ventilatory parameters, information pertaining to pulmonary function and oxygen delivery, cardiac output, additional descriptors of organ system functions, duration and complications of ventilation and number and dosages of sedatives administered. All the patients that we intended to ventilate with BIPAP were successfully ventilated, we can conclude that biphasic ventilatory support suitable mode of ventilation for newborn with a decreased need of analgetics and sedatives than A/C. Finally, BIPAP is an a effective safe, and easy to use for personal mode of mechanical ventilatory support in newborn. 

  2. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.

  3. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  4. Charge-burping theory correctly predicts optimal ratios of phase duration for biphasic defibrillation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, C D; Fan, W; Brewer, J E

    1996-11-01

    For biphasic waveforms, it is accepted that the ratio of the duration of phase 2 to the duration of phase 1 (phase-duration ratio) should be theory postulates that the beneficial effects of phase 2 are maximal when it completely removes the charge delivered by phase 1. It predicts that the phase-duration ratio should be defibrillation system (tau s) exceeds the time constant of the cell membrane (tau m) but > 1 when tau s defibrillator capacitance and pathway resistance). In a canine model of transvenous defibrillation (n = 8), we determined stored-energy defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) for biphasic waveforms from conventional capacitors (140 microF. tau s = 7.1 +/- 0.8 ms) and very small capacitors (40 microF. tau s = 2.0 +/- 0.2 ms). Each capacitance was tested with phase-duration ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3. The duration of phase 1 approximated the optimal monophasic waveform, 6.3 +/- 0.7 ms for 140-microF waveforms and 2.8 +/- 0.2 ms for 40-microF waveforms. For 140-microF waveforms, the DFT was lower for phase-duration ratios 1 (P = .0003). The reverse was true for 40-microF capacitors (P = .0008). There was a significant interaction between the effects of capacitance and phase-duration ratio on DFT (P = .0002). The lowest DFT for 40-microF waveforms was less than the lowest DFT for 140-microF waveforms (4.9 +/- 2.5 versus 6.4 +/- 2.4 J, P 1 for small capacitors. This supports the predictions of the charge-burping theory.

  5. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  6. Seizure characteristics of epilepsy in childhood after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain

  7. [Histologic and biomechanic evaluation of posterolateral arthrodesis using a biphasic ceramic of calcium phosphate as bone substitute. Experimental study with sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigui, P; Hardouin, P

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of a macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic was studied after laterovertebral arthrodesis in sheep. A ceramic with a TCP/HAP ratio of 35/65 was compared with autologous bone graft in an histomorphometric and biomechanical point of view. Quantitative analysis of the results indicated that the biphasic ceramic allows an arthrodesis after 12 months, although control graft is effective after six months. A large decrease of flexibility in all directions was obtained with the ceramic, similarly to autologous graft. No nonfusion case was observed. In conditions very close to the human surgery, a posterolateral fusion can be obtained using biphasic phosphate ceramic as bone substitute.

  8. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    Biphasic nanoparticle mixtures composed of attractive and repulsive colloidal species enable the direct-write assembly of 3D structures with much finer features than those produced by pure colloidal gels. These mixtures rely on the use of comb polymer dispersants to render one particle population stable, while the other population is attractive. In this thesis, we systematically investigate the effects of comb polymer architecture and particle size ratio on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks with the overarching aim of further advancing the direct-write assembly of 3D colloidal structures. We first investigated the effects of both pure polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and comb polymer dispersants composed of a PMAA backbone with methoxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (mPEO) teeth of varying molecular weights on the stability of barium titanate (BaTiO 3) suspensions. While each dispersant imparts stability to BaTiO 3 nanoparticles at low ionic strength (teeth (MWteeth = 2000) provides stability at higher ionic strengths over a broad range of particle sizes and counterion valencies. These results provide guidelines for tailoring the molecular architecture and functionality of comb polymer dispersants for optimal stabilization of the repulsive particle population within the biphasic inks. Next, particle size effects on the rheological properties of biphasic nanoparticle suspensions are studied. Shear elastic modulus, shear yield stress, and compressive yield stress are measured for mixtures of varying total volume fraction, attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction, and particle size ratio between attractive and repulsive species. Our observations indicate that the repulsive particles hinder the formation of the attractive gel network. The time required for shear elastic modulus to approach a steady-state value increases with the fraction of repulsive species. Furthermore, this behavior becomes more significant with increasing

  9. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of biphasic insulin Aspart 70 (BIAsp 70) are significantly different from those of biphasic insulin Aspart 30 (BIAsp 30).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, S; Tusek, C; Heinemann, L; Friberg, H H; Heise, T

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of two different formulations of premixed analogue (mixed biphasic insulin aspart [BIAsp]), BIAsp 30 (30 % soluble insulin aspart [IAsp] and 70 % protaminated IAsp) and BIAsp 70 (70 % soluble IAsp and 30 % protaminated IAsp), in patients with type 1 diabetes using a 12-hour euglycaemic clamp technique. In this randomised, double-blind, two-period crossover trial, 27 patients with type 1 diabetes received 7 days of treatment with BIAsp 30 three times daily (TID) and 7 days of treatment with BIAsp 70 TID, with a 2 - 6 week washout period between treatment periods. At the start (day 1) and end (day 8) of each treatment period, 12-hour serum IAsp profiles and glucose infusion rate (GIR) profiles were determined during an overnight euglycaemic clamp following subcutaneous (sc) administration of a single 0.3 U/kg dose of trial insulin. All pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoints were derived from individual serum IAsp and GIR profiles. The larger fraction of soluble IAsp in BIAsp 70 compared with BIAsp 30 resulted in greater metabolic effect during the initial post-dosing phase (0 - 6 hours) and decreased activity during the late phase (6 - 12 hours). On day 8, AUC (GIR 0 - 6 hours) was 16 % greater for BIAsp 70 than for BIAsp 30 (p = 0.016) and AUC (GIR 6 - 12 hours) was 90 % (p IAsp in BIAsp 30. Overall metabolic effect (AUC (GIR 0 - 12 hours)) was similar for both insulin formulations on day 8 (Ratio, BIAsp 30:BIAsp 70 = 1.04, p = 0.538). Likewise, the larger fraction of soluble IAsp in BIAsp 70 compared with BIAsp 30 resulted in greater exposure to IAsp during the initial post-dosing phase (0 - 6 hours) and a smaller exposure to IAsp during the late phase (6 - 12 hours). On day 8, AUC (IAsp 0 - 6 hours) was 59 % (p IAsp 6 - 12 hours) was 61 % (p IAsp in BIAsp 30. However, the overall IAsp exposure (AUC 0 - 12 hours) on day 8 was significantly greater for BIAsp 70 than for BIAsp 30 (Ratio, BIAsp 30

  10. Sinus Floor Augmentation Comparing an In Situ Hardening Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate) Bone Graft Substitute with a Particulate Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate) Bone Graft Substitute: An Experimental Study in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildburger, Angelika; Bubalo, Vladimir; Magyar, Marton; Nagursky, Heiner; Jakse, Norbert; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Sauerbier, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present split-mouth study in sheep was to assess the influence of in situ hardening properties of a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bone graft substitute (BGS) (ratio hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate = 60/40) compared with a particulate BGS with the same biphasic core-granule composition without in situ hardening properties on sinus floor augmentation. Therefore, bilateral sinus floor augmentation was performed in eight sheep. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-coated, in situ hardening biphasic BGS (PLGA-NMP [N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone]-BCP) was placed at the test site, and a particulate biphasic BGS without PLGA coating (BCP) was used for the contralateral site as a control. Animals were sacrificed after 21 weeks. Sinus augmentation sites were analyzed histologically. The volume was analyzed by computed tomography. Histomorphometric parameters were assessed for the 12 and 21 weeks' time points. Slopes of new bone formation over time were compared with a linear growth regression model. Bone formation after 12 and 21 weeks of healing was 8.94% (±3.74) and 19.82% (±6.29) for PLGA-NMP-BCP and 7.00% (±2.58) and 14.38% (±4.51) for BCP, respectively. The bone growth rate for PLGA-NMP-BCP was higher than the growth rate for BCP (probability 97.5%). The total fraction of calcified hard tissue (% bone fraction + % biomaterial) was around 46% for both tested biomaterials, 21 weeks after sinus floor augmentation. The in situ hardening BGS (PLGA-NMP-BCP) performed better than the particulate material (BCP) in terms of bone formation rate. The in situ hardening properties of the PLGA-NMP-BCP material mediated by the PLGA coating and NMP solution as plasticizer had no negative influence on the bone formation.

  11. Square biphasic pulse deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: The BiP tremor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Sol; Almeida, Leonardo; Shahgholi, Leili; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Roper, Jaimie; Hass, Chris J; Akbar, Umer; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Raike, Robert S; Okun, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) utilizes regular, high frequency pulses to treat medication-refractory symptoms in essential tremor (ET). Modifications of DBS pulse shape to achieve improved effectiveness is a promising approach. The current study assessed the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of square biphasic pulse shaping as an alternative to conventional ET DBS. This pilot study compared biphasic pulses (BiP) versus conventional DBS pulses (ClinDBS). Eleven ET subjects with clinically optimized ventralis intermedius nucleus DBS were enrolled. Objective measures were obtained over 3 h while ON BiP stimulation. There was observed benefit in the Fahn-Tolosa Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) for BiP conditions when compared to the DBS off condition and to ClinDBS setting. Total TRS scores during the DBS OFF condition (28.5 IQR = 24.5-35.25) were significantly higher than the other time points. Following active DBS, TRS improved to (20 IQR = 13.8-24.3) at ClinDBS setting and to (16.5 IQR = 12-20.75) at the 3 h period ON BiP stimulation (p = 0.001). Accelerometer recordings revealed improvement in tremor at rest (χ 2  = 16.1, p = 0.006), posture (χ 2  = 15.9, p = 0.007) and with action (χ 2  = 32.1, p=<0.001) when comparing median total scores at ClinDBS and OFF DBS conditions to 3 h ON BiP stimulation. There were no adverse effects and gait was not impacted. BiP was safe, tolerable and effective on the tremor symptoms when tested up to 3 h. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a novel DBS waveform in the clinic setting. Larger prospective studies with longer clinical follow-up will be required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, T. Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electroanalytical chemistry was employed to assess cesium ion extraction in biphasic systems. • Water|ionic liquid systems are much more efficient than traditional water|organic ones. • The metal ion to ligand stoichiometry and overall complexation constant were determined. • The stoichiometry was confirmed by mass spectrometry. • The ligand CMPO used in TRUEX processes was found to be effective for the FIT. - Abstract: A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P 66614 + ) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB − ) was employed within a water|P 66614 TB (w|P 66614 TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. 137 Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N′-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6 × 10 11 at the w|P 66614 TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ α , with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ α of 2 and 8.2 × 10 7 , respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass

  13. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  14. Selective use of the biphasic-contrast barium enema study for evaluation of colonic lesions: Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr.; Riddervold, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to determine the value of selective use of the biphasic contrast technique for a variety of indications. In a series of 571 double-contrast barium enema examinations, the examination was immediately followed by a single-contrast study in 85 cases. The biphasic procedure was performed to reexamine a colonic segment that was poorly evaluated initially because of diverticulosis (eta = 35), incomplete filling (eta = 28), or poor mucosal coating (eta = 26); or to verify or exclude a possible lesion identified during the double-contrast examination (eta = 22). The single-contrast study confirmed five polyps and excluded lesions in 17 cases with suspected polyps (eta = 5), strictures (eta = 4), and spasm (eta = 8). Six polyps not visualized on the double-contrast examination were detected with the single-contrast procedure

  15. Evaluation of a Unique Defibrillation Unit with Dual-Vector Biphasic Waveform Capabilities: Towards a Miniaturized Defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hideo; Desimone, Christopher V; Killu, Ammar M; Gilles, Emily J; Tri, Jason; Asirvatham, Roshini; Ladewig, Dejae J; Suddendorf, Scott H; Powers, Joanne M; Wood-Wentz, Christina M; Gray, Peter D; Raymond, Douglas M; Savage, Shelley J; Savage, Walter T; Bruce, Charles J; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Friedman, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Automated external defibrillators can provide life-saving therapies to treat ventricular fibrillation. We developed a prototype unit that can deliver a unique shock waveform produced by four independent capacitors that is delivered through two shock vectors, with the rationale of providing more robust shock pathways during emergent defibrillation. We describe the initial testing and feasibility of this unique defibrillation unit, features of which may enable downsizing of current defibrillator devices. We tested our defibrillation unit in four large animal models (two canine and two swine) under general anesthesia. Experimental defibrillation thresholds (DFT) were obtained by delivery of a unique waveform shock pulse via a dual-vector pathway with four defibrillation pads (placed across the chest). DFTs were measured and compared with those of a commercially available biphasic defibrillator (Zoll M series, Zoll Medical, Chelmsford, MA, USA) tested in two different vectors. Shocks were delivered after 10 seconds of stable ventricular fibrillation and the output characteristics and shock outcome recorded. Each defibrillation series used a step-down to failure protocol to define the defibrillation threshold. A total of 96 shocks were delivered during ventricular fibrillation in four large animals. In comparison to the Zoll M series, which delivered a single-vector, biphasic shock, the energy required for successful defibrillation using the unique dual-vector biphasic waveform did not differ significantly (P = 0.65). Our early findings support the feasibility of a unique external defibrillation unit using a dual-vector biphasic waveform approach. This warrants further study to leverage this unique concept and work toward a miniaturized, portable shock delivery system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Adibi, Atoosa; Shahbazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT). Objectives We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen. Patients and Methods Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast materi...

  17. Design of Surface-Active Artificial Enzyme Particles to Stabilize Pickering Emulsions for High-Performance Biphasic Biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaowei; Zhao, Chuanqi; Ju, Enguo; Ji, Haiwei; Ren, Jinsong; Binks, Bernard P; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-02-24

    Surface-active artificial enzymes (SAEs) are designed and constructed by a general and novel strategy. These SAEs can simultaneously stabilize Pickering emulsions and catalyze biphasic biotransformation with superior enzymatic stability and good re-usability; for example, for the interfacial conversion of hydrophobic p-nitrophenyl butyrate into yellow water-soluble p-nitrophenolate catalyzed by esterase-mimic SAE. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Biphasic-to-monophasic successive Co-assembly approach to yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Meng; Teng, Zhaogang; Su, Xiaodan; Tao, Jun; Hao, Qing; Ma, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yunlei; Li, Yanjiao; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Junjie; Lu, Guangming; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report a facile biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly approach to synthesize yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). The yolk-shell structured MONs possess ethane-bridged frameworks, high surface area (1023m 2 g -1 ), radially oriented mesochannels (3.8nm), large pore volume (0.99cm 3 g -1 ), and tunable diameter (147-324nm) and shell thickness (23-53nm). The biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly method is intrinsically simple and requires neither sacrificial templates nor multistep coating processes. The key of the method is that the interiors of the mesostructured organosilica nanospheres grown in the biphasic system have a lower condensation degree and Si-C-C-Si species content than the outer shells formed in the monophasic system. Thus, the interior layer is attracted by OH -1 anions and dissolved in the monophasic system, forming the yolk-shell structures. In vitro cytotoxicity and haemolysis assays demonstrate that the ethane-bridged yolk-shell MONs possess excellent biocompatibility. Furthermore, the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) is loaded into the yolk-shell MONs to kill drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR human breast cancer cells. Compared with free DOX and DOX-loaded typical MONs, the DOX-loaded yolk-shell MONs have higher chemotherapeutic efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells, suggesting the great potential of yolk-shell MONs synthesized via the biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly approach in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biphasic regulation of the transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) is essential for tapetum and pollen development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alison C; Pearce, Simon; Band, Leah R; Yang, Caiyun; Ferjentsikova, Ivana; King, John; Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing; Wilson, Zoe A

    2017-01-01

    Viable pollen is essential for plant reproduction and crop yield. Its production requires coordinated expression at specific stages during anther development, involving early meiosis-associated events and late pollen wall formation. The ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) transcription factor is a master regulator of sporopollenin biosynthesis, secretion and pollen wall formation in Arabidopsis. Here we show that it has complex regulation and additional essential roles earlier in pollen formation. An inducible-AMS reporter was created for functional rescue, protein expression pattern analysis, and to distinguish between direct and indirect targets. Mathematical modelling was used to create regulatory networks based on wild-type RNA and protein expression. Dual activity of AMS was defined by biphasic protein expression in anther tapetal cells, with an initial peak around pollen meiosis and then later during pollen wall development. Direct AMS-regulated targets exhibit temporal regulation, indicating that additional factors are associated with their regulation. We demonstrate that AMS biphasic expression is essential for pollen development, and defines distinct functional activities during early and late pollen development. Mathematical modelling suggests that AMS may competitively form a protein complex with other tapetum-expressed transcription factors, and that biphasic regulation is due to repression of upstream regulators and promotion of AMS protein degradation. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Prinz

    Full Text Available The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  2. Design and development of a low-cost biphasic charge-balanced functional electric stimulator and its clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendkar, Chandrashekhar; Lenka, Prasanna K; Biswas, Abhishek; Kumar, Ratnesh; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2015-10-01

    Functional electric stimulators that produce near-ideal, charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveforms with interphase delay are considered safer and more efficacious than conventional stimulators. An indigenously designed, low-cost, portable FES device named InStim is developed. It features a charge-balanced biphasic single channel. The authors present the complete design, mathematical analysis of the circuit and the clinical evaluation of the device. The developed circuit was tested on stroke patients affected by foot drop problems. It was tested both under laboratory conditions and in clinical settings. The key building blocks of this circuit are low dropout regulators, a DC-DC voltage booster and a single high-power current source OP-Amp with current-limiting capabilities. This allows the device to deliver high-voltage, constant current, biphasic pulses without the use of a bulky step-up transformer. The advantages of the proposed design over the currently existing devices include improved safety features (zero DC current, current-limiting mechanism and safe pulses), waveform morphology that causes less muscle fatigue, cost-effectiveness and compact power-efficient circuit design with minimal components. The device is also capable of producing appropriate ankle dorsiflexion in patients having foot drop problems of various Medical Research Council scale grades.

  3. Modulating the Partitioning of Microparticles in a Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Dextran (DEX Aqueous Biphasic System by Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kyu Byun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs or aqueous biphasic systems are useful for biological separation/preparation and cell micropatterning. Specifically, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs are not harmful to cells or biomaterials; therefore, they have been used to partition and isolate these materials from others. In this study, we suggest chemically modifying the surface of target materials (micro/nanoparticles, for example with polymers, such as polyethylene glycol and dextran, which are the same polymer solutes as those in the ATPS. As a simple model, we chemically coated polyethylene glycol or dextran to the surface of polystyrene magnetic particles and observed selective partitioning of the surface modified particles to the phase in which the same polymer solutes are dominant. This approach follows the principle “like dissolves like” and can be expanded to other aqueous biphasic or multiphasic systems while consuming fewer chemicals than the conventional modulation of hydrophobicities of solute polymers to control partitioning in aqueous biphasic or multiphasic systems.

  4. A Biphasic Pleural Tumor with Features of an Epithelioid and Small Cell Mesothelioma: Morphologic and Molecular Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hackman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesotheliomas are generally classified into epithelioid, sarcomatoid, desmoplastic, and biphasic types with rare reports of a small cell form. These small cell variants display some morphologic overlap with desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs which generally occur within the abdominal cavity of young males and are defined by a characteristic t(11;22(p13;q12 translocation. However, there are rare reports of DSRCTs lacking this translocation. We present a 78-year-old man with a pleura-based biphasic neoplasm with features of both epithelioid mesothelioma and a small cell blastema-like neoplasm. The epithelioid portion showed IHC reactivity for pan cytokeratin, CK5/6, D2-40, and calretinin and the small cell portion marked with CD99, pan cytokeratin, WT1, FLI1, S100, CD200, MyoD1, and CD15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for the t(11;22(p13;q12 translocation disclosed loss of the EWSR1 gene in 94% of tumor cell nuclei, but there was no evidence of the classic translocation. Array based-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH confirmed the tumor had numerous chromosome copy number losses, including 11p15.5-p11.12 and 22q12.1-q13.33, with loss of the EWSR1 and WT1 gene regions. Herein, we report novel complex CGH findings in a biphasic tumor and review the molecular genetic alterations in both mesothelioma and DSRCTs.

  5. Combined study of biphasic and zero-order release formulations with dissolution tests and ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Patrick; Li, Jing; Li, Ling Qiao; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-07-01

    In this study of multi-layer tablets, the dissolution of biphasic and zero-order release formulations has been studied primarily using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic imaging as well as UV-Vis detection of dissolved drug in the effluent stream and USP dissolution testing. Bilayer tablets, containing the excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose, were used for biphasic release with nicotinamide and buflomedil as model drugs. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging showed the changing component distributions during dissolution. Further experiments studied monolithic and barrier-layered tablets containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, MCC and buflomedil dissolving in a USP I apparatus. These data were compared with UV-Vis dissolution profiles obtained online with the ATR flow-through cell. ATR-FTIR imaging data of the biphasic formulations demonstrated that the drug release was affected by excipient ratios and effects such as interference between tablet sections. Tablets placed in the ATR-FTIR flow-through cell exhibited zero-order UV-Vis dissolution profile data at high flow rates, similar to barrier-layered formulations studied using the USP I apparatus. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging provided information regarding the dissolution mechanisms in multi-layer tablets which could assist formulation development. The ability to relate data from USP dissolution tests with that from the ATR-FTIR flow-through cell could help spectroscopic imaging complement dissolution methods used in the industry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy (α+β) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  7. Microstructure and phase evolution during the dealloying of bi-phase Al–Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T.T.; Gao, Y.L.; Zhang, Z.H.; Zhai, Q.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Selective leaching of α-Al(Ag) and Ag 2 Al occurs simultaneously during dealloying. ► Diffusion of Al and vacancy controlled mechanism dominate the etching of Ag 2 Al. ► The coarsening of ligaments in NPS follows a time dependence of d ∝t 2/5 . - Abstract: The chemical dealloying of bi-phase Al-35Ag alloy has been investigated within the parting limit. The dealloying of α-Al(Ag) and Ag 2 Al commenced simultaneously, and all α-Al(Ag) and part of Ag 2 Al were dealloyed, leaving residual Ag 2 Al to be dealloyed afterwards. The dealloying of the residual Ag 2 Al is associated with vacancy controlled mechanism and diffusion of Al atoms. It is revealed that the diffusions of the Al and Ag atoms during dealloying are significant. The Ag skeletons formed at the initial stage, and became coarsened gradually with a time dependence of d ∝t 2/5 , illustrating the vital role of diffusion of Ag atoms.

  8. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schachtner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

  9. Liquid / liquid biphasic electrochemistry in ultra-turrax dispersed acetonitrile / aqueous electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Amemiya, Fumihiro; Atobe, Mahito; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Unstable acetonitrile | aqueous emulsions generated in situ with ultra-turrax agitation are investigated for applications in dual-phase electrochemistry. Three modes of operation for liquid / liquid aqueous-organic electrochemical processes are demonstrated with no intentionally added electrolyte in the organic phase based on (i) the formation of a water-soluble product in the aqueous phase in the presence of the organic phase, (ii) the formation of a product and ion transfer at the liquid / liquid-electrode triple phase boundary, and (iii) the formation of a water-insoluble product in the aqueous phase which then transfers into the organic phase. A three-electrode electrolysis cell with ultra-turrax agitator is employed and characterised for acetonitrile / aqueous 2 M NaCl two phase electrolyte. Three redox systems are employed in order to quantify the electrolysis cell performance. The one-electron reduction of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ in the aqueous phase is employed to determine the rate of mass transport towards the electrode surface and the effect of the presence of the acetonitrile phase. The one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene in acetonitrile is employed to study triple phase boundary processes. Finally, the one-electron reduction of cobalticenium cations in the aqueous phase is employed to demonstrate the product transfer from the electrode surface into the organic phase. Potential applications in biphasic electrosynthesis are discussed.

  10. Effect of particle size on osteoinductive potential of microstructured biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liao; Barbieri, Davide; Zhou, Hongyu; de Bruijn, Joost D; Bao, Chongyun; Yuan, Huipin

    2015-06-01

    Material factors such as chemistry, surface microstructure and geometry have shown their influence on osteoinduction of calcium phosphate ceramics. Hereby we report that osteoinduction of a micro-structured biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) has a relation with the particle sizes. BCP particles with the size of 212-300 µm, 106-212 µm, 45-106 µm, and smaller than 45 µm were prepared and implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks. Histological evaluation of the explants showed abundant bone in all samples with particle size of 212-300 µm, 106-212 µm, and 45-106 µm, while no bone was seen in any sample having particle size smaller than 45 µm. Bone was formed as early as 3 weeks after implantation in implants having BCP particles bigger than 45 µm and the volume of the formed bone was similar among the implants with particles larger than 45 µm after 12 weeks implantation. The results herein show that a size limitation of microstructured calcium phosphate ceramic particles for osteoinduction. It is most likely that the particle size affect inductive bone formation via macroporous structures for body fluid infiltration, cell/tissue ingrowth and angiogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Possible biphasic sweating response during short-term heat acclimation protocol for tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antônio; Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Lima, Nilo Resende Viana; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sweat loss response during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives. Six healthy young male subjects, inhabitants of a tropical region, were heat acclimated by means of nine days of one-hour heat-exercise treatments (40+/-0 degrees C and 32+/-1% relative humidity; 50% (.)VO(2peak) on a cycle ergometer). On days 1 to 9 of heat acclimation whole-body sweat loss was calculated by body weight variation corrected for body surface area. On days 1 and 9 rectal temperature (T(re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) every 4 minutes. Heat acclimation was confirmed by reduced HR (day 1 rest: 77+/-5 b.min(-1); day 9 rest: 68+/-3 b.min(-1); day 1 final exercise: 161+/-15 b.min(-1); day 9 final exercise: 145+/-11 b.min(-1), p0.05) of the protocol. These findings are consistent with the heat acclimation induced adaptations and suggest a biphasic sweat response (an increase in the sweat rate in the middle of the protocol followed by return to initial values by the end of it) during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives.

  12. Sawtooth first phase biphasic defibrillation waveform: a comparison with standard waveform in clinical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Y; Brewer, J E; Mowrey, K A; Kroll, M W; Donohoo, A M; Wilkoff, B L; Tchou, P J

    1997-05-01

    A major limitation in a conventional truncated exponential waveform is the rapid drop in current that results in short duration of high current or longer duration with a lower average current. We hypothesized that increasing the first phase average current by boosting the decaying waveform prior to phase reversal may improve defibrillation efficacy. To better simulate a "rectangular" waveform during the first phase, a "sawtooth" defibrillation waveform was constructed using "parallel-series" switching of capacitances (each 30 microF) during the first phase. This permitted a boost in the voltage late in the first phase. This sawtooth biphasic waveform (sawtooth) was compared to two clinical waveforms: a 135-microF capacitance (control-1) and a 90-microF capacitance (control-2) waveform. Defibrillation threshold (DFT) parameters were evaluated in 13 anesthetized pig models using a system consisting of a transvenous right ventricular apex lead (anode) and a left pectoral "hot can" electrode (cathode) system. DFT was determined by a "down-up down-up" protocol. The stored energy for sawtooth, control-1, and control-2 was 10.5 +/- 2.8 J, 12.3 +/- 3.7 J*, and 12.2 +/- 2.8 J*, respectively (*P series" switching system of smaller capacitors can improve defibrillation efficacy. A higher average current in the first phase generated by such a waveform may contribute to more efficient defibrillation by facilitating myocyte capture.

  13. Interfacial Tensions of Aged Organic Aerosol Particle Mimics Using a Biphasic Microfluidic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Andrew R; Boyer, Hallie C; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-02-02

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are a major component of atmospheric particulate matter, yet their formation processes and ambient properties are not well understood. These complex particles often contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous- and organic-phase partitioning. Aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which ambient organic vapors interact with suspended particles. To accurately predict the evolution of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our understanding of aerosol interfaces. In this work, biphasic microscale flows are used to measure interfacial tension of reacting methylglyoxal, formaldehyde, and ammonium sulfate aqueous mixtures with a surrounding oil phase. Our experiments show a suppression of interfacial tension as a function of organic content that remains constant with reaction time for methylglyoxal-ammonium sulfate systems. We also reveal an unexpected time dependence of interfacial tension over a period of 48 h for ternary solutions of both methylglyoxal and formaldehyde in aqueous ammonium sulfate, indicating a more complicated behavior of surface activity where there is competition among dissolved organics. From these interfacial tension measurements, the morphology of aged atmospheric aerosols with internal liquid-liquid phase separation is inferred.

  14. Biphasic functions for the GDNF-Ret signaling pathway in chemosensory neuron development and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Christopher R; Shah, Amol A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Bradley, Robert M; Pierchala, Brian A

    2018-01-16

    The development of the taste system relies on the coordinated regulation of cues that direct the simultaneous development of both peripheral taste organs and innervating sensory ganglia, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we describe a novel, biphasic function for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the development and subsequent diversification of chemosensory neurons within the geniculate ganglion (GG). GDNF, acting through the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, regulates the expression of the chemosensory fate determinant Phox2b early in GG development. Ret -/- mice, but not Ret fx/fx ; Phox2b -Cre mice, display a profound loss of Phox2b expression with subsequent chemosensory innervation deficits, indicating that Ret is required for the initial amplification of Phox2b expression but not its maintenance. Ret expression is extinguished perinatally but reemerges postnatally in a subpopulation of large-diameter GG neurons expressing the mechanoreceptor marker NF200 and the GDNF coreceptor GFRα1. Intriguingly, we observed that ablation of these neurons in adult Ret -Cre/ER T2 ; Rosa26 LSL-DTA mice caused a specific loss of tactile, but not chemical or thermal, electrophysiological responses. Overall, the GDNF-Ret pathway exerts two critical and distinct functions in the peripheral taste system: embryonic chemosensory cell fate determination and the specification of lingual mechanoreceptors. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Laser engineered multilayer coating of biphasic calcium phosphate/titanium nanocomposite on metal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Martin Yi; Ye, Chang; Erasquin, Uriel Joseph; Huynh, Toan; Cai, Chengzhi; Cheng, Gary J

    2011-02-01

    In this work, laser coating of biphasic calcium phosphate/titanium (BCP/Ti) nanocomposite on Ti-6Al-4 V substrates was developed. A continuous wave neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used to form a robust multilayer of BCP/Ti nanocomposite starting from hydroxyapatite and titanium nanoparticles. In this process, low power coating is realized because of the strong laser-nanoparticle interaction and good sinterability of nanosized titanium. To guide the optimization of laser processing conditions for the coating process, a multiphysics model coupling electromagnetic module with heat transfer module was developed. This model was validated by laser coating experiments. Important features of the coated samples, including microstructures, chemical compositions, and interfacial bonding strength, were characterized. We found that a multilayer of BCP, consisting of 72% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 28% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and titanium nanocomposite was formed on Ti-6Al-4 V substrates. Significantly, the coating/substrate interfacial bonding strength was found to be two times higher than that of the commercial plasma sprayed coatings. Preliminary cell culture studies showed that the resultant BCP/Ti nanocomposite coating supported the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells.

