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Sample records for biphasic hypothermic culture

  1. Mild hypothermic culture conditions affect residual host cell protein composition post-Protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Cher Hui; Bell, David; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2018-04-01

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) are endogenous impurities, and their proteolytic and binding properties can compromise the integrity, and, hence, the stability and efficacy of recombinant therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Nonetheless, purification of mAbs currently presents a challenge because they often co-elute with certain HCP species during the capture step of protein A affinity chromatography. A Quality-by-Design (QbD) strategy to overcome this challenge involves identifying residual HCPs and tracing their source to the harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) and the corresponding cell culture operating parameters. Then, problematic HCPs in HCCF may be reduced by cell engineering or culture process optimization. Here, we present experimental results linking cell culture temperature and post-protein A residual HCP profile. We had previously reported that Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures conducted at standard physiological temperature and with a shift to mild hypothermia on day 5 produced HCCF of comparable product titer and HCP concentration, but with considerably different HCP composition. In this study, we show that differences in HCP variety at harvest cascaded to downstream purification where different residual HCPs were present in the two sets of samples post-protein A purification. To detect low-abundant residual HCPs, we designed a looping liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with continuous expansion of a preferred, exclude, and targeted peptide list. Mild hypothermic cultures produced 20% more residual HCP species, especially cell membrane proteins, distinct from the control. Critically, we identified that half of the potentially immunogenic residual HCP species were different between the two sets of samples.

  2. A Decrease in the Density of HLA-DR-Positive Cells Occurs Faster in Corneas Stored in Organ Culture than under Hypothermic Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Al-Fakih, A.; Faltus, Václav; Jirsová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2012), s. 39-46 ISSN 0030-3747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : antigen-presenting cells * langerhans cells * dendritic cells * allograft survival * transplantation * sensitization * rejection * storage * atpase * HLA-DR positivity * Organ culture * Hypothermic storage * Immunohistochemistry Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2012

  3. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  4. Granite-related hypothermal uranium mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Wu, J.; Pan, J.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important geological types, granite-related uranium deposits account for about 29% of the total discovered natural uranium resources in China. Most of the granite-related uranium deposits located in Taoshan - Zhuguang uranium metallogenic belt, South China. In addition to the typical pitchblende vein-type uranium mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, a new type of granite-related uranium mineralization with characteristics of hypothermal matallogenic system was discovered in South China by current studies. However, hypothermal is contact thermal to epithermal mineralization, and not the conventional intrusive high temperature mineralization. Hypothermal uranium mineralization is presented by disseminated uraninite or pitchblende stockwork in fissures in granites normally with extensive alkaline alteration. The high temperature mineral assemblage of uraninite associate with scheelite and tourmaline was identified in hypothermal uranium mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies on this type mineralization indicated the middle to high temperature (>250℃) mineralization with the mixing evidence of ore forming solution derived from deep level, and the boiling and mixing of ore forming solution are regarded as the dominant mineralization mechanism for the precipitating of uranium. In contrast to the mineralization ages of 67 Ma to 87 Ma for typical pitchblende vein mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, the mineralization age is older than 100 Ma for hypothermal uranium mineralization in granite. In the Shituling deposit, Xiazhuang uranium ore field, uraninite and pitchblende micro veins with extensive potassic alteration, chloritization and sericitization are hosted in fissures of Indo-Chinese epoch granites with the uranium mineralization age of 130 Ma to 138 Ma with a mineralization temperature of 290℃ to 330℃ indicated. Other examples sharing the similar characters of hypothermal uranium mineralization have been recognized in

  5. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  6. Granite-related Hypothermal Uranium Mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Wu Jianhua; Pan Jiangyong; Zhu Mingqian

    2014-01-01

    Moer and more evidence indicates that there are multi-stages uranium mineralization in many granite-related uranium deposits in south China. The early stage mineralization shares the characters of hypothermal U mineralization and had close relations to alkaline alterations.

  7. Engineering Rhodosporidium toruloides with a membrane transporter facilitates production and separation of carotenoids and lipids in a bi-phasic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaslyn J L; Chen, Liwei; Cao, Bin; Chen, Wei Ning

    2016-01-01

    The oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides has great biotechnological potential. It accumulates a high amount of lipids which can be used for biofuels and also produces carotenoids which are valuable in the food and pharmaceutical industry. However, the location of these two hydrophobic products in the cell membrane prohibits its efficient harvesting and separation. Here, the transporter Pdr10 was engineered into R. toruloides and cultured in two-phase media containing oil. This enabled the production and in situ export of carotenoids into the oil and concurrent separation from intracellular lipids in the cells. When Pdr10 strain was cultured in the two-phase media, carotenoids and fatty acids yield increased from 1.9 to 2.9 μg/mg and 0.07 to 0.09 mg/mg, respectively. A total of 1.8 μg/mg carotenoids was exported by Pdr10 strain, as compared to 0.3 μg/mg in the wild type. In the Pdr10 strain, the composition of carotenoids and fatty acid it produced also changed. Torulene became the major carotene produced instead of torularhodin. Also, the unsaturated fatty acid C18:2 became the dominant fatty acid produced instead of the saturated C16:0, which was similar to the grape seed oil used in the two-phase media. This indicated that oil was being consumed by the cells, which was supported by the increased intracellular glycerol levels detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our approach represents an easy and greener extraction method which could serve to increase the yield and facilitate separation of carotenoids and fatty acids.

  8. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J Shaver

    Full Text Available Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9% were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented occurred during the winters of 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public.

  9. Hypothermic death: Possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana; Usui, Akihito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Miho; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p = 0.0007, p < 0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p = 0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high

  10. Hypothermic death: possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke; Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana; Usui, Akihito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Miho; Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato

    2013-02-01

    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p=0.0007, p<0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p=0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypothermic death: Possibility of diagnosis by post-mortem computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Onozuka, Naoki; Kakizaki, Ayana [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Sato, Miho, E-mail: meifan58@m.tains.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Referring to our experience with post-mortem computed tomography (CT), many hypothermic death cases presented a lack of increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and urine retention in the bladder. Thus we evaluated the diagnostic performance of post-mortem CT on hypothermic death based on the above-mentioned three findings. Twenty-four hypothermic death subjects and 53 non-hypothermic death subjects were examined. Two radiologists assessed the presence or lack of an increase in lung-field concentration, blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery, and measured urine volume in the bladder. Pearson's chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to assess the relationship between the three findings and hypothermic death. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnosis were also calculated. Lack of an increase in lung-field concentration and blood clotting in the heart, thoracic aorta or pulmonary artery were significantly associated with hypothermic death (p = 0.0007, p < 0.0001, respectively). The hypothermic death cases had significantly more urine in the bladder than the non-hypothermic death cases (p = 0.0011). Regarding the diagnostic performance with all three findings, the sensitivity was 29.2% but the specificity was 100%. These three findings were more common in hypothermic death cases. Although the sensitivity was low, these findings will assist forensic physicians in diagnosing hypothermic death since the specificity was high.

  12. Normothermic Versus Hypothermic Heart Surgery: Evaluation of Post-Operative Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Akhlagh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recently introduced technique of warm heart surgery may be a very effective method of myocardial protection. Although the systemic effects of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass are well known, the effects of warm heart surgery are not. Methods: In a prospective trial, 60 patients undergoing an elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to normothermic(30 patients and hypothermic(30 patients group and assessments regarding renal, respiratory and neurologic complications and bleeding volume was done. Resulst: Eighty percent of hypothermic group and 86% of normothermic group were males (p=0/36. Mean age was 56.4 and 56.1 years in hypothermic and normothermic groups, respectively. Groups had similar central temperature, shivering, nipride usage, intake and output, bleeding volume, neurologic complications and ICU staying(p>0/05 but inotrop usage and incidence of phrenic nerve palsy were higher in hypothermic group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Hypothermic procedure leads to a lower rate of respiratory complications, therefore we recommend replacing hypothermic procedure by normothermic one.

  13. Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Barnavol, B; Caravel, J P; Feuerstein, C; Bittel, J H

    1996-01-01

    To study relationships between local cold adaptation of the lower limbs and general cold adaptation, eight subjects were submitted both to a cold foot test (CFT, 5 degrees C water immersion, 5 min) and to a whole-body standard cold air test (SCAT, 1 degree C, 2 h, nude at rest) before and after a local cold acclimation (LCA) of the lower limbs effected by repeated cold water immersions. The LCA induced a local cold adaptation confirmed by higher skin temperatures of the lower limbs during CFT and a hypothermic insulative general cold adaptation (decreased rectal temperature and mean skin temperature P adaptation was related to the habituation process confirmed by decreased plasma concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) during LCA (P general cold adaptation was unrelated either to local cold adaptation or to the habituation process, because an increased NA during SCAT after LCA (P syndrome" occurring during LCA.

  14. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  15. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  16. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; de Boon, Wadim M. I.; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C. W. A.; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed

  17. Normothermal or Hypothermal Extracorporeal Circulation Regimens in Patients with Acquired Heart Disease

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    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypothermal extracorporeal circulation has been used in cardiosurgery over 50 years. However, recent trials have not shown its predominant effect on the protection of the brain, lung, and myocardium in patients during surgery. We have presumed that when normothermal extracorporeal circulation used in patients with acquired heart disease, its pathophysiological effect on the body is comparable with that of hypothermal extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. One hundred and forty patients who were to undergo acquired heart disease correction were randomized into two equal groups: that using hypothermal or normothermal extracorporeal circulation. Perioperative troponin I and NT-proBNP concentrations, postoperative clinical course, and hospital morbidity and mortality rates were estimated. Results. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of troponin I and NT-proBNP at the study stages. In the normothermal extracorporeal circulation group patients with isolated aortic stenosis, the concentration of troponin I was higher than that in the hypothermal extracorporeal circulation group. Analyzing the postoperative course indicated that the duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in the hypothermal extracorporeal circulation group than in the normothermal extracorporeal circulation group. There were no differences in hospital complications and mortality rates. Conclusion. Hypothermal versus normothermal extracorporeal circulation in the correction of acquired heart diseases has no predominant effect on tro-ponin I and NT-proBNP concentrations, postoperative clinical course, and hospital complications and mortality rates. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, hypothermia, acquired heart disease, troponin I, NT-proBNP.

  18. A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant

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    Fausto Zuleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23 obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC percentage values (better quality, closer contact in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic. The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration.

  19. Aortic arch reconstruction: deep and moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YanWen; Xiao, LiQiong; Yang, Ting; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xin

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effects of moderate and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) during aortic arch surgery in adult patients and to offer the evidence for the detection of the temperature which provides best brain protection in the subjects who accept aortic arch reconstruction surgery. A total of 109 patients undergoing surgery of the aortic arch were divided into the moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest group (Group I) and the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group (Group II). We recorded the data of the patients and their cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aortic clamping time, SACP time and postoperative anesthetized recovery time, tracheal intubation time, time in the intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative neurologic dysfunction. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups. There were four patients who died in Group II and 1 patient in Group I. There were no significant differences in aortic clamping time of each group (111.4±58.4 vs. 115.9±16.2) min; SACP time (27.4±5.9 vs. 23.5±6.1) min of the moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest group and the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group; there were significant differences in cardiopulmonary bypass time (207.4±20.9 vs. 263.8±22.6) min, postoperative anesthetized recovery time (19.0±11.1 vs. 36.8±25.3) hours, extubation time (46.4±15.1 vs. 64.4±6.0) hours; length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (4.7±1.7 vs. 8±2.3) days and postoperative neurologic dysfunction in the two groups. Compared to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest can provide better brain protection and achieve good clinical results.

  20. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biphasic calcium phosphate; bone graft; Cassia occidentalis; simulated body fluid; SaOS-2 cell line. ... The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. ... Current Issue

  1. Hypothermic versus normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Shmirev, Vladimir A; Efremov, Sergey M; Ponomarev, Dmitry N; Moroz, Gleb B; Shahin, Denis G; Kornilov, Igor A; Shilova, Anna N; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N; Karaskov, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is as effective as hypothermic CPB in terms of cardiac protection (cTnI level) and outcome in patients with valvular heart disease. Prospective randomized study. A tertiary cardiothoracic referral center. 140 patients who had valvular heart disease, with/without coronary artery disease, surgically treated under CPB. The patients were allocated randomly to undergo either hypothermic (temperature [T], 31 °C-32 °C) or normothermic CPB (T>36 °C). The primary endpoint was the dynamics of troponin I. The secondary endpoints were ventilation time, the need for inotropic support, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay durations, complications, and mortality. There were no significant intergroup differences in dynamics of troponin I. Ventilation time was significantly lower in the hypothermic group (6 (5-9) and 8 (5-12); p = 0.01). Normothermic CPB in patients with valvular heart disease was as effective as hypothermic perfusion in terms of myocardial protection after the surgery assessed by cTnI release. The short ventilation duration in patients who underwent hypothermic CPB needs to be confirmed in a future investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mediated water electrolysis in biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Peljo, Pekka; Rivier, Lucie; Vrubel, Heron; Girault, Hubert H

    2017-08-30

    The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H 2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H 2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell. At the cathode the reduction of decamethylferrocenium cations ([Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + ) to neutral decamethylferrocene (Cp 2 *Fe (II) ) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) solvent takes place at the solid electrode/oil interface. This electron transfer process induces the ion transfer of a proton across the immiscible water/oil interface to maintain electroneutrality in the oil phase. The oil-solubilised proton immediately reacts with Cp 2 *Fe (II) to form the corresponding hydride species, [Cp 2 *Fe (IV) (H)] + . Subsequently, [Cp 2 *Fe (IV) (H)] + spontaneously undergoes a chemical reaction in the oil phase to evolve hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and regenerate [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + , whereupon this catalytic Electrochemical, Chemical, Chemical (ECC') cycle is repeated. During biphasic electrolysis, the stability and recyclability of the [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + /Cp 2 *Fe (II) redox couple were confirmed by chronoamperometric measurements and, furthermore, the steady-state concentration of [Cp 2 *Fe (III) ] + monitored in situ by UV/vis spectroscopy. Post-biphasic electrolysis, the presence of H 2 in the headspace of the cathodic compartment was established by sampling with gas chromatography. The rate of the biphasic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was enhanced by redox electrocatalysis in the presence of floating catalytic molybdenum carbide (Mo 2 C) microparticles at the immiscible water/oil interface. The use of a superhydrophobic organic electrolyte salt was critical to

  3. Dopamine improves hypothermic machine preservation of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Thomas; Lüer, Bastian; Efferz, Patrik

    2011-10-01

    Hypothermic machine preservation (HMP) is currently reconsidered as alternative to standard cold storage of organs from non-heart-beating donors. The present study was aimed at investigating the possible synergistic effect of HMP and the addition of dopamine to the circulating perfusate during preservation. Cardiac arrest was induced in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) by phrenotomy. Thirty minutes later livers were flushed via the portal vein and subjected to 20 h of HMP at 5ml/min at 4°C. During HMP the preservation solution was equilibrated with 100% oxygen and dopamine was added at 0, 10, 50 or 100 μM (D0, D10, D50, D100; n=6 resp.). Graft viability was assessed thereafter upon warm reperfusion in vitro for 2h. During HMP, D50 and D100 significantly reduced hepatic release of ALT to about 50%. No influence of dopamine was found on vascular resistance, oxygen uptake or lactate production at any concentration. D50 significantly reduced enzyme release during reperfusion (∼50%), enhanced bile flow and oxygen consumption. D10 was less effective while D100 even rose enzyme release compared with D0. Enhanced oxygen free radical mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO), found in the tissue of D0 livers was significantly reduced by D50; D50 significantly abrogated molecular upregulation of vWillebrand factor upon reperfusion suggesting vascular protection of the endothelial cell. Efficiency of HMP might be increased by stimulating livers with dopamine during ex vivo preservation, limiting vascular side effects and improving functional recovery upon early reperfusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Ji Xunming

    2007-01-01

    The neuroprotection of induced hypothermia has been investigated intensively and confirmed in animal models and it has been used clinically in many fields since the finding of sub-hypothermia can also reduce cerebral injury. However the use of hypothermia in clinics is limited by the simultaneously induced systemic complications. Recently the sub-hypothermia induced by hypothermic regional arterial perfusion is proved to be the most effective method to reach the goal, including hypothermic normal saline with no influences on whole body temperature, cardiac rhythm and blood coagulation. According to the well development, fruitful achievement in the present status of this field, the authors are surely to have the inspiration for the further investigation and development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids. (authors)

  5. [Resuscitation of severely hypothermic and multitraumatised female following long-term cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runitz, K.; Thornberg, K.; Wanscher, M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient who was severely hypothermic after 45 minutes of submersion. The patient received about 90 minutes of basic and advanced life support before being connected to extra corporal heart lung assistance (ECHLA). The core temperature was 28.9 degrees C, plasma potassium...... was 3.7 mmol/l. The patient stabilized and was discharged without significant sequelae after four weeks. This case report describes the importance of basic life support in the hypothermic patient and the use of ECHLA Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/26...

  6. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  7. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  8. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  9. Effect of hypothermic renal ischaemia on renin secretion rate in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Petersen, H K; Giese, J

    1985-01-01

    Plasma renin concentration (PRC), renal blood flow (RBF) and renin secretion rate (RSR = renal veno-arterial PRC difference multiplied by renal plasma flow) were measured before and after a period of hypothermic renal ischaemia in seven patients undergoing surgery for renal calculi. After...

  10. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump : Functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Maathuis, M. H. J.; Hart, N. A. 't; Bellekom, A. A.; Hofker, H. S.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Verkerke, G. J.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Verdonck, P.; Ploeg, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2006-01-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion,

  11. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  12. Preparation of highly infective Leishmania promastigotes by cultivation on SNB-9 biphasic medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Nohýnková, E.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2011), s. 273-277 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA310/08/1697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania * SNB-9 * biphasic culture medium * parasite infectivity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2011

  13. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occlusive ascending aorta and arch atheroma treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and thromboendarterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Sullivan, Katie E

    2013-12-01

    We describe an uncommon presentation of severely advanced aortic atherosclerosis in a 48-year old man with a history of hypertension and heavy smoking. Initial presentation with upper limb ischaemia led to the diagnosis of an aortic arch atheroma occluding 90% of the aortic lumen, managed with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and aortic thromboendarterectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in aortic occlusion and requiring emergent operative intervention.

  15. Influence of previous administration of trans-phenylcyclopropylamine on radioprotective and hypothermic effects of serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misustova, J.; Hosek, B.; Novak, L.; Kautska, J.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of a previous administration of trans-phenylcyclopropylamine (t-PCPA) on radioprotective and hypothermic effects of serotonin was studied in male mice of the H strain, which were given t-PCPA in the dose of 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 or 7 hours before application of serotonin (40 mg/kg, i.p.). The time course of protection was studied for exposures to 800 and 900 R. The results have shown that a previous administration of t-PCPA does not alter the short-time protective effect of serotonin, but that it significantly prolongs the time course of protection. The administration of t-PCPA also affects the starting speed and the duration of the serotonin-induced hypothermic reaction. The established correlation between prolongation of the radioprotective and hypothermic effects of serotonin induced by previous application of t-PCPA supplements the results with the existence of mutual relationship between changes of the energetic exchange and radioresistance of the organism. (author)

  16. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro

  17. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Fetal-Preterm Labor Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  19. Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Rezende, Claudia M

    2009-10-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), known as Brazilian cherry tree, is a fruity tree spread all over Brazil used in popular medicine to treat inflammations, rheumatic pain and fever, as hypoglycemic, diuretic and has been widely used in the cosmetics industry. The present study discusses the chemical composition, the antinociceptive and hypothermic profile of the essential oil of pitangueira leaves. The chemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS and the main constituent of the oil was characterized, after isolation, as a mixture of atractylone (1) and 3-furanoeudesmene (2). The essential oil, its pentane fraction and the isolated mixture of sesquiterpenes (1 and 2), given orally, significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions, increased the latency time in hot plate test and showed a hypothermic effect. The results suggest that the responsible for the antinociceptive and hypothermic effect were the isolated furanosesquiterpenes. These findings provided additional pharmacological information and may contribute for the use of Brazilian cherry tree as a phytomedicine.

  20. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  1. An Innovative Hyperbaric Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Protects the Liver from Experimental Preservation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando A. Giannone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypothermic machine perfusion systems seem more effective than the current static storage to prevent cold ischemic liver injury. Thus, we test an innovative hyperbaric hypothermic machine perfusion (HHMP, which combines hyperbaric oxygenation of the preservation solution and continuous perfusion of the graft. Methods. Rat livers were preserved with Celsior solution according to 4 different modalities: normobaric static preservation; hyperbaric static preservation at 2 atmosphere absolute (ATA; normobaric dynamic preservation, with continuous perfusion; hyperbaric dynamic preservation, with continuous perfusion at 2 ATA. After 24 h cold preservation, we assessed different parameters. Results. Compared to baseline, livers preserved with the current static storage showed severe ultrastructural damage, glycogen depletion and an increased oxidative stress. Normobaric perfused livers showed improved hepatocyte ultrastructure and ameliorated glycogen stores, but they still suffered a significant oxidative damage. The addition of hyperbaric oxygen produces an extra benefit by improving oxidative injury and by inducing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS gene expression. Conclusions. Preservation by means of the present innovative HHMP reduced the liver injury occurring after the current static cold storage by lowering glycogen depletion and oxidative damage. Interestingly, only the use of hyperbaric oxygen was associated to a blunted oxidative stress and an increased eNOS gene expression.

  2. Comparison of auricular and rectal temperature measurement in normothermic, hypothermic, and hyperthermic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konietschke, U; Kruse, B D; Müller, R; Stockhaus, C; Hartmann, K; Wehner, A

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of rectal temperature is the most common method and considered gold standard for obtaining body temperature in dogs. So far, no study has been performed comparing agreement between rectal and auricular measurements in a large case series. The purpose of the study was to assess agreement between rectal and auricular temperature measurement in normothermic, hypothermic, and hyperthermic dogs with consideration of different environmental conditions and ear conformations. Reference values for both methods were established using 62 healthy dogs. Three hundred dogs with various diseases (220 normothermic, 32 hypothermic, 48 hyperthermic) were enrolled in this prospective study. Rectal temperature was compared to auricular temperature and differences in agreement with regard to environmental temperature, relative humidity, and different ear conformations (pendulous versus prick ears) were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Correlation between rec- tal and auricular temperature was significant (r: 0.892; p  temperature did not. Variation between the two methods of measuring body temperature was clinically unacceptable. Although measurement of auricular temperature is fast, simple, and well tolerated, this method provides a clinically unacceptable difference to the rectal measurement.

  3. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  4. Hot shot induction and reperfusion with a specific blocker of the es-ENT1 nucleoside transporter before and after hypothermic cardioplegia abolishes myocardial stunning in acutely ischemic hearts despite metabolic derangement: Hot shot drug delivery before hypothermic cardioplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elfattah, Anwar Saad; Tuchy, Gert E.; Jessen, Michael E.; Salter, David R.; Goldstein, Jacques P.; Brunsting, Louis A.; Wechsler, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Simultaneous inhibition of the cardiac equilibrative-p-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)–sensitive (es) type of the equilibrative nucleoside transport 1 (ENT1) nucleoside transporter, with NBMPR, and adenosine deaminase, with erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl]adenine (EHNA), prevents release of myocardial purines and attenuates myocardial stunning and fibrillation in canine models of warm ischemia and reperfusion. It is not known whether prolonged administration of hypothermic cardioplegia influences purine release and EHNA/NBMPR-mediated cardioprotection in acutely ischemic hearts. Methods Anesthetized dogs (n = 46), which underwent normothermic aortic crossclamping for 20 minutes on-pump, were divided to determine (1) purine release with induction of intermittent antegrade or continuous retrograde hypothermic cardioplegia and reperfusion, (2) the effects of postischemic treatment with 100 µM EHNA and 25 µM NBMPR on purine release and global functional recovery, and (3) whether a hot shot and reperfusion with EHNA/NBMPR inhibits purine release and attenuates ventricular dysfunction of ischemic hearts. Myocardial biopsies and coronary sinus effluents were obtained and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Warm ischemia depleted myocardial adenosine triphosphate and elevated purines (ie, inosine > adenosine) as markers of ischemia. Induction of intermittent antegrade or continuous retrograde hypothermic (4°C) cardioplegia releases purines until the heart becomes cold (90% of purines in coronary sinus effluent. Reperfusion with EHNA/NBMPR abolished ventricular dysfunction in acutely ischemic hearts with and without a hot shot and hypothermic cardioplegic arrest. Conclusions Induction of hypothermic cardioplegia releases purines from ischemic hearts until they become cold, whereas reperfusion induces massive purine release and myocardial stunning. Inhibition of cardiac es-ENT1 nucleoside transporter abolishes postischemic reperfusion

  5. The 6-chromanol derivate SUL-109 enables prolonged hypothermic storage of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajmousa, Ghazaleh; Vogelaar, Pieter; Brouwer, Linda A.; Graaf, Adrianus Cornelis van der; Henning, Robert H.; Krenning, Guido

    Encouraging advances in cell therapy research with adipose derived stem cells (ASC) require an effective short-term preservation method that provides time for quality control and transport of cells from their manufacturing facility to their clinical destination. Hypothermic storage of cells in their

  6. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  7. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  8. Charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibits neurite extension of spiral ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Na; Liang, Qiong; Liu, Yuehong; Lai, Bin; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhengmin; Li, Shufeng

    2016-06-15

    Intracochlear application of exogenous or transgenic neurotrophins, such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), could promote the resprouting of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) neurites in deafened animals. These resprouting neurites might reduce the gap between cochlear implant electrodes and their targeting SGNs, allowing for an improvement of spatial resolution of electrical stimulation. This study is to investigate the impact of electrical stimulation employed in CI on the extension of resprouting SGN neurites. We established an in vitro model including the devices delivering charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation, and spiral ganglion (SG) dissociated culture treated with BDNF and NT-3. After electrical stimulation with varying durations and intensities, we quantified neurite lengths and Schwann cell densities in SG cultures. Stimulations that were greater than 50μA or longer than 8h significantly decreased SG neurite length. Schwann cell density under 100μA electrical stimulation for 48h was significantly lower compared to that in non-stimulated group. These electrical stimulation-induced decreases of neurite extension and Schwann cell density were attenuated by various types of voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blockers, or completely prevented by their combination, cadmium or calcium-free medium. Our study suggested that charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibited the extension of resprouting SGN neurites and decreased Schwann cell density in vitro. Calcium influx through multiple types of VDCCs was involved in the electrical stimulation-induced inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  10. Hypothermic total liquid ventilation after experimental aspiration-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaud, Jérôme; Lidouren, Fanny; Sage, Michaël; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Nadeau, Mathieu; Fortin-Pellerin, Étienne; Micheau, Philippe; Zilberstein, Luca; Mongardon, Nicolas; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Terada, Megumi; Bruneval, Patrick; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan; Walti, Hervé; Tissier, Renaud

    2018-05-02

    Ultrafast cooling by total liquid ventilation (TLV) provides potent cardio- and neuroprotection after experimental cardiac arrest. However, this was evaluated in animals with no initial lung injury, whereas out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is frequently associated with early-onset pneumonia, which may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, our objective was to determine whether hypothermic TLV could be safe or even beneficial in an aspiration-associated ARDS animal model. ARDS was induced in anesthetized rabbits through a two-hits model including the intra-tracheal administration of a pH = 1 solution mimicking gastric content and subsequent gaseous non-protective ventilation during 90 min (tidal volume [Vt] = 10 ml/kg with positive end-expiration pressure [PEEP] = 0 cmH 2 O). After this initial period, animals either received lung protective gas ventilation (LPV; Vt = 8 ml/kg and PEEP = 5 cmH 2 O) under normothermic conditions, or hypothermic TLV (TLV; Vt = 8 ml/kg and end-expiratory volume = 15 ml/kg). Both strategies were applied for 120 min with a continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Animals were then euthanized for pulmonary histological analyses. Eight rabbits were included in each group. Before randomization, all animals elicited ARDS with arterial oxygen partial pressure over inhaled oxygen fraction ratios (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ) below 100 mmHg, as well as decreased lung compliance. After randomization, body temperature rapidly decreased in TLV versus LPV group (32.6 ± 0.6 vs. 38.2 ± 0.4 °C after 15 min). Static lung compliance and gas exchanges were not significantly different in the TLV versus LPV group (PaO 2 /FiO 2  = 62 ± 4 vs. 52 ± 8 mmHg at the end of the procedure, respectively). Mean arterial pressure and arterial bicarbonates levels were significantly higher in TLV versus LPV. Histological analysis also showed significantly lower inflammation in

  11. Pharmacology of the hypothermic response to 5-HT1A receptor activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, K P; Poten, B; Söhnle, K; Schulte, H M

    1990-01-01

    The selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand ipsapirone (IPS) caused dose-related hypothermia in humans. The response was attenuated by the nonselective 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist metergoline and was completely antagonized by the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol, which interacts stereoselectively with the 5-HT1A receptor. The selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist betaxolol had no effect. The findings indicate that IPS-induced hypothermia specifically involves activation of (presynaptic) 5-HT1A receptors. Therefore, the hypothermic response to IPS may provide a convenient in vivo paradigma to assess the function of the presynaptic 5-HT receptor in affective disorders and its involvement in the effects of psychotropic drugs.

  12. Successful Dual Kidney Transplantation After Hypothermic Oxygenated Perfusion of Discarded Human Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaioli, Matteo; De Pace, Vanessa; Comai, Giorgia; Busutti, Marco; Gaudio, Massimo Del; Amaduzzi, Annalisa; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Siniscalchi, Antonio; La Manna, Gaetano; D’Errico, Antonietta A.D.; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Nephroangiosclerosis Symptoms: Renal failure Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Resuscitation of grafts by hypothermic oxygenated perfusion Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: The recovery of discarded human kidneys has increased in recent years and impels to use of unconventional organ preservation strategies that improve graft function. We report the first case of human kidneys histologically discarded and transplanted after hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE). Case Report: Marginal kidneys from a 78-year-old woman with brain death were declined by Italian transplant centers due to biopsy score (right kidney: 6; left kidney: 7). We recovered and preserved both kidneys through HOPE and we revaluated their use for transplantation by means of perfusion parameters. The right kidney was perfused for 1 h 20 min and the left kidney for 2 h 30 min. During organ perfusion, the renal flow increased progressively. We observed an increase of 34% for the left kidney (median flow 52 ml/min) and 50% for the right kidney (median flow 24 ml/min). Both kidneys had low perfusate’s lactate levels. We used perfusion parameters as important determinants of the organ discard. Based on our previous organ perfusion experience, the increase of renal flow and the low level of lactate following 1 h of HOPE lead us to declare both kidneys as appropriate for dual kidney transplantation (DKT). No complications were reported during the transplant and in the post-transplant hospital stay. The recipient had immediate graft function and serum creatinine value of 0.95 mg/dL at 3 months post-transplant. Conclusions: HOPE provides added information in the organ selection process and may improve graft quality of marginal kidneys. PMID:28928357

  13. Deep eutectic solvents as performance additives in biphasic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Dongming; Wang, Xuping; Zhou, Pengfei; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents act as surfactants in biphasic (hydrophobic/aqueous) reaction mixtures enabling higher interfacial surface areas at lower mechanical stress as compared to simple emulsions. Exploiting this effect the rate of a chemoenzymatic epoxidation reaction was increased more than

  14. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  15. Biphasic Clinical Course Among Kenyan Children With Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Falciparum malaria. It is associated with a significant risk of death and neurological sequelae. A biphasic clinical picture is associated with an even greater risk of neurological sequelae. Objective To examine the incidence and clinical ...

  16. Application of a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to the free propofol plasma levels during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Silva-Filho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to apply a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to investigate the free propofol plasma levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions compared with the off-pump procedure. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions (n=10 or the equivalent off-pump surgery (n=9 were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol target-controlled infusion (2 μg/mL during surgery. The propofol concentration was then reduced to 1 μg/mL, and a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using the maximum-effect-sigmoid model obtained by plotting the bispectral index values against the free propofol plasma levels was performed. RESULTS: Significant increases (two- to five-fold in the free propofol plasma levels were observed in the patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions. The pharmacokinetics of propofol varied according to the free drug levels in the hypothermic on-pump group versus the off-pump group. After hypothermic coronary artery bypass was initiated, the distribution volume increased, and the distribution half-life was prolonged. Propofol target-controlled infusion was discontinued when orotracheal extubation was indicated, and the time to patient extubation was significantly higher in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group (459 versus 273 min, p=0.0048. CONCLUSIONS: The orotracheal intubation time was significantly longer in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group. Additionally, residual hypnosis was identified through the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach based on decreases in drug plasma protein binding in the hypothermic on-pump group, which could explain the increased hypnosis observed with this drug in this group of patients.

  17. Selective cerebral perfusion prevents abnormalities in glutamate cycling and neuronal apoptosis in a model of infant deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Olson, Aaron K; Isern, Nancy G; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is often required for the repair of complex congenital cardiac defects in infants. However, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest induces neuroapoptosis associated with later development of neurocognitive abnormalities. Selective cerebral perfusion theoretically provides superior neural protection possibly through modifications in cerebral substrate oxidation and closely integrated glutamate cycling. We tested the hypothesis that selective cerebral perfusion modulates glucose utilization, and ameliorates abnormalities in glutamate flux, which occur in association with neuroapoptosis during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Eighteen infant male Yorkshire piglets were assigned randomly to two groups of seven (deep hypothermic circulatory arrest or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective cerebral perfusion for 60 minutes at 18℃) and four control pigs without cardiopulmonary bypass support. Carbon-13-labeled glucose as a metabolic tracer was infused, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used for metabolic analysis in the frontal cortex. Following 2.5 h of cerebral reperfusion, we observed similar cerebral adenosine triphosphate levels, absolute levels of lactate and citric acid cycle intermediates, and carbon-13 enrichment among three groups. However, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest induced significant abnormalities in glutamate cycling resulting in reduced glutamate/glutamine and elevated γ-aminobutyric acid/glutamate along with neuroapoptosis, which were all prevented by selective cerebral perfusion. The data suggest that selective cerebral perfusion prevents these modifications in glutamate/glutamine/γ-aminobutyric acid cycling and protects the cerebral cortex from apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Review of biphasic insulin aspart in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Raja-Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazia Raja-Khan, Sarah S Warehime, Robert A GabbayDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Penn State Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USABackground: Insulin is an effective treatment for achieving glycemic control and preventing complications in patients with diabetes. In order to make insulin therapy more acceptable to patients, newer formulations of insulin have been developed, such as biphasic insulins. Biphasic insulins conveniently provide both prandial and basal insulin in a single injection. One of the most well-studied biphasic insulins is biphasic insulin aspart 70/30.Objective: Our goal was to review the current literature on the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms “biphasic insulin aspart” to identify clinical studies and reviews.Results: Biphasic insulin aspart more effectively reduces post-prandial glucose compared to other biphasic insulins and basal insulins. Compared to biphasic insulin aspart, fasting glucose levels are lower with NPH, similar with glargine, and similar or lower with biphasic human insulin. Treat-to-target trials have shown that a goal HbA1c below 6.5 or 7% can be achieved with biphasic insulin aspart. The risk of hypoglycemia is similar to or less than that seen with other biphasic insulins or NPH insulin.Conclusion: Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, insulin, diabetes

  19. Structural and functional changes in the intenstine of irradiated and hypothermic irradiated rats : a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Roy, Bijon

    1982-01-01

    Severe destructive changes in the intestine of rats following whole body exposure to gamma rays (832 rads) were observed by light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope studies. Hypothermia (15deg C rectal temperature) induced prior to irradiation protected the intestinal mucosa from destruction. A simultaneous study showed that glucose absorption decreased significantly in irradiated rats, whereas it was increased in hypothermic irradiated animals. (author)

  20. Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, F.H.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Quill, T.J.; Baldwin, B.; White, W.D.; Reves, J.G.; Greeley, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relationship of changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow responsiveness in 20 pediatric patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral blood flow was measured during steady-state hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with the use of xenon 133 clearance methodology at two different arterial carbon dioxide tensions. During these measurements there was no significant change in mean arterial pressure, nasopharyngeal temperature, pump flow rate, or hematocrit value. Cerebral blood flow was found to be significantly greater at higher arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p less than 0.01), so that for every millimeter of mercury rise in arterial carbon dioxide tension there was a 1.2 ml.100 gm-1.min-1 increase in cerebral blood flow. Two factors, deep hypothermia (18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and reduced age (less than 1 year), diminished the effect carbon dioxide had on cerebral blood flow responsiveness but did not eliminate it. We conclude that cerebral blood flow remains responsive to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children; that is, increasing arterial carbon dioxide tension will independently increase cerebral blood flow

  1. Effect of age on cerebral blood flow during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusino, F.G.; Reves, J.G.; Smith, L.R.; Prough, D.S.; Stump, D.A.; McIntyre, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured in 20 patients by xenon 133 clearance methodology during nonpulsatile hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass to determine the effect of age on regional cerebral blood flow during these conditions. Measurements of cerebral blood flow at varying perfusion pressures were made in patients arbitrarily divided into two age groups at nearly identical nasopharyngeal temperature, hematocrit value, and carbon dioxide tension and with equal cardiopulmonary bypass flows of 1.6 L/min/m2. The range of mean arterial pressure was 30 to 110 mm Hg for group I (less than or equal to 50 years of age) and 20 to 90 mm Hg for group II (greater than or equal to 65 years of age). There was no significant difference (p = 0.32) between the mean arterial pressure in group I (54 +/- 28 mm Hg) and that in group II (43 +/- 21 mm Hg). The range of cerebral blood flow was 14.8 to 29.2 ml/100 gm/min for group I and 13.8 to 37.5 ml/100 gm/min for group II. There was no significant difference (p = 0.37) between the mean cerebral blood flow in group I (21.5 +/- 4.6 ml/100 gm/min) and group II (24.3 +/- 8.1 ml/100 gm/min). There was a poor correlation between mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow in both groups: group I, r = 0.16 (p = 0.67); group II, r = 0.5 (p = 0.12). In 12 patients, a second cerebral blood flow measurements was taken to determine the effect of mean arterial pressure on cerebral blood flow in the individual patient. Changes in mean arterial pressure did not correlate with changes in cerebral blood flow (p less than 0.90). We conclude that age does not alter cerebral blood flow and that cerebral blood flow autoregulation is preserved in elderly patients during nonpulsatile hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  3. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  4. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  5. Normothermic versus hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children undergoing open heart surgery (thermic-2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo; Rogers, Chris A

    2015-05-25

    During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body ("perfusion") while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure ("hypothermia") and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for "whole body cooling" is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body's metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery ("normothermia"). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of blood in the cerebral cortex, assessment of

  6. Plasma proteomic changes during hypothermic and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in aortic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Teiji; Yamaguchi, Akane; Yokoyama, Masao; Shimizu, Koji; Toyota, Kosaku; Nikai, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2014-10-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a protective method against brain ischemia in aortic surgery. However, the possible effects of DHCA on the plasma proteins remain to be determined. In the present study, we used novel high‑throughput technology to compare the plasma proteomes during DHCA (22˚C) with selective cerebral perfusion (SCP, n=7) to those during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, n=7). Three plasma samples per patient were obtained during CPB: T1, prior to cooling; T2, during hypothermia; T3, after rewarming for the DHCA group and three corresponding points for the normothermic group. A proteomic analysis was performed using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling tandem mass spectrometry to assess quantitative protein changes. In total, the analysis identified 262 proteins. The bioinformatics analysis revealed a significant upregulation of complement activation at T2 in normothermic CPB, which was suppressed in DHCA. These findings were confirmed by the changes of the terminal complement complex (SC5b‑9) levels. At T3, however, the level of SC5b‑9 showed a greater increase in DHCA compared to normothermic CPB, while 48 proteins were significantly downregulated in DHCA. The results demonstrated that DHCA and rewarming potentially exert a significant effect on the plasma proteome in patients undergoing aortic surgery.