  16. Enhanced refrigerant capacity in Gd-Al-Co microwires with a biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H. X.; Xing, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Sun, J. F.; Sánchez Llamazares, J. L.; Sánchez-Valdés, C. F.; Belliveau, H.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.; Wang, H.; Qin, F. X.

    2016-01-01

    A class of biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous Gd (50+5x) Al (30−5x) Co 20 (x = 0, 1, 2) microwires fabricated directly by melt-extraction is reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier function transform based analysis indicate the presence of a volume fraction (∼20%) of ∼10 nm sized nanocrystallities uniformly embedded in an amorphous matrix. The microwires possess excellent magnetocaloric properties, with large values of the isothermal entropy change (−ΔS M  ∼ 9.7 J kg −1 K −1 ), the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT ad  ∼ 5.2 K), and the refrigerant capacity (RC ∼ 654 J kg −1 ) for a field change of 5 T. The addition of Gd significantly alters T C while preserving large values of the ΔS M and RC. The nanocrystallites allow for enhanced RC as well as a broader operating temperature span of a magnetic bed for energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration.

  17. A formal model of asynchronous communication and its use in mechanically verifying a biphase mark protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. Strother

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal model of asynchronous communication as a function in the Boyer-Moore logic. The function transforms the signal stream generated by one processor into the signal stream consumed by an independently clocked processor. This transformation 'blurs' edges and 'dilates' time due to differences in the phases and rates of the two clocks and the communications delay. The model can be used quantitatively to derive concrete performance bounds on asynchronous communications at ISO protocol level 1 (physical level). We develop part of the reusable formal theory that permits the convenient application of the model. We use the theory to show that a biphase mark protocol can be used to send messages of arbitrary length between two asynchronous processors. We study two versions of the protocol, a conventional one which uses cells of size 32 cycles and an unconventional one which uses cells of size 18. We conjecture that the protocol can be proved to work under our model for smaller cell sizes and more divergent clock rates but the proofs would be harder.

  18. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold porosities on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulQader, Sarah T; Rahman, Ismail A; Thirumulu, Kannan P; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2016-04-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) of different porosities have been widely and successfully used as scaffolds with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, the effects of scaffold porosities on cell viability and differentiation of human dental pulp cells for dentin tissue regeneration are not well known. In this study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds of 20/80 hydroxyapatite to beta tricalcium phosphate ratio with a mean pore size of 300 μm were prepared into BCP1, BCP2, BCP3, and BCP4 of 25%, 50%, 65%, and 75% of total porosities, respectively. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of human dental pulp cells. The high alkalinity, and more calcium and phosphate ions release that were exhibited by BCP3 and BCP4 decreased the viability and proliferation of human dental pulp cells as compared to BCP1 and BCP2. BCP2 significantly increased both cell viability and cell proliferation. However, the cells cultured with BCP3 extract revealed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and high expression of odontoblast related genes, collagen type I alpha 1, dentin matrix protein-1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein as compared to that cultured with BCP1, BCP2, and BCP4 extracts. The results highlight the effect of different scaffold porosities on the cell microenvironment and demonstrate that BCP3 scaffold of 65% porosity can support human dental pulp cells differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Inverted supercritical carbon dioxide/aqueous biphasic media for rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeister, Katja; Franciò, Giancarlo; Gego, Volker H; Greiner, Lasse; Hugl, Herbert; Leitner, Walter

    2007-01-01

    An inverted supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2))/aqueous biphasic system has been used as reaction media for Rh-catalysed hydrogenation of polar substrates. Chiral and achiral CO(2)-philic catalysts were efficiently immobilised in scCO(2) as the stationary phase, while the polar substrates and products were contained in water as the mobile phase. Notably, product separation and catalyst recycling were conducted without depressurisation of the autoclave. The catalyst phase was reused several times with high conversion and product recovery of more than 85 %. Loss of rhodium and phosphorus by leaching were found to be below the detection limit after the first two cycles in the majority of repetitive experiments. The reaction conditions were optimised with a minimum of experiments by using a simplex algorithm in a sequential optimisation. Total turnover numbers (TTNs) of up to 1600, turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 340 h(-1) and ee's up to 99 % were obtained in repetitive batch operations. The scope of the devised catalytic system has been investigated and a semicontinuous reaction setup has been implemented. The chiral ligand (R,S)-3-H(2)F(6)-BINAPHOS allowed highly enantioselective hydrogenation of itaconic acid and methyl-2-acetamidoacrylate combined with a considerable catalyst stability in these reaction media.

  20. Biphasic threat to femoral head perfusion in abduction: arterial hypoperfusion and venous congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefzadeh, David K. [Comer Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Doerger, Kirk [Radiology Associates of Northern Kentucky, Crestview Hills, KY (United States); Sullivan, Christopher [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Hip abduction can cause avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head in infants. To compare the US perfusion pattern of femoral head cartilage in neutral position with that in different degrees and duration of abduction, testing the venous congestion theory of post-abduction ischemia. In 20 neonates, the Doppler flow characteristics of the posterosuperior (PS) branch of the femoral head cartilage feeding vessels were evaluated in neutral and at 30 , 45 , and 60 abduction. In three neonates the leg was held in 45-degree abduction and flow was assessed at 5, 10, and 15 min. Male/female ratio was 11/9 with a mean age of 1.86 {+-} 0.7 weeks. The peak systolic velocities (PSV) declined in all three degrees of abduction. After 15 min of 45-degree abduction, the mean PSV declined and showed an absent or reversed diastolic component and undetectable venous return. No perfusion was detected at 60-degree abduction. Abduction-induced femoral head ischemia is biphasic and degree- and duration-dependent. In phase I there is arterial hypoperfusion and in phase II there is venous congestion. A new pathogeneses for femoral head ischemia is offered. (orig.)

  1. Biphasic and directed translocation of protein kinase Cα inside cultured endothelial cells before migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Arai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical wounding of an endothelial monolayer induces an immediate Ca2+ wave. Several hours later, the denuded area is covered by endothelial cells (ECs that migrate to the wound. This migration process is closely related to protein kinase Cα (PKCα, a Ca2+-dependent protein that translocates from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Because the cells adjacent to the wounded area are the first to migrate into the wound, we investigated whether a mechanical wound immediately induces PKCα translocation in adjacent cells. We monitored Ca2+ dynamics and PKCα translocation simultaneously using fluorescent microscopy. For this simultaneous observation, we used Fura-2–acetoxymethyl ester to visualize Ca2+ and constructed a green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion protein to visualize PKCα. Mechanical wounding of the endothelial monolayer induced an immediate Ca2+ wave in cells adjacent to the wounded cells before their migration. Almost concurrently, PKCα in the neighboring cells translocated to the cell membrane, then accumulated at the periphery near the wounded cell. This report is the first description of this biphasic and directed translocation of PKCα in cells before cell migration. Our results may provide new insights into the directed migration of ECs.

  2. The polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol affect stress responses in myotube cultures in a biphasic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jette F; Christensen, Lars P; Theil, Peter K; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the bioactive polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, present in carrots, celery, celeriac and other umbelliferous vegetables, on the stress responses in primary myotube cultures, were studied. Biphasic responses on cellular stress responses in myotube cultures were investigated by exposing them to various concentrations of falcarinol and falcarindiol for 24 h before testing effects of 100 microM H(2)O(2) on the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), transcription of the antioxidative enzyme cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx), and the heat shock proteins (HSP) HSP70 and HO1. At low concentrations (1.6 to 25 microM) polyacetylenes caused a slightly accelerated intra-cellular ROS formation, increased cGPx transcription and decreased HSP70 and HO1 transcription. The increased cGPx transcription may be interpreted as an adaptive response to the increased ROS formation and may have caused a reduced demand for the protective functions of the HSPs. ROS formation, however, was substantially decreased after pre-incubation with both polyacetylenes at 50 and 100 microM, the cGPx transcription was reduced and the HSP70 and HO1 transcription increased, indicating a need for the protective and repairing functions of the HSPs. In conclusion, pre-incubation with low concentrations of both polyacetylenes prior to H(2)O(2) exposure induced a cytoprotective effect whereas higher concentrations had adverse effects.

  3. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  4. Disrupted glutamate-glutamine cycle in acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Terai, Masaru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Yachiyo-shi (Japan); Mizuguchi, Masashi [The University of Tokyo, Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Barkovich, A.J. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most common subtype of infectious pediatric encephalopathy in Japan. It is sometimes difficult to make an early diagnosis of AESD; excitotoxicity is postulated to be the pathogenesis based on elevated glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) complex (Glx = Glu + Gln) observed on MR spectroscopy. It is uncertain whether Gln or Glu contributes to the elevated Glx, or whether MR spectroscopy is useful for an early diagnosis. Five Japanese patients with AESD (three boys and two girls, 1 year of age) were enrolled in this study. MR spectroscopy was acquired from the frontal white matter (repetition time (TR) of 5000 ms, echo time (TE) of 30 ms) with a 1.5- or 3.0-T scanner. MR spectroscopy was performed four times for two patients, three times for one patient, and two times for two patients. Quantification of Glu and Gln was performed using LCModel. Glu was elevated in three of four studies on days 1-4 and became normal or low afterward. Gln was normal in three studies on days 1-2, elevated in all seven studies on days 4-12, and became normal or low afterward. These findings suggest that MR spectroscopy may be useful for an early diagnosis. Acute Glu elevation changes to subacute Gln elevation, suggesting that a disrupted Glu-Gln cycle may play an important role. (orig.)

  5. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B., E-mail: william.otero@hotmail.com, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  6. Biphasic insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67 582 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, D A; Bailey, C J

    1998-12-01

    BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is being developed as a short-acting anti-diabetic insulin secretagogue. The effect of BTS 67 582 on the phasic pattern of insulin release was assessed in anaesthetized normal rats by measuring arterial plasma insulin concentrations while arterial glucose concentrations were fixed at 6, 8.5 and 12.5 mM. Intravenous BTS 67 582 (10 mg kg(-1)) induced an immediate but transient increase in insulin concentrations which declined by 10 min (first phase). This was followed by a smaller but sustained increase in insulin concentrations (second phase). The increment from basal to peak insulin release (0-2 min) was independent of glucose, but the first phase was maintained for longer and the second phase was greater at the highest concentration of glucose (12.5 mM). BTS 67 582 also extended the first-phase insulin response to a standard intravenous glucose challenge and enhanced the rate of glucose disappearance by approximately 12%. Thus BTS 67 582 causes biphasic stimulation of insulin release and augments the insulin-releasing effect of glucose.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of magnetic biphasic calcium sulfate-bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2015-08-01

    Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV–vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeO{sub x} oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment. - Highlights: • Biphasic calcium sulphate-bioactive glass containing iron was prepared. • Composite bioglass was superparamagnetic in nature. • All samples promoted the growth of apatite layer with Ca/P close to 1.67.

  8. Biphasic Fluence-Response Curves for Phytochrome-Mediated Kalanchoë Seed Germination 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, Roger; Dedonder, Andrée; De Petter, Edwin; Van Wiemeersch, Luc; Fredericq, Henri; De Greef, Jan; Steyaert, Herman; Stevens, Hilde

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA3) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA3 induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA3 concentration. GA3 having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA3 appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal. PMID:16665187

  9. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-07

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L -1 -μg L -1 ), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.

  10. Enhanced refrigerant capacity in Gd-Al-Co microwires with a biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H. X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Xing, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Sun, J. F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sánchez Llamazares, J. L. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Belliveau, H.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H., E-mail: phanm@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Wang, H.; Qin, F. X. [Institute for Composites Science and Innovation (InCSI), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-02-29

    A class of biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous Gd{sub (50+5x)}Al{sub (30−5x)}Co{sub 20} (x = 0, 1, 2) microwires fabricated directly by melt-extraction is reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier function transform based analysis indicate the presence of a volume fraction (∼20%) of ∼10 nm sized nanocrystallities uniformly embedded in an amorphous matrix. The microwires possess excellent magnetocaloric properties, with large values of the isothermal entropy change (−ΔS{sub M} ∼ 9.7 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}), the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad} ∼ 5.2 K), and the refrigerant capacity (RC ∼ 654 J kg{sup −1}) for a field change of 5 T. The addition of Gd significantly alters T{sub C} while preserving large values of the ΔS{sub M} and RC. The nanocrystallites allow for enhanced RC as well as a broader operating temperature span of a magnetic bed for energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration.

  11. Muscle force production with low and medium frequency burst modulated biphasic pulsed currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, James W; Sanders, Kyle; Schuman, Kristen; Barton, Matt

    2014-02-01

    Russian current, a medium frequency burst modulated alternating current (BMAC), is widely used for NMES, but has not been shown to elicit forces near voluntary maximum. In contrast, low frequency BMAC has been shown to produce greater force production than Russian and most recently, medium frequency burst modulated biphasic pulsed current (BMBPC) elicited greater force than Russian. Whether low frequency BMBPC yields greater force than medium frequency BMBPC is unknown. This study examined elicited forces using BMBPC with low and medium frequency carrier currents. A cross-over design where percent maximal isometric knee extensor forces (%MVIF) elicited using BMBPC with low or medium kilohertz carrier frequencies were compared in 23 subjects. Perceived discomfort was also assessed. Data were compared using paired samples t-tests. 98.4% of the MVIF was elicited with the low frequency BMBPC which was significantly greater (p current. Cohen's d effect size of 2.146 indicated a "huge effect". Perceived discomfort of the low frequency current was 5.7/10 and was significantly greater (p current (3.6/10). BMBPC with low frequency carrier current elicits forces approximating maximal volitional force. These findings offer new evidence with strong clinical implications when using NMES.

  12. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Treatment for a Classic Biphasic Pulmonary Blastoma with High PD-L1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Holguin, Francia; Baldó, Xavier; Rubio, Matilde; Porta, Rut; Fuentes, Rafael; Teixidó, Cristina; Ramirez, José Luis; Ferran, Nuria; Sebastián, Fernando; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary blastomas are rare malignant tumors, comprising only 0.25-0.5% of all malignant lung neoplasms. The prognosis of pulmonary blastoma is very poor, with an overall five-year survival of 16%. No standard treatment has been defined for unresectable disease. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with unresectable locally advanced classic biphasic pulmonary blastoma (CBPB) successfully treated with neodjuvant chemoradiotherapy based on two chemotherapy induction cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide, followed by concurrent weekly cisplatin to 50.4 Gy radiotherapy treatment. The patient had a significant reduction in tumor size, allowing for complete resection by pneumonectomy. Molecular study for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) and rearranged during transfection (RET) rearrangements, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was performed in the pre-treatment tumor sample. Our patient presented a high expression (>90% of tumor cells) of PD-L1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PD-L1 expression in CBPB. This could lead to new treatment options based on new immunotherapy agents blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway for this rare disease with poor prognosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Interferential and burst-modulated biphasic pulsed currents yield greater muscular force than Russian current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, James W; Beiswanger, Zach; Freeman, Erica; Gaerte, Carrie; Trafton, Jane

    2012-07-01

    Previous data regarding neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) have suggested that muscle torque production with interferential current (IFC) is inferior to Russian current; however, waveform parameters specific and critical to NMES were inconsistent, making interpretation of previous findings precarious. The purpose of this investigation was to compare muscle force production of three electrical stimulating waveforms when using equivalent stimulus parameters. The percent of maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor force (%MVIF) elicited using interferential, Russian, and burst-modulated biphasic pulsed currents were compared in 23 healthy college-aged subjects. A repeated measures single factor design in a university laboratory setting was used. A significant effect for waveform used was noted. Data showed significantly greater %MVIF of the knee extensors were obtained using IFC or burst-modulated BP current versus conventional Russian current. The results of this investigation suggest that IFC and burst-modulated BP current are viable waveform options for purposes of eliciting muscle force. These findings offer significant new evidence with strong clinical implications when selecting waveform parameters for elicitation of muscle force for NMES.

  14. Influence of caffeine pretreatment on biphasic in vitro maturation of dog oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Mazdak; Ghafari, Fataneh; Zhang, Tiantian; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A

    2013-10-15

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have been utilized for in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes to manipulate the meiotic resumption and progression. Premature chromatin condensation and DNA replication of the oocytes, immediately after the decrease in the cAMP level, are the difficulties in canine IVM. Caffeine, a nonselective competitive PDE inhibitor, due to its structural similarity to adenosine molecule maintains the cAMP level by occupying PDE enzymes such as PDE-3A inside the oocyte and PDE-4 and PDE-5 in the cumulus cells. In this study, the effects of 12-hour caffeine pretreatment in a biphasic IVM protocol were assessed on maturation rates of canine oocytes. Sixty hours of culture after a 12-hour of 10 mM caffeine pretreatment resulted in 16.9% ± 2.4 of the oocytes reaching metaphase II stage (MII) and 25.9% ± 5.2 degeneration rate compared with the control group with 2.2% ± 2.2 MII and 37.6% ± 4.3 degeneration rates (P BCB) staining. Oocytes showed difference in meiotic resumption (MI-MII) (BCB+ = 16.11% ± 5.5, BCB- = 9.86% ± 5.0; P BCB+ canine oocytes had higher MII rate than the BCB- group under caffeine pretreatment (10.2% ± 2.9 vs. 1.1% ± 1.1, respectively; P BCB+ oocytes have higher competency in vitro for nuclear maturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biphasic synthesis of Au@SiO2 core-shell particles with stepwise ligand exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzendorf, Mathias; Cavelius, Christian; Born, Philip; Murray, Eoin; Kraus, Tobias

    2011-01-18

    We report the synthesis of well-dispersed core-shell Au@SiO(2) nanoparticles with minimal extraneous silica particle growth. Agglomeration was suppressed through consecutive exchange of the stabilizing ligands on the gold cores from citrate to L-arginine and finally (3-mercaptopropyl)triethoxysilane. The result was a vitreophilic, stable gold suspension that could be coated with silica in a biphasic mixture through controlled hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane under L-arginine catalysis. Unwanted condensation of silica particles without gold cores was limited by slowing the transfer across the liquid-liquid interface and reducing the concentration of the L-arginine catalyst. In-situ dynamic light scattering and optical transmission spectroscopy revealed the growth and dispersion states during synthesis. The resulting core-shell particles were characterized via dynamic light scattering, optical spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Their cores were typically 19 nm in diameter, with a narrow size distribution, and could be coated with a silica shell in multiple steps to yield core-shell particles with diameters up to 40 nm. The approach was sufficiently controllable to allow us to target a shell thickness by choosing appropriate precursor concentrations.

  16. Early Stress Evokes Age-Dependent Biphasic Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Bdnf Expression, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Deepika; Veenit, Vandana; Sarkar, Ambalika; Thiagarajan, Devi; Kumar, Arvind; Nestler, Eric J.; Galande, Sanjeev; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult-onset stressors exert opposing effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition, with enhancement observed following mild stress and dysfunction following severe chronic stress. While early life stress evokes persistent changes in anxiety, it is unknown whether early stress differentially regulates hippocampal neurogenesis, trophic factor expression, and cognition across the life span. Methods Hippocampal-dependent cognitive behavior, neurogenesis, and epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression was examined at distinct time points across the life span in rats subjected to the early stress of maternal separation (ES) and control groups. We also examined the influence of chronic antidepressant treatment on the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and cognitive changes in middle-aged ES animals. Results Animals subjected to early stress of maternal separation examined during postnatal life and young adulthood exhibited enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis, decreased repressive histone methylation at the Bdnf IV promoter along with enhanced Bdnf levels, and improved performance on the stress-associated Morris water maze. Strikingly, opposing changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and epigenetic regulation of Bdnf IV expression, concomitant with impairments on hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks, were observed in middle-aged ES animals. Chronic antidepressant treatment with amitriptyline attenuated the maladaptive neurogenic, epigenetic, transcriptional, and cognitive effects in middle-aged ES animals. Conclusions Our study provides novel insights into the short- and long-term consequences of ES, demonstrating both biphasic and unique, age-dependent changes at the molecular, epigenetic, neurogenic, and behavioral levels. These results indicate that early stress may transiently endow animals with a potential adaptive advantage in stressful environments but across a life span is associated with long-term deleterious effects. PMID

  17. Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradaran, S., E-mail: saeid_baradaran@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Moghaddam, E. [Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman, E-mail: bahman_nasiri@hotmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Center, Materials Engineering Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Institute of Nanotechnology& Catalysis Research (NanoCat), University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mehrali, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Sookhakian, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Hamdi, M. [Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alias, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3 wt.% and 6 wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900 °C for 1 h. The GNP (0.5–2 wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15 h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150 °C and 160 MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5 days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5 wt.% was the optimum value. - Highlights: • Ni doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelets composite was investigated. • Mechanical and biological properties were evaluated. • Phase compositions and structural features were influenced noticeably by the Ni and GNPs. • The cytotoxicity of the Ni was improved with the addition of GNPs.

  18. Influence of surface microstructure and chemistry on osteoinduction and osteoclastogenesis by biphasic calcium phosphate discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, N L; Su, J; Yuan, H; van den Beucken, J J J P; de Bruijn, J D; Barrère-de Groot, F

    2015-06-20

    It has been reported that surface microstructural dimensions can influence the osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates (CaPs), and osteoclasts may play a role in this process. We hypothesised that surface structural dimensions of ≤ 1 μm trigger osteoinduction and osteoclast formation irrespective of macrostructure (e.g., concavities, interconnected macropores, interparticle space) or surface chemistry. To test this, planar discs made of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP: 80% hydroxyapatite, 20% tricalcium phosphate) were prepared with different surface structural dimensions - either ~ 1 μm (BCP1150) or ~ 2-4 μm (BCP1300) - and no macropores or concavities. A third material was made by sputter coating BCP1150 with titanium (BCP1150Ti), thereby changing its surface chemistry but preserving its surface structure and chemical reactivity. After intramuscular implantation in 5 dogs for 12 weeks, BCP1150 formed ectopic bone in 4 out of 5 samples, BCP1150Ti formed ectopic bone in 3 out of 5 samples, and BCP1300 formed no ectopic bone in any of the 5 samples. In vivo, large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells densely colonised BCP1150, smaller osteoclast-like cells formed on BCP1150Ti, and osteoclast-like cells scarcely formed on BCP1300. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells cultured on the surface of BCP1150 and BCP1150Ti in the presence of osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator for NF-κB ligand) proliferated then differentiated into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. However, cell proliferation, fusion, and TRAP activity were all significantly inhibited on BCP1300. These results indicate that of the material parameters tested - namely, surface microstructure, macrostructure, and surface chemistry - microstructural dimensions are critical in promoting osteoclastogenesis and triggering ectopic bone formation.

  19. Single-Step Purification of Ovalbumin from Egg White Using Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M; Cruz, Rafaela A P; Almeida, Mafalda R; Lima, Álvaro S; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-06-01

    The ability of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights (PEG 400, 600 and 1000) and buffered aqueous solutions of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH = 5.0 - 8.0) to selectively extract ovalbumin from egg white was here investigated. Phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC and the partitioning of ovalbumin in these systems was then evaluated. Aiming at optimizing the selective extraction of ovalbumin in the studied ABS, factors such as pH, PEG molecular weight and amount of the phase-forming components were initially investigated with pure commercial ovalbumin. In almost all ABS, it was observed a preferential partitioning of ovalbumin to the polymer-rich phase, with extraction efficiencies higher than 90%. The best ABS were then applied in the purification of ovalbumin from the real egg white matrix. In order to ascertain on the ovalbumin purity and yield, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) analyses were conducted, confirming that the isolation/purification of ovalbumin from egg white was completely achieved in a single-step with a recovery yield of 65%. The results obtained show that polymer-salt-based ABS allow the selective extraction of ovalbumin from egg white with a simpler approach and better performance than previously reported. Finally, it is shown that ovalbumin can be completely recovered from the PEG-rich phase by an induced precipitation using an inexpensive and sustainable separation platform which can be easily applied on an industrial scale.

  20. Microculture in biphasic medium with silicone-coated slides for isolation of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, H; Galván, F J; Contreras, C

    1996-09-01

    The study reported here, seeking to develop a simple, practical, sensitive, and inexpensive technique for microbial diagnosis of tuberculosis, used a combination of biphasic media and microculture techniques to augment the sensitivity of traditional culture methods. A total of 540 sputum samples (5 mL each) were obtained from 180 patients with suspected tuberculosis in Mexico City. These samples were treated with Hanks reagent, neutralized with 25% HCl, and centrifuged. In each case the resulting residue was combined with liquid media (Sula medium or a phosphate-buffered control solution) and was inoculated into a bottle containing a solid medium (Löwenstein-Jensen-Holm or Middlebrook). A silicone-coated slide appropriate for culture of hydrophobic mycobacteria was inserted in each bottle, and the cultures (examined weekly) were incubated at 37 degrees C until the first macroscopic bacterial growth was detected or for up to eight weeks if none was detected. When such growth was detected, or at the end of eight weeks, each slide was withdrawn from the bottle, sterilized, stained by Kinyoun's method, and examined microscopically. Following 2-4 weeks of incubation, macroscopic bacterial growth was detected in 71 bottles and was confirmed by microscopic examination of the corresponding slides. No macroscopic bacterial growth was found in any of the remaining 469 bottles, but microscopic growth was observed on 77 of the slides examined after eight weeks. The authors conclude that this method represents a noteworthy improvement over standard culture methods in terms of bacterial isolation and suggest that its case, economy, and practicality make it suitable for application in developing countries.

  1. Time course of air hunger mirrors the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S H; Banzett, R B; Butler, J P

    2004-12-01

    Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by events between brain stem and cortical awareness, this hypothesis predicts that air hunger will exactly track ventilatory response. Thus, during sustained hypoxia, initial increase in air hunger would be followed by a progressive decline reflecting biphasic reflex ventilatory drive. To test this prediction, we applied a sharp-onset 20-min step of normocapnic hypoxia and compared dynamic response characteristics of air hunger with that of ventilation in 10 healthy subjects. Air hunger was measured during mechanical ventilation (minute ventilation = 9 +/- 1.4 l/min; end-tidal Pco(2) = 37 +/- 2 Torr; end-tidal Po(2) = 45 +/- 7 Torr); ventilatory response was measured during separate free-breathing trials in the same subjects. Discomfort caused by "urge to breathe" was rated every 30 s on a visual analog scale. Both ventilatory and air hunger responses were modeled as delayed double exponentials corresponding to a simple linear first-order response but with a separate first-order adaptation. These models provided adequate fits to both ventilatory and air hunger data (r(2) = 0.88 and 0.66). Mean time constant and time-to-peak response for the average perceptual response (0.36 min(-1) and 3.3 min, respectively) closely matched corresponding values for the average ventilatory response (0.39 min(-1) and 3.1 min). Air hunger response to sustained hypoxia tracked ventilatory drive with a delay of approximately 30 s. Our data provide further support for the corollary discharge hypothesis for air hunger.

  2. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite coating on the osteoinductivity of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics exhibit good biocompatibility and bone conduction but are not inherently osteoinductive. To overcome this disadvantage, we coated conventional porous BCP ceramics with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). nHA was chosen as a coating material due to its high osteoinductive potential. Methods We used a hydrothermal deposition method to coat conventional porous BCP ceramics with nHA and assessed the effects of the coating on the physical and mechanical properties of the underlying BCP. Next, its effects on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, proliferation, viability, and osteogenic differentiation were investigated. Results nHA formed a deposited layer on the BCP surface, and synthesized nHA had a rod-like shape with lengths ranging from ~50–200 nm and diameters from ~15–30 mm. The nHA coating did not significantly affect the density, porosity, flexural strength, or compressive strength of the underlying BCP (P > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy showed MSC attachment to the scaffolds, with a healthy morphology and anchorage to nHA crystals via cytoplasmic processes. The densities of MSCs attached on BCP and nHA-coated BCP scaffolds were 62 ± 26 cells/mm2 and 63 ± 27 cells/mm2 (P > 0.1), respectively, after 1 day and 415 ± 62 cells/mm2 and 541 ± 35 cells/mm2 (P ceramics, making this material more suitable for applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24690170

  3. Response of stem cells from different origins to biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Sonja E; Glickman, Robert; da Silva, Wagner N; Arinzeh, Treena L; Kerkis, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics have been successfully applied in a broad variety of presentation forms and with different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). BCPs have been loaded with stem cells from different origins for bone tissue engineering purposes, but evidence of stem cell behavior on different compositions (various HA/β-TCP ratios) and physical features of BCPs is limited. We compared the adhesion, proliferation, viability and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on granular BCPs with equal HA/β-TCP ratio of diverse particle sizes and on porous blocks which had different chemical compositions. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was compared to adipose-derived (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC) stem cells, as well as to pre-osteoblasts on a particulate BCP. MSCs growing on granular BCPs demonstrated increased number as compared to MSCs growing on blocks. Cells proliferated to a greater extent on small granular BCPs, while large granular BCPs and blocks promoted cell differentiation. Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in osteogenesis was upregulated in MSCs on bioceramics in basal medium which indicates that BCPs may have osteoinductive potential. This was confirmed with the upregulation of osteochondrogenic markers, at different time points, when stem cells from various tissues were grown on the BCP. This study demonstrates that BCPs, depending on their physical features and chemical composition, modulate stem cell behavior, and that stem cells from different origins are inherently distinct in their gene expression profile and can be triggered toward osteochondrogenic fate by BCPs.