  7. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A new kinetic biphasic approach applied to biodiesel process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Many different papers have been published on the kinetics of the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts to produce biodiesel. All the proposed approaches are based on the assumption of a pseudo-monophasic system. The consequence of these approaches is that some experimental aspects cannot be described. For the reaction performed in batch conditions, for example, the monophasic approach is not able to reproduce the different plateau obtained by using different amount of catalyst or the induction time observed at low stirring rates. Moreover, it has been observed by operating in continuous reactors that micromixing has a dramatic effect on the reaction rate. At this purpose, we have recently observed that is possible to obtain a complete conversion to biodiesel in less than 10 seconds of reaction time. This observation is confirmed also by other authors using different types of reactors like: static mixers, micro-reactors, oscillatory flow reactors, cavitational reactors, microwave reactors or centrifugal contactors. In this work we will show that a recently proposed biphasic kinetic approach is able to describe all the aspects before mentioned that cannot be described by the monophasic kinetic model. In particular, we will show that the biphasic kinetic model can describe both the induction time observed in the batch reactors, at low stirring rate, and the very high conversions obtainable in a micro-channel reactor. The adopted biphasic kinetic model is based on a reliable reaction mechanism that will be validated by the experimental evidences reported in this work. (orig.)

  9. Systematic hydrogeological study of a hypothermal spring (S. Cesarea Terme, Apulia), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Giuseppe Cesario; Tinelli, Roccaldo

    1995-02-01

    A long series of thermo-saline logging has been carried out in wells drilled through the Mesozoic carbonate aquifer from which the sulfur hypothermal springs of S. Cesarea Terme issue. The logging conducted at various timings (i.e. periodically, rapidly sequenced, synchronized with tides and sea conditions), over about 10 years, provides valuable data on the thermal and hydrological regimen of the area. In particular for the inshore zone, both isotherm and thermal gradient trends could be determined, and a close identification of preferential levels through which groundwater discharge takes place was possible. In fact, flow velocity measurements, made by the point diluition method, showed a mostly impervious aquifer except for evident fissured levels through which low-velocity discharge (5-22 cm day -1) takes place. When the sea is low and calm, all levels are influenced by sulfur waters except for the uppermost unconfined zone. When the sea is rough, also owing to the low permeability of the aquifer, a barrier effect against groundwater flow is triggered. Since groundwater is prevented from discharging, it tends to reach deeper permeable levels, thus markedly altering the hydrological and thermal regimen of the deeper sulfur waters. The lithological character of aquifers and their low permeability are confirmed by 222Rn contents (normally 10-15 pCi l -1), groundwater reaching 200 pCi l -1), only at levels where water starts becoming hot. This phenomenon, as supported by all investigations including those on sulfides, occurs only at temperatures exceeding 23°C. Therefore, according to the above investigation, the S. Cesarea springs represent a unique hydraulic model, matching real hydrodynamic situations occurring when surrounding conditions change.

  10. The Risk of Neurological Dysfunctions after Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest with Retrograde Cerebral Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Giuseppe; Benussi, Bernardo; Currò, Placido; Forti, Gabriella; Rauber, Elisabetta; Minati, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Marco; Tognolli, Umberto; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pappalardo, Aniello

    2017-12-01

    Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) is a brain protection technique that is adopted generally for anticipated short periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). However, the real impact of this technique on cerebral protection during DHCA remains a controversial issue. For 344 (59.5%) of 578 consecutive patients (mean age, 66.9 ± 10.9 years) who underwent cardiovascular surgery under DHCA at the present authors' institution (1999-2015), RCP was the sole technique of cerebral protection that was adopted in addition to deep hypothermia. Surgery of the thoracic aorta was performed in 95.9% of these RCP patients; in 92 cases there was an aortic arch involvement. Outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. The focus was on postoperative neurological dysfunctions. There were 33 (9.6%) in-hospital deaths. Thirty-one (9%) patients had permanent neurological dysfunctions and 66 (19.1%) transitory neurological dysfunctions alone. Age older than 74 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.88, P = .023), surgery for acute aortic dissection (OR, 2.57; P = .0009), and DHCA time longer than 25 minutes (OR, 2.44; P = .0021) were predictors of neurological dysfunctions. The 10-year nonparametric estimate of freedom from all-cause death was 61.8% (95% confidence interval, 57.8%-65.8%). Permanent postoperative neurological dysfunctions were risk factors for cardiac or cerebrovascular death (hazard ratio, 2.6; P = .039) even after an adjusted survival analysis (P RCP, in addition to deep hypothermia, combines with a low risk of neurological dysfunctions provided that DHCA length is 25 minutes or less. Permanent postoperative neurological dysfunctions are predictors of poor late survival. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  12. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and

  13. Generic Model-Based Tailor-Made Design and Analysis of Biphasic Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    systems have a broad range of application, such as the manufacture of petroleum based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agro-bio products. Major considerations in the design and analysis of biphasic reaction systems are physical and chemical equilibria, kinetic mechanisms, and reaction rates. The primary...... contribution of this thesis is the development of a systematic modelling framework for the biphasic reaction system. The developed framework consists of three modules describing phase equilibria, reactions and mass transfer, and material balances of such processes. Correlative and predictive thermodynamic......Biphasic reaction systems are composed of immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases where reactants, products, and catalysts are partitioned. These biphasic conditions point to novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product separation. The biphasic...

  14. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, prevents reduction of jugular bulb saturation during rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritakenishi, T; Hayashi, Y; Yamanaka, H; Kamibayashi, T; Ueda, K; Mashimo, T

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate cerebral oxygen balance during cardiopulmonary bypass may cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, augments cerebral blood flow by direct vasodilatation. We conducted a prospective, randomized study in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass to clarify the clinical efficacy of milrinone in the imbalance of cerebral oxygen supply and demand during the rewarming period of cardiopulmonary bypass. This is a prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study. After anesthesia, a 5.5 F fiberoptic oximeter catheter was inserted into the right jugular bulb retrogradely for monitoring the jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SjO(2)). Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving a continuous infusion of milrinone, 0.5 µg/kg/min during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and the other receiving saline as control. Milrinone significantly prevented the reduction of the jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation at 10 minutes from the start of rewarming compared with the control group, but did not do so from 10 to 20 minutes after rewarming. Milrinone suppresses the reduction of SjO(2) and improves the balance of cerebral oxygen supply and demand during the early rewarming period of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  15. The effects of aprotinin on blood product transfusion associated with thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seigne, P W

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of aprotinin on blood product use and postoperative complications in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients who underwent elective or urgent thoracic aortic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The total number of units of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was significantly less in the group that received aprotinin (p = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.01). The intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells and platelets, collection and retransfusion of cell saver, and postoperative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were also significantly less in the aprotinin group (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.05). No patient in either group sustained renal dysfunction or a myocardial infarction. Two patients who had not received aprotinin suffered from chronic postoperative seizures, and one patient who had received aprotinin sustained a perioperative stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose aprotinin administration significantly decreases blood product transfusion requirements in the setting of thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and it does not appear to be associated with renal or myocardial dysfunction.

  16. Hypothermic manipulation of bone cement can extend the handling time during vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Po-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is commonly used for clinical applications. However, the short handling time increases the probability of a surgeon missing the crucial period in which the cement maintains its ideal viscosity for a successful injection. The aim of this article was to illustrate the effects a reduction in temperature would have on the cement handling time during percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods The injectability of bone cement was assessed using a cement compressor. By twisting the compressor, the piston transmits its axial load to the plunger, which then pumps the bone cement out. The experiments were categorized based on the different types of hypothermic manipulation that were used. In group I (room temperature, sham group, the syringes were kept at 22°C after mixing the bone cement. In group 2 (precooling the bone cement and the container, the PMMA powder and liquid, as well as the beaker, spatula, and syringe, were stored in the refrigerator (4°C overnight before mixing. In group 3 (ice bath cooling, the syringes were immediately submerged in ice water after mixing the bone cement at room temperature. Results The average liquid time, paste time, and handling time were 5.1 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.3, and 8.5 ± 0.8 min, respectively, for group 1; 9.4 ± 1.1, 5.8 ± 0.5, and 15.2 ± 1.2 min, respectively, for group 2; and 83.8 ± 5.2, 28.8 ± 6.9, and 112.5 ± 11.3 min, respectively, for group 3. The liquid and paste times could be increased through different cooling methods. In addition, the liquid time (i.e. waiting time for ice bath cooling was longer than for that of the precooling method (p Conclusions Both precooling (i.e. lowering the initial temperature and ice bath cooling (i.e. lowering the surrounding temperature can effectively slow polymerization. Precooling is easy for clinical applications, while ice bath cooling might be more suitable for multiple-level vertebroplasty. Clinicians can take

  17. Hypothermic manipulation of bone cement can extend the handling time during vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Po-Liang; Tai, Ching-Lung; Chu, I-Ming; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2012-10-16

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used for clinical applications. However, the short handling time increases the probability of a surgeon missing the crucial period in which the cement maintains its ideal viscosity for a successful injection. The aim of this article was to illustrate the effects a reduction in temperature would have on the cement handling time during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The injectability of bone cement was assessed using a cement compressor. By twisting the compressor, the piston transmits its axial load to the plunger, which then pumps the bone cement out. The experiments were categorized based on the different types of hypothermic manipulation that were used. In group I (room temperature, sham group), the syringes were kept at 22°C after mixing the bone cement. In group 2 (precooling the bone cement and the container), the PMMA powder and liquid, as well as the beaker, spatula, and syringe, were stored in the refrigerator (4°C) overnight before mixing. In group 3 (ice bath cooling), the syringes were immediately submerged in ice water after mixing the bone cement at room temperature. The average liquid time, paste time, and handling time were 5.1 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.3, and 8.5 ± 0.8 min, respectively, for group 1; 9.4 ± 1.1, 5.8 ± 0.5, and 15.2 ± 1.2 min, respectively, for group 2; and 83.8 ± 5.2, 28.8 ± 6.9, and 112.5 ± 11.3 min, respectively, for group 3. The liquid and paste times could be increased through different cooling methods. In addition, the liquid time (i.e. waiting time) for ice bath cooling was longer than for that of the precooling method (p < 0.05). Both precooling (i.e. lowering the initial temperature) and ice bath cooling (i.e. lowering the surrounding temperature) can effectively slow polymerization. Precooling is easy for clinical applications, while ice bath cooling might be more suitable for multiple-level vertebroplasty. Clinicians can take advantage of the improved injectability without any

  18. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiufang; Song, Dan; Gu, Li; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Here, we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At lower concentrations, fluoxetine downregulates gene expression of Cav-1, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases activity of PI3K/AKT, and elevates GSK-3β phosphorylation thus suppressing its activity. At higher concentrations, fluoxetine acts in an inverse fashion. As expected, fluoxetine at lower concentrations increased while at higher concentrations decreased glycogen content in astrocytes. Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug.

  19. High-throughput bone and cartilage micropellet manufacture, followed by assembly of micropellets into biphasic osteochondral tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Futrega, Kathryn; Lott, William B; Klein, Travis Jacob; Cooper-White, Justin; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-09-01

    Engineered biphasic osteochondral tissues may have utility in cartilage defect repair. As bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have the capacity to make both bone-like and cartilage-like tissues, they are an ideal cell population for use in the manufacture of osteochondral tissues. Effective differentiation of MSC to bone-like and cartilage-like tissues requires two unique medium formulations and this presents a challenge both in achieving initial MSC differentiation and in maintaining tissue stability when the unified osteochondral tissue is subsequently cultured in a single medium formulation. In this proof-of-principle study, we used an in-house fabricated microwell platform to manufacture thousands of micropellets formed from 166 MSC each. We then characterized the development of bone-like and cartilage-like tissue formation in the micropellets maintained for 8-14 days in sequential combinations of osteogenic or chondrogenic induction medium. When bone-like or cartilage-like micropellets were induced for only 8 days, they displayed significant phenotypic changes when the osteogenic or chondrogenic induction medium, respectively, was swapped. Based on these data, we developed an extended 14-day protocol for the pre-culture of bone-like and cartilage-like micropellets in their respective induction medium. Unified osteochondral tissues were formed by layering 12,000 osteogenic micropellets and 12,000 chondrogenic micropellets into a biphasic structure and then further culture in chondrogenic induction medium. The assembled tissue was cultured for a further 8 days and characterized via histology. The micropellets had amalgamated into a continuous structure with distinctive bone-like and cartilage-like regions. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of micropellet assembly for the formation of osteochondral-like tissues for possible use in osteochondral defect repair.

  20. Microculture in biphasic medium with silicone-coated slides for isolation of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, H; Galván, F J; Contreras, C

    1996-09-01

    The study reported here, seeking to develop a simple, practical, sensitive, and inexpensive technique for microbial diagnosis of tuberculosis, used a combination of biphasic media and microculture techniques to augment the sensitivity of traditional culture methods. A total of 540 sputum samples (5 mL each) were obtained from 180 patients with suspected tuberculosis in Mexico City. These samples were treated with Hanks reagent, neutralized with 25% HCl, and centrifuged. In each case the resulting residue was combined with liquid media (Sula medium or a phosphate-buffered control solution) and was inoculated into a bottle containing a solid medium (Löwenstein-Jensen-Holm or Middlebrook). A silicone-coated slide appropriate for culture of hydrophobic mycobacteria was inserted in each bottle, and the cultures (examined weekly) were incubated at 37 degrees C until the first macroscopic bacterial growth was detected or for up to eight weeks if none was detected. When such growth was detected, or at the end of eight weeks, each slide was withdrawn from the bottle, sterilized, stained by Kinyoun's method, and examined microscopically. Following 2-4 weeks of incubation, macroscopic bacterial growth was detected in 71 bottles and was confirmed by microscopic examination of the corresponding slides. No macroscopic bacterial growth was found in any of the remaining 469 bottles, but microscopic growth was observed on 77 of the slides examined after eight weeks. The authors conclude that this method represents a noteworthy improvement over standard culture methods in terms of bacterial isolation and suggest that its case, economy, and practicality make it suitable for application in developing countries.

  1. Biphasic 201thallium scintgraphy after dipyridamole in mitral valve diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoliner, R.; Dudczak, R.; Kronik, G.; Moesslacher, H.; Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of biphasic 201 thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole i.v. could neither prove nor exclude the presence of small focal lesions in the myocardium of 17 patients with mitral valve diseases. The frequent finding of a decrease in activity in the anterolateral myocardium is probably due to a relative increase in activity in the region of the inferior wall with superimposed areas of the papillary muscle and right ventricular myocardium. If the right ventricle is visualized in stress- or redistribution images, an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure can be accepted. According to Cohen's criteria, a grade 2 or 3 virtually proves the existence of pulmonary hypertension, a grade 1 makes this finding rather probable. The possibility of pulmonary hypertension can not be excluded if the right ventricular myocardium is not visualized. (orig.) [de

  2. Biphasic growth of orbital volume in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nan; Bi, Hua; Zhang, Bin; Li, Xue; Sun, Fengyuan; Qian, Xuehan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to map out the developmental curve of the orbital volume of Chinese children aged 1-15 years. CT scanning was performed on 109 children and the orbital volume, interlateral orbital rim distance (IORD), and extent of exophthalmos were measured on the CT images and plotted against age. The development of the orbit structure followed a biphasic pattern. The first growth phase was before 3 years and the second growth phase was between 7 years and 12 years of age. The growth speed in the first phase was about 3 times that of the second one (first vs second phase: 2.28 cm 3 /year vs 0.67 cm 3 /year for orbital volume, 5.01 mm/year vs 1.57 mm/year for IORD, 1.29 mm/year vs 0.42 mm/year for the exophthalmos). During development, there was no significant difference between the left and right orbits. There was no significant difference between boys and girls before 12 years of age. However, after 12 years of age, boys had significantly larger orbital volumes (22.16±2.28 cm 3 /year vs 18.57±1.16 cm 3 /year, pChinese children, the development of orbital volume follows a biphasic pattern and a sex difference becomes significant after the age of 12 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Ante situm liver resection with inferior vena cava replacement under hypothermic cardiopolmunary bypass for hepatoblastoma: Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Angelico

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We report for the first time a case of ante situ liver resection and inferior-vena-cava replacement associated with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in a child with hepatoblastoma. Herein, we extensively review the literature for hepatoblastoma with thumoral thrombi and we describe the technical aspects of ante situm approach, which is a realistic option in otherwise unresectable hepatoblastoma.