  4. Extension of the anisotropic biphasic theory to large strain and high cell concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael Charles

    The fiber alignment of engineered tissues is an important design criterion for engineered tissues. The fiber alignment can affect the material properties as well as the behavior of the material. The Anisotropic Biphasic Theory (ABT) has been solved previously in two dimensions for axisymmetric problems such as disks and tubes. We solved the ABT in three dimensions for the first time and used the results from the ABT to determine fiber alignments in various tissue equivalent structures. The framework that the ABT was solved in, called Trellis, has the capability of h and r adaptivity allowing accurate solutions with coarse initial meshes. Several cases were studied to validate the method and were then compared to previously published experiments. The effect of complex constraints on the final fiber alignment was studied. The initial geometry has a dramatic effect on the final fiber alignment for such simple shapes as tissue engineered flaps and cruciforms. The constraints on the gel can affect the fiber alignment throughout the gel. In order to model more complex geometries, such as the bioartificial heart valve, an additional boundary condition was added to our three dimensional formulation. A penalty method was used on the force balance of the ABT to mimic a slippery surface found on a Teflon mandrel. The new boundary condition was used to model the bioartificial heart valve; the alignment generated was similar to that found experimentally. In order to determine high strain and large cell concentration behavior of collagen gels, a series of experiments was developed to determine material properties after incubation. The cell concentration and collagen concentration was varied and the material properties were measured at several different time points. The tensile material properties were found to increase with both collagen and cell concentration. The compaction ratio was found to increase with cell concentration and time, but decrease with collagen concentration

  5. Monophosphoryl lipid A provides biphasic cardioprotection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, N; Hoshida, S; Otsu, K; Taniguchi, N; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M

    1999-09-01

    1 We utilized a rat model of myocardial infarction to investigate whether cardioprotection by monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA) is provided in the early and late phases, as well as to determine whether this cardioprotection may be related to the activation of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), an intrinsic radical scavenger. 2 Pretreatment with MLA (0.5 or 1.0 mg kg-1, i.v.) 24 h prior to 20-min left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 48-h reperfusion significantly decreased the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischaemia, as well as infarct size. Pretreatment with lower concentrations of MLA, however, was ineffective. 3 When we examined the time course of MLA (0.5 mg kg-1)-induced cardioprotection, both infarct size and the incidence of VF were significantly reduced in rats pretreated with MLA 0.5 h and 24 h before occlusion. We observed no differences, however, 2 and 72 h after MLA treatment. 4 The activity of Mn-SOD paralleled the cardioprotective effects of MLA. Mn-SOD activity in the myocardium was significantly enhanced in rats pretreated with MLA (0.5 mg kg-1) 0.5 and 24 h before. Mn-SOD activity was not altered, however, in rats pretreated 2 or 72 h before. Lower MLA concentrations were not effective even 24 h after the treatment. 5 We conclude that MLA treatment induced a biphasic pattern of cardioprotection. The pattern of Mn-SOD activity suggests that this enzyme may play a major role in the acquisition of cardioprotection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  6. The biphasic autoscopy integrated to microteaching: A strategy of reflective intervention on the chemistry teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Arrigo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has its focus on the initial reflective training of a student of a degree course for Chemistry Teachers, during the microteaching activities, developed in the discipline of Supervised Internship. For the implementation of the proposal we integrated the phases of the microteaching to the stages of autoscopy, proposing the biphasic autoscopy, procedure performed to the data collect and to the reflexive intervention with the students. It was developed in two phases, interactive and post-active. In this context, the objective of the research consisted in characterizing how students give meaning to their thoughts and how these can interfere on the construction of their teaching profiles. The results got come from the analysis, interpretation and systematization of the data from the reflective "moments” described by Schön. Based on the analysis of the reflections we identified four "moments" of alert in the reflective student practice, however, we found that the alert 1, concerning the difficulty found by her on the approach of the content was responsible for the occurrence of other alerts along her microteaching. Thus, we infer that the alert 1 featured a situation/element of surprise that she did not framed along the lines of what she has learned to treat as normal, so it was necessary to establish a reflexive dialogue with the educative situation to set up such a problem through an answer that was not ordinary and spontaneous. In this situation, while restructuring her strategies of actions, the student acknowledged the problems arising from the teaching practice, from her difficulty in how to approach the content. Through the analyzes carried out we recognized the potentialities of integrating to the microteaching the autoscopy, as a way of enabling reflective moments related to the teaching practice on the training of future teachers.

  7. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Pires, Inês; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-03-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro behavior of nanostructured diopside/biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezani, Samira; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Kharaziha, Mahshid [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavangarian, Fariborz, E-mail: f_tavangarian@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Program, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Penn State Harrisburg, Middletown, PA 17057 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A significant challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of 3D constructs serving as scaffolds to fill bone defects, support osteoblasts, and promote bone regeneration. In this paper, highly porous (∼79%) nanostructured diopside/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with interconnected porosity were developed using various diopside contents via space holder method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were utilized to evaluate different samples. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were studied as well. The results showed that the produced scaffolds had an average pore size and density of 200–340 μm and 2.5 ± 0.3–1.8 ± 0.3 gr/cm{sup 3}, respectively, depending on the diopside content. Besides, increasing the diopside content of scaffolds from 0 to 15 wt% enhanced the bioactivity, biodegradability, and compressive strength from 1.2 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.3 MPa, respectively. In addition, MTT assay also confirmed that the BCP15 scaffold (containing 15 wt% diopside) significantly promoted cell viability and cell adhesion compared to BCP0 scaffold. Overall, our study suggests that nanostructured diopside/BCP scaffolds with improved biological and mechanical properties could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Highly porous (∼79%) scaffolds were synthesized by space holder method. • Adding diopside nanopowder reduced the average pore size of the scaffolds. • Diopside increased the compressive strength of the scaffolds by three-times. • Nanostructured diopside/BCP scaffolds significantly promoted cell viability. • The nanostructured composite scaffold of BCP15 is cell-friendly.

  9. Biphasic thermoelectric materials derived from the half-Heusler/full-Heusler system Ti-Ni-Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jason Everett

    Among the possible avenues for increasing the efficiency of global energy usage, thermoelectrics are an exciting, solid-state option. Thermoelectric materials, which convert an internal temperature gradient into a voltage and vice versa, have found applications in refrigeration as well as power generation from waste heat. TiNiSn, a semiconductor of the half-Heusler (hH) crystal structure, is of particular interest due to its very favorable electronic transport properties, conductivity (sigma) and Seebeck coefficient ( S), at relevant temperature regimes (between 600 K and 900 K). Unfortunately, its overall efficiency is hampered by a comparatively high thermal conductivity (kappa). In the design of thermoelectric materials, a number of approaches have been taken to increase the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT = ( S2sigma/kappa)T, where T is temperature. In this work we examine how microstructure can be used to alter these thermoelectric propertiesin a biphasic Ti-Ni-Sn materials containing full-Heusler (fH) TiNi2Sn embedded within hH thermoelectric TiNiSn. We explored a wide range of Ni compositions in TiNi1+xSn--from stoichiometric TiNiSn to high Heusler volume fraction, TiNi1.25Sn--materials prepared by levitation induction melting followed by annealing. Phase distributions and microstructure were characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. In a sample of the nominal composition TiNi1.15Sn, a significant decrease in thermal conductivity (about 30%) is observed for the biphasic material despite the metallic second-phase particles existing at the micrometer scale; a 50% increase in the electrical conductivity is also measured. These result in a maximum figure of merit, ZT, of 0.44 at 800 K, which is 25% greater than is observed for the x = 0 sample. Density functional theory calculations using hybrid functionals were performed to determine band alignments between the half- and full-Heusler compounds, as well as

  10. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  11. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  12. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  13. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S., E-mail: para_kanna@yahoo.com

    2015-11-15

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg{sup 2+} at the crystal lattice of β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The concentration of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg{sup 2+} precipitates as Mg(OH){sub 2} and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} is discarded from the investigation. - Highlights: • Aqueous co-precipitation of calcium deficient apatites with excess magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) additions. • Heat treatments beyond 800 °C results in the formation of biphasic apatite mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} gets accommodated at the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice of biphasic mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} additions exceeding stoichiometric value (Ca/P>1.67) results in its formation as MgO. • Mg{sup 2+} occupancy at β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice delays its allotropic conversion α-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} till 1350 °C.

  14. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Targets and Biphasic Responses in Breast Cancer Cells Treated by Curcumin Alone and in Association with Docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Curcumin (CUR) has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX). In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx) increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l−1–28 µM-) (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, Phomocystein, creatine and taurine (−60 to −80%, all, P<0.05). Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025), and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about −60%, P<0.025). Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l−1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. Conclusions/Significance Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted beneficial effects of the phytochemical. PMID:23472124

  15. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) channels are important integrators of noxious stimuli with pronounced expression in nociceptive neurons. The experimental local anesthetic, QX-314, a quaternary (i.e., permanently charged) lidocaine derivative, recently...... concentrations (less than 1 mM), QX-314 potently inhibited capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents with an IC₅₀ of 8.0 ± 0.6 μM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 exerts biphasic effects on TRPV1 channels, inhibiting capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents at lower...

  16. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  17. Biphasic character of ribosomal translocation and non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the kinetics of mRNA translocation in the wild-type (WT) Escherichia coli ribosome, which is composed of a small 30 S and large 50 S subunit, and the ribosomes with mutations to some intersubunit bridges such as B1a, B4, B7a, and B8. The theoretical results reproduce well the available in vitro experimental data on the biphasic kinetics of the forward mRNA translocation catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G) hydrolyzing GTP, which can be best fit by the sum of two exponentials, and the monophasic kinetics of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation in the absence of the elongation factor, which can be best fit by a single-exponential function, in both the WT and mutant ribosomes. We show that both the mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the slow phase for the forward mRNA translocation and that in the rate of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation result from a reduction in the intrinsic energy barrier to resist the rotational movements between the two subunits, giving the same degree of increase in the two rates. The mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the fast phase for the forward mRNA translocation results mainly from the increase in the rate of the ribosomal unlocking, a conformational change in the ribosome that widens the mRNA channel for the mRNA translocation to take place, which could be partly due to the effect of the mutation on the intrasubunit 30S head rotation. Moreover, we study the translation rate of the WT and mutant ribosomes. It is shown that the translation rate versus the concentration of EF-G-GTP does not follow the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics, which is in sharp contrast to the general property of other enzymes that the rate of the enzymatic reaction versus the concentration of a substrate follows the MM kinetics. The physical origin of this non-MM kinetics for the ribosome is revealed.

  18. Enhanced sintering ability of biphasic calcium phosphate by polymers used for bone scaffold fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengde; Yang, Bo; Hu, Huanlong; Liu, Jinglin; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2013-10-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), which is composed of hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP, β-Ca3(PO4)2], is usually difficult to densify into a solid state with selective laser sintering (SLS) due to the short sintering time. In this study, the sintering ability of BCP ceramics was significantly improved by adding a small amount of polymers, by which a liquid phase was introduced during the sintering process. The effects of the polymer content, laser power and HAP/β-TCP ratios on the microstructure, chemical composition and mechanical properties of the BCP scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that the BCP scaffolds became increasingly more compact with the increase of the poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) content (0-1 wt.%) and laser power (6-10 W). The fracture toughness and micro-hardness of the sintered scaffolds were also improved. Moreover, PLLA could be gradually decomposed in the late sintering stages and eliminated from the final BCP scaffolds if the PLLA content was below a certain value (approximately 1 wt.% in this case). The added PLLA could not be completely eliminated when its content was further increased to 1.5 wt.% or higher because an unexpected carbon phase was detected in the sintered scaffolds. Furthermore, many pores were observed due to the removal of PLLA. Micro-cracks and micro-pores occurred when the laser power was too high (12 W). These defects resulted in a deterioration of the mechanical properties. The hardness and fracture toughness reached maximum values of 490.3±10 HV and 1.72±0.10 MPa m(1/2), respectively, with a PLLA content of approximately 1 wt.% and laser power of approximately 10 W. Poly(l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) showed similar effects on the sintering process of BCP ceramics. Rectangular, porous BCP scaffolds were fabricated based on the optimum values of the polymer content and laser power. This work may provide an experimental basis for improving the mechanical

  19. Biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoqing; Chen Rui; Yang Ping; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei; Liu Qizhan

    2007-01-01

    Biphasic dose-response relationship induced by environmental agents is often characterized with the effect of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Some studies showed that arsenite may induce cell proliferation and apoptosis via biphasic dose-response relationship in human cells; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the relationship between biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis and activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation may be stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 μM) arsenite but inhibited at higher concentrations (5 and 10 μM). When cell apoptosis was used as the endpoint, the concentration-response curves were changed to U-shapes. During stimulation phospho-JNK levels were significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 h after 0.1 or 0.5 μM arsenite exposure. Phospho-ERK1/2 levels were increased with different concentrations (0.1-10 μM) of arsenite at 6, 12, and 24 h. Blocking of JNK pathway with 20 μM SP600125 or ERK1/2 by 100 μM PD98059 significantly inhibited biphasic effect of arsenite in cells. Data in the present study suggest that activation of JNK and ERK1/2 may be involved in biphasic effect of arsenite when measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis in HELF cells. JNK activation seems to play a more critical role than ERK1/2 activation in the biphasic process

  20. Design and hydraulic characteristics of a field-scale bi-phasic bioretention rain garden system for storm water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Florence, D C; McCoy, E L; Dick, W A; Grewal, P S

    2009-01-01

    A field-scale bioretention rain garden system was constructed using a novel bi-phasic (i.e. sequence of anaerobic to aerobic) concept for improving retention and removal of storm water runoff pollutants. Hydraulic tests with bromide tracer and simulated runoff pollutants (nitrate-N, phosphate-P, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were performed in the system under a simulated continuous rainfall. The objectives of the tests were (1) to determine hydraulic characteristics of the system, and (2) to evaluate the movement of runoff pollutants through the system. For the 180 mm/24 h rainfall, the bi-phasic bioretention system effectively reduced both peak flow (approximately 70%) and runoff volume (approximately 42%). The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of bromide tracer suggest that the transport pattern of the system is similar to dispersed plug flow under this large runoff event. The BTCs of bromide showed mean 10% and 90% breakthrough times of 5.7 h and 12.5 h, respectively. Under the continuous rainfall, a significantly different transport pattern was found between each runoff pollutant. Nitrate-N was easily transported through the system with potential leaching risk from the initial soil medium, whereas phosphate-P and metals were significantly retained indicating sorption-mediated transport. These findings support the importance of hydraulics, in combination with the soil medium, when creating bioretention systems for bioremediation that are effective for various rainfall sizes and intervals.

  1. Process boundaries of irreversible scCO2 -assisted phase separation in biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenbusch, Christoph; Glonke, Sebastian; Collins, Jonathan; Hoffrogge, Raimund; Grunwald, Klaudia; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    The formation of stable emulsions in biphasic biotransformations catalyzed by microbial cells turned out to be a major hurdle for industrial implementation. Recently, a cost-effective and efficient downstream processing approach, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) for both irreversible emulsion destabilization (enabling complete phase separation within minutes of emulsion treatment) and product purification via extraction has been proposed by Brandenbusch et al. (2010). One of the key factors for a further development and scale-up of the approach is the understanding of the mechanism underlying scCO2 -assisted phase separation. A systematic approach was applied within this work to investigate the various factors influencing phase separation during scCO2 treatment (that is pressure, exposure of the cells to CO2 , and changes of cell surface properties). It was shown that cell toxification and cell disrupture are not responsible for emulsion destabilization. Proteins from the aqueous phase partially adsorb to cells present at the aqueous-organic interface, causing hydrophobic cell surface characteristics, and thus contribute to emulsion stabilization. By investigating the change in cell-surface hydrophobicity of these cells during CO2 treatment, it was found that a combination of catastrophic phase inversion and desorption of proteins from the cell surface is responsible for irreversible scCO2 mediated phase separation. These findings are essential for the definition of process windows for scCO2 -assisted phase separation in biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieda, Nicola; McInnes, Matthew D.F.; Cao, Lilly

    2014-01-01

    To use systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion (SEI) at contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. Several electronic databases were searched through October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted data. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. The primary 2 x 2 data were investigated with forest plot and ROC plot of sensitivity and specificity. Four studies met the inclusion criteria (307 patients). Considerable heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. Two studies from the same group of investigators demonstrated reasonable diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 59-80 % and specificity 87-99 %), while two others did not (sensitivity 0-6 %, specificity 93-100 %). Possible reasons for this include timing of biphasic MDCT and methods of interpretation but not size of lesion. SEI is a specific imaging finding of renal oncocytoma with highly variable sensitivity. This substantial heterogeneity across studies and between institutions suggests that further validation of this imaging finding is necessary prior to application in clinical practice. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; McInnes, Matthew D.F.; Cao, Lilly [Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    To use systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion (SEI) at contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. Several electronic databases were searched through October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted data. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. The primary 2 x 2 data were investigated with forest plot and ROC plot of sensitivity and specificity. Four studies met the inclusion criteria (307 patients). Considerable heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. Two studies from the same group of investigators demonstrated reasonable diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 59-80 % and specificity 87-99 %), while two others did not (sensitivity 0-6 %, specificity 93-100 %). Possible reasons for this include timing of biphasic MDCT and methods of interpretation but not size of lesion. SEI is a specific imaging finding of renal oncocytoma with highly variable sensitivity. This substantial heterogeneity across studies and between institutions suggests that further validation of this imaging finding is necessary prior to application in clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of different formulations of biphasic insulin aspart: a randomized, glucose clamp, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, T; Eckers, U; Kanc, K; Nielsen, J N; Nosek, L

    2008-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes patients on premixed insulin are commonly prescribed biphasic insulin with low prandial insulin content, such as biphasic insulin aspart (BIAsp) 30, comprising 30% insulin aspart (IAsp). The new formulations BIAsp 50 and BIAsp 70 contain 50% and 70% soluble IAsp, respectively. We compared the pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of BIAsp 30, 50, and 70 and IAsp in a glucose clamp trial. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study at a clinical research institute, 32 type 1 diabetes patients on basal-bolus therapy each underwent four glucose clamps (clamp level 5 mmol/L, duration 28 h post-dosing [12 h for IAsp]) and received a single dose of 0.4 U/kg BIAsp 30, 50, or 70 and IAsp. Main PD/PK outcome parameters measured were early- and late-phase glucose disposal (area under the curve of glucose infusion rate [AUC(GIR)]), nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, and IAsp concentrations. With increasing proportions of soluble IAsp, the insulin formulations showed significantly higher early metabolic activity (ratio of AUC(GIR) 0-6 h: BIAsp 50/BIAsp 30 = 1.28 [P IAsp/BIAsp 70 = 1.15 [P IAsp levels were significantly greater and late PK concentrations were significantly lower with increasing proportion of soluble IAsp. There are significant differences between the early and late PD and PK effects among BIAsp 30, 50, and 70 and IAsp that should allow tailored treatment with the convenience of prandial and basal insulin in each injection.

  7. Bone tissue modelling and remodelling following guided bone regeneration in combination with biphasic calcium phosphate materials presenting different microporosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Christer; Obrecht, Marcel; Dard, Michel; Donos, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bone regeneration following application of a novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP I) composed of microstructured granules of 90% β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/10% hydroxyapatite (HA) compared to BCP non-microstructured biphasic calcium phosphate with a composite of 60% hydroxyapatite/40% β-TCP (BCP II) and a deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) at surgically created defects in the mandible of minipigs in a combined approach with guided bone regeneration (GBR). Sixteen minipigs were used for the study. Lower premolars P2, P3, P4 and first molar M1 were extracted. Following 3 months of healing, two defects with a width and depth of 7 mm were created bilaterally in the mandible. The different grafting materials were randomly placed in the created defects and covered by means of a collagen membrane. After 3 and 8 weeks, biopsies were sampled. All specimens were evaluated with descriptive histology and histomorphometric evaluations complemented by micro-CT scan analysis. All three biomaterials presented with higher bone volume at 8 weeks compared to 3 weeks (P bone formation compared to BCP II at 8 weeks (P bone formation at 8 weeks. BCP I showed significant higher amounts of newly formed bone despite a higher remaining graft volume compared to the other groups. With regard to the regenerative outcome, all the three materials can be recommended for clinical use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The digital revolution in phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support 'bench to bedside' efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Monophasic versus biphasic defibrillation for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a nationwide population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Seizan; Yasunaga, Hideo; Koike, Soichi; Akahane, Manabu; Ogawa, Toshio; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Hatanaka, Tetsuo; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2012-11-13

    Conventional monophasic defibrillators for out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients have been replaced with biphasic defibrillators. However, the advantage of biphasic over monophasic defibrillation for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients who underwent monophasic defibrillation with those who underwent biphasic defibrillation. This prospective, nationwide, population-based observational study included pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009. The primary outcome measure was survival at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment. The secondary outcome measures were survival at 1 month and the return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association between defibrillator type (monophasic or biphasic) and outcomes. Among 5,628 pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients (1 through 17 years old), 430 who received defibrillation shock with monophasic or biphasic defibrillator were analyzed. The number of patients who received defibrillation shock with monophasic defibrillator was 127 (30%), and 303 (70%) received defibrillation shock with biphasic defibrillator. The survival rates at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment were 17.5% and 24.4%, the survival rates at 1 month were 32.3% and 35.6%, and the rates of return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival were 24.4% and 27.4% in the monophasic and biphasic defibrillator groups, respectively. Hierarchic logistic regression analyses by using generalized estimation equations found no significant difference between the two groups in terms of 1-month survival with minimal neurologic impairment (odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87 to 2.83; P = 0.14) and 1-month survival (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.87 to 2

  10. Multi-scale osteointegration and neovascularization of biphasic calcium phosphate bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheeny K.

    Bone grafts are utilized clinically to guide tissue regeneration. Autologous bone and allogeneic bone are the current clinical standards. However, there are significant limitations to their use. To address the need for alternatives to autograft and allograft, researchers have worked to develop synthetic grafts, also referred to as scaffolds. Despite extensive efforts in this area, a gap persists between basic research and clinical application. In particular, solutions for repairing critical size and/or load-bearing defects are lacking. The aim of this thesis work was to address two critical barriers preventing design of successful tissue engineering constructs for bone regeneration within critical size and/or load-bearing defects. Those barriers are insufficient osteointegration and slow neovascularization. In this work, the effects of scaffold microporosity, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery and endothelial colony forming cell vasculogenesis were evaluated in the context of bone formation in vivo. This was accomplished to better understand the role of these factors in bone regeneration, which may translate to improvements in tissue engineering construct design. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with controlled macro- and microporosity were implanted in porcine mandibular defects. Evaluation of the BCP scaffolds after in vivo implantation showed, for the first time, osteocytes embedded in bone within scaffold micropores (bone growth into micropores to date with bone penetration throughout rods 394 microm in diameter. The result is the first truly osteointegrated bone scaffolds with integration occurring at both the macro and micro length scales, leaving no "dead space" or discontinuities of bone in the defect site. The scaffold forms a living composite upon integration with regenerating bone and this has significant implications with regard to improved scaffold mechanical properties. The presence of osteocytes within scaffold

  11. Angiotensin II-mediated biphasic regulation of proximal tubular Na+/H+ exchanger 3 is impaired during oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2011-08-01

    Angiotensin (ANG) II via AT1 receptors (AT1Rs) maintains sodium homeostasis by regulating renal sodium transporters including Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) in a biphasic manner. Low-ANG II concentration stimulates whereas high concentrations inhibit NHE3 activity. Oxidative stress has been shown to upregulate AT1R function that could modulate the ANG II-mediated NHE3 regulation. This study was designed to identify the signaling pathways responsible for ANG II-mediated biphasic regulation of proximal tubular NHE3 and the effect of oxidative stress on this phenomenon. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically treated with a pro-oxidant L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) with and without an antioxidant tempol in tap water for 3 wk. BSO-treated rats exhibited oxidative stress and high blood pressure. At low concentration (1 pM) ANG II increased NHE3 activity in proximal tubules from all animals. However, in BSO-treated rats, the stimulation was more robust and was normalized by tempol treatment. ANG II (1 pM)-mediated NHE3 activation was abolished by AT1R blocker, intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin (CaM) but it was insensitive to Giα and protein kinase C inhibitors or AT2R antagonist. A high concentration of ANG II (1 μM) inhibited NHE3 activity in control and tempol-treated rats. However, in BSO-treated rats, ANG II (1 μM) continued to induce NHE3 stimulation. Tempol restored the inhibitory effect of ANG II (1 μM) in BSO-treated rats. The inhibitory effect of ANG II (1 μM) involved AT1R-dependent, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activation and was independent of AT2 receptor and nitric oxide signaling. We conclude that ANG II stimulates NHE3 via AT1R-PLC-CaM pathway and inhibits NHE3 by AT1R-PKG activation. Oxidative stress impaired ANG II-mediated NHE3 biphasic response in that stimulation was observed at both high- and low-ANG II concentration.

  12. Metabolomics reveals metabolic targets and biphasic responses in breast cancer cells treated by curcumin alone and in association with docetaxel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bayet-Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX. In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l(-1-28 µM- (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01, but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l(-1 -70 µM- (-49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and -56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025. At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (-60 to -80%, all, P<0.05. Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025, and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about -60%, P<0.025. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l(-1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  13. Stereoisomeric products of electrochemical reduction of heterocyclic Fischer aminocarbene Cr(0) complexes. Development of the electrochemistry-mass spectrometry tandem approach using biphasic (acetonitrile-hexane) preparative electrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Metelková, R.; Hoskovcová, I.; Polášek, Miroslav; Urban, Jiří; David, T.; Ludvík, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, APR 2015 (2015), s. 17-23 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/0727 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fischer aminocarbene complexes biphasic electrolysis * EC-MS * HPLC-NMR Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  14. Clinical evaluation of defibrillation efficacy with a new single-capacitor biphasic waveform in patients undergoing implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugada, J; Herse, B; Sandsted, B; Michel, U; Schubert, B D; Hahn, S J

    2001-10-01

    Improvements in the size and shape of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) might be obtained by using one capacitor instead of the series connection of two capacitors traditionally used in ICDs. The aim of this study was to determine whether a biphasic waveform delivered from a single 336 microF capacitor had the same defibrillation efficacy as a standard biphasic waveform. Randomized, paired defibrillation threshold testing was acutely performed in 54 patients undergoing ICD implantation. A standard 140 microF 80% tilt biphasic waveform (two 280 microF capacitors connected in series) was compared with an experimental biphasic waveform delivered from a single 336 microF capacitor at either 60% tilt (33 patients) or 80% tilt (21 patients). All waveforms had a 60/40 phase1/phase2 duration ratio. Compared with the standard waveform, the 60% tilt experimental waveform had a lower delivered energy (6.7 +/- 2.8 vs 7.9 +/- 3.3 joules, Pvoltage (218 +/- 43 vs 333 +/- 68 V, Pvoltage (234 +/- 44 vs 302 +/- 51 V, P<0.01) and a much longer pulse duration (25.7 +/- 2.5 vs 1.13 +/- 1 ms, P<0.01). Waveforms delivered from a large capacitance are feasible but require a lower tilt. This technique may allow smaller, thinner ICDs without jeopardizing defibrillation success.

  15. Comparison of a soluble co-formulation of insulin degludec/insulin aspart vs biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niskanen, Leo; Leiter, Lawrence A; Franek, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a soluble co-formulation of insulin degludec (70%) and insulin aspart (IAsp: 30%). Here, we compare the efficacy and safety of IDegAsp, an alternative IDegAsp formulation (AF: containing 45% IAsp), and biphasic IAsp 30 (BIAsp 30)....

  16. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  17. Experimental and kinetic modeling studies on the biphasic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone using a homogeneous water-soluble Ru-(TPPTS) catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalid, M.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    gamma-Valerolactone (GVL) is considered a very attractive biomass derived platform chemical. This paper describes the application of biphasic homogeneous catalysis for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to GVL using molecular hydrogen. A water soluble Ru-catalyst made in situ from RuCl3 center

  18. Preparation of novel cross-linked and octylated caseinates using a biphasic enzymatic procedure and their functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Yao, Fangyi; Dai, Bona; Wang, Qin; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-27

    A novel microbial transglutaminase-catalyzed aqueous-organic biphasic reaction system was successfully developed to prepare caseinate derivatives by cross-linking and incorporating nonpolar octyl tails for the first time. SDS-PAGE and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that cross-linking and octyl conjugation occurred simultaneously. The octyl substitution degree (SD) was measured by (1)H NMR and used as an index to determine a suitable reaction condition. It was found that at the condition of 0.125% (w/v) protein concentration and 6 h of reaction time, the modified caseinate had the highest SD of 28.96%. The modified caseinate also had an increased surface hydrophobicity, better emulsifying activity, and improved thermal and salt stabilities. However, its emulsion stability or in vitro enzymatic digestibility was slightly lower than that of the native caseinate.

  19. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  20. Protein sequence analysis using Hewlett-Packard biphasic sequencing cartridges in an applied biosystems 473A protein sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S; Mozdzanowski, J; Anumula, K R

    1999-01-01

    Protein sequence analysis using an adsorptive biphasic sequencing cartridge, a set of two coupled columns introduced by Hewlett-Packard for protein sequencing by Edman degradation, in an Applied Biosystems 473A protein sequencer has been demonstrated. Samples containing salts, detergents, excipients, etc. (e.g., formulated protein drugs) can be easily analyzed using the ABI sequencer. Simple modifications to the ABI sequencer to accommodate the cartridge extend its utility in the analysis of difficult samples. The ABI sequencer solvents and reagents were compatible with the HP cartridge for sequencing. Sequence information up to ten residues can be easily generated by this nonoptimized procedure, and it is sufficient for identifying proteins by database search and for preparing a DNA probe for cloning novel proteins.

  1. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Koy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2(=CH–2-(2-PrO-C6H42+ (OTf−2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3− based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene and the ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4−]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  2. Grubbs-Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))(2+) (OTf(-))2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf(-) = CF3SO3 (-)) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM(+)][BF4 (-)]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  3. Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/β-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R.V.; Asokan, K.; Kalkura, S. Narayana

    2013-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  4. Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/β-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-06-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  5. Biphasic dissolution method for quality control and assurance of drugs containing active substances in the form of weak acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Aleš

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Substances in the form of weak acid salts have been found to be problematic for dissolution testing. Their absorption can start only after they are turned into the form of an acid following the gastric passage although they were administered in the form of a salt. Due to poor solubility, they cannot be tested in acidic gastric environment for a biased dissolution profile. The biphasic dissolution method is promising for overcoming this obstacle. Tablets with warfarin clathrate sodium salt in two concentrations and two different particle size distributions were tested as a suitable model for finding the medium and process conditions of dissolution. The dissolution method based on the use of the upper organic layer (1-octanol and the lower aqueous layer 0.1 mol L−1 HCl was found suitable and discriminatory for tablets containing active substances in the form of salts of weak acids. The method also reflects physical differences in the quality of used substances.