  4. Effect of in situ hypothermic perfusion on intrahepatic pO(2) and reactive oxygen species formation after partial hepatectomy under total hepatic vascular exclusion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Bob H. M.; Straatsburg, Irene H.; Kager, Liesbeth M.; van der Kleij, Ad J.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This study examined attenuation of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) induced liver injury during liver resections by hypothermic perfusion of the liver under total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE). Method: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, microcirculatory integrity and endothelial cell

  5. Characterization of the hypothermic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 in the rat. Relation to the adrenergic system and endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, H; Wohlman, A; Mechoulam, R; Weidenfeld, J

    1995-02-01

    In the present study we have characterized the hypothermic effect of the psychoactive cannabinoid HU-210, by investigating its interaction with the endogenous pyrogens, IL-1 and PGE2. We also studied the involvement of the adrenergic system in mediation of this hypothermic effect. Injection of HU-210 directly into the preoptic area caused a dose dependent reduction of rectal temperature from 37 to 32.1 degrees C. Injection of the non-psychoactive analog, HU-211 which does not bind to brain cannabinoid receptor, did not affect body temperature. Injection of the adrenergic agonists, CGP-12177 and clonidine (beta, and alpha adrenergic agonists, respectively) abrogated the hypothermia induced by HU-210. Injection of the adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1) and propranolol (beta) enhanced the hypothermic effect of HU-210. Intracerebral administration of IL-1 or PGE2 to rats pretreated with HU-210 caused a transient inhibition of the hypothermia. The ex vivo rate of basal or bacterial endotoxin-induced synthesis of PGE2 by different brain regions, including the preoptic area was not affected by HU-210 administration. These results suggest that the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 acts in the preoptic area, probably via the brain cannabinoid receptor to induce hypothermia. The hypothermic effect can be antagonized by adrenergic agonists and enhanced by adrenergic antagonists. HU-210 does not interfere with the pyrogenic effect of IL-1 or PGE2.

  6. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  7. Effects of Constant Flow vs. Constant Pressure Perfusion on Fluid Filtration in Severe Hypothermic Isolated Blood-Perfused Rat Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW  = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p  Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within the Constant flow group and between the groups at cessation of the experiments. In hypothermic rat lungs perfused at constant flow, fluid filtration coefficient per gram P LW and B/P ratio increased more than 10-fold concerted by increased

  8. Lipid solubility of sedative-hypnotic drugs influences hypothermic and hypnotic responses of long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, N C; Marley, R J; Wehner, J M; Collins, A C

    1992-10-01

    The anesthetic potency of many agents, including alcohols, barbiturates and other sedative-hypnotic drugs, is influenced by lipid solubility. Previous studies from our laboratory, however, have demonstrated that genetic factors influence this relationship. We have reported that mouse lines selectively bred for differences in duration of ethanol-induced anesthesia, the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, differ in sleep-time response to water-soluble, but not lipid-soluble, sedative-hypnotic drugs. The studies described here sought to determine whether this same relationship exists for the hypothermic response produced by 17 sedative-hypnotic drugs in the LS and SS mice. Dose-response and time course relationships for hypothermic actions were determined and were compared with the dose-related anesthetic effects of the drugs. Hypothermic potencies increased along with lipid solubility for both the LS and SS mouse lines, but the rate of change differed for the two mouse lines. LS mice were more responsive to ethanol and other water-soluble drugs whereas the SS were more responsive to lipid-soluble drugs; significant correlations were obtained between lipid solubility (log P-octanol-water partition coefficient) and relative LS-SS responsiveness to both the hypothermic and hypnotic actions of the 17 test drugs. Thus, both hypnotic and hypothermic actions of sedative-hypnotic drugs are correlated with lipid solubility. Possible explanation for these correlations include greater LS central nervous system sensitivity to water-soluble drugs and LS-SS differences in distribution of lipid-soluble drugs.

  9. Paired associative stimulation targeting the tibialis anterior muscle using either mono or biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse form and, to determine whether...... a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1) suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11); (2) suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11) where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic......% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS. PAS using a biphasic pulse form at subthreshold intensities induces similar effects to conventional PAS....

  10. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  11. Enhanced preservation of the isolated rat heart after hypothermic storage by pinacidil pretreatment and storage in lazaroid U74500A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.; Du, Z.Y.; Spratt, P.; Macdonald, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare 3 protocols incorporating these approaches on the preservation of haemodynamic function in the isolated working rat heart after hypothermic storage. These protocols were: 1) pretreatment of the heart with 200 μM pinacidil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener; 2) storage in cardioplegic solution containing the lipid soluble lazaroid antioxidant U74500A (30 μM); 3) A combination of protocols 1 and 2. Methods: Hearts from Wistar rats (250 to 330g body weight) were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Each heart was ligated to an aortic cannula and perfused retrogradely, with oxygenated Krebs solution at a hydrostatic pressure of 100 cm H 2 O. The system was then converted to 'working mode' by switching the perfusate from aorta to a left atrial cannula (filling pressure 15 cm H 2 O). After stabilisation, the following pre-arrest indices of cardiac function were recorded: heart rate (HR), coronary flow (CF), aortic flow (AF) and cardiac output (CO). Hearts were then randomised to protocols 1-3, untreated controls or vehicle treated controls (n=6 animals/ group). Hearts were stored in an extracellular-based preservation solution for 12 hours at 2-3degC, remounted on the perfusion apparatus and stabilised as before. Haemodynamic measurements were then repeated. Conclusions: Combined pharmacological activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels before cardioplegia and the addition of U74500A to the preservation solution is associated with a significantly enhanced haemodynamic function in the rat heart after 12 hours of hypothermic storage. These data suggest a novel use for these agents in the transplantation context

  12. Enhanced preservation of the isolated rat heart after hypothermic storage by pinacidil pretreatment and storage in lazaroid U74500A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, M. [St Vincent`s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia). Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology; Du, Z.Y.; Spratt, P.; Macdonald, P. [St Vincent`s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia). Cardiopulmonary Transplant Unit

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to compare 3 protocols incorporating these approaches on the preservation of haemodynamic function in the isolated working rat heart after hypothermic storage. These protocols were: 1) pretreatment of the heart with 200 {mu}M pinacidil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener; 2) storage in cardioplegic solution containing the lipid soluble lazaroid antioxidant U74500A (30 {mu}M); 3) A combination of protocols 1 and 2. Methods: Hearts from Wistar rats (250 to 330g body weight) were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Each heart was ligated to an aortic cannula and perfused retrogradely, with oxygenated Krebs solution at a hydrostatic pressure of 100 cm H{sub 2}O. The system was then converted to `working mode` by switching the perfusate from aorta to a left atrial cannula (filling pressure 15 cm H{sub 2}O). After stabilisation, the following pre-arrest indices of cardiac function were recorded: heart rate (HR), coronary flow (CF), aortic flow (AF) and cardiac output (CO). Hearts were then randomised to protocols 1-3, untreated controls or vehicle treated controls (n=6 animals/ group). Hearts were stored in an extracellular-based preservation solution for 12 hours at 2-3degC, remounted on the perfusion apparatus and stabilised as before. Haemodynamic measurements were then repeated. Conclusions: Combined pharmacological activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels before cardioplegia and the addition of U74500A to the preservation solution is associated with a significantly enhanced haemodynamic function in the rat heart after 12 hours of hypothermic storage. These data suggest a novel use for these agents in the transplantation context Truncated abstract. 1 tab.

  13. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Prevents Antigen-induced Biphasic Nasal Obstruction in Brown Norway Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kawasaki

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides a simple model of allergic biphasic nasal obstruction in BN rats, and also suggests that the PDE4 inhibitor may alleviate nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  14. Generation of useful energy from process fluids using the biphase turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The six largest energy consuming industries in the United States were surveyed to determine the energy savings that could result from applying the Biphase turbine to industrial process streams. A national potential energy savings of 58 million barrels of oil per year (technical market) was identified. This energy is recoverable from flashing gas liquid process streams and is separate and distinct from exhaust gas waste heat recovery. The industries surveyed in this program were the petroleum chemical, primary metals, paper and pulp, stone-clay-glass, and food. It was required to determine the applicability of the Biphase turbine to flashing operations connected with process streams, to determine the energy changes associated with these flashes if carried out in a Biphase turbine, and to determine the suitability (technical and economical feasibility) of applying the Biphase turbine to these processes.

  15. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Gur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations.

  16. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  17. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated.

  18. Biphasic interactions between a cationic dendrimer and actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Florence, Alexander T

    2010-12-01

    Gene delivery systems face the problem not only of the route toward the cell and tissues in question, but also of the molecularly crowded environment of both the cytoplasm and the nucleus itself. One of the physical barriers in the cytoplasm for diffusing nanoparticles is an actin network. Here, we describe the finding that a self-fluorescent sixth generation cationic dendrimer (6 nm in diameter) interacts reversibly and possibly electrostatically with actin filaments in vitro. Not only does this interaction slow the diffusion of the dendrimer but it also affects actin polymerization in a biphasic manner. At low concentrations the dendrimer behaves like a G-binding actin protein, retarding actin polymerization, whereas at high concentrations the dendrimer acts as a nucleating protein accelerating the polymerization. Thus in vivo the diffusion of a dendrimer carrier such as this has both physical and chemical elements: by decreasing polymerization it might accelerate its own transport, and by enhancing actin polymerization retard it. This finding suggests that such a dendrimer may have a role as an anticancer agent through its inhibitory effect on actin polymerization.

  19. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: imarrucho@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  20. Biphasically Modulating the Activity of Carboxypeptidase G2 with Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2 has been used for cancer prodrug therapy to realize the targeted release of active drugs, but there yet lacks a means to modulate the CPG2 activity. Here ultrasound was used to modulate the CPG2 activity. Methods: The activity of insonated CPG2 was determined, and then underlying biochemical (i.e., monomer, dimer and conformation and ultrasonic (i.e., heat and cavitation mechanisms were explored. Results: Ultrasound (1.0 MHz increased or decreased the enzymatic activity; the activity decreased as zero- or first-order kinetics, depending on the intensity. L1 (10 W/cm2 for 200 s improved the activity via increasing the specific activity. L2 or L3 (20 W/cm2 for 1200 or 3000 s decreased the activity via disassembling the dimer, degrading the monomer, inducing glycosylation, transforming conformation and decreasing the specific activity. An increase or a slight decrease of activity attributable to 10 W/cm2 was reversible, but the activity decrease due to 20 W/cm2 was irreversible. The enzymatic modulation was realized via cavitation. Conclusion: Ultrasound can biphasically modulate the CPG2 activity, and can be employed in the CPG2-prodrug therapy to adjust the release and moles of active drugs.

  1. A biphasic model for bleeding in soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jui; Chong, Kwitae; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Teran, Joseph; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of blood passing through soft tissues in the body is important for medical applications. The current study aims to capture the effect of tissue swelling and the transport of blood under bleeding or hemorrhaging conditions. The soft tissue is considered as a non-static poro-hyperelastic material with liquid-filled voids. A biphasic formulation effectively, a generalization of Darcy's law-is utilized, treating the phases as occupying fractions of the same volume. The interaction between phases is captured through a Stokes-like friction force on their relative velocities and a pressure that penalizes deviations from volume fractions summing to unity. The soft tissue is modeled as a hyperelastic material with a typical J-shaped stress-strain curve, while blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. The method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is used to discretize the conservation equations based on the ease of treating free surfaces in the liquid. Simulations of swelling under acute hemorrhage and of draining under gravity and compression will be demonstrated. Ongoing progress in modeling of organ tissues under injuries and surgical conditions will be discussed.

  2. Design and evaluation of lornoxicam bilayered tablets for biphasic release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songa Ambedkar Sunil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of lornoxicam to achieve biphasic release pattern. A bilayered tablet, consisting of an immediate and controlled release layer, was prepared by direct compression technique. The controlled release effect was achieved by using various hydrophilic natural, semi synthetic and synthetic controlled release polymers such as xanthan gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyethylene oxide (PEO to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profiles showed the biphasic release behavior in which the immediate release (IR layer containing the lornoxicam was released within 15 minutes, whereas the controlled release (CR layer controlled the drug release for up to 24 h. All the bilayered tablets formulated have followed the zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst release. FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis (ANOVA showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver comprimidos bicamada de lornoxicam para atingir padrão de liberação bifásica. Preparou-se, por compressão direta, comprimido bicamada, consistindo de uma camada de liberação imediata e uma de liberação controlada. A liberação controlada foi obtida pelo uso de vários polímeros naturais hidrofílicos, semi-sintéticos e sintéticos, tais como goma xantana, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (HPMC e óxido de polietileno (PEO para modular a liberação do fármaco. Os perfis de liberação in vitro mostraram comportamento bifásico em que a camada de liberação imediata (IR contendo lornoxicam foi liberada em 15 minutos, enquanto a camada de liberação controlada (CR liberou o fármaco em mais de 24 horas, Todos os comprimidos bicamada

  3. Alkaline Phosphatase for the Prevention of Intestinal and Renal Injury in a Rat Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass with Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    prevention of intestinal and kidney injury after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. In this model, we place 5-10kg...first abstract submissions to either Pediatric Academic Society or American Thoracic Society meetings by November. Secondary analysis of serum...rats. Transition to the piglet model also had multiple benefits beyond greater consistency of surgical approach. We now have a true pediatric model and

  4. Synthesis and Cell Seeding Assessment of Novel Biphasic Nano Powder in the CaO–MgO–SiO2 System for Bone Implant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Marzban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: CaO–MgO–SiO2 system bioceramics possess good characteristics for hard tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to synthesize the nano powder by using a sol-gel method and evaluate of bioactivity in the cells culture. Methods: To characterize of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and to evaluate the bioactivity sample cell seeding and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay were performed. Results: X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that the biphasic powder was obtained at 1300°C for 2 h by using a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM image showed that powder particle size was about 45 nm. Besides, cell culture results indicated that the percentage of viability values was increased by the extension of period. Conclusions: found that the sample is cytocompatible and has cell proliferation potential in culture medium. The present study demonstrates that, the biphasic CaO–MgO–SiO2 system can be used to achieve novel bioactive materials for bone implant application.

  5. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  6. Core-shell nanoreactors for efficient aqueous biphasic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Cardozo, Andrés F; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wenjing; Julcour, Carine; Lansalot, Muriel; Blanco, Jean-François; Gayet, Florence; Delmas, Henri; Charleux, Bernadette; Manoury, Eric; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2014-11-17

    Water-borne phosphine-functionalized core-cross-linked micelles (CCM) consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell were obtained as stable latexes by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) in water in a one-pot, three-step process. Initial homogeneous aqueous-phase copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (PEOMA) is followed by copolymerization of styrene (S) and 4-diphenylphosphinostyrene (DPPS), yielding P(MAA-co-PEOMA)-b-P(S-co-DPPS) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (M) by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), and final micellar cross-linking with a mixture of S and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The CCM were characterized by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to evaluate size, dispersity, stability, and the swelling ability of various organic substrates. Coordination of [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) to the core-confined phosphine groups was rapid and quantitative. The CCM and M latexes were then used, in combination with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ], to catalyze the aqueous biphasic hydroformylation of 1-octene, in which they showed high activity, recyclability, protection of the activated Rh center by the polymer scaffold, and low Rh leaching. The CCM latex gave slightly lower catalytic activity but significantly less Rh leaching than the M latex. A control experiment conducted in the presence of the sulfoxantphos ligand pointed to the action of the CCM as catalytic nanoreactors with substrate and product transport into and out of the polymer core, rather than as a surfactant in interfacial catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Biphasic Rapamycin Effects in Lymphoma and Carcinoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Dao, Vinh; Padrón, Álvaro; Drerup, Justin M; Lao, Shunhua; Liu, Aijie; Hurez, Vincent; Curiel, Tyler J

    2017-01-15

    mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T-cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T-cell malignancies. Here, we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1-8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of antitumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T-cell-dependent fashion. However, typical rapamycin inhibited T-cell activation and tumor infiltration in vivo and failed to boost DD treatment effects. Low-dose (LD) rapamycin (75 μg/kg) increased potentially beneficial CD44hiCD62L + CD8 + central memory T cells in EL4 challenge, but without clinical benefit. LD rapamycin significantly enhanced DD treatment efficacy, but DD plus LD rapamycin treatment effects were independent of antitumor immunity. Instead, rapamycin upregulated EL4 IL2 receptor in vitro and in vivo, facilitating direct DD tumor cell killing. LD rapamycin augmented DD efficacy against B16 melanoma and a human B-cell lymphoma, but not against human Jurkat T-cell lymphoma or ID8agg ovarian cancer cells. Treatment effects correlated with IL2R expression, but mechanisms in some tumors were not fully defined. Overall, our data define a distinct, biphasic mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibition at doses that are clinically exploitable, including in T-cell lymphomas. Cancer Res; 77(2); 520-31. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  9. Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M

    1998-02-01

    The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.

  10. Equivalence between short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic material responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2007-06-01

    Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response deltatelasticity tensor, and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components.

  11. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (prain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (prain gardens. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradaran, S.; Moghaddam, E.; Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman; Basirun, W.J.; Mehrali, M.; Sookhakian, M.; Hamdi, M.; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3 wt.% and 6 wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900 °C for 1 h. The GNP (0.5–2 wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15 h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150 °C and 160 MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5 days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5 wt.% was the optimum value. - Highlights: • Ni doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelets composite was investigated. • Mechanical and biological properties were evaluated. • Phase compositions and structural features were influenced noticeably by the Ni and GNPs. • The cytotoxicity of the Ni was improved with the addition of GNPs

  13. Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradaran, S., E-mail: saeid_baradaran@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Moghaddam, E. [Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman, E-mail: bahman_nasiri@hotmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Center, Materials Engineering Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Institute of Nanotechnology& Catalysis Research (NanoCat), University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mehrali, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Sookhakian, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Hamdi, M. [Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alias, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3 wt.% and 6 wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900 °C for 1 h. The GNP (0.5–2 wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15 h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150 °C and 160 MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5 days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5 wt.% was the optimum value. - Highlights: • Ni doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelets composite was investigated. • Mechanical and biological properties were evaluated. • Phase compositions and structural features were influenced noticeably by the Ni and GNPs. • The cytotoxicity of the Ni was improved with the addition of GNPs.

  14. Influence of surface microstructure and chemistry on osteoinduction and osteoclastogenesis by biphasic calcium phosphate discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NL Davison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that surface microstructural dimensions can influence the osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates (CaPs, and osteoclasts may play a role in this process. We hypothesised that surface structural dimensions of ≤ 1 μm trigger osteoinduction and osteoclast formation irrespective of macrostructure (e.g., concavities, interconnected macropores, interparticle space or surface chemistry. To test this, planar discs made of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP: 80 % hydroxyapatite, 20 % tricalcium phosphate were prepared with different surface structural dimensions – either ~ 1 μm (BCP1150 or ~ 2-4 μm (BCP1300 – and no macropores or concavities. A third material was made by sputter coating BCP1150 with titanium (BCP1150Ti, thereby changing its surface chemistry but preserving its surface structure and chemical reactivity. After intramuscular implantation in 5 dogs for 12 weeks, BCP1150 formed ectopic bone in 4 out of 5 samples, BCP1150Ti formed ectopic bone in 3 out of 5 samples, and BCP1300 formed no ectopic bone in any of the 5 samples. In vivo, large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells densely colonised BCP1150, smaller osteoclast-like cells formed on BCP1150Ti, and osteoclast-like cells scarcely formed on BCP1300. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells cultured on the surface of BCP1150 and BCP1150Ti in the presence of osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator for NF-κB ligand proliferated then differentiated into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. However, cell proliferation, fusion, and TRAP activity were all significantly inhibited on BCP1300. These results indicate that of the material parameters tested – namely, surface microstructure, macrostructure, and surface chemistry – microstructural dimensions are critical in promoting osteoclastogenesis and triggering ectopic bone formation.

  15. Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lingli; Fan Hongsong; Zhang Xingdong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi, E-mail: HANAGATA.Nobutaka@nims.go.j [Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in {beta}-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than {beta}-TCP.

  16. Combined blockade of ADP receptors and PI3-kinase p110β fully prevents platelet and leukocyte activation during hypothermic extracorporeal circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Krajewski

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal circulation (ECC and hypothermia are used to maintain stable circulatory parameters and improve the ischemia tolerance of patients in cardiac surgery. However, ECC and hypothermia induce activation mechanisms in platelets and leukocytes, which are mediated by the platelet agonist ADP and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K p110β. Under clinical conditions these processes are associated with life-threatening complications including thromboembolism and inflammation. This study analyzes effects of ADP receptor P(2Y(12 and P(2Y(1 blockade and PI3K p110β inhibition on platelets and granulocytes during hypothermic ECC. Human blood was treated with the P(2Y(12 antagonist 2-MeSAMP, the P(2Y(1 antagonist MRS2179, the PI3K p110β inhibitor TGX-221, combinations thereof, or PBS and propylene glycol (controls. Under static in vitro conditions a concentration-dependent effect regarding the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation was found using 2-MeSAMP or TGX-221. Further inhibition of ADP-mediated effects was achieved with MRS2179. Next, blood was circulated in an ex vivo ECC model at 28°C for 30 minutes and various platelet and granulocyte markers were investigated using flow cytometry, ELISA and platelet count analysis. GPIIb/IIIa activation induced by hypothermic ECC was inhibited using TGX-221 alone or in combination with P(2Y blockers (p<0.05, while no effect of hypothermic ECC or antiplatelet agents on GPIIb/IIIa and GPIbα expression and von Willebrand factor binding was observed. Sole P(2Y and PI3K blockade or a combination thereof inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets and platelet-derived microparticles during hypothermic ECC (p<0.05. P(2Y blockade alone or combined with TGX-221 prevented ECC-induced platelet-granulocyte aggregate formation (p<0.05. Platelet adhesion to the ECC surface, platelet loss and Mac-1 expression on granulocytes were inhibited by combined P(2Y and PI3K blockade (p<0.05. Combined blockade of P

  17. Biphasic electrical targeting plays a significant role in schwann cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Song, Yun Mi; Cho, Tae Hyung; Pan, Hui; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung June; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a promising technique for axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. However, long-term, continuous ES in the form of biphasic electric current (BEC) to stimulate axonal regeneration has rarely been attempted and the effects of BEC on Schwann cells are unknown. We hypothesized that long-term, continuous ES would trigger the activation of Schwann cells, and we therefore investigated the effect of BEC on the functional differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into Schwann cells, as well as the activity of primary Schwann cells. Differentiation of hMSCs into Schwann cells was determined by coculture with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line). We also investigated the in vivo effects of long-term ES (4 weeks) on axonal outgrowth of a severed sciatic nerve with a 7-mm gap after retraction of the nerve ends in rats by implanting an electronic device to serve as a neural conduit. PC12 cells cocultured with hMSCs electrically stimulated during culture in Schwann cell differentiation medium (Group I) had longer neurites and a greater percentage of PC12 cells were neurite-sprouting than when cocultured with hMSCs cultured in growth medium (control group) or unstimulated hMSCs in the same culture conditions as used for Group I (Group II). Group I cells showed significant upregulation of Schwann cell-related neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor compared to Group II cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Primary Schwann cells responded to continuous BEC with increased proliferation and the induction of nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, similar to Group I cells, and in addition, induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was observed. Immunohistochemical investigation of sciatic nerve regenerates revealed that BEC increased axonal outgrowth significantly. These results demonstrate that BEC enhanced the functional activity of

  18. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion reduces bile duct reperfusion injury after transplantation of donation after circulatory death livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Rianne; van Leeuwen, Otto B.; Matton, Alix P. M.; Burlage, Laura C.; Wiersema‐Buist, Janneke; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Gouw, Annette S. H.

    2018-01-01

    Dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (DHOPE) of the liver has been advocated as a method to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study aimed to determine whether DHOPE reduces IRI of the bile ducts in donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation. In a recently performed phase 1 trial, 10 DCD livers were preserved with DHOPE after static cold storage (SCS; http://www.trialregister.nl NTR4493). Bile duct biopsies were obtained at the end of SCS (before DHOPE; baseline) and after graft reperfusion in the recipient. Histological severity of biliary injury was graded according to an established semiquantitative grading system. Twenty liver transplantations using DCD livers not preserved with DHOPE served as controls. Baseline characteristics and the degree of bile duct injury at baseline (end of SCS) were similar between both groups. In controls, the degree of stroma necrosis (P = 0.002) and injury of the deep peribiliary glands (PBG; P = 0.02) increased after reperfusion compared with baseline. In contrast, in DHOPE‐preserved livers, the degree of bile duct injury did not increase after reperfusion. Moreover, there was less injury of deep PBG (P = 0.04) after reperfusion in the DHOPE group compared with controls. In conclusion, this study suggests that DHOPE reduces IRI of bile ducts after DCD liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation 24 655–664 2018 AASLD. PMID:29369470

  19. The effect of the use of a TNF-alpha inhibitor in hypothermic machine perfusion on kidney function after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuwe, Piotr; Domagala, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Trzebicki, Janusz; Chmura, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Artur

    2017-08-01

    One of the most important problems in transplantation medicine is the ischemia/reperfusion injury of the organs to be transplanted. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor etanercept on the machine perfusion hypothermia of renal allograft kidney function and organ perfusion. No statistically significant differences were found in the impact of the applied intervention on kidney machine perfusion during which the average flow and vascular resistance were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of delayed graft function (DGF). Fewer events in patients who received a kidney from the etanercept treated Group A compared to the patients who received a kidney from the control Group B were observed when comparing the functional DGF and occurrence of acute rejection episodes, however, there was no statistically significant difference. In summary, no effect of treatment with etanercept an inhibitor of TNF-alpha in a hypothermic machine perfusion on renal allograft renal survival and its perfusion were detected in this study. However, treatment of the isolated organ may be important for the future of transplantation medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pretreatment of Eucalyptus in biphasic system for furfural production and accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiudong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-01

    Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82.0% was achieved at 180°C for 60min. Surface of the pretreated Eucalyptus became relatively rough and loose, and its crystallinity index increased obviously due to the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. The pretreated Eucalyptus samples showed much higher enzymatic hydrolysis rates (26.2-70.7%) than the raw Eucalyptus (14.5%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  2. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  3. A new injectable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and nano hydroxyapatite, crosslinked with chromium acetate, as scaffold for cartilage regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushki, N.; Tavassoli, H.; Katbab, A. A.; Katbab, P.; Bonakdar, S.

    2015-05-01

    Polymer scaffolds are applied in the field of tissue engineering as three dimensional structures to organize cells and present stimuli to direct generation of a desired damaged tissue. In situ gelling scaffolds have attracted great attentions, as they are structurally similar to the extra cellular matrix (ECM). In the present work, attempts have been made to design and fabricate a new injectable and crosslinkable biphasic hydrogel based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), chromium acetate as crosslink agent and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) as reinforcing and bioactive agent for repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage. The distinct characteristic of HPAM is the presence of carboxylate anion groups on its backbone which allows to engineer the structure of the hydrogel for the desired bioactivity with appropriate cells differentiation towards both soft and hard (bone) tissues. The synthesized hydrogel exhibited bifunctional behavior which was derived by its biphasic structure in which one phase was loaded with nano hydroxyapatite to provide integration capability by subchondral bones and fix the hydrogel at cartilage defect without a need for suturing. The other phase differentiates the rabbit adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards soft tissue. Rheomechanical spectrometry (RMS) was employed to study the kinetic of the gelation including induction time and rate, as well as to measure the ultimate elastic modulus of the optimum crosslinked hydrogel. Surface tension measurement was also performed to tailor the surface characteristics of the gels. In vitro culturing of the cells inside the crosslinked hydrogel revealed high viability and high differentiation of the encapsulated rabbit stem cells, providing that the chromium acetate level was kept below 0.2 wt%. Based on the obtained results, the designed and fabricated biphasic hydrogel exhibited high potential as carrier for the stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering application

  4. Establishment of an ideal time window model in hypothermic-targeted temperature management after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan-Yong; Chen, Shao-Bo; Wang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Ming-Liang; Dong, Hua-Jiang; Liang, Hai-Qian; Li, Xiao-Hong; Tu, Yue; Zhang, Sai; Chen, Chong; Sun, Hong-Tao

    2017-08-15

    Although hypothermic-targeted temperature management (HTTM) holds great potential for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), translation of the efficacy of hypothermia from animal models to TBI patientshas no entire consistency. This study aimed to find an ideal time window model in experimental rats which was more in accordance with clinical practice through the delayed HTTM intervention. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral cortical contusion injury and received therapeutic hypothermia at 15mins, 2 h, 4 h respectively after TBI. The neurological function was evaluated with the modified neurological severity score and Morris water maze test. The brain edema and morphological changes were measured with the water content and H&E staining. Brain sections were immunostained with antibodies against DCX (a neuroblast marker) and GFAP (an astrocyte marker). The apoptosis levels in the ipsilateral hippocampi and cortex were examined with antibodies against the apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 by the immunofluorescence and western blotting. The results indicated that each hypothermia therapy group could improve neurobehavioral and cognitive function, alleviate brain edema and reduce inflammation. Furthermore, we observed that therapeutic hypothermia increased DCX expression, decreased GFAP expression, upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. The above results suggested that HTTM at 2h or even at 4h post-injury revealed beneficial brain protection similarly, despite the best effect at 15min post-injury. These findings may provide relatively ideal time window models, further making the following experimental results more credible and persuasive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salinity Effects on Strategies of Glycogen Utilization in Livers of Euryhaline Milkfish (Chanos chanos under Hypothermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of temperature affects many physiological responses in ectothermic organisms, including feed intake, growth, reproduction, and behavior. Changes in environmental temperatures affect the acquisition of energy, whereas hepatic glycogen plays a central role in energy supply for the homeostasis of the entire body. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogenolysis, is also an indicator of environmental stress. Here, we examined the effects of salinity on glycogen metabolism in milkfish livers under cold stress. A reduction of feed intake was observed in both freshwater (FW and seawater (SW milkfish under cold adaptation. At normal temperature (28°C, compared to the FW milkfish, the SW milkfish exhibited greater mRNA abundance of the liver isoform of GP (Ccpygl, higher GP activity, and less glycogen content in the livers. Upon hypothermal (18°C stress, hepatic Ccpygl mRNA expression of FW milkfish surged at 3 h, declined at 6 and 12 h, increased again at 24 h, and increased significantly after 96 h. Increases in GP protein, GP activity, and the phosphorylation state and the breakdown of glycogen were also found in FW milkfish livers after 12 h of exposure at 18°C. Conversely, the Ccpygl transcript levels in SW milkfish were downregulated after 1 h of exposure at 18°C, whereas the protein abundance of GP, GP activity, and glycogen content were not significantly altered. Taken together, under 18°C cold stress, FW milkfish exhibited an acute response with the breakdown of hepatic glycogen for maintaining energy homeostasis of the entire body, whereas no change was observed in the hepatic glycogen content and GP activity of SW milkfish because of their greater tolerance to cold conditions.

  6. Dendrimer Brain Uptake and Targeted Therapy for Brain Injury in a Large Animal Model of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of brain injury following circulatory arrest is a challenging health issue with no viable therapeutic options. Based on studies in a clinically relevant large animal (canine) model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA)-induced brain injury, neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity have been identified as key players in mediating the brain injury after HCA. Therapy with large doses of valproic acid (VPA) showed some neuroprotection but was associated with adverse side effects. For the first time in a large animal model, we explored whether systemically administered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers could be effective in reaching target cells in the brain and deliver therapeutics. We showed that, upon systemic administration, hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers are taken up in the brain of injured animals and selectively localize in the injured neurons and microglia in the brain. The biodistribution in other major organs was similar to that seen in small animal models. We studied systemic dendrimer–drug combination therapy with two clinically approved drugs, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (attenuating neuroinflammation) and valproic acid (attenuating excitotoxicity), building on positive outcomes in a rabbit model of perinatal brain injury. We prepared and characterized dendrimer-NAC (D-NAC) and dendrimer-VPA (D-VPA) conjugates in multigram quantities. A glutathione-sensitive linker to enable for fast intracellular release. In preliminary efficacy studies, combination therapy with D-NAC and D-VPA showed promise in this large animal model, producing 24 h neurological deficit score improvements comparable to high dose combination therapy with VPA and NAC, or free VPA, but at one-tenth the dose, while significantly reducing the adverse side effects. Since adverse side effects of drugs are exaggerated in HCA, the reduced side effects with dendrimer conjugates and suggestions of neuroprotection offer promise for these nanoscale drug delivery systems. PMID:24499315

  7. Dendrimer brain uptake and targeted therapy for brain injury in a large animal model of hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K; Beaty, Claude A; Lesniak, Wojciech G; Kambhampati, Siva P; Zhang, Fan; Wilson, Mary A; Blue, Mary E; Troncoso, Juan C; Kannan, Sujatha; Johnston, Michael V; Baumgartner, William A; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2014-03-25

    Treatment of brain injury following circulatory arrest is a challenging health issue with no viable therapeutic options. Based on studies in a clinically relevant large animal (canine) model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA)-induced brain injury, neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity have been identified as key players in mediating the brain injury after HCA. Therapy with large doses of valproic acid (VPA) showed some neuroprotection but was associated with adverse side effects. For the first time in a large animal model, we explored whether systemically administered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers could be effective in reaching target cells in the brain and deliver therapeutics. We showed that, upon systemic administration, hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers are taken up in the brain of injured animals and selectively localize in the injured neurons and microglia in the brain. The biodistribution in other major organs was similar to that seen in small animal models. We studied systemic dendrimer-drug combination therapy with two clinically approved drugs, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (attenuating neuroinflammation) and valproic acid (attenuating excitotoxicity), building on positive outcomes in a rabbit model of perinatal brain injury. We prepared and characterized dendrimer-NAC (D-NAC) and dendrimer-VPA (D-VPA) conjugates in multigram quantities. A glutathione-sensitive linker to enable for fast intracellular release. In preliminary efficacy studies, combination therapy with D-NAC and D-VPA showed promise in this large animal model, producing 24 h neurological deficit score improvements comparable to high dose combination therapy with VPA and NAC, or free VPA, but at one-tenth the dose, while significantly reducing the adverse side effects. Since adverse side effects of drugs are exaggerated in HCA, the reduced side effects with dendrimer conjugates and suggestions of neuroprotection offer promise for these nanoscale drug delivery systems.

  8. Effect of nasal continuous and biphasic positive airway pressure on lung volume in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; van der Burg, Pauline S.; Beuger, Sabine; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2013-01-01

    To monitor regional changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), tidal volumes, and their ventilation distribution during different levels of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and nasal biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in stable preterm infants. By using electrical

  9. A randomized trial comparing monophasic and biphasic waveform shocks for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Dorian, Paul; Chapman, Fred W.; Schmitt, Paul W.; O'Grady, Sharon G.; Walker, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    Background We compared efficacy of and pain felt after biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and monophasic damped sine (MDS) shocks in patients undergoing external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Patients with AF were randomized to BTE or MDS waveform cardioversion. Successive

  10. Occurrence of amylose-lipid complexes in teff and maize starch biphasic pastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of amylose–lipid complexes was determined in maize and teff starch biphasic pastes i.e. peak viscosity pastes at short and prolonged pasting times. Maize and teff starches were pasted for 11.5 and 130 min with or without added stearic...

  11. Three dimensional biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposites for load bearing bioactive bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garai, Subhadra, E-mail: subha@nmlindia.org; Sinha, Arvind

    2016-02-01

    Mimicking matrix mediated bio-mineralization process, three dimensional blocks of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)) nanocomposites, having three different stoichiometries have been synthesized for possible application as load bearing synthetic bone graft or scaffolds. Biphasic blocks with three weight ratios of 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70 of HA and TCP respectively have been synthesized. Detailed structural and chemical characterization of the samples revealed a strong dependence of porosity and mechanical properties on the stoichiometry of biphasic blocks. Effect of physiological medium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the three different blocks has also been studied. Bioactivity of the BCP block, exhibiting highest compressive strength in air as well as in physiological medium, has been evaluated through adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells using different markers. - Highlights: • Developed a process for the synthesis of load bearing 3d- biphasic nanocomposites. • Synthesized nanocomposites exhibited in vitro osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity for bone marrow mesenchymal cells. • Developed process is a matrix mediated biomimetic one.

  12. A re-examination of the biphasic theory of skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A S; Hegarty, P V

    1977-01-01

    Because of the importance of fibre diameter measurements it was decided to re-evaluate the biphasic theory of skeletal muscle growth and development. This theory proposes an initial memophasic distribution of muscle fibres which changes to a biphasic distribution during development. The theory is based on observations made on certain muscles in mice, where two distinct populations of fibre diameters (20 and 40 micronm) contribute to the biphasic distribution. In the present investigation corss sections of frozen biceps brachii of mice in rigor mortis were examined. The rigor state was used to avoid complications produced by thaw-rigor contraction. The diameters of the outermost and innermost fibres were found to be significantly different. However, if the outer and inner fibres were combined to form one group, no significant difference between this group and other random groups was found. The distributions of all groups were monophasic. The diameters of isolated fibres from mice and rats also displayed a monophasic distribution. This evidence leads to the conclusion that the biphasic theory of muscle growth is untenable. Some of the variables which may occur in fibre size and shape are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:858691

  13. Biphasic single-reactor process for dehydration of xylose and hydrogenation of produced furfural

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The processes of xylose dehydration and the consecutive furfural hydrogenation have been combined in a single biphasic reactor. The dehydration was studied over Amberlyst-15 and the hydrogenation over a hydrophobic Ru/C catalyst. 1-Butanol, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and cyclohexane were used as

  14. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Kammouni, R.; Vázquez, M.; Lezama, L.; Kurlyandskaya, G.; Kraus, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 368, Nov (2014), 126-132 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic microwire * ferromagnetic resonance * microwave absorption * biphase magnetic system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  15. Hydroxyapatite/polylactide biphasic combination scaffold loaded with dexamethasone for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Appleford, Mark; Oh, Sunho; Ong, Joo L; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2011-12-15

    This study presents a novel design of a ceramic/polymer biphasic combination scaffold that mimics natural bone structures and is used as a bone graft substitute. To mimic the natural bone structures, the outside cortical-like shells were composed of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with a hollow interior using a polymeric template-coating technique; the inner trabecular-like core consisted of porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) that was loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) and was directly produced using a particle leaching/gas forming technique to create the inner diameter of the HA scaffold. It was observed that the HA and PLA parts of the fabricated HA/PLA biphasic scaffold contained open and interconnected pore structures, and the boundary between both parts was tightly connected without any gaps. It was found that the structure of the combination scaffold was analogous to that of natural bone based on micro-computed tomography analysis. Additionally, the dense, uniform apatite layer was formed on the surface of the HA/PLA biphasic scaffold through a biomimetic process, and DEX was successfully released from the PLA of the biphasic scaffold over a 1-month period. This release caused human embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells to proliferate, differentiate, produce ECM, and form tissue in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that this functionally graded scaffold is similar to natural bone and represents a potential bone-substitute material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Alpha alumina synthesis by laser treatment of bi-phasic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Cenk, E-mail: cenk.aktas@inm-gmbh.de [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Lee, Juseok; Míro, Marina Martinez [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Barnoush, Afrooz [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Saarland University, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Veith, Michael [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic nanowires (Al-core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell) are prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using single source precursor (SSP) approach. Such bi-phasic nanostructures were heat-treated using an argon laser operating at visible wavelengths. Al core seems to act as an active binder, which might decrease the inhomogeneous heating and thermal gradients. Nanoindentation method is used to estimate the hardness of the laser treated surfaces. Hardness values and pop-in behaviour in loading-curve indicate a formation of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with very low defect density. It is believed that Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic layers exhibit a dynamic change by transforming into alumina after the laser irradiation and this leads to alteration of the optical absorption especially in the visible wavelength region. Following the full transformation to alumina, the surface reflects back the laser light which hinders inhomogeneous and excessive heating. In this context, laser treatment of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic nanowires provides a controlled sintering process which can open up various applications in different fields.