  6. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaokun [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Li, Teng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tang, Kan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhou, Xinpei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lu, Mi [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ounkham, Whalmany L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Spain, Stephen M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Frost, Brian J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lin, Hongfei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reaction mechanism is discussed.

  7. Aqueous biphasic treatment of some nitrocompounds with hydrogen in the presence of a biogenerated Pd-polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Stefano; Tassini, Riccardo; La Sorella, Giorgio; Piccolo, Oreste; Baldi, Franco; Rathod, Vikas D

    2015-03-25

    A strain of Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10, known to produce a specific exopolysaccharide (EPS), when grown aerobically in static mode in the presence of Pd(NO3)2, generated the species Pd-EPS that was used as catalyst precursor in the aqueous biphasic treatment of some nitrocompounds with hydrogen. Nitrobenzene was hydrogenated to aniline with almost quantitative yields and the catalyst, embedded in the aqueous phase, was used with success and with near the same efficiency in three recycling experiments. In the case of 1-iodo-4-nitrobenzene only nitrobenzene was obtained while the unsaturated nitro compound β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene afforded both the corresponding oxime and the saturated nitro derivative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amplification of a bi-phase shift-key modulated signal by a mm-wave FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Sheaffer, M.K.

    1991-10-01

    Bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) is a modulation scheme used in communications and radar in which the phase of a transmitted rf signal is switched in a coded pattern between discrete values differing by π radians. The transmitted information rate (in communications) or resolution (in imaging radar) depends on the rate at which the transmitted signal can be modulated. Modulation rates of greater than 1 GHz are generally desired. Although the instantaneous gain bandwidth of a mm-wave FEL amplifier can be much greater than 10 GHz, slippage may limit the BPSK modulation rate that can be amplified. Qualitative slippage arguments would limit the modulation rate to relatively low values; nevertheless, simulations with a time-dependent FEL code (GINGER) indicate that rates of 2 GHz or more are amplified without much loss in modulation integrity. In this paper we describe the effects of slippage in the simulations and discuss the limits of simple arguments

  9. Enhanced extraction of bovine serum albumin with aqueous biphasic systems of phosphonium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M.; Pedro, Sónia N.; Quental, Maria V.; Lima, Álvaro S.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs), combined with a buffered aqueous solution of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH=7.0), were investigated for the extraction of proteins. For that purpose, the phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC, and the performance of these ABS for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then evaluated. The obtained results reveal that, with the exception of the more hydrophobic ILs, most of the systems investigated allow the complete extraction of BSA for the IL-rich phase in a single-step. These remarkable extraction efficiencies are far superior to those afforded by more conventional extraction systems previously reported. The composition of the biphasic systems, i.e., the amount of phase-forming components, was also investigated aiming at reducing the overall costs of the process without losing efficiency on the protein extraction. It is shown that the extraction efficiencies of BSA are maintained at 100% up to high protein concentrations (at least up to 10 g.L-1). The recovery of the BSA from the IL-rich phase by dialysis is also shown in addition to the demonstration of the IL recyclability and reusability, at least for 3 times. In the sequential three-step extractions (BSA recovery/IL reusability), the extraction efficiencies of BSA for the IL-rich phase were maintained at 100%. For the improved ABS, the preservation of the protein native conformation was confirmed by Size Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (used also as the quantification method) and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. According to the results herein reported, ABS composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ILs and a biodegradable organic salt represent an alternative and remarkable platform for the extraction of BSA and may be extended to other proteins of interest. PMID:25865275

  10. Biphase Cobalt-Manganese Oxide with High Capacity and Rate Performance for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Charles, Daniel S. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Xu, Wenqian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS). X-ray Science Division; Feygenson, Mikhail [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) outstation Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Teng, Xiaowei [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2017-11-22

    Manganese-based metal oxide electrode materials are of great importance in electrochemical energy storage for their favorable redox behavior, low cost and environmental-friendliness. However, their storage capacity and cycle life in aqueous Na-ion electrolytes is not satisfactory. In this paper, we report the development of a bi-phase cobalt-manganese oxide (Co-Mn-O) nanostructured electrode material, comprised of a layered MnO2.H2O birnessite phase and a (Co0.83Mn0.13Va0.04)tetra(Co0.38Mn1.62)octaO3.72 (Va: vacancy; tetra: tetrahedral sites; octa: octahedral sites) spinel phase, verified by neutron total scattering and pair distribution function analyses. The bi-phase Co-Mn-O material demonstrates an excellent storage capacity towards Na-ions in an aqueous electrolyte (121 mA h g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the half-cell and 81 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 after 5000 cycles in full-cells), as well as high rate performance (57 mA h g-1 a rate of 360 C). Electro-kinetic analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction measurements further confirm that the synergistic interaction between the spinel and layered phases, as well as the vacancy of the tetrahedral sites of spinel phase, contribute to the improved capacity and rate performance of the Co-Mn-O material by facilitating both diffusion-limited redox and capacitive charge storage processes.

  11. Biphasic defibrillation using a single capacitor with large capacitance: reduction of peak voltages and ICD device size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M; Hammel, D; Böcker, D; Borggrefe, M; Budde, T; Isbruch, F; Scheld, H H; Breithardt, G

    1996-02-01

    The volume of current implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) is not convenient for pectoral implantation. One way to reduce the size of the pulse generator is to find a more effective defibrillation pulse waveform generated from smaller volume capacitors. In a prospective randomized crossover study we compared the step-down defibrillation threshold (DFT) of a standard biphasic waveform (STD), delivered by two 250-microF capacitors connected in series with an 80% tilt, to an experimental biphasic waveform delivered by a single 450-microF capacitor with a 60% tilt. The experimental waveform delivered the same energy with a lower peak voltage and a longer duration (LVLD). Intraoperatively, in 25 patients receiving endocardial (n = 12) or endocardial-subcutaneous array (n = 13) defibrillation leads, the DFT was determined for both waveforms. Energy requirements did not differ at DFT for the STD and LVLD waveforms with the low impedance (32 +/- 4 omega) endocardial-subcutaneous array defibrillation lead system (6.4 +/- 4.4 J and 5.9 +/- 4.2 J, respectively) or increased slightly (P = 0.06) with the higher impedance (42 +/- 4 omega) endocardial lead system (10.4 +/- 4.6 J and 12.7 +/- 5.7 J, respectively). However, the voltage needed at DFT was one-third lower with the LVLD waveform than with the STD waveform for both lead systems (256 +/- 85 V vs 154 +/- 51 V and 348 +/- 76 V vs 232 +/- 54 V, respectively). Thus, a single capacitor with a large capacitance can generate a defibrillation pulse with a substantial lower peak voltage requirement without significantly increasing the energy requirements. The volume reduction in using a single capacitor can decrease ICD device size.

  12. Biphasic alloplastic graft used to preserve the dimension of the edentulous ridge: an experimental study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, J; Araújo, M G; Bufler, M; Liljenberg, B

    2013-10-01

    Loss of teeth results in marked qualitative and quantitative alterations of the alveolar process at the edentulous site. It was observed that a graft comprised of bovine bone mineral placed in the fresh extraction socket delayed tissue modeling, but preserved the dimension of the ridge at edentulous sites. To analyze the influence of a biphasic synthetic graft on tissue modeling and remodeling during healing of extraction wounds. Five beagle dogs were used. Two premolars in the maxilla and two in the mandible were included. Full thickness flaps were elevated and the distal roots were removed. An alloplastic graft (BPCAP; α-TCP core coated with nanocrystalline biomimetic hydroxyapatite) embedded in porcine collagen was placed to fill the fresh extraction socket of the premolar sites. Flaps were replaced to cover the entrance of the extraction sockets during early healing. The extraction and grafting procedures were scheduled to allow for the study of 1, 2, and 3 months socket healing. The biopsies from the maxillary sites were decalcified, embedded in paraffin, and stained to allow the study of various aspects of hard tissue formation. The biopsies from the mandibular sites were processed for ground sectioning and used to evaluate alterations of ridge dimensions after 3 months of socket healing. It was documented that the biphasic alloplastic graft did not undergo marked resorption during tissue modeling and remodeling, but allowed large amounts of bone to form within the post-extraction site. Grafting the experimental sites with this biomaterial furthermore counteracted ridge resorption that otherwise occurs following tooth extraction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Cancer: brain-regulated biphasic stress response induces cell growth or cell death to adapt to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.

  14. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: fphebm@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmchenw@126.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  16. TSDC and impedance spectroscopy measurements on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate biphasic bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezas, P. R.; Melo, B. M. G.; Costa, L. C.; Valente, M. A.; Lança, M. C.; Ventura, J. M. G.; Pinto, L. F. V.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Bone grafting and surgical interventions related with orthopaedic disorders consist in a big business, generating large revenues worldwide every year. There is a need to replace the biomaterials that currently still dominate this market, i.e., autografts and allografts, due to their disadvantages, such as limited availability, need for additional surgeries and diseases transmission possibilities. The most promising replacement materials are biomaterials with bioactive properties, such as the calcium phosphate-based bioceramics group. The bioactivity of these materials, i.e., the rate at which they promote the growth and directly bond with the new host biological bone, can be enhanced through their electrical polarization. In the present work, the electrical polarization features of pure hydroxyapatite (Hap), pure β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composites (HTCP) were analyzed by measuring thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC). The samples were thermoelectrically polarized at 500 °C under a DC electric field with a magnitude of 5 kV/cm. The biphasic samples were also polarized under electric fields with different magnitudes: 2, 3, 4 and 5 kV/cm. Additionally, the depolarization processes detected in the TSDC measurements were correlated with dielectric relaxation processes observed in impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements. The results indicate that the β-TCP crystalline phase has a considerable higher ability to store electrical charge compared with the Hap phase. This indicates that it has a suitable composition and structure for ionic conduction and establishment of a large electric charge density, providing great potential for orthopaedic applications.

  17. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  18. Forensic DNA phenotyping : Regulatory issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping is an interesting new investigation method: crime-scene DNA is analyzed to compose a description of the unknown suspect, including external and behavioral features, geographic origin and perhaps surname. This method is allowed in some countries but prohibited in a few

  19. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  20. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  1. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  2. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

  3. Animal models of RLS phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P; Donelson, Nathan C; Jones, Byron C; Li, Yuqing; Manconi, Mauro; Rye, David B; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a complex disorder that involves sensory and motor systems. The major pathophysiology of RLS is low iron concentration in the substantia nigra containing the cell bodies of dopamine neurons that project to the striatum, an area that is crucial for modulating movement. People who have RLS often present with normal iron values outside the brain; recent studies implicate several genes are involved in the syndrome. Like most complex diseases, animal models usually do not faithfully capture the full phenotypic spectrum of "disease," which is a uniquely human construct. Nonetheless, animal models have proven useful in helping to unravel the complex pathophysiology of diseases such as RLS and suggesting novel treatment paradigms. For example, hypothesis-independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes as increasing the risk for RLS, including BTBD9. Independently, the murine homolog Btbd9 was identified as a candidate gene for iron regulation in the midbrain in mice. The relevance of the phenotype of another of the GWAS identified genes, MEIS1, has also been explored. The role of Btbd9 in iron regulation and RLS-like behaviors has been further evaluated in mice carrying a null mutation of the gene and in fruit flies when the BTBD9 protein is degraded. The BTBD9 and MEIS1 stories originate from human GWAS research, supported by work in a genetic reference population of mice (forward genetics) and further verified in mice, fish flies, and worms. Finally, the role of genetics is further supported by an inbred mouse strain that displays many of the phenotypic characteristics of RLS. The role of animal models of RLS phenotypes is also extended to include periodic limb movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak. (paper)

  5. Drivers of the Warburg phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Rob A

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect was first described by Otto Warburg in the 1920s and describes the preferential conversion of glucose to lactate as opposed to its metabolism through the citric acid cycle to fuel oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, even in the presence of oxygen. This phenotype is a common feature of malignant cells and is also observed in some highly proliferative normal tissues. The selective advantage provided by this phenotype is not entirely clear. Adopting this metabolic state may allow tumor cells to balance their need for ATP, biosynthetic precursor molecules, and reducing power in order to respond to growth and proliferation signals and may provide a selective advantage in the hypoxic and acidic microenvironments that are often a feature of solid tumors. Oncogenic signaling pathways and responses to the local microenvironment combine to produce this metabolic phenotype via a number of molecular mechanisms. A better understanding of these mechanisms in both tumor and normal tissues and a more complete understanding of how the Warburg effect interacts with the rest of the tumor metabolic network should provide opportunities for novel clinical intervention.

  6. Cancer predisposition in children: genetics, phenotypes & screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, S.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetic, phenotypic and screening aspects of tumor predisposition syndromes in childhood cancer patients. In tumor predisposition syndromes, the same constitutional molecular defects that lead to the clinical phenotype predispose the patient to develop specific cancers.

  7. Addition of a Synthetically Fabricated Osteoinductive Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft to BMP2 Improves New Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Hang; Qian, Li; Miron, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) has been successfully utilized in dentistry to promote new bone formation because of its osteoinductive ability to recruit mesenchymal progenitor cells and induce their differentiation to bone-forming osteoblasts. Recently, novel biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds have been developed with similar osteoinductive properties capable of forming ectopic bone formation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the combination of BMP2 with this novel Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) scaffold may additionally promote new bone regeneration. Cylindrical bone defects measuring 2.5 mm were created bilaterally in the femurs of 18 Wistar rats. After 4 weeks, the following six groups were assessed for new bone formation by micro-computed tomography (CT) as well as histological assessment: 1) collagen scaffolds + 20 μg of BMP2; 2) collagen scaffolds + 50 μg of BMP2; 3) collagen scaffolds + 100 μg of BMP2; 4) BCP scaffolds + 20 μg of BMP2; 5) BCP scaffolds + 50 μg of BMP2; and 6) BCP scaffolds + 100 μg of BMP2. Furthermore, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was utilized to assess osteoclast activity and osteoclast number. The release kinetics of BMP2 from both BCP and collagen scaffolds was investigated over a 14-day period. The results from present study demonstrate that BMP2 is able to promote new bone formation in a concentration dependant manner when loaded with either a collagen scaffolds or BCP scaffolds. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated significantly higher levels of new bone formation in groups containing BCP + BMP2 when compared with collagen scaffolds + BMP2. BMP2 had little effect on osteoclast activity; however, less TRAP staining and osteoclast number was observed in the defects receiving collagen scaffolds when compared with BCP scaffolds. The release of BMP2 over time was rapidly released after 1 day on BCP scaffolds whereas a gradually release over

  8. Molybdenum and Tungsten Imido Alkylidene N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalysts Bearing Cationic Ligands for Use in Biphasic Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Iris; Schowner, Roman; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2017-05-05

    Ionic Mo- and W-imido alkylidene N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) olefin metathesis catalysts, [Mo{N-2,6-(Me 2 )C 6 H 3 }(CHCMe 2 Ph)(IMesH 2 )(OTf)(PPS)]OTf (3), [Mo(N-2,6-(Me 2 )C 6 H 3 )(CHCMe 2 Ph)(IMesH 2 )(OC 6 F 5 )(PPS)][B(Ar F ) 4 ] (5), [Mo(NtBu)(CHCMe 2 Ph)(4,5-dichloro-1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene)(OTf)(2,6-Ph-4-{2,4,6-Ph-pyridinium}phenolate)][OTf] (9), [Mo(NtBu)(CHCMe 2 Ph)(4,5-dichloro-1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene)(2,6-Ph-4-{2,4,6-Ph-pyridinium}phenolate)][B(Ar F ) 4 ] 2 (10, PPS=pyridiniumpropanesulfonate, IMesH 2 =1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene, OTf=CF 3 SO 3 , B(Ar F ) 4 =tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate) were prepared from betaine-type ligands. Also, the first bis-NHC and a nitron-based bis(amido) bistriflate imido alkylidene complex, [Mo(NtBu)(CHCMe 2 Ph)(4,5-dichloro-1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene) 2 (THF)(2,6-Ph-4-{2,4,6-Ph-pyridinium}phenolate)][OTf] 2 (11) and [Mo(N-2,6-Me 2 -C 6 H 3 )(CHCMe 2 Ph)(N-{1,4-diphenyl-1,3,4-triazol-2-ylium}-N-phenyl-amido) 2 ][OTf] 2 (14) along with ionic [W(N-2,6-iPr 2 -C 6 H 3 )(CHCMe 2 Ph)(N-2,5-Me 2 C 4 H 2 )(IiPr)(2,6-tBu-4-PPh 3 -phenolate)] (17, IiPr=1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene) are reported. With these new catalysts, the first biphasic reaction setup with Group 6 metal alkylidene NHC complexes was successfully established using a pyrrole/heptane mixture as a liquid phase. Productivities under biphasic conditions were comparable to those of reactions in 1,2-dichloroethane or toluene. Metal concentrations of <2 ppm migrated into the nonpolar heptane phase as measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Preparation of dexamethasone-loaded biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles/collagen porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Although bone is regenerative, its regeneration capacity is limited. For bone defects beyond a critical size, further intervention is required. As an attractive strategy, bone tissue engineering (bone TE) has been widely investigated to repair bone defects. However, the rapid and effective bone regeneration of large non-healing defects is still a great challenge. Multifunctional scaffolds having osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity are desirable to fasten functional bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, biomimetic composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release of dexamethasone (DEX) and the controlled pore structures were prepared for bone TE. DEX was introduced in the BCP NPs during preparation of the BCP NPs and hybridized with collagen scaffolds, which pore structures were controlled by using pre-prepared ice particulates as a porogen material. The composite scaffolds had well controlled and interconnected pore structures, high mechanical strength and a sustained release of DEX. The composite scaffolds showed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs when used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Subcutaneous implantation of the composite scaffolds at the dorsa of athymic nude mice demonstrated that they facilitated the ectopic bone tissue regeneration. The results indicated the DEX-loaded BCP NPs/collagen composite scaffolds had high potential for bone TE. Scaffolds play a crucial role for regeneration of large bone defects. Biomimetic scaffolds having the same composition of natural bone and a controlled release of osteoinductive factors are desirable for promotion of bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic CaP nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release nature of dexamethasone (DEX) were prepared and their porous structures were controlled by using ice particulates

  10. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiufang; Song, Dan; Gu, Li; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Here, we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At lower concentrations, fluoxetine downregulates gene expression of Cav-1, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases activity of PI3K/AKT, and elevates GSK-3β phosphorylation thus suppressing its activity. At higher concentrations, fluoxetine acts in an inverse fashion. As expected, fluoxetine at lower concentrations increased while at higher concentrations decreased glycogen content in astrocytes. Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug.

  11. Development of a biphasic dissolution test for Deferasirox dispersible tablets and its application in establishing an in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Durdunji, Amal; AlKhatib, Hatim S; Al-Ghazawi, Mutasim

    2016-05-01

    In a biphasic dissolution medium, the integration of the in vitro dissolution of a drug in an aqueous phase and its subsequent partitioning into an organic phase is hypothesized to simulate the in vivo drug absorption. Such a methodology is expected to improve the probability of achieving a successful in vitro-in vivo correlation. Dissolution of Dispersible tablets of Deferasirox, a biopharmaceutics classification system type II compound, was studied in a biphasic dissolution medium using a flow-through dissolution apparatus coupled to a paddle apparatus. The experimental parameters associated with dissolution were optimized to discriminate between Deferasirox dispersible tablets of different formulations. The dissolution profiles obtained from this system were subsequently used to construct a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Li–O 2 Batteries Using Biphasic N-Doping Cobalt@Graphene Multiple-Capsule Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Chong, Lina; Amine, Rachid; Lu, Jun; Liu, Cong; Yuan, Yifei; Wen, Jianguo [Center; He, Kun; Bi, Xuanxuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Al Hallaj, Said; Miller, Dean J. [Center; Liu, Dijia; Amine, Khalil

    2017-04-10

    For the promotion of lithium oxygen batteries available for :practical applications, the development of advanced cathode catalysts with low-high activity, and stable structural properties is demanded. Such development is rooted on certain intelligent catalyst-electrode design that fundamentally facilitates electronic and ionic transport and improves oxygen diffusivity in a porous environment. Here we design a biphasic nitrogen-doped cobalt@grapbene Multiple-capsule heterostructure, combined with a flexible, stable porous electrode architecture, and apply it as promising cathodes for lithium oxygen cells. 'The biphasic nitrogen-doping feature improves the electric conductivity and catalytic activity; the multiple-nanocapsule configuration makes high/uniform electroactive zones possible; furthermore the colander-like porous electrode facilitates the oxygen diffusion, catalytic reaction,and stable deposition of discharge products. As a result, the electrode exhibits much improved electrocatalytic properties associated with unique morphologies of electrochemically grown lithium peroxides.

  13. Knowledge-based analysis of phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoendorf, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism, and they are widely recorded in biology and medicine. To facilitate data integration, ontologies that formally describe phenotypes are being developed in several domains. I will describe a formal framework to describe phenotypes. A formalized theory of phenotypes is not only useful for domain analysis, but can also be applied to assist in the diagnosis of rare genetic diseases, and I will show how our results on the ontology of phenotypes is now applied in biomedical research.

  14. A promising tritium breeding material: Nanostructured 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chen; Yang, Mao; Gong, Yichao; Feng, Lan; Wang, Hailiang; Shi, Yanli; Shi, Qiwu; Qi, Jianqi; Lu, Tiecheng

    2018-03-01

    As an advanced tritium breeder material for the fusion reactor blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic has attracted widely attention due to its merits. In this paper, the uniform precursor powders were prepared by hydrothermal method, and nanostructured 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were fabricated by an indirect wet method at the first time. In addition, the composition dependence (x/y) of their microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the crush load of biphasic ceramic pebbles was better than that of single phase ceramic pebbles under identical conditions. The 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 ceramic pebbles have good morphology, small grain size (90 nm), satisfactory crush load (37.8 N) and relative density (81.8 %T.D.), which could be a promising breeding material in the future fusion reactor.

  15. The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Sebastian; Vasilevsky, Nicole A.; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; McMurry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. The three components of the Human PhenotypeOntology (HPO; www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) project are the phenotype vocabulary, disease-phenotype annotations and the algorithms that operate on these. These components are being used for computational deep phenotyping and precision medicine as well as integration of clinical data into translational research. The HPO is being increasingly adopted as a standard for phenotypic abnormalities by diverse groups such as international rare disease organizations, registries, clinical labs, biomedical resources, and clinical software tools and will thereby contribute toward nascent efforts at global data exchange for identifying disease etiologies. This update article reviews the progress of the HPO project since the debut Nucleic Acids Research database article in 2014, including specific areas of expansion such as common (complex) disease, new algorithms for phenotype driven genomic discovery and diagnostics, integration of cross-species mapping efforts with the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, an improved quality control pipeline, and the addition of patient-friendly terminology.

  16. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1...... contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/βII aggregates and α...

  17. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaag, A A; Grunnet, L G; Arora, G P

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2...... of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2...

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of biphasic calcium phosphate of modified porosity on human dental pulp cells using Ames and Comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Nur Fathin Alia Che; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Mahmood, Zuliani; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Ismail, Hanafi

    2018-03-01

    Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) with a ratio of 20/80 Hydroxyapatite (HA)/Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promotes the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). In the current study, the genotoxicity of locally produced BCP of modified porosity (65%) with a mean pore size of 300micrometer (μm) was assessed using Comet and Ames assays. HDPCs were treated with BCP extract at three different inhibitory concentrations which were obtained based on cytotoxicity test conducted with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment of HDPCs treated with BCP extract at all three concentrations showed no significant difference compared to negative control (p>0.05), indicating that BCP did not induce DNA damage to HDPCs. The BCP was evaluated using five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1537 and TA1538. Each strain was incubated with BCP extract with five different concentrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (S9) mix. Concurrently, negative and positive controls were included. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with the BCP extract was less than double as compared to the number of revertant colonies in negative control plate and no dose-related increase was observed. Results from both assays suggested that the BCP of modified porosity did not exhibit any genotoxic effect under the present test conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing the effects of instillation volume on intravesical delivery using biphasic solute transport in a deformable geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean G; Griffith, Boyce E; Zaharoff, David A

    2018-04-05

    Ailments of the bladder are often treated via intravesical delivery-direct application of therapeutic into the bladder through a catheter. This technique is employed hundreds of thousands of times every year, but protocol development has largely been limited to empirical determination. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of intravesical delivery performed to date have been restricted to static geometries and have not accounted for bladder deformation. This study uses a finite element analysis approach with biphasic solute transport to investigate several parameters pertinent to intravesical delivery including solute concentration, solute transport properties and instillation volume. The volume of instillation was found to have a substantial impact on the exposure of solute to the deeper muscle layers of the bladder, which are typically more difficult to reach. Indeed, increasing the instillation volume from 50-100 ml raised the muscle solute exposure as a percentage of overall bladder exposure from 60-70% with higher levels achieved for larger instillation volumes. Similar increases were not seen for changes in solute concentration or solute transport properties. These results indicate the role that instillation volume may play in targeting particular layers of the bladder during an intravesical delivery.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of porous biphasic calcium phosphate scaffold from different porogens for possible bone tissue engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amera A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the wet precipitation method, Biphasic calcium phosphate granules were synthesized with Ca/P ratio1.52 and controlled porosity, pore size distribution, and granule size. Microporosity was then obtained by adjusting sintering temperature while macroporosity was prepared by adding 1:3 wt% ratio of two normally used porogens (naphthalene and sugar and 2 newly introduced porogens (sago and lentil. Samples from each ratio were pressed into pellets and were fired at 500ºC for 2 hours with 0.5°C/minute heating rate (for removal of porogens and further sintered at 850°C for 2 hours with 5°C/minute before cooling down to room temperature. The granules were prepared by crushing and sieving BCP sintered pellets to get granules of sizes ranging from 250-500μm. X-rays diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, particle size and porosity analyses were employed in order to characterize the granules. A round to oval shape pores with 200-400 μm size were obtained and identical to the prepared porogens’ particle size. This approach gives the desirable properties near to normal bone leading to a perfect osteogenesis for the purpose tissue engineering.

  1. Facile synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate microspheres with engineered surface topography for controlled delivery of drugs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkesh, Ibrahim; Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Azami, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Baharvand, Hossein; Mohammadi, Javad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban

    2017-09-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) microspheres are of great interest due to their high stability and osteoinductive properties at specific compositions. However, the need for optimal performance at a unique composition limits their flexibility for tuning drug release by modulation of bulk properties and presents the question of engineering surface topography as an alternative. It is necessary to have a facile method to control surface topography at a defined bulk composition. Here, we have produced BCP microspheres with different surface topographies that have the capability to be used as tunable drug release systems. We synthesized calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) microparticles by precipitating calcium and phosphate ions onto ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) templates. The morphology and surface topography of CDHA microparticles were controlled using process parameters, which governed nucleation and growth. These parameters included template concentration, heat rate, and stirring speed. Under low heat rate and static conditions, we could obtain spherical microparticles with long and short nanosheets on their surfaces at low and high EDTA concentrations, respectively. These nanostructured microspheres were subsequently crystallized by thermal treatment to produce EDTA-free BCP microspheres with intact morphology. These biocompatible BCP microspheres were highly effective in loading and prolonged release of both small molecule [dexamethasone (Dex)] and protein [bovine serum albumin (BSA)] models. This strategy has enabled us to control the surface topography of BCP microspheres at defined compositions and holds tremendous promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the extraction and purification of immunoglobulin G by the use of ionic liquids as adjuvants in aqueous biphasic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibyendu; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulins G (IgG) could become widespread biopharmaceuticals if cost-efficient processes for their extraction and purification are available. In this work, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols and a buffered salt, and with ionic liquids (ILs) as adjuvants, have been studied as alternative extraction and purification platforms of IgG from a rabbit serum source. Eleven ILs were investigated to provide insights on the chemical features which maximize the IgG partitioning. It is shown that in polymer-salt systems pure IgG preferentially partitions to the polymer-rich phase; yet, the complete extraction was never attained. Remarkably, after the addition of 5 wt% of adequate ILs to polymer-salt ABS, the complete extraction of pure IgG in a single-step was accomplished. The best systems and conditions were then applied to the extraction and purification of IgG directly from rabbit serum samples. The complete extraction of IgG in a single-step was maintained while its purity in the polymer-rich phase was enhanced by ca. 37% as compared to the IL-free ABS. The antibody stability was also evaluated revealing that appropriate ILs are able to maintain the IgG stability and can be used as phase-forming components of ABS when envisaging the purification of high-cost biopharmaceuticals. PMID:27568168

  3. Optimized Bone Regeneration in Calvarial Bone Defect Based on Biodegradation-Tailoring Dual-shell Biphasic Bioactive Ceramic Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Antian; Zhuang, Chen; Xu, Shuxin; He, Fuming; Xie, Lijun; Yang, Xianyan; Gou, Zhongru

    2018-02-21

    Bioceramic particulates capable of filling bone defects have gained considerable interest over the last decade. Herein, dual-shell bioceramic microspheres (CaP@CaSi@CaP, CaSi@CaP@CaSi) with adjustable beta-tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and beta-calcium silicate (CaSi) distribution were fabricated using a co-concentric capillary system enabling bone repair via a tailorable biodegradation process. The in vitro results showed the optimal concentration (1/16 of 200 mg/ml) of extracts of dual-shell microspheres could promote bone marrow mesenchymal cell (BMSC) proliferation and enhance the level of ALP activity and Alizarin Red staining. The in vivo bone repair and microsphere biodegradation in calvarial bone defects were compared using micro-computed tomography and histological evaluations. The results indicated the pure CaP microspheres were minimally resorbed at 18 weeks post-operatively and new bone tissue was limited; however, the dual-shell microspheres were appreciably biodegraded with time in accordance with the priority from CaSi to CaP in specific layers. The CaSi@CaP@CaSi group showed a significantly higher ability to promote bone regeneration than the CaP@CaSi@CaP group. This study indicates that the biphasic microspheres with adjustable composition distribution are promising for tailoring material degradation and bone regeneration rate, and such versatile design strategy is thought to fabricate various advanced biomaterials with tailorable biological performances for bone reconstruction.

  4. Myocyte-Derived Hsp90 Modulates Collagen Upregulation via Biphasic Activation of STAT-3 in Fibroblasts during Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Rana, Santanu; Datta, Kaberi; Datta Chaudhuri, Ratul; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3)-mediated signaling in relation to upregulated collagen expression in fibroblasts during cardiac hypertrophy is well defined. Our recent findings have identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to be a critical modulator of fibrotic signaling in cardiac fibroblasts in this disease milieu. The present study was therefore intended to analyze the role of Hsp90 in the STAT-3-mediated collagen upregulation process. Our data revealed a significant difference between in vivo and in vitro results, pointing to a possible involvement of myocyte-fibroblast cross talk in this process. Cardiomyocyte-targeted knockdown of Hsp90 in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in which the renal artery was ligated showed downregulated collagen synthesis. Furthermore, the results obtained with cardiac fibroblasts conditioned with Hsp90-inhibited hypertrophied myocyte supernatant pointed toward cardiomyocytes' role in the regulation of collagen expression in fibroblasts during hypertrophy. Our study also revealed a novel signaling mechanism where myocyte-derived Hsp90 orchestrates not only p65-mediated interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis but also its release in exosomal vesicles. Such myocyte-derived exosomes and myocyte-secreted IL-6 are responsible in unison for the biphasic activation of STAT-3 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts that culminates in excess collagen synthesis, leading to severely compromised cardiac function during cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28031326

  5. SDF-1/CXCL12 modulates mitochondrial respiration of immature blood cells in a bi-phasic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina-Graham, Steven; Broxmeyer, Hal

    2016-05-01

    SDF-1/CXCL12 is a potent chemokine required for the homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Previous data from our group has shown that in an SDF-1/CXCL12 transgenic mouse model, lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) (LSK) bone marrow cells have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential versus wild-type. These results suggested that SDF-1/CXCL12 may function to keep mitochondrial respiration low in immature blood cells in the bone marrow. Low mitochondrial metabolism helps to maintain low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can influence differentiation. To test whether SDF-1/CXCL12 regulates mitochondrial metabolism, we employed the human leukemia cell line HL-60, that expresses high levels of the SDF-1/CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, as a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We treated HL-60 cells with SDF-1/CXCL12 for 2 and 24h. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR), mitochondrial-associated ATP production, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential of HL-60 cells were significantly reduced at 2h and increased at 24h as compared to untreated control cells. These biphasic effects of SDF-1/CXCL12 were reproduced with lineage negative primary mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting a novel function of SDF-1/CXCL12 in modulating mitochondrial respiration by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production and mitochondrial content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Engineering amount of cell-cell contact demonstrates biphasic proliferative regulation through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Darren S.; Liu, Wendy F.; Shen, Colette J.; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cell-cell contact via VE-cadherin plays an important role in regulating numerous cell functions, including proliferation. However, using different experimental approaches to manipulate cell-cell contact, investigators have observed both inhibition and stimulation of proliferation depending on the adhesive context. In this study, we used micropatterned wells combined with active positioning of cells by dielectrophoresis in order to investigate whether the number of contacting neighbors affected the proliferative response. Varying cell-cell contact resulted in a biphasic effect on proliferation; one contacting neighbor increased proliferation, while two or more neighboring cells partially inhibited this increase. We also observed that cell-cell contact increased the formation of actin stress fibers, and that expression of dominant negative RhoA (RhoN19) blocked the contact-mediated increase in stress fibers and proliferation. Furthermore, examination of heterotypic pairs of untreated cells in contact with RhoN19-expressing cells revealed that intracellular, but not intercellular, tension is required for the contact-mediated stimulation of proliferation. Moreover, engagement of VE-cadherin with cadherin-coated beads was sufficient to stimulate proliferation in the absence of actual cell-cell contact. In all, these results demonstrate that cell-cell contact signals through VE-cadherin, RhoA, and intracellular tension in the actin cytoskeleton to regulate proliferation

  7. Applied catastrophic phase inversion: a continuous non-centrifugal phase separation step in biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonke, Sebastian; Sadowski, Gabriele; Brandenbusch, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Biphasic whole-cell biotransformations are known to be efficient alternatives to common chemical synthesis routes, especially for the production of, e.g. apolar enantiopure organic compounds. They provide high stereoselectivity combined with high product concentrations owing to the presence of an organic phase serving as substrate reservoir and product sink. Industrial implementation suffers from the formation of stable Pickering emulsions caused by the presence of cells. State-of-the-art downstream processing includes inefficient strategies such as excessive centrifugation, use of de-emulsifiers or thermal stress. In contrast, using the catastrophic phase inversion (CPI) phenomenon (sudden switch of emulsion type caused by addition of dispersed phase), Pickering-type emulsions can be destabilized efficiently. Within this work a model system using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) as organic phase in combination with E. coli, JM101 was successfully separated using a continuous mixer settler setup. Compared to the state-of-the-art centrifugal separations, this process allows complete phase separation with no detectable water content or cells in the organic phase with no utilities/additives required. Furthermore, the concentration of the product is not affected by the separation. It is therefore a simple applicable method that can be used for separation of stable Pickering-type emulsions based on the knowledge of the point of inversion.

  8. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webler, Geovana D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano [Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Fonseca, Eduardo J.S., E-mail: eduardo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity.

  9. A parametric study on biphasic medium conditions for the enantioselective production of naproxen by Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaç, Serpil; Mutlu, Deniz

    2007-04-01

    A parametric study to increase the enantioselectivity of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) toward S-Naproxen production by the hydrolysis of racemic Naproxen methyl ester in an aqueous-organic biphasic batch system was carried out. Effects of organic solvent type, aqueous phase/organic solvent volume ratio, agitation rate, concentrations of the substrate and the enzyme, pH of the aqueous phase, and temperature on the enantiomeric excess for the product (eep), on the enantiomeric ratio (E) and on the conversion (x) were evaluated. Employing isooctane as the solvent resulted in higher eep, E, and x than those obtained in hexane, cyclohexane, and toluene. The higher the volume ratio of aqueous phase/organic solvent employed, the higher the conversion and enantioselectivity achieved. The increase in agitation rate increased the hydrolysis rate. Higher concentration of racemic Naproxen methyl ester than 10 mg/mL decreased both the conversion and enantioselectivity. The increase in crude CRL concentration resulted in enhancement of x, but the decrease of eep and E. Acidic pH led to higher conversion and enantioselectivity than the medium and alkaline pH values. A further increase in temperature to over 45 degrees C decreased the conversion and enantioselectivity. The highest enantiomeric ratio achieved in the S-Naproxen production was E = 171.1, with x = 49.8% and eep = 95.7%.

  10. Calcium silicate/calcium phosphate biphasic cements for vital pulp therapy: chemical-physical properties and human pulp cells response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Spagnuolo, G; Siboni, F; Procino, A; Rivieccio, V; Pelliccioni, G A; Prati, C; Rengo, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to test the properties of experimental calcium silicate/calcium phosphate biphasic cements with hydraulic properties designed for vital pulp therapy as direct pulp cap and pulpotomy. CaSi-αTCP and CaSi-DCDP were tested for ion-releasing ability, solubility, water sorption, porosity, ability to nucleate calcium phosphates, and odontoblastic differentiation—alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) upregulation—of primary human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The materials showed high Ca and OH release, high open pore volume and apparent porosity, and a pronounced ability to nucleate calcium phosphates on their surface. HDPCs treated with CaSi-αTCP showed a strong upregulation of ALP and OCN genes, namely a tenfold increase for OCN and a threefold increase for ALP compared to the control cells. Conversely, CaSi-DCDP induced a pronounced OCN gene upregulation but had no effect on ALP gene regulation. Both cements showed high biointeractivity (release of Ca and OH ions) correlated with their marked ability to nucleate calcium phosphates. CaSi-αTCP cement proved to be a potent inducer of ALP and OCN genes as characteristic markers of mineralization processes normally poorly expressed by HDPCs. Calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cements appear to be attractive new materials for vital pulp therapy as they may provide odontogenic/dentinogenic chemical signals for pulp regeneration and healing, and dentin formation in regenerative endodontics.

  11. Novel Biphasic Role of LipoxinA4 on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Lung Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxing Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are important to host defence and immunity, can also as initiators of inflammation as well. As the endogenous “braking signal”, Lipoxins can regulate anti-inflammation and the resolution of inflammation. We investigated the effect of lipoxinA4 on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lung fibroblasts. We demonstrated that the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein was significantly increased and peaked initially at 6 hours, with a second increase, with maximal levels occurring 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide challenge. ProstaglandinE2 levels also peaked at 6 hours, and prostaglandinD2 levels were increased at both 6 and 24 hours. Exogenous lipoxinA4 inhibited the first peak of cyclooxygenase-2 expression as well as the production of prostaglandinE2 induced by lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, exogenous lipoxinA4 increased the second peak of cyclooxygenase-2 expression as well as the production of prostaglandinD2 induced by lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. LipoxinA4 receptor mRNA expression was markedly stimulated by lipopolysaccharide but inhibited by lipoxinA4. We present evidence for a novel biphasic role of lipoxinA4 on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lung fibroblasts, whereby LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory and proresolving activity in lung fibroblasts following LPS stimulation.

  12. Subtle Effects of Aliphatic Alcohol Structure on Water Extraction and Solute Aggregation in Biphasic Water/ n -Dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Andrew W.; Qiao, Baofu; Chiarizia, Renato; Ferru, Geoffroy; Forbes, Tori; Ellis, Ross J.; Soderholm, L.

    2017-04-03

    Organic phase aggregation behavior of 1-octanol and its structural isomer, 2-ethylhexanol, in a biphasic n-dodecane water system is studied with a combination of physical measurement, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and atomistic molecular dynamic simulations. Physical properties of the organic phases are probed following their mixing and equilibration with immiscible water phases. Studies reveal that the interfacial tension decreases as a function of increasing alcohol concentration over the solubility range of the alcohol with no evidence for a critical aggregate concentration (cac). An uptake of water into the organic phases is quantified, as a function of alcohol content, by Karl Fischer titrations. The extraction of water into dodecane was further assessed as a function of alcohol concentration via the slope-analysis method sometimes employed in chemical separations. This provides a qualitative understanding of solute (water/alcohol) aggregation in the organic phase. The physical results are supported by analyses of SAXS data that reveals an emergence of aggregates in n-dodecane at elevated alcohol concentrations. The observed aggregate structure is dependent on the alcohol tail group geometry, consistent with surfactant packing parameter. The formation of these aggregates is discussed at a molecular level, where alcohol-alcohol and alcohol-water H-bonding interactions likely dominate the occurrence and morphology of the aggregates.

  13. Biphasic Estradiol-induced AKT Phosphorylation Is Modulated by PTEN via MAP Kinase in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo; Trentalance, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We reported previously in HepG2 cells that estradiol induces cell cycle progression throughout the G1–S transition by the parallel stimulation of both PKC-α and ERK signaling molecules. The analysis of the cyclin D1 gene expression showed that only the MAP kinase pathway was involved. Here, the presence of rapid/nongenomic, estradiol-regulated, PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, its modulation by the levels of the tumor suppressor PTEN, its cross-talk with the ERK pathway, and its involvement in DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 gene promoter activity have all been studied in HepG2 cells. 17β-Estradiol induced the rapid and biphasic phosphorylation of AKT. These phosphorylations were independent of each other, being the first wave of activation independent of the estrogen receptor (ER), whereas the second was dependent on ER. Both activations were dependent on PI3K activity; furthermore, the ERK pathway modulated AKT phosphorylation by acting on the PTEN levels. The results showed that the PI3K pathway, as well as ER, were strongly involved in both G1–S progression and cyclin D1 promoter activity by acting on its proximal region (-254 base pairs). These data indicate that in HepG2 cells, different rapid/nongenomic estradiol-induced signal transduction pathways modulate the multiple steps of G1–S phase transition. PMID:12808053

  14. Biphasic regulation of development of the high-affinity saxitoxin receptor by innervation in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.J.; Catterall, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Specific binding of 3 H-saxitoxin (STX) was used to quantitate the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. In adult triceps surae, a single class of sites with a KD . 2.9 nM and a density of 21 fmol/mg wet wt was detected. The density of these high-affinity sites increased from 2.0 fmol/mg wet wt to the adult value in linear fashion during days 2-25 after birth. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 11 or 17 reduced final saxitoxin receptor site density to 10.4 or 9.2 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively, without changing KD. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 5 did not alter the subsequent development of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 5-9 and accelerated the increase of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 9-13. After day 13, saxitoxin receptor development abruptly ceased and the density of saxitoxin receptor sites declined to 11 fmol/wg wet wt. These results show that the regulation of high-affinity saxitoxin receptor site density by innervation is biphasic. During the first phase, which is independent of continuing innervation, the saxitoxin receptor density increases to 47-57% of the adult level. After day 11, the second phase of development, which is dependent on continuing innervation, gives rise to the adult density of saxitoxin receptors

  15. Biphasic fluence-response curves for phytochrome-mediated kalanchoë seed germination : sensitization by gibberellic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, R; Dedonder, A; De Petter, E; Van Wiemeersch, L; Fredericq, H; De Greef, J; Steyaert, H; Stevens, H

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA(3)) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA(3) induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA(3) concentration. GA(3) having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA(3) appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal.

  16. Parametric response mapping of contrast-enhanced biphasic CT for evaluating tumour viability of hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Kaercher, Daniel; Hasdemir, Davut; Kaireit, Till; Lutat, Carolin; Meyer, Bernhard C.; Wacker, Frank K.; Rodt, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Murray, Tim [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Vogel, Arndt [Hannover Medical School, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the feasibility and role of parametric response mapping (PRM) for quantitative assessment of regional contrast-enhancement patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Biphasic CT of 19 patients receiving repetitive conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE) for intermediate stage HCC were retrospectively analysed at baseline and follow-up at 3, 6, and 9 months. Voxel-based registration of arterial and porto-venous phases, with segmentation of the largest target lesion was performed. Frequency distribution plots of density-pairs of segmented voxels were generated. To differentiate necrotic, hypervascular and non-hypervascular tumour, and lipiodol/calcification, thresholds of 30, 100, and 300 HU were applied. Changes in density frequency plots over time were analysed and compared to response and assessment criteria (WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST) and survival. PRM was feasible in all cases. Tumour volumes and hypervascular/non-hypervascular volume ratio showed significant longitudinal decrease (p < 0.05). Hypervascular volume at baseline was inversely correlated to survival (R = -0.57, p = 0.005). The only predictive parameter following cTACE to show significant survival difference was the change of the viable/non-viable ratio (p = 0.044), whereas common response assessment criteria showed no significant difference in survival. PRM allows a quantitative and more precise assessment of regional tumour vascularisation patterns and may be helpful for TACE treatment planning and response assessment. (orig.)

  17. Biphasic effects of histamine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions: Studies with betahistine, dimaprit, (R). alpha. -methylhistamine and nizatidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, R.E.; Palitzsch, K.D.; Szabo, S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In elucidating further the role that histamine (H) may play in gastroprotection against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) induced by ethanol (E), fasted S-D rats were treated with subcutaneous (s.c.) H 10, 15, 20 and 30 min before intragastric (i.g.) 100% E or H-agonists betahistine (H1) or dimaprit (H2) i.g. 30 min. before 75% E. All animals were killed 1 hr after E, HML were measured with stereomicrosopic planimetry and expressed as % of glandular stomach. The H2 antagonist nizatidine did not influence the extent of HML. As a follow up to previously reported nizatidine blockade of H2-induced gastroprotection against 75% E, nizatidine + H1 or nizatidine + H3 agonist (R){alpha}-methylhistamine was also tested. The H2 antagonist nizatidine abolished the gastroprotection by H3 but did not influence the H1-induced reduction of HML. H injected s.c. showed a dose- and time-dependent biphasic effect on E-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Both H1- and H2-agonists injected s.c. reduced the E-induced damage. Nizatidine alone failed to influence mucosal lesions, blocked gastroprotection induced by H2 or H3, but not by H1 agonists.

  18. Biphasic gene expression changes elicited by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean correlate with fungal penetration and haustoria formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katherine T; van de Mortel, Martijn; Bancroft, Timothy J; Braun, Edward; Nettleton, Dan; Nelson, Rex T; Frederick, Reid D; Baum, Thomas J; Graham, Michelle A; Whitham, Steven A

    2011-09-01

    Inoculation of soybean (Glycine max) plants with Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of Asian soybean rust, elicits a biphasic response characterized by a burst of differential gene expression in the first 12 h. A quiescent period occurs from 24 to 48 h after inoculation, in which P. pachyrhizi continues to develop but does not elicit strong host responses, followed by a second phase of intense gene expression. To correlate soybean responses with P. pachyrhizi growth and development, we inoculated the soybean cultivar Ankur (accession PI462312), which carries the Rpp3 resistance gene, with avirulent and virulent isolates of P. pachyrhizi. The avirulent isolate Hawaii 94-1 elicits hypersensitive cell death that limits fungal growth on Ankur and results in an incompatible response, while the virulent isolate Taiwan 80-2 grows extensively, sporulates profusely, and produces a compatible reaction. Inoculated leaves were collected over a 288-h time course for microarray analysis of soybean gene expression and microscopic analysis of P. pachyrhizi growth and development. The first burst in gene expression correlated with appressorium formation and penetration of epidermal cells, while the second burst of gene expression changes followed the onset of haustoria formation in both compatible and incompatible interactions. The proliferation of haustoria coincided with the inhibition of P. pachyrhizi growth in the incompatible interaction or the beginning of accelerated growth in the compatible interaction. The temporal relationships between P. pachyrhizi growth and host responses provide an important context in which to view interacting gene networks that mediate the outcomes of their interactions.

  19. Signaling related with biphasic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on Sertoli cell proliferation: a comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Chen; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Kun-Shui; Su, Qiao; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Hong-Bin; Zhao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Ye; Giesy, John P; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Biphasic effects on cell proliferation of bisphenol A (BPA) can occur at lesser or greater exposures. Sertoli cells play a pivotal role in supporting proliferation and differentiation of germ cells. The mechanisms responsible for inverse effects of great and low concentrations of BPA on Sertoli cell proliferation need further study. We utilized proteomic study to identify the protein expression changes of Sertoli TM4 cells treated with 10(-8)M and 10(-5)M BPA. The further mechanisms related to mitochondria, energy metabolism and oxidative stress were investigated by qRT-PCR and Western-blotting analysis. Proteomic studies identified 36 proteins and two major clusters of proteins including energy metabolism and oxidative stress expressed with opposite changes in Sertoli cells treated with 10(-8)M and 10(-5)M BPA, respectively, for 24h. Exposure to 10(-5)M BPA resulted in greater oxidative stress and then inhibited cell proliferation, while ROS scavenger NAC effectively blocked these effects. Exposure to 10(-8)M BPA caused higher intercellular ATP, greater activities of mitochondria, and resulted in significant proliferation of TM4 cells, while oligomycin A, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, abolished these growth advantages. Our study demonstrated that micromolar BPA inhibits proliferation of Sertoli cells by elevating oxidative stress while nanomolar BPA stimulates proliferation by promoting energy metabolism. Micromolar BPA inhibits cell proliferation by elevating oxidative stress while nanomolar BPA stimulates cell proliferation by promoting energy metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unique biphasic progestagen profile in parturient and non-parturient giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) as determined by faecal hormone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, David C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Snyder, Rebecca J; Huang, Yan; Monfort, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    The luteal phase of the giant panda has been exclusively assessed by studying urinary hormone patterns in a very few individuals. To better understand hormonal dynamics of protracted progestagen excretion in this endangered species, we monitored hormonal metabolites in the fibrous faeces of multiple females in the USA and China. Giant pandas that were anoestrual during the breeding season excreted baseline progestagen throughout the year. In contrast, there were two distinctive periods when progestagen excretion increased in females that experienced behavioural oestrus, the first being modest, lasting for 61-122 days, and likely reflecting presumptive ovulation. This increase was far surpassed by a secondary rise in progestagen excretion associated with a rejuvenated luteal capacity or hormone production from an extra-gonadal source. The duration of this 'secondary' rise in progestagen excretion averaged approximately 45 days and terminated in a decline to baseline coincident with parturition or the end of a non-parturient luteal interval. Data revealed that, even with a complex, biphasic progestagen profile, the longitudinal patterns produced by giant pandas were relatively consistent among animals and across years within individuals. However, progestagen excretion patterns throughout this period could not be used to discriminate among non-pregnant, pregnant or pseudopregnant states.

  1. Biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets for visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Raja, V.; Shiamala, L.; Jaffar Ali, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present characterization of biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles and its graphene nanocomposite synthesized by cost effective, hydrothermal method. The structural properties and morphology of the samples were characterized by series of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Introducing high surface area graphene could suppress the electron hole pair recombination rate in the nanocomposite. Further, the nanocomposite shows red-shift of the absorption edge and contract of the band gap from 2.98 eV to 2.85 eV. We have characterized its photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight and UV filtered sunlight irradiation. Data reveal graphene-TiO2 composite exhibit about 15 and 3.5 folds increase in degradability of Congo red and Methylene Blue dyes, respectively, comparison to pristine TiO2. This underscores the marginal effect of UV component of sunlight on the degradation ability of composite, implying its increased efficiency in harnessing visible region of solar spectrum. We have thus developed a visible light active graphene composite catalyst that can degrade both cationic and anionic dyes and making it potentially useful in environmental remediation and water splitting applications, under direct sunlight.

  2. Phenotypic variability in Patau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Lavinia; Rusu, Cristina; Butnariu, Lacramioara; Panzaru, Monica; Braha, Elena; Volosciuc, M; Popescu, Roxana; Gramescu, Mihaela; Bujoran, C; Martiniuc, Violeta; Covic, M; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Patau syndrome has an incidence of 1/10.000-20.000, the clinical diagnosis being suggested by the triad cleft lip and palate, microphthalmia/anophthalmia and postaxial polydactyly. Most frequent cytogenetic abnormality is free and homogeneous trisomy 13 (80.0%), rarely being detected trisomy mosaics or Robertsonian translocations. The objective of the study was to identify phenotypic features of trisomy 13. The retrospective study was conducted on a trial group of 14 cases diagnosed cytogenetically with trisomy 13 between January 2000 and December 2012 at lasi Medical Genetics Centre. Of the 14 cases, 3 were evaluated pathologically (two aborted foetuses and one stillborn), 8 cases were detected in the neonatal period, and 3 in infancy. Clinical diagnosis was supported by the identification of a model of abnormal development, mainly characterized by: maxillary cleft (lip and palate--5 cases; lip--1 case), ocular abnormalities (microphthalmia/anophthalmia--7 cases; cyclopia--1 case), postaxial polydactyly (7 cases), scalp defects (6 cases), congenital heart anomalies (10 cases, 6 patients with atrial septal defect), complete holoprosencephaly (4 cases), ear abnormalities (11 cases), broad nasal root (10 cases). An important issue in confirming the phenotypic variability of Patau syndrome is that the classic clinical triad was identified only in one case. Patau syndrome is a disease with variable expression and is characterized by a pattern of abnormal prenatal development characterized by facial dysmorphia, polydactyly and severe birth defects (heart, brain) that generate an increased in utero and perinatal mortality.

  3. A multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the efficacy of escalating higher biphasic versus low biphasic energy defibrillations in patients presenting with cardiac arrest in the in-hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkataraman Anantharaman,1 Seow Yian Tay,2 Peter George Manning,3 Swee Han Lim,1 Terrance Siang Jin Chua,4 Mohan Tiru,5 Rabind Antony Charles,1 Vidya Sudarshan1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 3Emergency Medicine Department, National University Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre, 5Accident and Emergency Department, Changi General Hospital, Singapore Background: Biphasic defibrillation has been practiced worldwide for >15 years. Yet, consensus does not exist on the best energy levels for optimal outcomes when used in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT.Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 235 adult cardiac arrest patients with VF/VT was conducted in the emergency and cardiology departments. One group received low-energy (LE shocks at 150–150–150 J and the other escalating higher-energy (HE shocks at 200–300–360 J. If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was not achieved by the third shock, LE patients crossed over to the HE arm and HE patients continued at 360 J. Primary end point was ROSC. Secondary end points were 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival.Results: Both groups were comparable for age, sex, cardiac risk factors, and duration of collapse and VF/VT. Of the 118 patients randomized to the LE group, 48 crossed over to the HE protocol, 24 for persistent VF, and 24 for recurrent VF. First-shock termination rates for HE and LE patients were 66.67% and 64.41%, respectively (P=0.78, confidence interval: 0.65–1.89. First-shock ROSC rates were 25.64% and 29.66%, respectively (P=0.56, confidence interval: 0.46–1.45. The 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival rates were 85.71%, 74.29%, and 62.86% for first-shock ROSC LE patients and 70.00%, 50.00%, and 46.67% for first-shock ROSC HE patients, respectively. Conversion rates for further shocks at 200 J and

  4. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  7. Biphasic changes in fetal heart rate variability in preterm fetal sheep developing hypotension after acute on chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Davidson, Joanne O; Booth, Lindsea C; Wassink, Guido; Galinsky, Robert; Drury, Paul P; Fraser, Mhoyra; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-08-15

    Perinatal exposure to infection is highly associated with adverse outcomes. Experimentally, acute, severe exposure to gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with increased fetal heart rate variability (FHRV). It is unknown whether FHRV is affected by subclinical infection with or without acute exacerbations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that FHRV would be associated with hypotension after acute on chronic exposure to LPS. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation were exposed to a continuous low-dose LPS infusion (n = 12, 100 ng/kg over 24 h, followed by 250 ng·kg(-1)·24 h(-1) for a further 96 h) or the same volume of saline (n = 10). Boluses of either 1 μg LPS or saline were given at 48, 72, and 96 h. Low-dose infusion was not associated with hemodynamic or FHRV changes. The first LPS bolus was associated with tachycardia and suppression of nuchal electromyographic activity in all fetuses. Seven of twelve fetuses developed hypotension (a fall in mean arterial blood pressure ≥5 mmHg). FHRV was transiently increased only at the onset of hypotension, in association with increased cytokine induction and electroencephalogram suppression. FHRV then fell before the nadir of hypotension, with transient suppression of short-term FHRV. After the second LPS bolus, the hypotension group showed a biphasic pattern of a transient increase in FHRV followed by more prolonged suppression. These findings suggest that infection-related hypotension in the preterm fetus mediates the transient increase in FHRV and that repeated exposure to LPS leads to progressive loss of FHRV. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Dual lifetime referencing enables pH-control for oxidoreductions in hydrogel-stabilized biphasic reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, Jens; Spiess, Antje C

    2015-09-01

    pH-shifts are a serious challenge in cofactor dependent biocatalytic oxidoreductions. Therefore, a pH control strategy was developed for reaction systems, where the pH value is not directly measurable. Such a reaction system is the biphasic aqueous-organic reaction system, where the oxidoreduction of hydrophobic substrates in organic solvents is catalysed by hydrogel-immobilized enzymes, and enzyme-coupled cofactor regeneration is accomplished via formate dehydrogenase, leading to a pH-shift. Dual lifetime referencing (DLR), a fluorescence spectroscopic method, was applied for online-monitoring of the pH-value within the immobilizates during the reaction, allowing for a controlled dosage of formic acid. It could be shown that by applying trisodium 8-hydroxypyrene-1, 3, 6-trisulfonate as pH indicator and Ru(II) tris(4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenantroline) (Ru[dpp]) as a reference luminophore the control of the pH-value in a macroscopic gel-bead-stabilized aqueous/organic two phase system in a range of pH 6.5 to 8.0 is possible. An experimental proof of concept could maintain a stable pH of 7.5 ± 0.15 during the reaction for at least 105 h. With these results, it could be shown that DLR is a powerful tool for pH-control within reaction systems with no direct access for conventional pH-measurement. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Shahbazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT). Objectives We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen. Patients and Methods Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups. Results Forty-eight patients (23 males, 25 females, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase. Conclusions The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients. PMID:24693300

  10. Biphasic functional regulation in hippocampus of rat with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Bang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO in rats has been commonly used for the study of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Despite the apparent cognitive dysfunction in rats with BCCAO, the molecular markers or pathways involved in the pathological alternation have not been clearly identified. METHODS: Temporal changes (sham, 21, 35, 45, 55 and 70 days in gene expression in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO were measured using time-course microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analyses were performed to identify the functional involvement of temporally regulated genes in BCCAO. RESULTS: Two major gene expression patterns were observed in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO. One pattern, which was composed of 341 early up-regulated genes after the surgical procedure, was dominantly involved in immune-related biological functions (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.01. Another pattern composed of 182 temporally delayed down-regulated genes was involved in sensory perception such as olfactory and cognition functions (FDR<0.01. In addition to the two gene expression patterns, the temporal change of GO and the pathway activities using all differentially expressed genes also confirmed that an immune response was the main early change, whereas sensory functions were delayed responses. Moreover, we identified FADD and SOCS3 as possible core genes in the sensory function loss process using text-based mining and interaction network analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The biphasic regulatory mechanism first reported here could provide molecular evidence of BCCAO-induced impaired memory in rats as well as mechanism of the development of vascular dementia.