  17. Prolonging hypothermic storage (4 C) of bovine embryos with fish antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Nakamura, Yuuki; Hayama, Kou; Shirasawa, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Tominaga, Naomi; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24-48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP-embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming.

  18. Study of hMSC proliferation and differentiation on Mg and Mg–Sr containing biphasic β-tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satish S.; Roy, Abhijit; Lee, Boeun; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic mixtures of either Mg"2"+ or combined Mg"2"+ and Sr"2"+ cation substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were prepared using a low temperature chemical phosphatizing and hydrolysis reaction approach. Scaffolds prepared using the cation substituted calcium phosphates were capable of supporting similar levels of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in comparison to commercially available β-TCP. The concentrations of Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and PO_4"3"− released from these scaffolds were also within the ranges desired from previous reports to support both hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, hMSCs cultured directly on scaffolds prepared with only Mg"2"+ substituted β-TCP were capable of supporting statistically significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin expression in comparison to all compositions containing both Mg"2"+ and Sr"2"+, and commercially available β-TCP. hMSCs cultured in the presence of scaffold extracts also exhibited similar trends in the expression of osteogenic markers as was observed during direct culture. Therefore, it was concluded that the enhanced differentiation observed was due to the release of bioactive ions rather than the surface microstructure. The role of these ions on transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenic protein signaling was also evaluated using a PCR array. It was concluded that the release of these ions may support enhanced differentiation through SMAD dependent TGF-β and BMP signaling. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mg and Mg-Sr containing biphasic beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics • Magnesium substitution influences ALP activity compared to strontium content. • Solution extract plays a more dominant role on hMSC differentiation. • Direct and indirect Mg and Mg-Sr TCP culture show similar OPG and OPN expression.

  19. Study of hMSC proliferation and differentiation on Mg and Mg–Sr containing biphasic β-tricalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satish S., E-mail: sss42@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Roy, Abhijit, E-mail: abr20@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Boeun [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Craniofacial Regeneration, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biphasic mixtures of either Mg{sup 2+} or combined Mg{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} cation substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were prepared using a low temperature chemical phosphatizing and hydrolysis reaction approach. Scaffolds prepared using the cation substituted calcium phosphates were capable of supporting similar levels of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in comparison to commercially available β-TCP. The concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} released from these scaffolds were also within the ranges desired from previous reports to support both hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, hMSCs cultured directly on scaffolds prepared with only Mg{sup 2+} substituted β-TCP were capable of supporting statistically significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin expression in comparison to all compositions containing both Mg{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}, and commercially available β-TCP. hMSCs cultured in the presence of scaffold extracts also exhibited similar trends in the expression of osteogenic markers as was observed during direct culture. Therefore, it was concluded that the enhanced differentiation observed was due to the release of bioactive ions rather than the surface microstructure. The role of these ions on transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenic protein signaling was also evaluated using a PCR array. It was concluded that the release of these ions may support enhanced differentiation through SMAD dependent TGF-β and BMP signaling. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mg and Mg-Sr containing biphasic beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics • Magnesium substitution influences ALP activity compared to strontium content. • Solution extract plays a more dominant role on hMSC differentiation. • Direct and indirect Mg and Mg-Sr TCP culture show similar OPG and OPN expression.

  20. Preparation of dexamethasone-loaded biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles/collagen porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Although bone is regenerative, its regeneration capacity is limited. For bone defects beyond a critical size, further intervention is required. As an attractive strategy, bone tissue engineering (bone TE) has been widely investigated to repair bone defects. However, the rapid and effective bone regeneration of large non-healing defects is still a great challenge. Multifunctional scaffolds having osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity are desirable to fasten functional bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, biomimetic composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release of dexamethasone (DEX) and the controlled pore structures were prepared for bone TE. DEX was introduced in the BCP NPs during preparation of the BCP NPs and hybridized with collagen scaffolds, which pore structures were controlled by using pre-prepared ice particulates as a porogen material. The composite scaffolds had well controlled and interconnected pore structures, high mechanical strength and a sustained release of DEX. The composite scaffolds showed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs when used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Subcutaneous implantation of the composite scaffolds at the dorsa of athymic nude mice demonstrated that they facilitated the ectopic bone tissue regeneration. The results indicated the DEX-loaded BCP NPs/collagen composite scaffolds had high potential for bone TE. Scaffolds play a crucial role for regeneration of large bone defects. Biomimetic scaffolds having the same composition of natural bone and a controlled release of osteoinductive factors are desirable for promotion of bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic CaP nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release nature of dexamethasone (DEX) were prepared and their porous structures were controlled by using ice particulates

  1. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocou Wang

    Full Text Available Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF. This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass.Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6, the control group (Group C, n = 6, and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6, and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected.The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  2. In vivo bleeding time and in vitro thrombelastography measurements are better indicators of dilutional hypothermic coagulopathy than prothrombin time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Deguzman, Rodolfo; Holcomb, John B

    2007-06-01

    The coagulopathy of trauma is generally confirmed by prothrombin time (PT) > or =16 seconds or an international normalized ratio > or =1.5. However, the utility of these values as a screening test is unknown. We examined different coagulation tests to determine the best predictor of coagulopathic bleeding and mortality in a small animal hemorrhage model. Coagulopathy was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by warfarin (W; 2 mg/kg for 2 days; n = 7), or hemodilution and hypothermia (HH; 50% blood exchange with Hextend, 34.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C; n = 7). Normal (N) rabbits without pretreatment served as the control (n = 7). Blood samples collected after coagulopathy induction and analyzed by prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG) tests. Liver bleeding time (BT) was also measured before injury. An uncontrolled hemorrhage was created by a longitudinal splenic incision and the abdomen was closed. Rabbits were resuscitated with Hextend solution (25 mL/kg) to return blood pressure to baseline and monitored for 2 hours or until death at which time blood loss was measured. Warfarin-induced coagulopathy increased BT, PT, and aPTT. TEG showed increased reaction (R) and clot formation (K) times and marked decrease in clotting rate (alpha angle and Vmax). Hemodilution hypothermia coagulopathy increased only BT and aPTT, and decreased the clotting rate (alpha angle and Vmax) and strength of the clot. After injury, blood losses were higher in coagulopathic rabbits (W = 54.6 +/- 4.2 and HH = 51.1 +/- 8.9 mL/kg) than in normal rabbits (30.6 +/- 12.4 mL/kg) and resulted in 86%, 100%, and 0% death, respectively. BT and Vmax consistently predicted coagulopathic bleeding and death in all animals. Although satisfactory in warfarin-induced coagulopathy, PT was not a valid screening test for dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. BT and TEG measurements of blood clotting rate are better indicators of coagulopathic bleeding

  3. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous two bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6JxFVB/NJ and FVB/NJxC57BL/6J F1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16–18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and –naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism. PMID:23313769

  4. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  5. * Fabrication and Characterization of Biphasic Silk Fibroin Scaffolds for Tendon/Ligament-to-Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Tellado, Sònia; Bonani, Walter; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Foehr, Peter; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; van Griensven, Martijn

    2017-08-01

    Tissue engineering is an attractive strategy for tendon/ligament-to-bone interface repair. The structure and extracellular matrix composition of the interface are complex and allow for a gradual mechanical stress transfer between tendons/ligaments and bone. Thus, scaffolds mimicking the structural features of the native interface may be able to better support functional tissue regeneration. In this study, we fabricated biphasic silk fibroin scaffolds designed to mimic the gradient in collagen molecule alignment present at the interface. The scaffolds had two different pore alignments: anisotropic at the tendon/ligament side and isotropic at the bone side. Total porosity ranged from 50% to 80% and the majority of pores (80-90%) were ligament, enthesis, and cartilage markers significantly changed depending on pore alignment in each region of the scaffolds. In conclusion, the biphasic scaffolds fabricated in this study show promising features for tendon/ligament-to-bone tissue engineering.

  6. Anti-prelog reduction of prochiral carbonyl compounds by Oenococcus oeni in a biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Yan

    2006-07-01

    An aqueous-organic biphasic system was established and used with whole cells of Oenococcus oeni to reduce 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol. The conversion reached 99% when the Tris/borate buffer was increased from 50 mM to 300 mM in the aqueous phase. In addition, the conversion increased as the log P value of the organic solvent changed from 0.5 to 6.6. Under optimized conditions, the conversion of (R)-2-octanol reached 99% from 0.5 M 2-octanone with an optical purity of 99% e.e. The biphasic system allows the anti-Prelog reduction of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to furnish (R)-configurated alcohols in high optical purity as well.

  7. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Prosolov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.

  8. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50 and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal–bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal–bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D.

  9. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  10. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/β-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arahira, Takaaki; Maruta, Michito, E-mail: maruta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp; Matsuya, Shigeki

    2017-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate(β-TCP) is an excellent bone substitute with controllable bioresorbability. Fabrication of biphasic calcium phosphate with self-setting ability is expected to enhance its potential application as bone substitute. In this study, mixtures of α-TCP and β-TCP with various compositions were prepared through α-β phase transition of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C for various periods. These powders were mixed with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} at a P/L ratio of 2, and then hardened at 37 °C at 100% RH for up to 24 h. Material properties of biphasic HA/β-TCP cement with different α-TCP/β-TCP composition were characterized. These cements were also evaluated with respect to cell response in vitro using MC3T3-E1 cell lines. In conclusion, mechanical and biological properties of HA/β-TCP cement could be controlled by changing the heat treatment time of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C. In vitro results indicated that cell proliferation and ALP activity increased with increase β-TCP content. - Highlights: • We could fabricate biphasic HA/β-TCP cements using heat treated α-TCP powder. • It is easy to control the ratio of α-TCP to β-TCP changing the heat treatment time up to 48 h. • Both cell number and ALP activity increased with increase in β-TCP content. • In vitro results showed that β-TCP has superior cell affinity to HA.

  11. A phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve fiber: temporal and biphasic response properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eHorne

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a phenomenological model of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers (ANFs. The model reproduces the probabilistic and temporal properties of the ANF response to both monophasic and biphasic stimuli, in isolation. The main contribution of the model lies in its ability to reproduce statistics of the ANF response (mean latency, jitter, and firing probability under both monophasic and cathodic-anodic biphasic stimulation, without changing the model’s parameters. The response statistics of the model depend on stimulus level and duration of the stimulating pulse, reproducing trends observed in the ANF. In the case of biphasic stimulation, the model reproduces the effects of pseudomonophasic pulse shapes and also the dependence on the interphase gap (IPG of the stimulus pulse, an effect that is quantitatively reproduced. The model is fitted to ANF data using a procedure that uniquely determines each model parameter. It is thus possible to rapidly parameterize a large population of neurons to reproduce a given set of response statistic distributions.Our work extends the stochastic leaky integrate and fire (SLIF neuron, a well-studied phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated neuron. We extend the SLIF neuron so as to produce a realistic latency distribution by delaying the moment of spiking. During this delay, spiking may be abolished by anodic current. By this means, the probability of the model neuron responding to a stimulus is reduced when a trailing phase of opposite polarity is introduced. By introducing a minimum wait period that must elapse before a spike may be emitted, the model is able to reproduce the differences in the threshold level observed in the ANF for monophasic and biphasic stimuli. Thus, the ANF response to a large variety of pulse shapes are reproduced correctly by this model.

  12. A simulation study of the reaction of human heart to biphasic electrical shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemann Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article presents a study, which examines the effects of biphasic electrical shocks on human ventricular tissue. The effects of this type of shock are not yet fully understood. Animal experiments showed the superiority of biphasic shocks over monophasic ones in defibrillation. A mathematical computer simulation can increase the knowledge of human heart behavior. Methods The research presented in this article was done with different models representing a three-dimensional wedge of ventricular myocardium. The electrophysiology was described with Priebe-Beuckelmann model. The realistic fiber twist, which is specific to human myocardium was included. Planar electrodes were placed at the ends of the longest side of the virtual cardiac wedge, in a bath medium. They were sources of electrical shocks, which varied in magnitude from 0.1 to 5 V. In a second arrangement ring electrodes were placed directly on myocardium for getting a better view on secondary electrical sources. The electrical reaction of the tissue was generated with a bidomain model. Results The reaction of the tissue to the electrical shock was specific to the initial imposed characteristics. Depolarization appeared in the first 5 ms in different locations. A further study of the cardiac tissue behavior revealed, which features influence the response of the considered muscle. It was shown that the time needed by the tissue to be totally depolarized is much shorter when a biphasic shock is applied. Each simulation ended only after complete repolarization was achieved. This created the possibility of gathering information from all states corresponding to one cycle of the cardiac rhythm. Conclusions The differences between the reaction of the homogeneous tissue and a tissue, which contains cleavage planes, reveals important aspects of superiority of biphasic pulses. ...

  13. Work Stress and Alcohol Use: Developing and Testing a Biphasic Self-Medication Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and tested a moderated-mediation model of work stress and alcohol use, based on the biphasic (stimulant and sedative) effects of alcohol and the self-medication and stress-vulnerability models of alcohol use. The model proposes that exposure to work stressors can increase both negative affect and work fatigue, and that these two sources of strain can subsequently motivate the use of alcohol. However, the relations of negative affect and work fatigue to a...

  14. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Koval; A. Ye. Kulagin

    2006-01-01

    Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP) is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency) is calculated ...

  15. A case of mumps-related acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Kyoko; Shiihara, Takashi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Dowa, Yuri; Watanabe, Mio

    2017-10-01

    Mumps is a common childhood viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid gland. The prognosis is generally good, although some complications, such as encephalitis (0.1%), exist. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion is the most common type of acute encephalopathy. However, this type of encephalopathy has not been reported in association with mumps infection. A previously healthy 3-year-old Japanese boy had a brief convulsion after fever for 3days, and then had conscious disturbance and parotitis. After several days, he had a second brief convulsion and was admitted. Increased serum amylase levels and presence of anti-mumps immunoglobulin M antibody confirmed mumps parotitis. The patient had another brief seizure later the day of admission. He did not have status or cluster seizures, although the biphasic nature of his seizures, conscious disturbance between the seizures, no pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid, and brain magnetic resonance images were consistent with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. In Japan, the mumps vaccine is not administered as a part of routine immunizations. It thus has low coverage (30-40%), and as a result, mumps infections are still common. However, this is the first case of mumps-related acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. This case may be representative of only a minority of patients with mumps-associated central nervous system involvement. Nevertheless, this diagnostic possibility may be considered. In order to prevent mumps-related complications, routine mumps vaccination might be warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of the transport properties of metals in the biphase region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    Results of experiments on electrical wire explosion are presented and processes of stratum formation and decay are analyzed in this paper. A procedure of calculating the transport coefficients from the rate of stratum damping is described. It is demonstrated that values of the transport coefficients for metals are not an unambiguous function of the material state in the biphase region for characteristic times of ∼10 -7 s but depend on the process prehistory.

  17. CO2 Absorption by Biphasic Solvents: Comparison with Lower Phase Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhicheng; Wang, Shujuan; Qi, Guojie; Liu, Jinzhao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Changhe

    2014-01-01

    The mixtures of 2 M 1,4-butanediamine (BDA) and 4 M 2-(diethylamino)-ethanol (DEEA) have been found to be promising biphasic solvents. This work identifies the composition of the lower phase using a DX-120 Ion Chromatograph (IC) and a Metrohm 809 Titrando auto titrator. The cyclic capacities, cyclic loadings and reaction products of the biphasic solvent are compared with those of the aqueous solution with the same amine concentration as the lower phase of the biphasic solvent at the rich loading ((2B4D) L ) using a fast screening facility and a JNM ECA-600 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometer (NMR). Their absorption rates at different loadings are also investigated using a Wetted Wall Column (WWC). The results show that the cyclic capacity and cyclic loading of (2B4D) L are almost the same as those of 2B4D. The absorption rate of (2B4D) L is higher than 2B4D at all the 3 tested loadings, except for the fresh solutions at CO 2 pressure lower than 10 kPa. NMR results show that the reaction products of (2B4D) L had more BDA bi-carbamate, less BDA and less BDA carbamate than 2B4D. The CO 2 reaction products of (2B4D) L had twice as much carbonate/bicarbonate as with 2B4D and less BDA carbamate. (authors)

  18. Paired Associative Stimulation Targeting the Tibialis Anterior Muscle using either Mono or Biphasic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Paired associative stimulation (PAS protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulse form and, to determine whether a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1 suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11; (2 suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11 where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic pulse form at 120% resting motor threshold (RMT; (3 subthreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 10 where PAS was applied as for (1 at 95% active motor threshold (AMT. The peak-to-peak motor evoked potentials (MEPs were quantified prior to, immediately following, and 30 min after the cessation of the intervention. TA MEP size increased significantly for all interventions immediately post (61% for suprathreshold PAbi-PAS, 83% for suprathreshold PAmono-PAS, 55% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS and 30 min after the cessation of the intervention (123% for suprathreshold PAbi-PAS, 105% for suprathreshold PAmono-PAS, 80% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS. PAS using a biphasic pulse form at subthreshold intensities induces similar effects to conventional PAS.

  19. Predictive feedback can account for biphasic responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke F M Jehee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic neural response properties, where the optimal stimulus for driving a neural response changes from one stimulus pattern to the opposite stimulus pattern over short periods of time, have been described in several visual areas, including lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, primary visual cortex (V1, and middle temporal area (MT. We describe a hierarchical model of predictive coding and simulations that capture these temporal variations in neuronal response properties. We focus on the LGN-V1 circuit and find that after training on natural images the model exhibits the brain's LGN-V1 connectivity structure, in which the structure of V1 receptive fields is linked to the spatial alignment and properties of center-surround cells in the LGN. In addition, the spatio-temporal response profile of LGN model neurons is biphasic in structure, resembling the biphasic response structure of neurons in cat LGN. Moreover, the model displays a specific pattern of influence of feedback, where LGN receptive fields that are aligned over a simple cell receptive field zone of the same polarity decrease their responses while neurons of opposite polarity increase their responses with feedback. This phase-reversed pattern of influence was recently observed in neurophysiology. These results corroborate the idea that predictive feedback is a general coding strategy in the brain.