  11. Osteoinductive potential of a novel biphasic calcium phosphate bone graft in comparison with autographs, xenografts, and DFDBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Sculean, Anton; Shuang, Yang; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Gruber, Reinhard; Buser, Daniel; Chandad, Fatiha; Zhang, Yufeng

    2016-06-01

    Since the original description of osteoinduction in the early 20th century, the study and development of innovative biomaterials has emerged. Recently, novel synthetic bone grafts have been reported with potential to form ectopic bone in vivo. However, their full characterization in comparison with other leading bone grafts has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoinductive potential of bone grafts by comparing autogenous bone grafts, demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA), a commonly utilized natural bone mineral (NBM) from bovine origin (Bio-Oss), and a newly developed biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Grafts were compared in vitro for their ability to stimulate bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) migration, proliferation, and differentiation as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR for genes coding for bone markers including Runx2, collagen I, and osteocalcin. Furthermore, bone grafts were implanted in the calf muscle of 12 beagle dogs to determine their potential to form ectopic bone in vivo. The in vitro results demonstrate that both autografts and DFDBA show potential for cell recruitment, whereas only autografts and BCP demonstrated the ability to differentiate BMSCs toward the osteoblast lineage. The in vivo ectopic bone model demonstrated that while NBM particles were not osteoinductive and autogenous bone grafts were resorbed quickly in vivo, ectopic bone formation was reported in DFDBA and in synthetic BCP grafts. The modifications in nanotopography and chemical composition of the newly developed BCP bone grafts significantly promoted ectopic bone formation confirming their osteoinductive potential. In conclusion, the results from this study provide evidence that synthetic bone grafts not only serve as a three-dimensional scaffold but are also able to promote osteoinduction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian Felix; Fasser, Mariette; Polzer, Hans; Sieb, Michael; Regauer, Markus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias; Blauth, Michael

    2013-01-14

    Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. 60 patients, aged 18-40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for

  13. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumbach Sebastian Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various

  14. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Kumar, Shekhar; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-01-01

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  15. Biphasic activation of liver regeneration-associated signals in an early stage after portal vein branch ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Kawai, Toru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Nagino, Masato; Oda, Koji; Nimura, Yuji; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    At an early stage in liver regeneration, a variety of factors including transcriptional factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and proto-oncogenes are activated or expressed. However, these responses are affected by surgical stress in the conventional portal vein branch ligation model (PVL). We sought to determine the net activation of early regeneration-associated signals after PVL using a newly developed non-surgical stress PVL model. Male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups, a stress-PVL (sPVL) model with laparotomy and portal vein branch ligation, and a non-stress-PVL (nsPVL) one subjected to portal vein branch ligation 1 week after laparotomy in which the effects of surgical stress were subsided. The activation of transcriptional factors and expression of immediate early genes were analyzed at an early time point (within 24 h) by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. A monophasic upregulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) peaked at 3 h after sPVL was observed. In contrast, the expression pattern of these factors was biphasic (first peak at 0.5-1 h, second peak at 3-6 h) in nsPVL group. The expression pattern of immediate early genes showed a similar trend between sPVL and nsPVL. cDNA array analysis for the non-ligated lobe at 2 h after PVL revealed a much higher gene activation in sPVL than in nsPVL. These results indicate that previously observed activation pattern of regeneration-associated signals after PVL is significantly affected by the effect of laparotomy and our results using nsPVL model may more accurately represent liver regeneration-associated signal pattern

  16. Spontaneous breathing with biphasic positive airway pressure attenuates lung injury in hydrochloric acid-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingen; Zhang, Heng; Sun, Bing; Yang, Rui; He, Hangyong; Zhan, Qingyuan

    2014-06-01

    It has been proved that spontaneous breathing (SB) with biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) can improve lung aeration in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with controlled mechanical ventilation. The authors hypothesized that SB with BIPAP would attenuate lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with pressure-controlled ventilation. Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits with hydrochloric acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome were randomly ventilated using the BIPAP either with SB (BIPAP plus SB group) or without SB (BIPAP minus SB group) for 5 h. Inspiration pressure was adjusted to maintain the tidal volume at 6 ml/kg. Both groups received the same positive end-expiratory pressure level at 5 cm H2O for hemodynamic goals. Eight healthy animals without ventilatory support served as the control group. The BIPAP plus SB group presented a lower ratio of dead space ventilation to tidal volume, a lower respiratory rate, and lower minute ventilation. No significant difference in the protein levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue were measured between the two experimental groups. However, SB resulted in lower messenger ribonucleic acid levels of interleukin-6 (mean ± SD; 1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 2.6 ± 0.5; P = 0.008) and interleukin-8 (2.2 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6; P = 0.014) in lung tissues. In addition, lung histopathology revealed less injury in the BIPAP plus SB group (lung injury score, 13.8 ± 4.6 vs. 21.8 ± 5.7; P hydrochloric acid-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome, SB with BIPAP attenuated lung injury and improved respiratory function compared with controlled ventilation with low tidal volume.

  17. Multistage electrotherapy delivered through chronically-implanted leads terminates atrial fibrillation with lower energy than a single biphasic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan, Ajit H; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Li, Wenwen; Lang, Di; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R

    The goal of this study was to develop a low-energy, implantable device-based multistage electrotherapy (MSE) to terminate atrial fibrillation (AF). Previous attempts to perform cardioversion of AF by using an implantable device were limited by the pain caused by use of a high-energy single biphasic shock (BPS). Transvenous leads were implanted into the right atrium (RA), coronary sinus, and left pulmonary artery of 14 dogs. Self-sustaining AF was induced by 6 ± 2 weeks of high-rate RA pacing. Atrial defibrillation thresholds of standard versus experimental electrotherapies were measured in vivo and studied by using optical imaging in vitro. The mean AF cycle length (CL) in vivo was 112 ± 21 ms (534 beats/min). The impedances of the RA-left pulmonary artery and RA-coronary sinus shock vectors were similar (121 ± 11 Ω vs. 126 ± 9 Ω; p = 0.27). BPS required 1.48 ± 0.91 J (165 ± 34 V) to terminate AF. In contrast, MSE terminated AF with significantly less energy (0.16 ± 0.16 J; p < 0.001) and significantly lower peak voltage (31.1 ± 19.3 V; p < 0.001). In vitro optical imaging studies found that AF was maintained by localized foci originating from pulmonary vein-left atrium interfaces. MSE Stage 1 shocks temporarily disrupted localized foci; MSE Stage 2 entrainment shocks continued to silence the localized foci driving AF; and MSE Stage 3 pacing stimuli enabled consistent RA-left atrium activation until sinus rhythm was restored. Low-energy MSE significantly reduced the atrial defibrillation thresholds compared with BPS in a canine model of AF. MSE may enable painless, device-based AF therapy. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parametric response mapping of contrast-enhanced biphasic CT for evaluating tumour viability of hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jan B; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Kaercher, Daniel; Hasdemir, Davut; Murray, Tim; Kaireit, Till; Lutat, Carolin; Vogel, Arndt; Meyer, Bernhard C; Wacker, Frank K; Rodt, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    To determine the feasibility and role of parametric response mapping (PRM) for quantitative assessment of regional contrast-enhancement patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Biphasic CT of 19 patients receiving repetitive conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE) for intermediate stage HCC were retrospectively analysed at baseline and follow-up at 3, 6, and 9 months. Voxel-based registration of arterial and porto-venous phases, with segmentation of the largest target lesion was performed. Frequency distribution plots of density-pairs of segmented voxels were generated. To differentiate necrotic, hypervascular and non-hypervascular tumour, and lipiodol/calcification, thresholds of 30, 100, and 300 HU were applied. Changes in density frequency plots over time were analysed and compared to response and assessment criteria (WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST) and survival. PRM was feasible in all cases. Tumour volumes and hypervascular/non-hypervascular volume ratio showed significant longitudinal decrease (p < 0.05). Hypervascular volume at baseline was inversely correlated to survival (R = -0.57, p = 0.005). The only predictive parameter following cTACE to show significant survival difference was the change of the viable/non-viable ratio (p = 0.044), whereas common response assessment criteria showed no significant difference in survival. PRM allows a quantitative and more precise assessment of regional tumour vascularisation patterns and may be helpful for TACE treatment planning and response assessment. • PRM allows more precise assessment of tumour vascularisation compared to conventional evaluation • PRM is beneficial for cTACE treatment planning and response assessment • PRM allows a quantitative assessment of regional contrast enhancement patterns.

  19. Preparation, Characterization and in vivo Evaluation of Simple Monolithic Ethylcellulose-coated Pellets Containing Topiramate with Biphasic Release Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Wang, Yuli; Shao, Shuai; Xie, Si; Shan, Li; Yang, Meiyan; Gao, Chunsheng; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used both as a binder and a pore-former to prepare ethylcellulose (EC)-coated pellets to deliver topiramate (TPM) for a controlled release profile. The objective of this work was to further optimize the formulation and evaluate the in vivo profiles of TPM sustained-release pellets. Similar to the previous formulation with no binder, the in vitro drug release of TPM sustained-release pellets with 50% PVP binder in drug layer was sensitive to pore-former PVP level ranged from 27.0% to 29.0%. The higher the level of PVP was, the quicker release rate in vitro was. Moreover, when the proportion of poreformer PVP decreased, the Cmax decreased, and the tmax and mean residence time of TPM coated pellets were both prolonged. The in vitro release profile of optimal formulation showed biphasic release characteristics similar to reference formulation Trokendi XR(®), i.e., involving immediate release of TPM in initial release stage followed by a sustained release up to 24 h. Moreover, the impact of the pH of release medium on the drug release rate of TPM sustained-release pellets was not significant. The release mechanism of TPM from the sustained-release pellets might be the interaction of diffusion (coating-film) and corrosion (drug layer). The in vivo pharmacokinetics results showed the TPM sustained-release pellets had the similar in vivo pattern compared with Trokendi XR(®). These studies provide valuable basis for further development of TPM sustained-release pellets.

  20. Continuous flow biphasic positive airway pressure by helmet in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure: effect on oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgrò, Stefano; Zanella, Alberto; Sala, Chiara; Grasselli, Giacomo; Foti, Giuseppe; Pesenti, Antonio; Patroniti, Nicolò

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of periodical high pressure breaths (SIGH) or biphasic positive pressure ventilation (BIPAP) during helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure. We used a recently developed electromechanical expiratory valve (TwinPAP, StarMed, Mirandola, Italy), which is time-cycled between two customizable positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. We studied 21 patients (67 ± 17 years old) undergoing helmet CPAP. Continuous flow CPAP system was set at 60 l/min flow rate while maintaining clinical FiO(2) (51 ± 15%). Five steps, lasting 1 h each, were applied: (1) spontaneous breathing with PEEP 0 cmH(2)O (SB), (2) CPAP with PEEP 8 cmH(2)O (CPAP(basal)), (3) low PEEP, 8 cmH(2)O, for 25 s and high PEEP, 25 cmH(2)O, for 5 s (SIGH), (4) low PEEP, 8 cmH(2)O, for 3 s and high PEEP, 20 cmH(2)O, for 3 s (BIPAP), (5) CPAP with PEEP 8 cmH(2)O (CPAP(final)). We randomized the sequence of SIGH and BIPAP. PaO(2) was significantly higher during all steps compared to SB. When compared to CPAP(basal), both SIGH and BIPAP induced a further increase in PaO(2). PaO(2) during SIGH and BIPAP were not different. The oxygenation improvement was maintained during CPAP(final). Superimposed, nonsynchronized positive pressure breaths delivered during helmet CPAP by means of the TwinPAP system may improve oxygenation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, even at a rate as low as two breaths per minute.

  1. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  2. Post stimulus effects of high frequency biphasic electrical current on a fibre's conductibility in isolated frog nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hailong; Zhu, Linlin; Sheng, Shulei; Sun, Lifei; Zhou, Hongmin; Tang, Hong; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2013-06-01

    Objective. High frequency biphasic (HFB) electrical currents are widely used in nerve blocking studies. Their safety margins largely remain unknown and need to be investigated. Approach. This study, exploring the post stimulus effects of HFB electrical currents on a nerve's conductibility, was performed on bullfrog sciatic nerves. Both compound action potentials (CAPs) and differential CAPs (DCAPs, i.e. control CAPs subtracted by CAPs following HFB currents) were obtained, and N1 and N2 components, which were the first and second upward components of DCAPs, were used for analyses of the effects introduced by HFB electrical stimulation. Main results. First, HFB currents of 10 kHz at a completely blocking threshold were applied for 5 s. The maximum amplitudes and conducting velocities of the CAPs were significantly (P time, regarded as the recovery of the nerve's conductibility, exhibited two distinct phases: a fast one lasting several seconds and a slow one lasting longer than 5 min. Further tests showed a linear relationship between the HFB stimulation durations and recovering periods of N1 amplitudes. Supra-threshold blocking did not cause higher N1 amplitudes. Significance. This study indicates that HFB electrical currents lead to long lasting post stimulus reduction of a nerve's conductibility, which might relate to potential nerve injuries. A possible mechanism, focusing on changes in intracellular and periaxonal ionic concentrations, was proposed to underlie the reduction of the nerve's conductibility and potential nerve injuries. Greater caution and stimulation protocols with greater safety margins should be explored when utilizing HFB electrical current to block nerve conductions.

  3. Assessment of the Efficacy of Pulsed Biphasic Defibrillation Shocks for Treatment of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Didon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of a Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients in ventricular fibrillation (VF. Large database (2001-2006, collected with automated external defibrillators (AED, (FRED®, Schiller Medical SAS, France, is processed.In Study1 we compared the defibrillation efficacy of two energy stacks (90-130-180 J vs. (130-130-180 J in 248 OHCA VF patients. The analysis of the first shock PBW efficacy proves that energies as low as 90 J are able to terminate VF in a large proportion of OHCA patients (77% at 5 s and 69% at 30 s. Although the results show a trend towards the benefit of higher energy PBW with 130 J (86% at 5 s, 73% at 30 s, the difference in shock efficacy does not reach statistical significance. Both PBW energy stacks (90-130-180 J and (130-130-180 J achieve equal success rates of defibrillation. Analysis of the post-shock rhythm after the first shock is also provided.For Study2 of 21 patients with PBW shocks (130-130-180 J, we assessed some attending OHCA circumstances: call-to-shock delay (median 16min, range 11-41 min, phone advices of CPR (67%. About 50% of the patients were admitted alive to hospital, and 19% were discharged from hospital. After the first shock, patients admitted to hospital are more often presenting organized rhythm (OR (27% to 55% than patients not admitted (0% to 10%, with significant difference at 15 s and 30 s. Post-shock VFs appear significantly rare until 15s for patients admitted to hospital (0% to 9% than for patients not admitted to hospital (40% to 50%. Return of OR (ROOR and efficacy to defibrillate VF at 5 s and 15 s with first shock are important markers to predict patient admission to hospital.

  4. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-03

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  5. Methyl jasmonate-induced emission of biogenic volatiles is biphasic in cucumber: a high-resolution analysis of dose dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifan; Ye, Jiayan; Li, Shuai; Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-07-20

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a key airborne elicitor activating jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways, including induction of stress-related volatile emissions, but how the magnitude and timing of these emissions scale with MeJA dose is not known. Treatments with exogenous MeJA concentrations ranging from mild (0.2 mM) to lethal (50 mM) were used to investigate quantitative relationships among MeJA dose and the kinetics and magnitude of volatile release in Cucumis sativus by combining high-resolution measurements with a proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and GC-MS. The results highlighted biphasic kinetics of elicitation of volatiles. The early phase, peaking in 0.1-1 h after the MeJA treatment, was characterized by emissions of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway volatiles and methanol. In the subsequent phase, starting in 6-12 h and reaching a maximum in 15-25 h after the treatment, secondary emissions of LOX compounds as well as emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were elicited. For both phases, the maximum emission rates and total integrated emissions increased with applied MeJA concentration. Furthermore, the rates of induction and decay, and the duration of emission bursts were positively, and the timing of emission maxima were negatively associated with MeJA dose for LOX compounds and terpenoids, except for the duration of the first LOX burst. These results demonstrate major effects of MeJA dose on the kinetics and magnitude of volatile response, underscoring the importance of biotic stress severity in deciphering the downstream events of biological impacts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. The phenotypic variance gradient - a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Bundgaard, Jørgen; Loeschcke, Volker; Barker, James Stuart Flinton

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary ecologists commonly use reaction norms, which show the range of phenotypes produced by a set of genotypes exposed to different environments, to quantify the degree of phenotypic variance and the magnitude of plasticity of morphometric and life-history traits. Significant differences among the values of the slopes of the reaction norms are interpreted as significant differences in phenotypic plasticity, whereas significant differences among phenotypic variances (variance or coefficient of variation) are interpreted as differences in the degree of developmental instability or canalization. We highlight some potential problems with this approach to quantifying phenotypic variance and suggest a novel and more informative way to plot reaction norms: namely "a plot of log (variance) on the y-axis versus log (mean) on the x-axis, with a reference line added". This approach gives an immediate impression of how the degree of phenotypic variance varies across an environmental gradient, taking into account the consequences of the scaling effect of the variance with the mean. The evolutionary implications of the variation in the degree of phenotypic variance, which we call a "phenotypic variance gradient", are discussed together with its potential interactions with variation in the degree of phenotypic plasticity and canalization.

  7. The Human Phenotype Ontology project: linking molecular biology and disease through phenotype data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, S.; Doelken, S.C.; Mungall, C.J.; Bauer, S.; Firth, H.V.; Bailleul-Forestier, I.; Black, G.C.M.; Brown, D.L.; Brudno, M.; Campbell, J.; FitzPatrick, D.R.; Eppig, J.T.; Jackson, A.P.; Freson, K.; Girdea, M.; Helbig, I.; Hurst, J.A.; Jahn, J.; Jackson, L.G.; Kelly, A.M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Mansour, S.; Martin, C.L.; Moss, C.; Mumford, A.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Park, S.M.; Riggs, E.R.; Scott, R.H.; Sisodiya, S.; Vooren, S. van der; Wapner, R.J.; Wilkie, A.O.; Wright, C.F.; Silfhout, A.T. van; Leeuw, N. de; Vries, B. de; Washingthon, N.L.; Smith, C.L.; Westerfield, M.; Schofield, P.; Ruef, B.J.; Gkoutos, G.V.; Haendel, M.; Smedley, D.; Lewis, S.E.; Robinson, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) project, available at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org, provides a structured, comprehensive and well-defined set of 10,088 classes (terms) describing human phenotypic abnormalities and 13,326 subclass relations between the HPO classes. In addition we have

  8. A new injectable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and nano hydroxyapatite, crosslinked with chromium acetate, as scaffold for cartilage regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushki, N.; Tavassoli, H.; Katbab, A. A.; Katbab, P.; Bonakdar, S.

    2015-05-01

    Polymer scaffolds are applied in the field of tissue engineering as three dimensional structures to organize cells and present stimuli to direct generation of a desired damaged tissue. In situ gelling scaffolds have attracted great attentions, as they are structurally similar to the extra cellular matrix (ECM). In the present work, attempts have been made to design and fabricate a new injectable and crosslinkable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), chromium acetate as crosslink agent and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) as reinforcing and bioactive agent for repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage. The distinct characteristic of HPAM is the presence of carboxylate anion groups on its backbone which allows to engineer the structure of the hydrogel for the desired bioactivity with appropriate cells differentiation towards both soft and hard (bone) tissues. The synthesized hydrogel exhibited bifunctional behavior which was derived by its biphasic structure in which one phase was loaded with nano hydroxyapatite to provide integration capability by subchondral bones and fix the hydrogel at cartilage defect without a need for suturing. The other phase differentiates the rabbit adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards soft tissue. Rheomechanical spectrometry (RMS) was employed to study the kinetic of the gelation including induction time and rate, as well as to measure the ultimate elastic modulus of the optimum crosslinked hydrogel. Surface tension measurement was also performed to tailor the surface characteristics of the gels. In vitro culturing of the cells inside the crosslinked hydrogel revealed high viability and high differentiation of the encapsulated rabbit stem cells, providing that the chromium acetate level was kept below 0.2 wt%. Based on the obtained results, the designed and fabricated biphasic hydrogel exhibited high potential as carrier for the stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering application

  9. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  10. Rapid glucocorticoid-induced activation of TRP and CB1 receptors causes biphasic modulation of glutamate release in gastric-related hypothalamic preautonomic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie R. Boychuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids rapidly regulate synaptic input to neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by inducing the retrograde release of endogenous messengers. Here we investigated the rapid effects of dexamethasone (DEX on excitatory synaptic input to feeding-related, preautonomic PVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In ~50% of identified gastric-related preautonomic PVN neurons, DEX elicited a biphasic synaptic response characterized by an initial rapid and transient increase in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs, followed by a decrease in mEPSC frequency within 9 min; remaining cells displayed only a decrease in mEPSC frequency. The late-phase decrease in mEPSC frequency was mimicked by the cannabinoid receptor agonists anandamide and WIN 55,212-2, and it was blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. The biphasic DEX effect was mimicked by anandamide (AEA. The early increase in mEPSCs was mimicked by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 receptors with capsaicin and by activation of TRPV4 receptors with 4-α-PDD. The increase was reduced, but not blocked, by selective TRPV1 antagonists and in TRPV1-knockout mice; it was blocked completely by the broad-spectrum TRPV antagonist ruthenium red and by combined application of selective TRPV1 and TRPV4 antagonists. The DEX effects were prevented entirely by intracellular infusion of the G-protein inhibitor, GDPβS. Thus, DEX biphasically modulates synaptic glutamate onto a subset of gastric-related PVN neurons, which is likely mediated by induction of a retrograde messenger. The effect includes a TRPV1/4 receptor-mediated transient increase and subsequent CB1 receptor-mediated suppression of glutamate release. Multiphasic modulation of glutamate input to PVN neurons represents a previously unappreciated complexity of control of autonomic output by glucocorticoids and eCBs.

  11. Phenotype and genotype differentiation between flathead grey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to study the phenotype and genotype differentiation and to compare the amount of differences in phenotype based on morphometric character indices and meristic counts with the amount of differences in genotype based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting between two Mugilidae, ...

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE One gene, many phenotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    One gene, many phenotypes. A- Modifier causing less severe (re- duced) phenotype of Beta thalassemia. The severity of anemia in beta thalas- semia reflects the degree of globin chain imbalance. The excess of alpha globin chain precipitates in red cell pre- cursors leading to ineffective erythro- poiesis. This imbalance can ...

  13. Phenotype Development in Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Camilla; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent comorbidities and a wide spectrum of phenotype presentations. This study aimed to describe the development of phenotypes in TS and tic-related impairment in a large longitudinal study of 226 children and adolescents...

  14. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in ...

  15. Developing and emerging clinical asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul W.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to subdivide asthma into different phenotypes based on triggers that cause asthma attacks, the course of the disease, or the prognosis. The first phenotypes that were described included allergic asthma, intrinsic or nonallergic asthma, infectious

  16. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of at...

  17. Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1 use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2 two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3 two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO; these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

  18. Auditory Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendal, Megan A.; King, Kelly A.; Zalewski, Christopher K.; Finucane, Brenda M.; Introne, Wendy; Brewer, Carmen C.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the auditory phenotype of a large cohort with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a rare disorder including physical anomalies, cognitive deficits, sleep disturbances, and a distinct behavioral phenotype. Method: Hearing-related data were collected for 133 individuals with SMS aged 1-49 years. Audiogram…

  19. The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

  20. Adjusting phenotypes by noise control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung H Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically identical cells can show phenotypic variability. This is often caused by stochastic events that originate from randomness in biochemical processes involving in gene expression and other extrinsic cellular processes. From an engineering perspective, there have been efforts focused on theory and experiments to control noise levels by perturbing and replacing gene network components. However, systematic methods for noise control are lacking mainly due to the intractable mathematical structure of noise propagation through reaction networks. Here, we provide a numerical analysis method by quantifying the parametric sensitivity of noise characteristics at the level of the linear noise approximation. Our analysis is readily applicable to various types of noise control and to different types of system; for example, we can orthogonally control the mean and noise levels and can control system dynamics such as noisy oscillations. As an illustration we applied our method to HIV and yeast gene expression systems and metabolic networks. The oscillatory signal control was applied to p53 oscillations from DNA damage. Furthermore, we showed that the efficiency of orthogonal control can be enhanced by applying extrinsic noise and feedback. Our noise control analysis can be applied to any stochastic model belonging to continuous time Markovian systems such as biological and chemical reaction systems, and even computer and social networks. We anticipate the proposed analysis to be a useful tool for designing and controlling synthetic gene networks.

  1. Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Himanen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.

  2. Federated Tensor Factorization for Computational Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Sun, Jimeng; Yu, Hwanjo; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-01-01

    Tensor factorization models offer an effective approach to convert massive electronic health records into meaningful clinical concepts (phenotypes) for data analysis. These models need a large amount of diverse samples to avoid population bias. An open challenge is how to derive phenotypes jointly across multiple hospitals, in which direct patient-level data sharing is not possible (e.g., due to institutional policies). In this paper, we developed a novel solution to enable federated tensor factorization for computational phenotyping without sharing patient-level data. We developed secure data harmonization and federated computation procedures based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Using this method, the multiple hospitals iteratively update tensors and transfer secure summarized information to a central server, and the server aggregates the information to generate phenotypes. We demonstrated with real medical datasets that our method resembles the centralized training model (based on combined datasets) in terms of accuracy and phenotypes discovery while respecting privacy. PMID:29071165

  3. Phenotypic plasticity of the Drosophila transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhou

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to changing environments. We assessed variation in genome-wide gene expression and four fitness-related phenotypes of an outbred Drosophila melanogaster population under 20 different physiological, social, nutritional, chemical, and physical environments; and we compared the phenotypically plastic transcripts to genetically variable transcripts in a single environment. The environmentally sensitive transcriptome consists of two transcript categories, which comprise ∼15% of expressed transcripts. Class I transcripts are genetically variable and associated with detoxification, metabolism, proteolysis, heat shock proteins, and transcriptional regulation. Class II transcripts have low genetic variance and show sexually dimorphic expression enriched for reproductive functions. Clustering analysis of Class I transcripts reveals a fragmented modular organization and distinct environmentally responsive transcriptional signatures for the four fitness-related traits. Our analysis suggests that a restricted environmentally responsive segment of the transcriptome preserves the balance between phenotypic plasticity and environmental canalization.

  4. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease

  5. Tectonothermal and palaeogeographic significance of orthopyroxene-plagioclase bi-phase corona around garnet in the Proterozoic anorthosite complex, Eastern Ghats Province, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    Development of structural elements and subsequent metamorphic reactions are evidences of tectono-thermal events that continuously change the mutual positions of the cratonic blocks in the Earth. In the Proterozoic era, the structural evolution of the crust is governed by the assembly and disintegration of two supercontinent: a) Columbia and b) Rodinia. The assembly and breakup of these two supercontinent is marked by the extremely high heat flow and emplacement of massif type anorthosite. Although, the palaeo-position of the continents in the northern hemisphere is well constrained to explain the anorthosite magmatism, even after five decades of research ambiguity still exists on the origin of anorthosite in the Gondwana supercontinent. Central to the controversy of Gondwana reconstruction is the position of proto-India in the Proterozoic time. In this contribution, the interrelationship between structural elements and the metamorphic reaction is discussed. At Bolangir, Eastern Ghats Province, massif type anorthosite is characterized by a margin parallel foliation defined by recrystallized biotite and magmatic orthopyroxene. The margin parallel foliation is parallel to the parallel alignment of magmatic plagioclase. At the margin of the pluton, 2-3 mm long garnet porphyroblasts are observed. The garnet porphyroblasts are mantled by bi-phase corona of orthopyroxene and plagioclase and overgrow the orthopyroxene- defined margin parallel foliation. In a core to rim traverse, the garnet shows a decrease in the Ca content. In the bi-phase corona, the plagioclase shows a strong zonation of anorthite component that gradually decrease away from the bi-phase corona. The metamorphic orthopyroxene don't show any compositional variation. Classical thermo barometry obtained from the compositions of the garnet-plagioclase-orthopyroxene indicates a decompression path from 750 °C, 10 Kbar to 650 °C, 6.5 kbar for the origin of bi-phase corona. Available radiometric ages and

  6. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  7. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  8. ACE phenotyping in human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Victoria E; Kost, Olga A; Kryukova, Olga V; Golukhova, Elena Z; Bulaeva, Naida I; Zholbaeva, Aigerim Z; Bokeria, Leo A; Garcia, Joe G N; Danilov, Sergei M

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling, is expressed as a type-1 membrane glycoprotein on the surface of different cells, including endothelial cells of the heart. We hypothesized that the local conformation and, therefore, the properties of heart ACE could differ from lung ACE due to different microenvironment in these organs. We performed ACE phenotyping (ACE levels, conformation and kinetic characteristics) in the human heart and compared it with that in the lung. ACE activity in heart tissues was 10-15 lower than that in lung. Various ACE effectors, LMW endogenous ACE inhibitors and HMW ACE-binding partners, were shown to be present in both heart and lung tissues. "Conformational fingerprint" of heart ACE (i.e., the pattern of 17 mAbs binding to different epitopes on the ACE surface) significantly differed from that of lung ACE, which reflects differences in the local conformations of these ACEs, likely controlled by different ACE glycosylation in these organs. Substrate specificity and pH-optima of the heart and lung ACEs also differed. Moreover, even within heart the apparent ACE activities, the local ACE conformations, and the content of ACE inhibitors differ in atria and ventricles. Significant differences in the local conformations and kinetic properties of heart and lung ACEs demonstrate tissue specificity of ACE and provide a structural base for the development of mAbs able to distinguish heart and lung ACEs as a potential blood test for predicting atrial fibrillation risk.

  9. Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes.

  10. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  11. Redefining Aging in HIV Infection Using Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoff, David M; Goodkin, Karl; Jeste, Dilip; Marquine, Maria

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i.e., disability, frailty, accelerated aging, successful aging) are also discussed in relation to comorbid aging and cognitive aging. The main findings that emerged from this review are as follows: (1) the phenotypes, comorbid aging and cognitive aging, are distinct from each other, yet overlapping; (2) associative relationships are the rule in HIV for comorbid and cognitive aging phenotypes; and (3) HIV behavioral interventions for both comorbid aging and cognitive aging have been limited. Three paths for research progress are identified for phenotype-defined aging/HIV research (i.e., clinical and behavioral specification, biological mechanisms, intervention targets), and some important research questions are suggested within each of these research paths.

  12. Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes. (paper)

  13. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  14. A Study of BMP-2-Loaded Bipotential Electrolytic Complex around a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate-Derived (BCP Scaffold for Repair of Large Segmental Bone Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyanashis Paul

    Full Text Available A bipotential polyelectrolyte complex with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP powder dispersion provides an excellent option for protein adsorption and cell attachment and can facilitate enhanced bone regeneration. Application of the bipotential polyelectrolyte complex embedded in a spongy scaffold for faster healing of large segmental bone defects (LSBD can be a promising endeavor in tissue engineering application. In the present study, a hollow scaffold suitable for segmental long bone replacement was fabricated by the sponge replica method applying the microwave sintering process. The fabricated scaffold was coated with calcium alginate at the shell surface, and genipin-crosslinked chitosan with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP dispersion was loaded at the central hollow core. The chitosan core was subsequently loaded with BMP-2. The electrolytic complex was characterized using SEM, porosity measurement, FTIR spectroscopy and BMP-2 release for 30 days. In vitro studies such as MTT, live/dead, cell proliferation and cell differentiation were performed. The scaffold was implanted into a 12 mm critical size defect of a rabbit radius. The efficacy of this complex is evaluated through an in vivo study, one and two month post implantation. BV/TV ratio for BMP-2 loaded sample was (42±1.76 higher compared with hollow BCP scaffold (32±0.225.

  15. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Chennai cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Chennai, India. Results: A total of 1334 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 983, insulin detemir (n = 205, insulin aspart (n = 42, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 41 and other insulin combinations (n = 63. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.4% and insulin users (mean HbA 1 c: 9.3% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.1%, insulin users: −1.9%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  16. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Haryana cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Haryana, India. Results: A total of 345 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 236, insulin detemir (n = 66, insulin aspart (n = 28, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 1 and other insulin combinations (n = 14. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.7% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 10.5% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −3.9%, insulin users: −3.3%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  17. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Oman cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Al Abousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Oman. Results: A total of 349 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 121, insulin detemir (n = 171, insulin aspart (n = 2, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 38 and other insulin combinations (n = 17. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.8% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.1%, insulin users: −1.6%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events did not occur in the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia and no weight gain.

  18. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Maharashtra cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Phadke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Maharashtra, India. Results: A total of 3069 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 2115, insulin detemir (n = 461, insulin aspart (n = 333, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 92 and other insulin combinations (n = 61. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.8 and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.1% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.4%, insulin users: −1.4%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  19. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Kuwait cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Daban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Kuwait. Results: A total of 1185 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 472, insulin detemir (n = 472, insulin aspart (n = 4, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 188 and other insulin combinations (n = 48. At baseline, glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.8% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.4%, insulin users: −1.7%. No major hypoglycaemic episodes were observed at 24 weeks. SADR was reported in 0.1% of insulin users. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  20. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Marrakech cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ansari Nawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Marrakech, Morocco. Results: A total of 196 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 71, insulin detemir (n = 83, insulin aspart (n = 5, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 14 and other insulin combinations (n = 23. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.3% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the study groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.3%, insulin users: −1.9%. SADR′s including major hypoglycaemic events did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  1. Supersaturation, nucleation, and crystal growth during single- and biphasic dissolution of amorphous solid dispersions: polymer effects and implications for oral bioavailability enhancement of poorly water soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Ashish L; Wang, Peng; Obara, Sakae; Worthen, David R

    2014-04-01

    The influence of polymers on the dissolution, supersaturation, crystallization, and partitioning of poorly water soluble compounds in biphasic media was evaluated. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) containing felodipine (FLD) and itraconazole (ITZ) were prepared by hot melt mixing (HMM) using various polymers. The ASDs were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and HPLC. Amorphous drug conversion was confirmed using DSC and PXRD, and drug stability by HPLC. Single- and biphasic dissolution studies of the ASDs with concurrent dynamic light scattering (DLS) and polarized light microscopic (PLM) analysis of precipitated drugs were performed. HPLC revealed no HMM-induced drug degradation. Maximum partitioning into the organic phase was dependent upon the degree of supersaturation. Although the highest supersaturation of FLD was attained using Eudragit® EPO and AQOAT® AS-LF with better nucleation and crystal growth inhibition using the latter, higher partitioning of the drug into the organic phase was achieved using Pharmacoat® 603 and Kollidon® VA-64 by maintaining supersaturation below critical nucleation. Critical supersaturation for ITZ was surpassed using all of the polymers, and partitioning was dependent upon nucleation and crystal growth inhibition in the order of Pharmacoat® 603>Eudragit® L-100-55>AQOAT® AS-LF. HMM drug-polymer systems that prevent drug nucleation by staying below critical supersaturation are more effective for partitioning than those that achieve the highest supersaturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Mumbai cohort of the A1chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwalkar, P G; Gupta, Vishal; Kovil, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Mumbai, India. A total of 2112 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 1561), insulin detemir (n = 313), insulin aspart (n = 144), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 53) and other insulin combinations (n = 41). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 8.7%) and insulin user (mean HbA1c: 9.2%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: -1.4%, insulin users: -1.8%). SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  3. Significant enhancement of (R)-mandelic acid production by relieving substrate inhibition of recombinant nitrilase in toluene-water biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Liu, Jun-Feng; Xu, Jian-He; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, You-Yan

    2011-03-10

    The enantioselective hydrolysis of mandelonitrile with whole cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing nitrilase activity was severely inhibited by the substrate at high concentrations (>300mM), which resulted in a low yield of the target product (R)-(-)-mandelic acid. To relieve the substrate inhibition and to enhance the (R)-(-)-mandelic acid productivity, eight water-organic solvent biphasic systems were attempted in this work. Toluene was found to be the most suitable solvent as the organic phase among the solvents tested. Various parameters were systematically examined and optimized in shake flasks. The phase volume ratio, buffer pH and reaction temperature were shown to be sensitive parameters affecting both the yield and the enantiopurity of product in the biphasic system. Under the optimized conditions, significant enhancement of substrate tolerance from 200mM to 500mM and average productivity from 179.6gl(-1)d(-1) to 352.6gl(-1)d(-1) were achieved. Subsequently, the biocatalytic hydrolysis of mandelonitrile was successfully carried out in a stirred reactor (2-l scale) by repeated use of the calcium alginate entrapped cells for 5 batches, affording 110.7g (R)-(-)-mandelic acid in 98.0% ee (enantiomeric excess) and a specific production of 13.8g (mandelic acid) g(-1) (cell), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Casablanca cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farouqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Casablanca, Morocco. Results: A total of 495 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 231, insulin detemir (n = 151, insulin aspart (n = 19, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 53 and other insulin combinations (n = 41. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.2% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.3%, insulin users: −1.8%. Major hypoglycaemia was observed in the insulin naïve group after 24 weeks. SADRs were reported in 1.2% of insulin naïve and 2.1% of insulin user groups. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  5. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Kolkata cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Kolkata, India. Results: A total of 576 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 417, insulin detemir (n = 70, insulin aspart (n = 55, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 19 and other insulin combinations (n = 15. At baseline, glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.6% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.3%, insulin users: −1.4%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  6. The Combination of GIS and Biphasic to Better Predict In Vivo Dissolution of BCS Class IIb Drugs, Ketoconazole and Raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Naoto; Drelich, Adam J; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-01-01

    The formulation developments and the in vivo assessment of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drugs are challenging due to their low solubility and high permeability in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since the GI environment influences the drug dissolution of BCS class II drugs, the human GI characteristics should be incorporated into the in vitro dissolution system to predict bioperformance of BCS class II drugs. An absorptive compartment may be important in dissolution apparatus for BCS class II drugs, especially for bases (BCS IIb) because of high permeability, precipitation, and supersaturation. Thus, the in vitro dissolution system with an absorptive compartment may help predicting the in vivo phenomena of BCS class II drugs better than compendial dissolution apparatuses. In this study, an absorptive compartment (a biphasic device) was introduced to a gastrointestinal simulator. This addition was evaluated if this in vitro system could improve the prediction of in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs, ketoconazole and raloxifene, and subsequent absorption. The gastrointestinal simulator is a practical in vivo predictive tool and exhibited an improved in vivo prediction utilizing the biphasic format and thus a better tool for evaluating the bioperformance of BCS class IIb drugs than compendial apparatuses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

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    Dalibor Broznić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold-pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ- in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  8. A novel electrospun biphasic scaffold provides optimal three-dimensional topography for in vitro co-culture of airway epithelial and fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G E; Bridge, J C; Brace, L A; Knox, A J; Aylott, J W; Brightling, C E; Ghaemmaghami, A M; Rose, F R A J

    2014-09-01

    Conventional airway in vitro models focus upon the function of individual structural cells cultured in a two-dimensional monolayer, with limited three-dimensional (3D) models of the bronchial mucosa. Electrospinning offers an attractive method to produce defined, porous 3D matrices for cell culture. To investigate the effects of fibre diameter on airway epithelial and fibroblast cell growth and functionality, we manipulated the concentration and deposition rate of the non-degradable polymer polyethylene terephthalate to create fibres with diameters ranging from nanometre to micrometre. The nanofibre scaffold closely resembles the basement membrane of the bronchiole mucosal layer, and epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface on this scaffold showed polarized differentiation. The microfibre scaffold mimics the porous sub-mucosal layer of the airway into which lung fibroblast cells showed good penetration. Using these defined electrospinning parameters we created a biphasic scaffold with 3D topography tailored for optimal growth of both cell types. Epithelial and fibroblast cells were co-cultured onto the apical nanofibre phase and the basal microfibre phase respectively, with enhanced epithelial barrier formation observed upon co-culture. This biphasic scaffold provides a novel 3D in vitro platform optimized to mimic the different microenvironments the cells encounter in vivo on which to investigate key airway structural cell interactions in airway diseases such as asthma.

  9. Catecholamine metabolomic and secretory phenotypes in phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Pacak, K.; Huynh, T.T.; Qin, N.; Bratslavsky, G.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Grebe, S.K.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Bornstein, S.R.; Lenders, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are highly heterogeneous tumours with variable catecholamine biochemical phenotypes and diverse hereditary backgrounds. This analysis of 18 catecholamine-related plasma and urinary biomarkers in 365 patients with PPGLs and 846 subjects without PPGLs

  10. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

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    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  11. Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the Bakosi/Baweri and other pig breeds ( Sus scrofa Domesticus ) in the humid forest with monomodal rainfall agro-ecological zone of Cameroon.

  12. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  13. Phenotypic variation in plants: Roles for epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lauss, K.

    2017-01-01

    Besides genetics, also epigenetics can play a role in shaping the characteristics of a plant (phenotype). Epigenetics refers to chemical modifications of DNA and proteins associated with the DNA that can influence gene activity (the ‘epigenome’) and can be passed on through cell divisions and following generations. This thesis aimed to explore relationships between epigenome and phenotype in plants. The focus is DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that occurs on cytosine bases in the ...

  14. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  15. Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Nicotra, Adrienne B.; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonser, Stephen P.; Davidson, Amy M.; Finnegan, Jean; Mathesius, Ulrike; Poot, Pieter; Purugganan, Michael D.; Valladares, Fernando; van Kleunen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is altering the availability of resources and the conditions that are crucial to plant performance. One way plants will respond to these changes is through environmentally induced shifts in phenotype(phenotypic plasticity). Understanding plastic responses is crucial for predicting and managing the effects of climate change on native species as well as cropplants. Here,we provide a toolbox with definitions of key theoretical elements and a synthesis of the current understanding ...

  16. Important discoveries from analysing bacterial phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bochner, Barry R; Giovannetti, Luciana; Viti, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The ability to test hundreds to thousands of cellular phenotypes in a single experiment has opened up new avenues of investigation and exploration and led to important discoveries in very diverse applications of microbiological research and development. The information provided by global phenotyping is complementary to, and often more easily interpretable than information provided by global molecular analytical methods such as gene chips and proteomics. This report summarizes advances present...

  17. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Balhoff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge.Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices.Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  18. Kinetic resolution of racemic styrene oxide at a high concentration by recombinant Aspergillus usamii epoxide hydrolase in an n-hexanol/buffer biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Die; Wang, Rui; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Ye, Hui-Hua; Wu, Qin; Wu, Min-Chen; Chu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-20

    Using the cell-free extract of engineered E. coli/Aueh2, expressing the recombinant Aspergillus usamii epoxide hydrolase (reAuEH2), as a biocatalyst, the kinetic resolution technique of racemic styrene oxide (rac-SO) was examined. In a phosphate buffer system (50mM, pH 7.0), 200mM rac-SO was efficiently resolved, obtaining (S)-SO with 98.1% enantiomeric excess (e.e.), whereas (S)-SO only with 45.2% e.e. was obtained from 750mM rac-SO. The analytical results verified that reAuEH2 shows tolerance towards high substrate concentration but is inactivated at a product concentration of 300mM. To produce (S)-SO with the high concentration, e.e. and volumetric productivity, n-hexanol was selected from a variety of water-miscible and water-immiscible organic solvents to construct an n-hexanol/buffer biphasic system. The optimal phase volume ratio, substrate over enzyme ratio and temperature were 1:1 (v/v), 6:1 (w/w) and 25°C, respectively. In an optimized biocatalytic system, a gram-scale resolution of rac-SO at a high concentration of 1M (120g/L) was performed at 25°C for 2h, obtaining (S)-SO with 98.2% e.e., 34.3% yield (maximum yield of 50%). The substrate concentration and volumetric productivity (1M, 20.6g/L/h) in a biphasic system significantly increased compared with those (0.2M, 3.1g/L/h) in a phosphate buffer system. The efficient resolution of rac-SO at a high concentration in a biphasic system makes it a promising technique for preparing a highly value-added enantiopure (S)-SO with high volumetric productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diversity of the T-cell receptor BV repertoire in HIV-1-infected patients reflects the biphasic CD4+ T-cell repopulation kinetics during highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostense, S.; Raaphorst, F. M.; Notermans, D. W.; Joling, J.; Hooibrink, B.; Pakker, N. G.; Danner, S. A.; Teale, J. M.; Miedema, F.

    1998-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) induces a decline in viral load and a biphasic increase in peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell counts in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate the effect of HAART on T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity of repopulating naive and memory CD4+ T cells, complementarity

  20. A histomorphometric and micro-computed tomography study of bone regeneration in the maxillary sinus comparing biphasic calcium phosphate and deproteinized cancellous bovine bone in a human split-mouth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, G.L.; Overman, J.R.; Farre-Guasch, E.; Korstjens, C.M.; Hartman, B.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The gain of mineralized bone was compared between deproteinized bovine bone allograft (DBA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) for dental implant placement. Study Design Five patients with atrophic maxillae underwent bilateral sinus elevation with DBA (Bio-Oss) and BCP (Straumann

  1. Phenotypic plasticity and diversity in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczek, Armin P

    2010-02-27

    Phenotypic plasticity in general and polyphenic development in particular are thought to play important roles in organismal diversification and evolutionary innovation. Focusing on the evolutionary developmental biology of insects, and specifically that of horned beetles, I explore the avenues by which phenotypic plasticity and polyphenic development have mediated the origins of novelty and diversity. Specifically, I argue that phenotypic plasticity generates novel targets for evolutionary processes to act on, as well as brings about trade-offs during development and evolution, thereby diversifying evolutionary trajectories available to natural populations. Lastly, I examine the notion that in those cases in which phenotypic plasticity is underlain by modularity in gene expression, it results in a fundamental trade-off between degree of plasticity and mutation accumulation. On one hand, this trade-off limits the extent of plasticity that can be accommodated by modularity of gene expression. On the other hand, it causes genes whose expression is specific to rare environments to accumulate greater variation within species, providing the opportunity for faster divergence and diversification between species, compared with genes expressed across environments. Phenotypic plasticity therefore contributes to organismal diversification on a variety of levels of biological organization, thereby facilitating the evolution of novel traits, new species and complex life cycles.

  2. Phenotypes of organ involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Jonas Christian; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Bargagli, Elena; Mihailović-Vučinić, Violeta; Rottoli, Paola; Grubanovic, Aleksandar; Müller, Annegret; Jochens, Arne; Tittmann, Lukas; Schnerch, Jasmin; Olivieri, Carmela; Fischer, Annegret; Jovanovic, Dragana; Filipovic, Snežana; Videnovic-Ivanovic, Jelica; Bresser, Paul; Jonkers, René; O'Reilly, Kate; Ho, Ling-Pei; Gaede, Karoline I; Zabel, Peter; Dubaniewicz, Anna; Marshall, Ben; Kieszko, Robert; Milanowski, Janusz; Günther, Andreas; Weihrich, Anette; Petrek, Martin; Kolek, Vitezslav; Keane, Michael P; O'Beirne, Sarah; Donnelly, Seamas; Haraldsdottir, Sigridur Olina; Jorundsdottir, Kristin B; Costabel, Ulrich; Bonella, Francesco; Wallaert, Benoît; Grah, Christian; Peroš-Golubičić, Tatjana; Luisetti, Mauritio; Kadija, Zamir; Pabst, Stefan; Grohé, Christian; Strausz, János; Vašáková, Martina; Sterclova, Martina; Millar, Ann; Homolka, Jiří; Slováková, Alena; Kendrick, Yvonne; Crawshaw, Anjali; Wuyts, Wim; Spencer, Lisa; Pfeifer, Michael; Valeyre, Dominique; Poletti, Venerino; Wirtz, Hubertus; Prasse, Antje; Schreiber, Stefan; Krawczak, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a highly variable, systemic granulomatous disease of hitherto unknown aetiology. The GenPhenReSa (Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Sarcoidosis) project represents a European multicentre study to investigate the influence of genotype on disease phenotypes in sarcoidosis.The baseline phenotype module of GenPhenReSa comprised 2163 Caucasian patients with sarcoidosis who were phenotyped at 31 study centres according to a standardised protocol.From this module, we found that patients with acute onset were mainly female, young and of Scadding type I or II. Female patients showed a significantly higher frequency of eye and skin involvement, and complained more of fatigue. Based on multidimensional correspondence analysis and subsequent cluster analysis, patients could be clearly stratified into five distinct, yet undescribed, subgroups according to predominant organ involvement: 1) abdominal organ involvement, 2) ocular-cardiac-cutaneous-central nervous system disease involvement, 3) musculoskeletal-cutaneous involvement, 4) pulmonary and intrathoracic lymph node involvement, and 5) extrapulmonary involvement.These five new clinical phenotypes will be useful to recruit homogenous cohorts in future biomedical studies. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  3. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  4. Overeating phenotypes in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overeating phenotypes and their correlates in overweight and obese children. One hundred and seventeen treatment-seeking overweight and obese 8-12year-old children and their parents completed the study. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and measurements of height and weight. Parents and children completed questionnaires that evaluated satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, negative affect eating, external eating and eating in the absence of hunger. Latent profile analysis was used to identify heterogeneity in overeating phenotypes in the child participants. Latent classes were then compared on measures of demographics, obesity status and nutritional intake. Three latent classes of overweight and obese children were identified: High Satiety Responsive, High Food Responsive, and Moderate Satiety and Food Responsive. Results indicated that the High Food Responsive group had higher BMI and BMI-Z scores compared to the High Satiety Responsive group. No differences were found among classes in demographics or nutritional intake. This study identified three overeating phenotypes, supporting the heterogeneity of eating patterns associated with overweight and obesity in treatment-seeking children. These finding suggest that these phenotypes can potentially be used to identify high risk groups, inform prevention and intervention targets, and develop specific treatments for these behavioral phenotypes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adissu, Hibret A; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice.

  6. A New Method to Infer Causal Phenotype Networks Using QTL and Phenotypic Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Eeuwijk, van F.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of genetics and breeding research on multiple phenotypic traits, reconstructing the directional or causal structure between phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for quantifying the effects of genetic interventions on the traits. Current approaches mainly exploit the genetic effects at

  7. Poly(Ionic Liquid)-Derived Carbon with Site-Specific N-Doping and Biphasic Heterojunction for Enhanced CO2Capture and Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiang; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-06-19

    CO 2 capture is a pressing global environmental issue that drives scientists to develop creative strategies for tackling this challenge. The concept in this contribution is to produce site-specific nitrogen doping in microporous carbon fibers. Following this approach a carbon/carbon heterojunction is created by using a poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) as a "soft" activation agent that deposits nitrogen species exclusively on the surface of commercial microporous carbon fibers. This type of carbon-based biphasic heterojunction amplifies the interaction between carbon fiber and CO 2 molecule for unusually high CO 2 uptake and resistive sensing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite, β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Particles to Act as Local Delivery Carriers of Curcumin: Loading, Release and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Xidaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA, β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and two biphasic mixtures (BCPs of the two was performed by means of wet precipitation. The resulting crystals were characterized and the BCP composition was analyzed and identified as 13% HA—87% TCP and 41% HA—59% TCP. All samples were treated with curcumin solutions, and the degree of curcumin loading and release was found to be proportional to the TCP content of the ceramic. No further cytotoxicity was observed upon MG-63 treatment with the curcumin-loaded ceramics. Finally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells was found to increase with increasing content of TCP, which provides an encouraging proof of concept for the use of curcumin-loaded synthetic biomaterials in bone remodeling.

  9. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Le Guenic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  10. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2×3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily...

  11. Anti-M antibodies: Biphasic (reactive at room temperature and at 37°C: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi P Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-M antibody, which is not reactive at 37°C, is not clinically significant. Reports of clinically significant anti-M antibodies causing hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn (HDFN and delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR are available. We report 13 cases of anti-M antibodies reactive at room temperature (RT and at 37°C. These were found in patients of varied age groups (11 months to 85 years with varied clinical diagnosis. All the female patients were multigravida. In all cases, antibody screening was positive at RT as well as at the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT phase. Providing “M”-antigen negative transfusions is the best therapy in this situation. Provision of red blood cell (RBC antigen phenotyped donor registry shall ensure quick provision of antigen-negative blood for transfusion in emergency situations.

  12. Muscle as an osteoinductive niche for local bone formation with the use of a biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, D. B.; Gupta, A.; Petersen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    cellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors, we cultured rat bone cells ROS 17/2.8 in a bioreactor and harvested the secreted proteins. The secretome was added to rat muscle cells L6. The phenotype of the muscle cells after treatment with the media was assessed using immunostaining and light...... microscopy. Results: C2C12 cells differentiated into osteoblast-like cells expressing prominent bone markers after seeding on the biomaterial. The conditioned media of the ROS 17/2.8 contained bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 8.4 ng/mg, standard deviation (sd) 0.8) and BMP-7 (50.6 ng/mg, sd 2.2). In vitro...

  13. B-Raf and CRHR1 internalization mediate biphasic ERK1/2 activation by CRH in hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Juan J; Inda, Carolina; Senin, Sergio; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Refojo, Damián; Giacomini, Damiana; Turck, Christoph W; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Silberstein, Susana

    2013-03-01

    CRH is a key regulator of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral response to stress. CRH-stimulated CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates ERK1/2 depending on intracellular context. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CRH activates ERK1/2 in limbic areas of the mouse brain (hippocampus and basolateral amygdala). ERK1/2 is an essential mediator of hippocampal physiological processes including emotional behavior, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CRH activates ERK1/2 in hippocampal neurons, we used the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. We document for the first time that ERK1/2 activation in response to CRH is biphasic, involving a first cAMP- and B-Raf-dependent early phase and a second phase that critically depends on CRHR1 internalization and β-arrestin2. By means of mass-spectrometry-based screening, we identified B-Raf-associated proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with endogenous B-Raf after CRHR1 activation. Using molecular and pharmacological tools, the functional impact of selected B-Raf partners in CRH-dependent ERK1/2 activation was dissected. These results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins, protein kinase A, and Rap1, are essential for early CRH-induced ERK1/2 activation, whereas dynamin and vimentin are required for the CRHR1 internalization-dependent phase. Both phases of ERK1/2 activation depend on calcium influx and are affected by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inactivation. Thus, this report describes the dynamics and biphasic nature of ERK1/2 activation downstream neuronal CRHR1 and identifies several new critical components of the CRHR1 signaling machinery that selectively controls the early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation, thus providing new potential therapeutic targets for stress-related disorders.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of Ag+- and Cu2+-doped biphasic hydroxyapatite/α-tricalcium phosphate obtained from hydrothermally synthesized Ag+- and Cu2+-doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanović, Željko; Jokić, Bojan; Veljović, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Kojić, Vesna; Petrović, Rada; Janaćković, Djordje

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders doped with Ag + or Cu 2+ were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in order to obtain biomaterial with an antimicrobial effect. The synthesis was performed with two contents of dopant (Ag + or Cu 2+ ) by considering both the antimicrobial activities and biocompatibility of the powders. The doped HAp was annealed at 1200 °C for 2 h with the intention of investigating the influence of doping with Ag + and Cu 2+ on the creation of the biphasic HAp/α-tricalcium phosphate (HAp/α-TCP) and determining the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the obtained biphasic powders. Analyses of all powders, undoped and doped HAp and HAp/α-TCP, were performed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The in vitro antibacterial activities of the powders were evaluated against: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. All powders showed good antimicrobial activity but generally the powders of doped HAp/α-TCP had more uniform results against all pathogenic microorganisms than the powders of doped HAp. In vitro biocompatibility tests, MTT and DET, were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of Ag + - and Cu 2+ -doped HAp/α-TCP with MRC-5 human fibroblast cells. These tests confirmed that powders do not have a cytotoxic effect. The HAp/α-TCP powders doped with the lower content of Ag + and Cu 2+ showed especially good biocompatibility. Antimicrobial and biocompatibility tests recommend the Ag + - and Cu 2+ -doped HAp/α-TCP as promising material for use in reconstructive surgery of bone.

  15. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and components of the endocannabinoid system in the knee joint are associated with biphasic pain progression in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajak A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agnieszka Pajak, Magdalena Kostrzewa, Natalia Malek, Michal Korostynski, Katarzyna Starowicz Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are considered important in articular cartilage breakdown during osteoarthritis (OA. Similarly, the endocannabinoid system (ECS is implicated in joint function and modulation of nociceptive processing. Functional interplay between ECS and MMPs has been recently indicated. Here, we tested if changes in the expression of selected MMPs and major ECS elements temporally correlate with the intensity of OA-related pain. Knee OA was induced in male Wistar rats by intra-articular sodium monoiodoacetate injection. OA-like pain behavior was tested using the dynamic weight bearing. Joint tissue samples at different time points after OA induction were subjected to gene (quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein (Western blot expression analyses. Monoiodoacetate-induced nocifensive responses in rats showed a biphasic progression pattern. The alterations in expression of selected MMPs elegantly corresponded to the two-stage development of OA pain. The most substantial changes in the expression of the ECS system were revealed at a later stage of OA progression. Alterations within ECS are involved in the process of adaptation to persistent painful stimuli. The accumulation of MMPs in osteoarthritic cartilage may have a role in the biphasic progression of OA-related pain. Temporal association of changes in ECS and MMPs expression shows a potential therapeutic approach that utilizes the concept of combining indirect ECS-mediated MMP inhibition and ECS modulation of pain transduction. Keywords: osteoarthritis, monoiodoacetate, pain, matrix metalloproteinases, endocannabinoid system

  16. Study of hMSC proliferation and differentiation on Mg and Mg–Sr containing biphasic β-tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satish S., E-mail: sss42@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Roy, Abhijit, E-mail: abr20@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Boeun [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Craniofacial Regeneration, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biphasic mixtures of either Mg{sup 2+} or combined Mg{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} cation substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were prepared using a low temperature chemical phosphatizing and hydrolysis reaction approach. Scaffolds prepared using the cation substituted calcium phosphates were capable of supporting similar levels of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in comparison to commercially available β-TCP. The concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} released from these scaffolds were also within the ranges desired from previous reports to support both hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, hMSCs cultured directly on scaffolds prepared with only Mg{sup 2+} substituted β-TCP were capable of supporting statistically significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin expression in comparison to all compositions containing both Mg{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}, and commercially available β-TCP. hMSCs cultured in the presence of scaffold extracts also exhibited similar trends in the expression of osteogenic markers as was observed during direct culture. Therefore, it was concluded that the enhanced differentiation observed was due to the release of bioactive ions rather than the surface microstructure. The role of these ions on transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenic protein signaling was also evaluated using a PCR array. It was concluded that the release of these ions may support enhanced differentiation through SMAD dependent TGF-β and BMP signaling. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mg and Mg-Sr containing biphasic beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics • Magnesium substitution influences ALP activity compared to strontium content. • Solution extract plays a more dominant role on hMSC differentiation. • Direct and indirect Mg and Mg-Sr TCP culture show similar OPG and OPN expression.

  17. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Rajasthan cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Rajasthan, India. Results: A total of 477 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 340, insulin detemir (n = 90, insulin aspart (n = 37, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 7 and other insulin combinations (n = 2. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −0.9%, insulin users: −1.2%. Major hypoglycaemic events decreased from 0.5 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group while no change from baseline (1.3 events/patients-year was observed for insulin users. SADRs were not reported in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  18. The induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, U; Richter, P W; Nilen, R W N; Renton, L

    2008-01-01

    Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/p-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre-sinter ratio (wt%) of 40/60 and 20/80, respectively, were sintered and implanted in the rectus abdominis and in calvarial defects of four adult baboons. The post-sinter phase content ratios were 19/81 and 4/96, respectively. Morphological analyses on day 90 and 365 showed significant induction of bone formation within concavities of the biomimetic matrices with substantial bone formation by induction and resorption/dissolution of the implanted matrices. One year after implantation in calvarial defects, 4/96 biphasic biomimetic constructs showed prominent induction of bone formation with significant dissolution of the implanted scaffolds. The implanted smart biomimetic matrices induce de novo bone formation even in the absence of exogenously applied osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily. The induction of bone formation biomimetizes the remodelling cycle of the cortico-cancellous bone of primates whereby resorption lacunae, pits and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis are regulators of bone formation by induction. The concavities assembled in HA/β-TCP biomimetic bioceramics are endowed with multifunctional pleiotropic self-assembly capacities initiating and promoting angiogenesis and bone formation by induction. Resident mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblastic cell lines expressing, secreting and embedding osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-β superfamily within the concavities of the biomimetic matrices initiating bone formation as a secondary response. PMID:18363843

  19. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Song, Doo-Hoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-01-01

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering

  20. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu-Ri [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jae-Sung [Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Doo-Hoon [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701, 447-1 Wokgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Nam [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Mahn, E-mail: kmkim@yuhs.ac [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering.

  1. Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, A B; Atkin, O K; Bonser, S P; Davidson, A M; Finnegan, E J; Mathesius, U; Poot, P; Purugganan, M D; Richards, C L; Valladares, F; van Kleunen, M

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is altering the availability of resources and the conditions that are crucial to plant performance. One way plants will respond to these changes is through environmentally induced shifts in phenotype (phenotypic plasticity). Understanding plastic responses is crucial for predicting and managing the effects of climate change on native species as well as crop plants. Here, we provide a toolbox with definitions of key theoretical elements and a synthesis of the current understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying plasticity relevant to climate change. By bringing ecological, evolutionary, physiological and molecular perspectives together, we hope to provide clear directives for future research and stimulate cross-disciplinary dialogue on the relevance of phenotypic plasticity under climate change. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Semi-supervised Learning for Phenotyping Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dligach, Dmitriy; Miller, Timothy; Savova, Guergana K

    2015-01-01

    Supervised learning is the dominant approach to automatic electronic health records-based phenotyping, but it is expensive due to the cost of manual chart review. Semi-supervised learning takes advantage of both scarce labeled and plentiful unlabeled data. In this work, we study a family of semi-supervised learning algorithms based on Expectation Maximization (EM) in the context of several phenotyping tasks. We first experiment with the basic EM algorithm. When the modeling assumptions are violated, basic EM leads to inaccurate parameter estimation. Augmented EM attenuates this shortcoming by introducing a weighting factor that downweights the unlabeled data. Cross-validation does not always lead to the best setting of the weighting factor and other heuristic methods may be preferred. We show that accurate phenotyping models can be trained with only a few hundred labeled (and a large number of unlabeled) examples, potentially providing substantial savings in the amount of the required manual chart review.