  20. Low-High and High-Low Biphasic Injection Forms in Computed Tomography Examinations of the Upper Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Arana, E.; Tobarra, E.; Sierra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the influence of different biphasic and monophasic injection rate protocols in abdominal computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: A randomized, consecutive, parallel group study was designed and conducted in 60 patients studied with the same CT helical protocol. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: (A) monophasic (120 ml at 2.5 ml/s); (B) low-high biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2.5 ml/s); and (C) high-low biphasic (120 ml, first 60 ml at a rate of 2.5 ml/s, the other 60 ml at 2 ml/s). All patients were injected with 300 mg I/ml non-ionic contrast media at a fixed delay time of 55 s. Contrast enhancement efficacy was evaluated by attenuation coefficient measurements. Results: Although non-significant, monophasic protocol enhancements were higher than biphasic protocol enhancements in all measurements except aortic bifurcation (p = 0.003). At this level, biphasic protocols obtained an increased mean enhancement from 7.6% to 2.5% compared to monophasic protocols. Conclusion: Monophasic contrast agent injection in helical CT of the upper abdomen produces a higher enhancement of parenchymal and venous structures. No significant difference was observed between low-high and high-low biphasic protocols

  1. Phenobarbital Augments Hypothermic Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, pphenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339

  2. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  3. Biphasic papillary renal cell carcinoma is a rare morphological variant with frequent multifocality: a study of 28 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Kiril; Athanazio, Daniel; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Yilmaz, Helene; Clouston, David; Agaimy, Abbas; Williamson, Sean R; Brimo, Fadi; Lopez, Jose I; Ulamec, Monika; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Kassem, Maysoun; Gupta, Nilesh; Hartmann, Arndt; Leroy, Xavier; Bashir, Samir Al; Yilmaz, Asli; Hes, Ondřej

    2018-04-01

    To further characterise biphasic squamoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a recently proposed variant of papillary RCC. We identified 28 tumours from multiple institutions. They typically showed two cell populations-larger cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and higher-grade nuclei, surrounded by smaller, amphophilic cells with scanty cytoplasm. The dual morphology was variable (median 72.5% of tumour, range 5-100%); emperipolesis was found in all cases. The male/female ratio was 2:1, and the median age was 55 years (range 39-86 years). The median tumour size was 20 mm (range 9-65 mm). Pathological stage pT1a was found in 21 cases, pT1b in three, and pT3a and pT3b in one each (two not available). Multifocality was found in 32%: multifocal biphasic RCC in one case, biphasic + papillary RCC in two cases, biphasic + clear cell RCC in three cases, biphasic + low-grade urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis in one case, and biphasic + Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in one case. Positive immunostains included: PAX8, cytokeratin (CK) 7, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase, epithelial membrane antigen, and vimentin. Cyclin D1 was expressed only in the larger cells. The Ki67 index was higher in the larger cells (median 5% versus ≤1%). Negative stains included: carbonic anhydrase 9, CD117, GATA-3, WT1, CK5/6, and CK20; CD10 and 34βE12 were variably expressed. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in two evaluated cases. Follow-up was available for 23 patients (median 24 months, range 1-244 months): 19 were alive without disease, one was alive with recurrence, and one had died of disease (two had died of other causes). Biphasic papillary RCC is a rare variant of papillary RCC, and is often multifocal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Switching from biphasic human insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes: results from the ASEAN subgroup of the A₁chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zanariah; Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne; Jain, Anand B; Goh, Su Yen; Soewondo, Pradana

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study. Indonesian, Malaysian, Filipino and Singaporean patients switched from BHI to BIAsp 30 at their physicians' discretion were included. The incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemia was the primary endpoint. Changes in hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), lipids, body weight and systolic blood pressure were also evaluated. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. For the 465 patients included (mean ± SD age: 56 ± 10.3 years, diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 7.1 years, baseline HbA1c: 9.4 ± 1.8%), the mean pre-study BHI dose was 0.62 ± 0.28 IU/kg and 63.4% were dosing BHI twice daily (bid). The mean baseline BIAsp 30 dose was 0.65 ± 0.27 U/kg, titrated up to 0.71 ± 0.28 U/kg over 24 weeks, and most patients continued bid dosing. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic episodes were reported. The proportion of patients reporting overall hypoglycaemia decreased significantly from 10.8% at baseline to 3.4% at Week 24 (p ASEAN subgroup poorly controlled on BHI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning new meanings for known words: Biphasic effects of prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In acquiring word meanings, learners are often confronted by a single word form that is mapped to two or more meanings. For example, long after how to roller-“skate”, one may learn that “skate” is also a kind of fish. Such learning of new meanings for familiar words involves two potentially contrasting processes, relative to new form-new meaning learning: 1) Form-based familiarity may facilitate learning a new meaning, and 2) meaning-based interference may inhibit learning a new meaning. We examined these two processes by having native English speakers learn new, unrelated meanings for familiar (high frequency) and less familiar (low frequency) English words, as well as for unfamiliar (novel or pseudo-) words. Tracking learning with cued-recall tasks at several points during learning revealed a biphasic pattern: higher learning rates and greater learning efficiency for familiar words relative to novel words early in learning and a reversal of this pattern later in learning. Following learning, interference from original meanings for familiar words was detected in a semantic relatedness judgment task. Additionally, lexical access to familiar words with new meanings became faster compared to their exposure controls, but no such effect occurred for less familiar words. Overall, the results suggest a biphasic pattern of facilitating and interfering processes: Familiar word forms facilitate learning earlier, while interference from original meanings becomes more influential later. This biphasic pattern reflects the co-activation of new and old meanings during learning, a process that may play a role in lexicalization of new meanings. PMID:29399593

  6. Application of aqueous biphasic systems as strategy to purify tannase from Aspergillus tamarii URM 7115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Amanda Reges; Barros Oliveira, Flávio Manoel; Campos Leite, Tonny Cley; Evaristo da Silva Nascimento, Talita Camila; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida

    2017-10-21

    The aims of the current study are to assess the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, molar mass, pH, and citrate concentrations on aqueous biphasic systems based on 2 4 factorial designs, as well as to check their capacity to purify tannase secreted by Aspergillus tamarii URM 7115. Tannase was produced through submerged fermentation at 26°C for 67 h in Czapeck-Dox modified broth and added with yeast extract and tannic acid. The factorial design was followed to assess the influence of PEG molar mass (M PEG 600; 4,000 and 8,000 g/ mol), and PEG (C PEG 20.0; 22.0 and 24.0% w/w) and citrate concentrations (C CIT 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0%, w/w), as well as of pH (6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) on the response variables; moreover, partition coefficient (K), yield (Y), and purification factor (PF) were analyzed. The most suitable parameters to purify tannase secreted by A. tamarii URM 7115 through a biphasic system were 600 (g/mol) M PEG , 24% (w/w) C PEG , 15% (w/w) C CIT at pH 6.0 and they resulted in 6.33 enzyme partition, 131.25% yield, 19.80 purification factor and 195.08 selectivity. Tannase secreted by A. tamarii URM 7115 purified through aqueous biphasic systems composed of PEG/citrate can be used for industrial purposes, since it presents suitable purification factor and yield.

  7. Fabrication and tritium release property of Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao; Ran, Guangming; Wang, Hailiang; Dang, Chen; Huang, Zhangyi; Chen, Xiaojun; Lu, Tiecheng; Xiao, Chengjian

    2018-05-01

    Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles have been developed as an advanced tritium breeder due to the potential to combine the advantages of both Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4. Wet method was developed for the pebble fabrication and Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were successfully prepared by wet method using the powders synthesized by hydrothermal method. The tritium release properties of the Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were evaluated. The biphasic pebbles exhibited good tritium release property at low temperatures and the tritium release temperature was around 470 °C. Because of the isotope exchange reaction between H2 and tritium, the addition of 0.1%H2 to purge gas He could significantly enhance the tritium gas release and the fraction of molecular form of tritium increased from 28% to 55%. The results indicate that the Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles fabricated by wet method exhibit good tritium release property and hold promising potential as advanced breeder pebbles.

  8. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Stockmann, T. Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) borate anion (TB) was employed within a water| P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. Cs-137 is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is th...

  9. New biphasic monocomponent composite material obtained by the partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Joyce Rover; Silva, Ingrid S.V. da; Pasquini, Daniel; Santos, Daniele B. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose (CB), as well as the characterization of pure CB, oxypropylated CB (CBO) and oxypropylated CB after Soxhlet extraction with hexane (CBOE). The oxypropylation reaction was carried out by propylene oxide polymerization, catalyzed by KOH, in the presence of CB The CB samples, before and after modification, were subjected to analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was possible verify that the partial transformation of bacterial cellulose by inserting a layer of thermoplastic polymer on its surface occurred efficiently, obtaining a biphasic monocomponent composite material. (author)

  10. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90 produced the highest amount of conidia and the largest necrotic area on the two tested weeds when compared to its wild strain in the different biphasic media combinations. The study revealed that the biphasic system containing PDB + rice produced the highest bioherbicidal activities. Therefore, the phytotoxic metabolites from strain C1136 are suggested for large scale production of bioherbicides for the management of weeds in conventional farming to improve yield and enhance food security.

  11. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  12. Modeling and predictions of biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration altered by cell-intrinsic properties and matrix confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Amit

    2018-04-12

    Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement. On 2D matrices, our calculations reproduce the classic biphasic dependence of migration speed on matrix stiffness and predict that cell types with higher force-generating ability do not slow down on very stiff matrices, thus disabling the biphasic response. We also predict that cell types defined by lower number of total receptors require stiffer matrices for optimal motility, which also limits the biphasic response. For a cell type with robust biphasic migration on 2D surface, simulations in channel-like confined environments of varying width and height predict faster migration in more confined matrices. Simulations performed in shallower channels predict that the biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration response is more robust on 2D micro-patterns as compared to the channel-like 3D confinement. Thus, variations in the dimensionality of matrix confinement alters the way migratory cells sense and respond to the matrix stiffness. Our calculations reveal new phenotypes of stiffness- and topography-sensitive cell migration that critically depend on both cell-intrinsic and matrix properties. These predictions may inform our understanding of various mechanosensitive modes of cell motility that could enable tumor invasion through topographically heterogeneous microenvironments. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al 2 O 3 catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  15. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided

  16. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  17. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfoori, A., E-mail: klm.1985@yahoo.com [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Cell Bank, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliofkhazraei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained.

  18. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  19. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A.; Aliofkhazraei, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained

  20. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Is there an Optimal Shape of the Defibrillation Shock: Constant Current vs. Pulsed Biphasic Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation are assessed and compared: the Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW, the Rectilinear Biphasic Waveform (RBW, and the "lossless" constant current (LLCC pulses. Two indices are introduced: 1 kf = W/W0 - the ratio between the delivered energy W and the energy W0 of a rectangular pulse with the same duration and electric charge; 2 ηC = W/WC0 - the level of utilizing the initially loaded capacitor energy WC0. The envisioned comparative study shows that ηC index is favorable for both PBW and LLCC, while kf of both RBW and LLCC demonstrates advantage over the PBW in the range of small inter-electrode thoracic impedances below 80 Ω. Some design considerations are also discussed. The attractive LLCC concept needs large and heavy inductive coil to support the constant current amplitude, besides it is capable to induce strong electromagnetic influences due to the complex current control. The RBW technology controls the delivery of current through a series of internal resistors which are, however, a source of high heat losses. The PBW implements controlled duty cycle of high-frequency chopped pulses to adapt the energy delivery in respect of the patient impedance measured at the beginning of the shock. PBW technology makes use of small capacitors which allows the construction of light weight and small-size portable devices for transthoracic defibrillation.

  2. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  3. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun, E-mail: 1044208419@qq.com; Mao, Hui, E-mail: rejoice222@163.com [Sichuan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2016-10-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  4. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: Kh_rezk966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mousa, Sahar M. [Chemistry Department, Science and Art College, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box 344, 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O. Box 12622, 11787 Cairo (Egypt); El Bassyouni, Gehan T. [Biomaterials Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Medical Physics Department, College of Medicine, Taif University (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: • Ratio of HA and β-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. • HA partially decomposed into β-TCP with other bioactive phases. • Calcined HA at 900 °C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into β-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  5. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris S. Argyropoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-Halomethylfurfurals can be considered as platform chemicals of high reactivity making them useful for the preparation of a variety of important compounds. In this study, a one-pot route for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF in a simple and efficient (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 biphasic system has been investigated. Monosaccharides such as D-fructose, D-glucose and sorbose, disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose and polysaccharides such as cellulose were successfully converted into CMF in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. Our data shows that when using D-fructose the optimum yield of CMF was about 47%. This understanding allowed us to extent our work to biomaterials, such as wood powder and wood pulps with yields of CMF obtained being comparable to those seen with some of the enumerated mono and disaccharides. Overall, the proposed (HCl-H3PO4/CHCl3 optimized biphasic system provides a simple, mild, and cost-effective means to prepare CMF from renewable resources.

  6. Injectable TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose/biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Engie; Hassan, Mohammad L; Saniour, Sayed; Zaki, Dalia Yehia; Eldeftar, Mervat; Saba, Dalia; Zazou, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibrillated cellulose, obtained from rice straw agricultural wastes was used as a substrate for the preparation of a new injectable and mineralized hydrogel for bone regeneration. Tetramethyl pyridine oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose, was mineralized through the incorporation of a prepared and characterized biphasic calcium phosphate at a fixed ratio of 50 wt%. The TEMPO-oxidized rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and carboxylic content determination. The injectability and viscosity of the prepared hydrogel were evaluated using universal testing machine and rheometer testing, respectively. Cytotoxicity and alkaline phosphatase level tests on osteoblast like-cells for in vitro assessment of the biocompatibility were investigated. Results revealed that the isolated rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose is a nanocomposite of the cellulose nanofibers and silica nanoparticles. Rheological properties of the tested materials are suitable for use as injectable material and of nontoxic effect on osteoblast-like cells, as revealed by the positive alkaline phosphate assay. However, nanofibrillated cellulose/ biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel showed higher cytotoxicity and lower bioactivity test results when compared to that of nanofibrillated cellulose.

  7. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citro Gennaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT, treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy. Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 μs each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations.

  8. Online Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using Wavelet-Based Bi-Phase Correlation of Electrical Signals Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasoul; Shayegh, Farzaneh; Ghassemi, Fahimeh

    2015-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in order to predict seizures. Among these methods, the ones that quantify synchronization between brain areas, are the most important methods. However, to date, a practically acceptable result has not been reported. In this paper, we use a synchronization measurement method that is derived according to the ability of bi-spectrum in determining the nonlinear properties of a system. In this method, first, temporal variation of the bi-spectrum of different channels of electro cardiography (ECoG) signals are obtained via an extended wavelet-based time-frequency analysis method; then, to compare different channels, the bi-phase correlation measure is introduced. Since, in this way, the temporal variation of the amount of nonlinear coupling between brain regions, which have not been considered yet, are taken into account, results are more reliable than the conventional phase-synchronization measures. It is shown that, for 21 patients of FSPEEG database, bi-phase correlation can discriminate the pre-ictal and ictal states, with very low false positive rates (FPRs) (average: 0.078/h) and high sensitivity (100%). However, the proposed seizure predictor still cannot significantly overcome the random predictor for all patients.

  9. Isoattenuating insulinomas at biphasic contrast-enhanced CT: frequency, clinicopathologic features and perfusion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang; Xue, Hua-dan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; He, Yong-lan; Jin, Zheng-yu [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Yu-pei [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We aimed to determine the frequency of isoattenuating insulinomas, to investigate their clinicopathological features and to assess their regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient informed consent was waived. From July 2010 to June 2014, 170 patients (66 male, 104 female) with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT before surgery, and 129 of those patients also received preoperative whole-pancreas CT perfusion. A total of 181 tumours were proved histopathologically after surgery. Enhancement pattern and regional pancreatic perfusion characteristics were analyzed. Clinical features, tumour size and pathological grading were investigated. The frequency of isoattenuating tumours was 24.9 %. Tumour size and WHO grading was not significantly different between isoattenuating and hyperattenuating tumours. Tumour-free regions had identical blood flow (BF) regardless of their location (p = 0.35). Isoattenuating tumour-harbouring regions had lower BF compared with hyperattenuating tumour-harbouring regions; both showed higher BF compared with tumour-free neighbourhood regions (all p < 0.01). For patients with isoattenuating tumours, the overall hospital stay was longer (p < 0.01). A substantial subset of insulinomas were isoattenuating on biphasic CT. CT perfusion showed higher BF in tumour-harbouring regions compared to tumour-free regions, providing a clue for tumour regionalization. (orig.)

  10. Biphasic effect of citral, a flavoring and scenting agent, on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheqiong; Xi, Jinlei; Li, Jihong; Qu, Wen

    2009-10-01

    Although some central effects of citral have been reported, cognitive effects on spatial memory have not been investigated. The evidence showed that citral can regulate the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), which exerts a vital function in the development and maintenance of spatial memory. In this study, we applied Morris water maze to test the effect of citral on animals' spatial learning and memory. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect, we also measured the retinoic acid concentration in rats' hippocampus by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data implied biphasic effects of citral. The low dose (0.1 mg/kg) of citral improved the spatial learning capability, and enhanced the spatial reference memory of rats, whereas the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) was like to produce the opposite effects. Meanwhile, the low dose of citral increased the hippocampal retinoic acid concentration, while the high dose decreased it. Due to the quick elimination and non-bioaccumulation in the body, effects of citral on spatial memory in this study seemed to be indirect actions. The change in hippocampal retinoic acid concentration induced by different doses of citral might be responsible for the biphasic effect of citral on spatial learning and memory.

  11. A prospective, randomised and blinded comparison of first shock success of monophasic and biphasic waveforms in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alem, Anouk P.; Chapman, Fred W.; Lank, Paula; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that biphasic waveforms are more effective than monophasic waveforms for defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet their performance has only been compared in un-blinded studies. Methods and results: We compared the success of biphasic truncated

  12. Isolation and in vitro culture of trypanosomes from Leptodactylus ocellatus from the Atlantic Forest in a new experimental culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M; Souza, C S F; da Costa, S C Gonçalves; Souto-Padrón, T; D'Agosto, M

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the in vitro development of Trypanosoma sp. isolated from Leptodactylus ocellatus frogs under a new protocol using a biphasic medium composed of Novy, McNeal, and Nicolle (NNN) blood agar medium as a solid phase and liver infusion, brain heart infusion, and tryptose (LIBHIT) medium as a liquid phase. Blood forms, collected by cardiac puncture or after the maceration of different organs, were inoculated in culture tubes containing the biphasic medium composed by NNN and LIBHIT. Trypanosomes were observed 4 days postinoculation; most bloodstream trypomastigotes had differentiated into epimastigotes and amastigotes by this time. Trypomastigotes were again observed in older cultures (7 days). Parasites were successfully subcultured for 8 mo in this medium and successfully cryopreserved. The present study provides a new protocol medium for the isolation and culture of anuran trypanosomes.