  3. The phenotype of murine wound macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Jean M; Brancato, Samielle K; Thomay, Alan A; Reichner, Jonathan S; Albina, Jorge E

    2010-01-01

    The phenotype of wound macrophages has not been studied by direct examination of these cells, yet macrophages recruited to sites of injury are described as alternatively activated macrophages, requiring IL-4 or IL-13 for phenotypic expression. This study characterized wound macrophage phenotype in the PVA sponge wound model in mice. Eighty-five percent of wound macrophages isolated 1 day after injury expressed Gr-1, but only 20% of those isolated at 7 days expressed this antigen. Macrophages from 1-, 3-, and 7-day wounds expressed markers of alternative activation,including mannose receptor, dectin-1, arginase 1,and Ym1, but did not contain iNOS. Day 1 wound macrophages produced more TNF-alpha, more IL-6, and less TGF-beta than Day 7 wound macrophages. Wound macrophages did not produce IL-10. The cytokines considered necessary for alternative activation of macrophages,IL-4 and IL-13, were not detected in the wound environment and were not produced by wound cells.Wound macrophages did not contain PStat6. Wound fluids inhibited IL-13-dependent phosphorylation of Stat6 and contained IL-13Ralpha2, a soluble decoy receptor for IL-13. The phenotype of wound macrophages was not altered in mice lacking IL-4Ralpha, which is required for Stat6-dependent signaling of IL-4 and IL-13.Wound macrophages exhibit a complex phenotype,which includes traits associated with alternative and classical activation and changes as the wound matures.The wound macrophage phenotype does not require IL-4 or IL-13.

  4. Relationship between endophenotype and phenotype in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitelaar Jan K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors relate to psychiatric disorders through the effect of intermediating, vulnerability traits called endophenotypes. The study had a threefold aim: to examine the predictive validity of an endophenotypic construct for the ADHD diagnosis, to test whether the magnitude of group differences at the endophenotypic and phenotypic level is comparable, and to investigate whether four factors (gender, age, IQ, rater bias have an effect (moderation or mediation on the relation between endophenotype and phenotype. Methods Ten neurocognitive tasks were administered to 143 children with ADHD, 68 non-affected siblings, and 120 control children (first-borns and 132 children with ADHD, 78 non-affected siblings, and 113 controls (second-borns (5 – 19 years. The task measures have been investigated previously for their endophenotypic viability and were combined to one component which was labeled 'the endophenotypic construct': one measure representative of endophenotypic functioning across several domains of functioning. Results The endophenotypic construct classified children with moderate accuracy (about 50% for each of the three groups. Non-affected children differed as much from controls at the endophenotypic as at the phenotypic level, but affected children displayed a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Although a potentially moderating effect (age and several mediating effects (gender, age, IQ were found affecting the relation between endophenotypic construct and phenotype, none of the effects studied could account for the finding that affected children had a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Conclusion Endophenotypic functioning is moderately predictive of the ADHD diagnosis, though findings suggest substantial overlap exists between endophenotypic functioning in the groups of affected children, non-affected siblings, and controls. Results suggest other

  5. A new method to infer causal phenotype networks using QTL and phenotypic information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huange Wang

    Full Text Available In the context of genetics and breeding research on multiple phenotypic traits, reconstructing the directional or causal structure between phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for quantifying the effects of genetic interventions on the traits. Current approaches mainly exploit the genetic effects at quantitative trait loci (QTLs to learn about causal relationships among phenotypic traits. A requirement for using these approaches is that at least one unique QTL has been identified for each trait studied. However, in practice, especially for molecular phenotypes such as metabolites, this prerequisite is often not met due to limited sample sizes, high noise levels and small QTL effects. Here, we present a novel heuristic search algorithm called the QTL+phenotype supervised orientation (QPSO algorithm to infer causal directions for edges in undirected phenotype networks. The two main advantages of this algorithm are: first, it does not require QTLs for each and every trait; second, it takes into account associated phenotypic interactions in addition to detected QTLs when orienting undirected edges between traits. We evaluate and compare the performance of QPSO with another state-of-the-art approach, the QTL-directed dependency graph (QDG algorithm. Simulation results show that our method has broader applicability and leads to more accurate overall orientations. We also illustrate our method with a real-life example involving 24 metabolites and a few major QTLs measured on an association panel of 93 tomato cultivars. Matlab source code implementing the proposed algorithm is freely available upon request.

  6. Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between presence of haptoglobin phenotypes and hypertension in indigenous Zambian patients attending outpatient medical clinic at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: The study was a descriptive, noninterventional, ...

  7. Hypospadias: risk factor patterns and different phenotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Gier, R.P.E. de; Barten, E.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain more insight into the origin of hypospadias by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study in which a distinction was made between different phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were 305 boys with hypospadias and 629 boys with

  8. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid- Encoded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the distribution of plasmid-encoded extended spectrum beta-lacatamases (ESBLs) in Lahore, Pakistan using different phenotypic and molecular methods. Methods: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp were obtained over a period of nineteen months (June 2007 to December 2008). Both were tested ...

  9. phenotype correlation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-06-21

    Jun 21, 2014 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Study of genotype–phenotype correlation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in a sample of Egyptian autistic children. Rabah M. Shawky a,. *, Farida El-baz b. , Tarek M. Kamal c. , Reham M. Elhossiny b. ,. Mona A. Ahmed b. , Ghada H. El Nady d.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... fermented foods. By considering phenotypic tests, this work aims at iden- tifying new LAB strains isolated from human, animal or vegetal biotopes and to ..... Lactobacillus strains identified based on the pH achieved after 6 and 24 h of culture. Time (h). Cause of the variations. DFa. SSEb. MSc. Fd. Pe. 6.

  11. Phenotypic variation in plants : Roles for epigenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauss, K.

    2017-01-01

    Besides genetics, also epigenetics can play a role in shaping the characteristics of a plant (phenotype). Epigenetics refers to chemical modifications of DNA and proteins associated with the DNA that can influence gene activity (the ‘epigenome’) and can be passed on through cell divisions and

  12. Constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Auld, Josh R.; Callahan, Hilary S

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generally regarded as a key mechanism for enabling organisms to survive in the face of environmental change. Because no organism is infinitely or ideally plastic, theory suggests that there must be limits (for example, the lack of ability to produce an opti...

  13. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  14. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  15. Phenotypic Characteristics of Zambian patients with Parkinson's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes according to standard procedures from patients and controls, respectively. Results: In total 46 patients for phenotype and 46 controls were matched with patients for age, gender, and area of residence. The mean age of patients at onset of the disease was 53.8 ...

  16. Phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of local chicken populations was carried out in Benin on 326 chickens of the Forest ecological area and 316 of the Savannah ecological area, all were 7 months old at least. The collection of blood for the molecular typing was achieved on 121 ...

  17. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strains of Lactobacillus were isolated from human milk and infant faeces, animal (cow and goat) milks and from plants (Anagalis arvensis and Bromus mango species). The various strains were identified based on phenotypic tests. Amongst them, 12 strains belonged to group 1, which comprised L. acidophilus, ...

  19. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  20. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  1. Cognitive Phenotype of Velocardiofacial Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Frederick; Biswas, Asit B.; Gumber, Rohit; Singh, Niraj

    2011-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, includes developmental disabilities, frequently including intellectual disability (ID) and high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. VCFS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of…

  2. The Behavioural Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsler, K.; Oliver, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review is to examine the notion of a behavioural phenotype for Angelman syndrome and identify methodological and conceptual influences on the accepted presentation. Methods: Studies examining the behavioural characteristics associated with Angelman syndrome are reviewed and methodology is described. Results:…

  3. Phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... The study of the phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of local chicken populations was carried out in Benin on 326 chickens of the Forest ecological area and 316 of the Savannah ecological area, all were 7 months old at least. The collection of blood for the molecular typing was.

  4. Worm Phenotype Ontology: Integrating phenotype data within and beyond the C. elegans community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yook Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caenorhabditis elegans gene-based phenotype information dates back to the 1970's, beginning with Sydney Brenner and the characterization of behavioral and morphological mutant alleles via classical genetics in order to understand nervous system function. Since then C. elegans has become an important genetic model system for the study of basic biological and biomedical principles, largely through the use of phenotype analysis. Because of the growth of C. elegans as a genetically tractable model organism and the development of large-scale analyses, there has been a significant increase of phenotype data that needs to be managed and made accessible to the research community. To do so, a standardized vocabulary is necessary to integrate phenotype data from diverse sources, permit integration with other data types and render the data in a computable form. Results We describe a hierarchically structured, controlled vocabulary of terms that can be used to standardize phenotype descriptions in C. elegans, namely the Worm Phenotype Ontology (WPO. The WPO is currently comprised of 1,880 phenotype terms, 74% of which have been used in the annotation of phenotypes associated with greater than 18,000 C. elegans genes. The scope of the WPO is not exclusively limited to C. elegans biology, rather it is devised to also incorporate phenotypes observed in related nematode species. We have enriched the value of the WPO by integrating it with other ontologies, thereby increasing the accessibility of worm phenotypes to non-nematode biologists. We are actively developing the WPO to continue to fulfill the evolving needs of the scientific community and hope to engage researchers in this crucial endeavor. Conclusions We provide a phenotype ontology (WPO that will help to facilitate data retrieval, and cross-species comparisons within the nematode community. In the larger scientific community, the WPO will permit data integration, and

  5. [Genotype/phenotype correlation in autism: genetic models and phenotypic characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2011-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a class of conditions categorized by communication problems, ritualistic behaviors, and deficits in social behaviors. This class of disorders merges a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders regarding some phenotypic and probably physiopathological aspects. Genetic basis is well admitted, however, considering phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, correspondences between genotype and phenotype have yet to be established. To better identify such correspondences, genetic models have to be identified and phenotypic markers have to be characterized. Recent insights show that a variety of genetic mechanisms may be involved in autism spectrum disorders, i.e. single gene disorders, copy number variations and polygenic mechanisms. These current genetic models are described. Regarding clinical aspects, several approaches can be used in genetic studies. Nosographical approach, especially with the concept of autism spectrum disorders, merges a large group of disorders with clinical heterogeneity and may fail to identify clear genotype/phenotype correlations. Dimensional approach referred in genetic studies to the notion of "Broad Autism Phenotype" related to a constellation of language, personality, and social-behavioral features present in relatives that mirror the symptom domains of autism, but are much milder in expression. Studies of this broad autism phenotype may provide a potentially important complementary approach for detecting the genes involved in these domains. However, control population used in those studies need to be well characterized too. Identification of endophenotypes seems to offer more promising results. Endophenotypes, which are supposed to be more proximal markers of gene action in the same biological pathway, linking genes and complex clinical symptoms, are thought to be less genetically complex than the broader disease phenotype, indexing a limited aspect of genetic risk for the disorder as a whole. However

  6. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis...... range of habitats in introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity rather than local adaptation. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved....

  7. PhenDisco: phenotype discovery system for the database of genotypes and phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Son; Lin, Ko-Wei; Conway, Mike; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Hsieh, Alex; Feupe, Stephanie Feudjio; Garland, Asher; Ross, Mindy K; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Farzaneh, Seena; Walker, Rebecca; Alipanah, Neda; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Hua; Kim, Hyeon-Eui

    2013-01-01

    The database of genotypes and phenotypes (dbGaP) developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a resource that contains information on various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and is currently available via NCBI's dbGaP Entrez interface. The database is an important resource, providing GWAS data that can be used for new exploratory research or cross-study validation by authorized users. However, finding studies relevant to a particular phenotype of interest is...

  8. Advanced phenotyping and phenotype data analysis for the plant growth and development study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Matiur eRahaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in the consumption of food, feed, fuel and to ensure global food security for rapidly growing human population, there is need to breed high yielding crops that can adapt to future climate. To solve these global issues, novel approaches are required to provide quantitative phenotypes to elucidate the genetic basis of agriculturally import traits and to screen germplasm with super performance in function under resource-limited environment. At present, plant phenomics has offered and integrated suite technologies for understanding the complete set of phenotypes of plants, towards the progression of the full characteristics of plants with whole sequenced genomes. In this aspect, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed that enables to capture extensive and intensive phenotype data from non-destructive imaging over time. These developments advance our view on plant growth and performance with responses to the changing climate and environment. In this paper, we present a brief review on currently developed high-throughput plant phenotyping infrastructures based on imaging techniques and corresponding principles for phenotype data analysis.

  9. Elucidating the genotype–phenotype map by automatic enumeration and analysis of the phenotypic repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The gap between genotype and phenotype is filled by complex biochemical systems most of which are poorly understood. Because these systems are complex, it is widely appreciated that quantitative understanding can only be achieved with the aid of mathematical models. However, formulating models and measuring or estimating their numerous rate constants and binding constants is daunting. Here we present a strategy for automating difficult aspects of the process. Methods: The strategy, based on a system design space methodology, is applied to a class of 16 designs for a synthetic gene oscillator that includes seven designs previously formulated on the basis of experimentally measured and estimated parameters. Results: Our strategy provides four important innovations by automating: (1) enumeration of the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes for a system; (2) generation of parameter values for any particular phenotype; (3) simultaneous realization of parameter values for several phenotypes to aid visualization of transitions from one phenotype to another, in critical cases from functional to dysfunctional; and (4) identification of ensembles of phenotypes whose expression can be phased to achieve a specific sequence of functions for rationally engineering synthetic constructs. Our strategy, applied to the 16 designs, reproduced previous results and identified two additional designs capable of sustained oscillations that were previously missed. Conclusions: Starting with a system’s relatively fixed aspects, its architectural features, our method enables automated analysis of nonlinear biochemical systems from a global perspective, without first specifying parameter values. The examples presented demonstrate the efficiency and power of this automated strategy. PMID:26998346

  10. Elucidating the genotype-phenotype map by automatic enumeration and analysis of the phenotypic repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    The gap between genotype and phenotype is filled by complex biochemical systems most of which are poorly understood. Because these systems are complex, it is widely appreciated that quantitative understanding can only be achieved with the aid of mathematical models. However, formulating models and measuring or estimating their numerous rate constants and binding constants is daunting. Here we present a strategy for automating difficult aspects of the process. The strategy, based on a system design space methodology, is applied to a class of 16 designs for a synthetic gene oscillator that includes seven designs previously formulated on the basis of experimentally measured and estimated parameters. Our strategy provides four important innovations by automating: (1) enumeration of the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes for a system; (2) generation of parameter values for any particular phenotype; (3) simultaneous realization of parameter values for several phenotypes to aid visualization of transitions from one phenotype to another, in critical cases from functional to dysfunctional; and (4) identification of ensembles of phenotypes whose expression can be phased to achieve a specific sequence of functions for rationally engineering synthetic constructs. Our strategy, applied to the 16 designs, reproduced previous results and identified two additional designs capable of sustained oscillations that were previously missed. Starting with a system's relatively fixed aspects, its architectural features, our method enables automated analysis of nonlinear biochemical systems from a global perspective, without first specifying parameter values. The examples presented demonstrate the efficiency and power of this automated strategy.

  11. Automated multidimensional phenotypic profiling using large public microarray repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Li, Wenyuan; James, Gareth M.; Mehan, Michael R.; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2009-01-01

    Phenotypes are complex, and difficult to quantify in a high-throughput fashion. The lack of comprehensive phenotype data can prevent or distort genotype–phenotype mapping. Here, we describe “PhenoProfiler,” a computational method that enables in silico phenotype profiling. Drawing on the principle that similar gene expression patterns are likely to be associated with similar phenotype patterns, PhenoProfiler supplements the missing quantitative phenotype information for a given microarray dataset based on other well-characterized microarray datasets. We applied our method to 587 human microarray datasets covering >14,000 samples, and confirmed that the predicted phenotype profiles are highly consistent with true phenotype descriptions. PhenoProfiler offers several unique capabilities: (i) automated, multidimensional phenotype profiling, facilitating the analysis and treatment design of complex diseases; (ii) the extrapolation of phenotype profiles beyond provided classes; and (iii) the detection of confounding phenotype factors that could otherwise bias biological inferences. Finally, because no direct comparisons are made between gene expression values from different datasets, the method can use the entire body of cross-platform microarray data. This work has produced a compendium of phenotype profiles for the National Center for Biotechnology Information GEO datasets, which can facilitate an unbiased understanding of the transcriptome-phenome mapping. The continued accumulation of microarray data will further increase the power of PhenoProfiler, by increasing the variety and the quality of phenotypes to be profiled. PMID:19590007

  12. Phenotypic signatures arising from unbalanced bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-08-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify "phenotypic signatures" by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains.

  13. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sidi; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Long, Manyuan

    2013-09-01

    During the course of evolution, genomes acquire novel genetic elements as sources of functional and phenotypic diversity, including new genes that originated in recent evolution. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the evolution and phenotypic effects of new genes. In particular, an emerging picture is that new genes, despite being present in the genomes of only a subset of species, can rapidly evolve indispensable roles in fundamental biological processes, including development, reproduction, brain function and behaviour. The molecular underpinnings of how new genes can develop these roles are starting to be characterized. These recent discoveries yield fresh insights into our broad understanding of biological diversity at refined resolution.

  14. Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biessels, G J; Bril, V; Calcutt, N A

    2014-01-01

    of statistically different values between diabetic and control animals in 2 of 3 assessments (nocifensive behavior, nerve conduction velocities, or nerve structure). The participants propose that this framework would allow different research groups to compare and share data, with an emphasis on data targeted......NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy....... The discussion was divided into five areas: (1) status of commonly used rodent models of diabetes, (2) nerve structure, (3) electrophysiological assessments of nerve function, (4) behavioral assessments of nerve function, and (5) the role of biomarkers in disease phenotyping. Participants discussed the current...

  15. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sidi; Krinsky, Benjamin H.; Long, Manyuan

    2014-01-01

    During the course of evolution, genomes acquire novel genetic elements as sources of functional and phenotypic diversity, including new genes that originated in recent evolution. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the evolution and phenotypic effects of new genes. In particular, an emerging picture is that new genes, despite being present in the genomes of only a subset of species, can rapidly evolve indispensable roles in fundamental biological processes, including development, reproduction, brain function and behaviour. The molecular underpinnings of how new genes can develop these roles are starting to be characterized. These recent discoveries yield fresh insights into our broad understanding of biological diversity at refined resolution. PMID:23949544

  16. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:28611952

  17. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Miralda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  18. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M; McLeish, Kenneth R

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  19. Diagnosis, assessment, and phenotyping of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Halpin, David M; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-01-01

    COPD is now widely recognized as a complex heterogeneous syndrome, having both pulmonary and extrapulmonary features. In clinical practice, the diagnosis of COPD is based on the presence of chronic airflow limitation, as assessed by post-bronchodilator spirometry. The severity of the airflow...... limitation, as measured by percent predicted FEV1, provides important information to the physician to enable optimization of management. However, in order to accurately assess the complexity of COPD, there need to be other measures made beyond FEV1. At present, there is a lack of reliable and simple blood...... biomarkers to confirm and further assess the diagnosis of COPD. However, it is possible to identify patients who display different phenotypic characteristics of COPD that relate to clinically relevant outcomes. Currently, validated phenotypes of COPD include alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and "frequent...

  20. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VO{sub X}/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Chen, L.F., E-mail: lchen@ipn.mx [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J. [Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catálisis y Polímeros, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo No. 180, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  1. A comparison of biphasic insulin aspart and insulin glargine administered with oral antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, P; Wojciechowski, P; Siejka, S; Małecki, P; Hak, L; Malecki, M T

    2014-03-01

    It is uncertain whether the addition of biphasic insulin analogues to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) is as effective and safe as basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed a systematic review to compare glycaemic control and selected clinical outcomes in T2DM patients inadequately controlled with OADs whose treatment was intensified by adding biphasic insulin aspart (BIAsp 30) or insulin glargine (IGlar). The analysis included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified by a systematic literature search in medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and other sources) up to March 2013. Studies met the inclusion criteria if they compared BIAsp 30 vs. IGlar added to at least one OAD in T2DM patients. Trials applying different OADs in both treatment arms were also included. Results were presented as weighted mean difference (WMD) or odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Five trials, including a total number of 1758 patients followed up from 24 to 28 weeks, were identified. Quantitative synthesis demonstrated that BIAsp 30 reduced HbA1c level more efficiently than IGlar [5 RCTs; WMD (95% CI): -0.21% (-0.35%, -0.08%)]. Differences were observed in favour of BIAsp for lower mean prandial glucose increment [3 RCTs; WMD (95% CI): -14.70 mg/dl (-20.09, -9.31)]; no difference was observed for fasting plasma glucose [3 RCTs; WMD (95% CI): 7.09 mg/dl (-15.76, 29.94)]. We found no evidence for higher risk of overall [2 RCTs; 63% vs. 51%; OR = 1.77 (0.91; 3.44)] and severe hypoglycaemic episodes [4 RCTs; 0.98% vs. 1.12%; OR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.31, 2.53)] in the BIAsp 30 group as compared with IGlar group. Twice-daily administration of BIAsp 30 resulted in larger weight gain [2 RCTs; WMD (95% CI) = 1.78 kg (1.04; 2.52)]. BIAsp 30 added to OAD therapy results in a better glycaemic control as compared with IGlar in T2DM patients. BIAsp 30 use is associated with slightly larger weight gain but no rise in risk

  2. Microsphere-Based Hierarchically Juxtapositioned Biphasic Scaffolds Prepared from Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid and Nanohydroxyapatite for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Shalumon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prepare biphasic osteochondral scaffolds based on seamless joining of sintered polymer and polymer/ceramic microspheres for co-culture of chondrocytes and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres and 10% nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP-incorporated PLGA (PGA/nHAP microspheres were prepared through the oil-in-water precipitation method. Virgin (V and composite (C scaffolds were prepared from 250–500 µm PLGA and PLGA/nHAP microspheres, respectively, while osteochondral (OC scaffolds were fabricated through the combination of V and C scaffolds. Physico-chemical properties of scaffolds were characterized through microscopic-spectroscopic evaluations. The effect of nHAP in scaffolds was investigated through thermogravimetric analysis and mechanical testing, while surface hydrophobicity was tested through contact angle measurements. Rabbit chondrocytes and BMSCs were used for cell culture, and cell morphology and proliferation were determined from SEM and DNA assays. Alizarin red and Alcian blue stains were used to identify the in vitro bone and cartilage tissue-specific regeneration, while cetylpyridinium chloride was used to quantitatively estimate calcium in mineralized bone. For co-culture in OC scaffolds, BMSCs were first seeded in the bone part of the scaffold and cultured in osteogenic medium, followed by seeding chondrocytes in the cartilage part, and cultured in chondrocyte medium. High cell viability was confirmed from the Live/Dead assays. Actin cytoskeleton organization obtained by DAPI-phalloidin staining revealed proper organization of chondrocytes and BMSCs in OC scaffolds. Immunofluorescent staining of bone (type I collagen and osteocalcin (OCN and cartilage marker proteins (type II collagen (COL II confirmed cellular behavior of osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. Using an ectopic osteochondral defect model by subcutaneous implantation of co-cultured OC scaffolds in nude mice

  3. Phenotype development in TgHD minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellederová, Zdeňka; Vidinská, Daniela; Mačáková, Monika; Kučerová, S.; Bohuslavová, Božena; Sedláčková, M.; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Baxa, Monika; Ardan, Taras; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 11-11 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : phenotype * minipig model of Huntington´s disease * reproductive failure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  5. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  6. Delineating the GRIN1 phenotypic spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Johannes R; Geider, Kirsten; Helbig, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    with a dominant-negative effect. In addition, we describe 2 homozygous GRIN1 mutations (1 missense, 1 truncation), each segregating with severe neurodevelopmental phenotypes in consanguineous families. CONCLUSIONS: De novo GRIN1 mutations are associated with severe intellectual disability with cortical visual......, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity...

  7. Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anthony E.

    2012-01-01

    Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with ver...

  8. Associations between phenotypes of preeclampsia and thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berks, Durk; Duvekot, Johannes J; Basalan, Hillal; De Maat, Moniek P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Willy

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of preeclampsia with thrombophilia are conflicting. Clinical heterogeneity of the disease may be one of the explanations. The present study addresses the question whether different phenotypes of preeclampsia are associated with thrombophilia factors. Study design We planned a retrospective cohort study. From 1985 until 2010 women with preeclampsia were offered postpartum screening for the following thrombophilia factors: anti-phospholipid antibodies, APC-resistance, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteineamia, factor V Leiden and Prothrombin gene mutation. Hospital records were used to obtain information on phenotypes of the preeclampsia and placental histology. We identified 844 women with singleton pregnancies who were screened for thrombophilia factors. HELLP complicated 49% of pregnancies; Fetal growth restriction complicated 61% of pregnancies. Early delivery (preeclampsia was associated with protein S deficiency (p=0.01). Fetal growth restriction was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (ppreeclampsia was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p=0.01). Extensive placental infarction (>10%) was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (ppreeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction, are associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Other phenotypes of preeclampsia, especially HELLP syndrome, were not associated with thrombophilia. We advise only to test for anti-phospholipid antibodies after early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction. We suggest enough evidence is presented to justify no further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenotypic variability of Cat-Eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, M J; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; van Essen, A J

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cytogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric duplication of a part of chromosome 22 (inv dup(22)). We report on three CES-patients who carry an inv dup(22) diagnosed with FISH studies. They show remarkable phenotypic variability. The cause of this variability is unknown. Furthermore, we review clinical features of 71 reported patients. Only 41% of the CES-patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and pre-auricular anomalies. Therefore, almost 60% of the CES-patients are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Mild to moderate mental retardation was found in 32% (16/50) of the cases. Mental retardation occurs more frequently in male CES-patients. There is no apparent phenotypic difference between mentally retarded and mentally normal CES-patients.

  10. Cluster analysis in phenotyping a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, C C; Sa-Couto, P; Todo-Bom, A; Bousquet, J

    2015-09-03

    Unbiased cluster analysis using clinical parameters has identified asthma phenotypes. Adding inflammatory biomarkers to this analysis provided a better insight into the disease mechanisms. This approach has not yet been applied to asthmatic Portuguese patients. To identify phenotypes of asthma using cluster analysis in a Portuguese asthmatic population treated in secondary medical care. Consecutive patients with asthma were recruited from the outpatient clinic. Patients were optimally treated according to GINA guidelines and enrolled in the study. Procedures were performed according to a standard evaluation of asthma. Phenotypes were identified by cluster analysis using Ward's clustering method. Of the 72 patients enrolled, 57 had full data and were included for cluster analysis. Distribution was set in 5 clusters described as follows: cluster (C) 1, early onset mild allergic asthma; C2, moderate allergic asthma, with long evolution, female prevalence and mixed inflammation; C3, allergic brittle asthma in young females with early disease onset and no evidence of inflammation; C4, severe asthma in obese females with late disease onset, highly symptomatic despite low Th2 inflammation; C5, severe asthma with chronic airflow obstruction, late disease onset and eosinophilic inflammation. In our study population, the identified clusters were mainly coincident with other larger-scale cluster analysis. Variables such as age at disease onset, obesity, lung function, FeNO (Th2 biomarker) and disease severity were important for cluster distinction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  12. Dissecting phenotypic variation among AIS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Minghua; Wang Jiucun; Zhang Zhen; Zhao Zhimin; Zhang Rongmei; Hu Xiaohua; Tan Tao; Luo Shijing; Luo Zewei

    2005-01-01

    We have created genital skin fibroblast cell lines directly from three patients in a Chinese family affected by androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). All patients in the family share an identical AR Arg 840 Cys mutant but show different disease phenotypes. By using the cell lines, we find that the mutation has not influenced a normal androgen-binding capacity at 37 deg C but has reduced the affinity for androgens and may cause thermolability of the androgen-receptor complex. The impaired nuclear trafficking of the androgen receptor in the cell lines is highly correlated with the severity of donors' disease phenotype. The transactivity of the mutant is substantially weakened and the extent of the reduced transactivity reflects severity of the donors' disease symptom. Our data reveal that although etiology of AIS is monogenic and the mutant may alter the major biological functions of its wild allele, the function of the mutant AR can also be influenced by the different genetic backgrounds and thus explains the divergent disease phenotypes

  13. The phenotypic spectrum of congenital Zika syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Miguel; Feitosa, Ian M L; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Pessoa, André L S; França, Giovanny V A; García-Alix, Alfredo; Doriqui, Maria J R; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Sanseverino, Maria V T; Neri, João I C F; Pina-Neto, João M; Santos, Emerson S; Verçosa, Islane; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Medeiros, Paula F V; Kerbage, Saile C; Silva, André A; van der Linden, Vanessa; Martelli, Celina M T; Cordeiro, Marli T; Dhalia, Rafael; Vianna, Fernanda S L; Victora, Cesar G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2017-04-01

    In October 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH). In response, the Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics established a task force (SBGM-ZETF) to study the phenotype of infants born with microcephaly due to ZIKV congenital infection and delineate the phenotypic spectrum of this newly recognized teratogen. This study was based on the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging of 83 infants born during the period from July, 2015 to March, 2016 and registered by the SBGM-ZETF. All 83 infants had significant findings on neuroimaging consistent with ZIKV congenital infection and 12 had confirmed ZIKV IgM in CSF. A recognizable phenotype of microcephaly, anomalies of the shape of skull and redundancy of the scalp consistent with the Fetal Brain Disruption Sequence (FBDS) was present in 70% of infants, but was most often subtle. In addition, features consistent with fetal immobility, ranging from dimples (30.1%), distal hand/finger contractures (20.5%), and feet malpositions (15.7%), to generalized arthrogryposis (9.6%), were present in these infants. Some cases had milder microcephaly or even a normal head circumference (HC), and other less distinctive findings. The detailed observation of the dysmorphic and neurologic features in these infants provides insight into the mechanisms and timings of the brain disruption and the sequence of developmental anomalies that may occur after prenatal infection by the ZIKV. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS, a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license 1.

  15. Genetic variants influencing phenotypic variance heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Weronica E; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Karlsson, Torgny; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Johansson, Åsa

    2018-03-01

    Most genetic studies identify genetic variants associated with disease risk or with the mean value of a quantitative trait. More rarely, genetic variants associated with variance heterogeneity are considered. In this study, we have identified such variance single-nucleotide polymorphisms (vSNPs) and examined if these represent biological gene × gene or gene × environment interactions or statistical