  13. Comparison of low-energy versus high-energy biphasic defibrillation shocks following prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P; Melnick, Sharon B; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    Since the initial development of the defibrillator, there has been concern that, while delivery of a large electric shock would stop fibrillation, it would also cause damage to the heart. This concern has been raised again with the development of the biphasic defibrillator. To compare defibrillation efficacy, postshock cardiac function, and troponin I levels following 150-J and 360-J shocks. Nineteen swine were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented with pressure catheters in the left ventricle, aorta, and right atrium. The animals were fibrillated for 6 minutes, followed by defibrillation with either low-energy (n = 8) or high-energy (n = 11) shocks. After defibrillation, chest compressions were initiated and continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Epinephrine, 0.01 mg/kg every 3 minutes, was given for arterial blood pressure < 50 mmHg. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded for four hours. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed and troponin I levels were measured at baseline and four hours following ventricular fibrillation (VF). Survival rates at four hours were not different between the two groups (low-energy, 5 of 8; high-energy, 7 of 11). Results for arterial blood pressure, positive dP/dt (first derivative of pressure measured over time, a measure of left ventricular contractility), and negative dP/dt at the time of lowest arterial blood pressure (ABP) following ROSC were not different between the two groups (p = not significant [NS]), but were lower than at baseline. All hemodynamic measures returned to baseline by four hours. Ejection fractions, stroke volumes, and cardiac outputs were not different between the two groups at four hours. Troponin I levels at four hours were not different between the two groups (12 +/- 11 ng/mL versus 21 +/- 26 ng/mL, p = NS) but were higher at four hours than at baseline (19 +/- 19 ng/mL versus 0.8 +/- 0.5 ng/mL, p < 0.05, groups combined). Biphasic 360-J shocks do not cause more cardiac damage

  14. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou, E-mail: elkammounirhimou@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lezama, Luis [Depto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kraus, Ludek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The microwave absorption phenomena of single and biphase magnetic microwires with soft magnetic behavior have been investigated as a function of DC applied magnetic field using two alternative techniques: (i) absorption measurements in the temperature range of 4–300 K using a spectrometer operating at X-band frequency, at 9.5 GHz, and (ii) room-temperature, RT, ferromagnetic resonance measurements in a network analyzer in the frequency range up to 20 GHz. Complementary low-frequency magnetic characterization was performed in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Studies have been performed for 8 μm diameter small-magnetostriction amorphous CoFeSiB single-phase microwire, coated by micrometric Pyrex layer, and after electroplating an external shell, 2 µm or 4 µm thick, of FeNi alloys. For single phase CoFeSiB microwire, a single absorption is observed, whose DC field dependence of resonance frequency at RT fits to a Kittel-law behavior for in-plane magnetized thin film. The temperature dependence behavior shows a monotonic increase in the resonance field, H{sub r}, with temperature. A parallel reduction of the circular anisotropy field, H{sub K}, is deduced from the temperature dependence of hysteresis loops. For biphase, CoFeSiB/FeNi, microwires, the absorption phenomena at RT also follow the Kittel condition. The observed opposite evolution with temperature of resonance field, H{sub r}, in 2 and 4 µm thick FeNi samples is interpreted considering the opposite sign of magnetostriction of the respective FeNi layers. The stress-induced magnetic anisotropy field, H{sub K}, in the FeNi shell is deduced to change sign at around 130 K. - Highlights: • A single absorption phenomenon is observed for single phase CoFeSiB. • The T dependence of the microwave behavior shows a monotonic increase of H{sub r} with T. • The absorption at RT follows the Kittel condition for biphase CoFe/FeNi microwires. • The T dependence of resonant field of CoFe/FeNi is interpreted to be

  15. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  16. Selective formation of biphasic thin films of metal–organic frameworks by potential-controlled cathodic electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minyuan Miller; Dinca, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Cathodic electrodeposition lends itself to the formation of biphasic metal–organic framework thin films at room temperature from single deposition baths using potential bias as the main user input. Depending on the applied potential, we selectively deposit two different phases as either bulk mixtures or bilayer films.

  17. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEMS FOR THE SEPARATIONS OF LIGNINS FROM CELLULOSE IN THE PAPER PULPING PROCESS. (R826732)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In efforts to apply a polymer-based aqueous biphasic system (ABS) extraction to the paper pulping process, the study of the distribution of various lignin and cellulosic fractions in ABS and the effects of temperature on system composition and solute partitioning have been inv...

  19. Chiral separation of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography with biphasic recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    This work concentrates on a novel chiral separation technology named biphasic recognition applied to resolution of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid enantiomers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic chiral recognition HSCCC was performed by adding lipophilic (−)-2-ethylhexyl tartrate in the organic stationary phase and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the aqueous mobile phase, which preferentially recognized the (−)-enantiomer and (+)-enantiomer, respectively. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether-water (9:1:10, v/v/v) with the above chiral selectors was selected according to the partition coefficient and separation factor of the target enantiomers. Various parameters involved in the chiral separation were investigated, namely the types of the chiral selector (CS); the concentration of each chiral selector; pH of the mobile phase; and the separation temperature. The mechanism involved in this biphasic recognition chiral separation by HSCCC was discussed. Langmuirian isotherm was employed to estimate the loading limits for each chiral selector. The overall experimental results show that the HSCCC separation of enantiomer based on biphasic recognition is much more efficient than the traditional monophasic recognition chiral separation, since it utilizes the cooperation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic chiral selectors. PMID:20303497

  20. Efficient asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide catalyzed by Mung bean epoxide hydrolases in ionic liquid-based biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Lou, Wen-Yong; Zong, Min-Hua

    2012-07-01

    The asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol using Mung bean epoxide hydrolases was, for the first time, successfully conducted in an ionic liquid (IL)-containing biphasic system. Compared to aqueous monophasic system, IL-based biphasic systems could not only dissolve the substrate, but also effectively inhibit the non-enzymatic hydrolysis, and therefore markedly improve the reaction efficiency. Of all the tested ILs, the best results were observed in the biphasic system containing C(4)MIM·PF(6), which exhibited good biocompatibility with the enzyme and was an excellent solvent for the substrate. In the C(4)MIM·PF(6)/buffer biphasic system, it was found that the optimal volume ratio of IL to buffer, reaction temperature, buffer pH and substrate concentration were 1/6, 35°C, 6.5 and 100 mM, respectively, under which the initial reaction rate, the yield and the product e.e. were 18.4 mM/h, 49.4% and 97.0%. The biocatalytic process was shown to be feasible on a 500-mL preparative scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrepancy between growth of Coccidioides immitis in bacterial blood culture media and a radiometric growth index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampel, N.M.; Wieden, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Spherules of Coccidioides immitis grew readily after inoculation in vented trypticase soy broth, biphasic brain heart infusion media, and aerobic tryptic soy broth bottles used in a radiometric system (BACTEC). However, visible growth was not accompanied by a significant radiometric growth index. Growth of C. immitis can be visually detected in routine bacterial blood culture media while the radiometric growth index remains negative

  2. A Simplified Whole-Organ CT Perfusion Technique with Biphasic Acquisition: Preliminary Investigation of Accuracy and Protocol Feasibility in Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XiaoDong; Zhang, Jing; Quan, ChangBin; Tian, Yuan; Li, Hong; Ao, GuoKun

    2016-04-01

    To determine the feasibility and accuracy of a protocol for calculating whole-organ renal perfusion (renal blood flow [RBF]) and regional perfusion on the basis of biphasic computed tomography (CT), with concurrent dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) CT perfusion serving as the reference standard. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Biphasic CT of the kidneys, including precontrast and arterial phase imaging, was integrated with a first-pass dynamic volume CT protocol and performed and analyzed in 23 patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. The perfusion value derived from biphasic CT was calculated as CT number enhancement divided by the area under the arterial input function and compared with the DCE CT perfusion data by using the paired t test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation analysis was made between the RBF and the extent of renal artery stenosis. All postprocessing was independently performed by two observers and then averaged as the final result. Mean ± standard deviation biphasic and DCE CT perfusion data for RBF were 425.62 mL/min ± 124.74 and 419.81 mL/min ± 121.13, respectively (P = .53), and for regional perfusion they were 271.15 mL/min per 100 mL ± 82.21 and 266.33 mL/min per 100 mL ± 74.40, respectively (P = .31). Good correlation and agreement were shown between biphasic and DCE CT perfusion for RBF (r = 0.93; ±10% variation from mean perfusion data [P < .001]) and for regional perfusion (r = 0.90; ±13% variation from mean perfusion data [P < .001]). The extent of renal artery stenosis was negatively correlated with RBF with biphasic CT perfusion (r = -0.81, P = .012). Biphasic CT perfusion is clinically feasible and provides perfusion data comparable to DCE CT perfusion data at both global and regional levels in the kidney. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of nicorandil through inhibition of apoptosis by the PI3K/Akt1 pathway in a mouse model of deep hypothermic low flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Di; Fan, Changfeng; Zhang, Weiyan; Wen, Zhongyuan; Hu, Liang; Yang, Lei; Feng, Yu; Yin, Ke-Jie; Mo, Xuming

    2015-10-15

    Nicorandil exerts a protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the brain and kidney through anti-apoptotic mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which nicorandil protects against I/R injury induced by deep hypothermic low flow (DHLF) remains unclear. We used a cerebral I/R model induced by DHLF to determine the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanisms of nicorandil. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were used to detect changes in cell morphology and the number of apoptotic cells in hippocampus, respectively. The apoptotic regulators including Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, and p-Akt (the active, phosphorylated form of Akt) were examined by Western blot (WB). Histopathological findings showed that nicorandil significantly alleviated morphological damage in hippocampal and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei induced by DHLF. Nicorandil also increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, while increasing p-Akt level. Consistent with these results, nicorandil-mediated neuroprotection was reduced in the Akt1+/- mutant mice and inhibited by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These findings showed that nicorandil provides a neuroprotective role in DHLF-induced I/R injury by inhibiting apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical implications of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation versus beating-heart technique during cardiopulmonary bypass for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Jungho; Song, In-Kyung; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Chong-Sung; Kim, Woong-Han; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation and beating-heart techniques during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on postoperative outcomes after simple pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 47 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot at a single institution, who received pulmonary valve replacement under the ventricular fibrillation or beating-heart technique without cardioplegic cardiac arrest during CPB between January 2005 and April 2015. The patients were divided into fibrillation (n = 32) and beating-heart (n = 15) groups. On comparing these groups, the fibrillation group had a larger sinotubular junction (27.1 ± 4.6 vs 22.1 ± 2.4 mm), had a longer operation duration (396 ± 108 vs 345 ± 57 min), required more postoperative transfusions (2.1 ± 2.6 vs 5.0 ± 6.3 units) and had a higher vasoactive-inotropic score at intensive care unit admission (8.0 vs 10, all P tetralogy of Fallot. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. A method for calculating the gas volume proportions and inhalation temperature of inert gas mixtures allowing reaching normothermic or hypothermic target body temperature in the awake rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques H Abraini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The noble gases xenon (Xe and helium (He are known to possess neuroprotective properties. Xe is considered the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen (O2 in air, conditions that could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective properties of Xe by increasing the critical care patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, He has a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is unfortunately far less potent than Xe at providing neuroprotection. Therefore, combining Xe with He could allow obtaining, depending on the gas inhalation temperature and composition, gas mixtures with neutral or hypothermic properties, the latter being advantageous in term of neuroprotection. However, calculating the thermal properties of a mixture, whatever the substances – gases, metals, rubbers, etc. – is not trivial. To answer this question, we provide a graphical method to assess the volume proportions of Xe, He and O2 that a gas mixture should contain, and the inhalation temperature to which it should be administered to allow a clinician to maintain the patient at a target body temperature.

  6. Response of brain oxygenation and metabolism to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in newborn piglets: comparison of pH-stat and alpha-stat strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Scott D; Mendoza-Paredes, Alberto; Liu, Huiping; Pastuszko, Peter; Schultz, Steven P; Schears, Gregory J; Greeley, William J; Wilson, David F; Pastuszko, Anna

    2007-07-01

    To determine the effect of pH-stat as compared with alpha-stat management on brain oxygenation, level of striatal extracellular dopamine, phosphorylation, and levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), and levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Bcl-2, and Bax in a piglet model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The piglets were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cooled with pH-stat or alpha-stat to 18 degrees C, subjected to 90 minutes of DHCA, rewarmed, weaned from CPB, and maintained for two hours recovery. The cortical oxygen was measured by: quenching of phosphorescence; dopamine by microdialysis; phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB), ERK (p-ERK) 1/2, Akt (p-Akt), and level of Bcl-2, Bax by Western blots. Oxygen pressure histograms for the microvasculature of the cortex show substantially higher oxygen levels during cooling and during the oxygen depletion period after cardiac arrest (up to 15 minutes) when using pH-stat compared with alpha-stat management. Significant increases in dopamine occurred at 45 minutes and 60 minutes of DHCA in the alpha-stat and pH-stat groups, respectively. The p-CREB and p-Akt in the pH-stat group were significantly higher than in the alpha-stat group (140 +/- 9%, p model, prolongs "safe" time of DHCA and provides some brain protection against ischemic injury.

  7. Open heart surgery with deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and more than 90 minutes of aortic cross clamp time in 10 small dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kippei Mihara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous reports have described cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB techniques involving long aortic cross clamp (ACC times in small-breed dogs. We previously described open heart surgery under deep hypothermic CPB in small and toy dogs with an approximate ACC time limit of 1 hour, given the low success rate beyond 90 minutes of ACC time. Herein, we describe improvements in cardiac anesthesia, CPB, and cardioplegia that led to a high success rate of open heart surgery with a long ACC time in small dogs. Ten small-breed dogs with severe mitral regurgitation were subjected to mitral valve plasty that necessitated cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB beyond 90 minutes of ACC time. In the present study, all dogs survived surgery; 7 survived to discharge. In other words, we achieved a high success rate of 70% with mitral valve plasty beyond 90 minutes of ACC time (mean, 105.1 minutes: range, 90-117 minutes. For small dogs, successful open heart surgery with a long ACC time may require cardiac balanced anesthesia, CPB with increased drainage and, importantly, thorough cardioplegia without hemodilution.

  8. A biphasic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones using a simplified packed-bed microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bogdan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the preparation and characterization of a simplified packed-bed microreactor using an immobilized TEMPO catalyst shown to oxidize primary and secondary alcohols via the biphasic Anelli-Montanari protocol. Oxidations occurred in high yields with great stability over time. We observed that plugs of aqueous oxidant and organic alcohol entered the reactor as plugs but merged into an emulsion on the packed-bed. The emulsion coalesced into larger plugs upon exiting the reactor, leaving the organic product separate from the aqueous by-products. Furthermore, the microreactor oxidized a wide range of alcohols and remained active in excess of 100 trials without showing any loss of catalytic activity.

  9. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous; Obtencao de ceramicas bifasicas densas e porosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S., E-mail: eliria@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Silva, K.L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Rezende, M.E. [Universidade Sao Francisco, Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Fraga, A.F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Marques, R.F.C. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  10. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-09

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  12. Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: a tumor with biphasic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, F.P.; Keren, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Spindle-cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor. It is characterized by a large bulky mass in the middle third of the esophagus with a lobulated surface and local expansion of the esophagus. This lesion may be pedunculated and cause relatively little obstruction despite its bulk. The current view, based on ultrastructure and immunohistochemical evidence, has confirmed that the sarcomatous component of the squamous cell carcinoma originates from mesenchymal metaplasia of squamous cells. On the basis of this evidence and clinical behavior, it seems appropriate to consider carcinosarcoma and pseudosarcoma as equivalents and as variants of squamous cell carcinoma. Four patients with spindle-cell squamous carcinoma, an unusual subset of squamous carcinoma, are described, and the salient radiographic and pathologic features of this disorder's distinctive biphasic morphology are discussed

  13. Characterization of liver metastases: the efficacy of biphasic magnetic resonance imaging with ferucarbotran-enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Byun, J.H.; Won, H.J.; Kim, K.W.; Lee, S.S.; Lee, M.G.; Yun, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of biphasic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver with ferucarbotran-enhancement for the characterization of hepatic metastases. Materials and methods: Thirty-six patients underwent MRI of the liver with separate acquisition of double-contrast enhancement consisting of gadolinium and ferucarbotran. A total of 106 focal hepatic lesions (51 metastases, 31 cysts, 23 haemangiomas, and one eosinophilic abscess) were included. Two sets of MRI were analysed: (1) ferucarbotran set: ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-weighted (T1W) dynamic imaging combined with ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*-weighted (T2*W) delayed imaging and (2) double set: gadolinium-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging combined with ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*W delayed imaging. The diagnostic accuracy of the two sets was evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were compared using the McNemar test. The enhancement pattern of focal hepatic lesions was analysed on gadolinium and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging. Results: There was no significant difference in the accuracy of characterizing hepatic metastases between the two sets. Sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between the sets (p > 0.05). Peripheral rim enhancement was exhibited in 57% of metastatic lesions on ferucarbotran-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging. The majority (96%) of hepatic haemangiomas demonstrated typical peripheral nodular enhancement with progression on ferucarbotran-enhanced T1W dynamic imaging and were easily differentiated from metastases. Conclusion: Biphasic MRI of the liver with ferucarbotran-enhancement alone provided comparable diagnostic efficacy to double-contrast MRI for the characterization of hepatic metastases.

  14. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  16. Use of Respiratory Support in the Biphase Ventilation Airway Mode in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Koval

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP (also known as DuoPAP, BiLevel, BiVent, PCV+, SPAP is a mode of ventilation with cycling variations between two continuous positive airway pressure levels. It is a mixture of pressure controlled ventilation and spontaneous breathing, which is unrestricted in each phase of the respiratory cycle. The volume displacement caused by the difference between Phigh and Plow airway pressure level. The phase time ratio (PTR — the BIPAP frequency is calculated as the ratio between the durations of the two pressure phases, a PTR greater than 1:1 is called APRV (airway pressure release ventilation. In patients with ARDS maintained spontaneous breathing with BIPAP resulted in lower venous admixture and better arterial blood oxygenation as compared with A/C. Only a few studies with BIPAP have been performed in newborn and infants until now. We studied the use of BIPAP in newborn (body mass > 3kg and randomised 40 patients with respiratory failure for ventilation with BIPAP (n=20 or conventional mechanical ventilatory support (assist-control A/C — synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV (n=20. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM were collected for each patient. Fentanyl, diazepam, GABA were used as sedatives and adjusted in accordance with the Cook scale. We compared ventilatory parameters, information pertaining to pulmonary function and oxygen delivery, cardiac output, additional descriptors of organ system functions, duration and complications of ventilation and number and dosages of sedatives administered. All the patients that we intended to ventilate with BIPAP were successfully ventilated, we can conclude that biphasic ventilatory support suitable mode of ventilation for newborn with a decreased need of analgetics and sedatives than A/C. Finally, BIPAP is an a effective safe, and easy to use for personal mode of mechanical ventilatory support in newborn. 

  17. Influence of microstructure on low cycle fatigue in some single phase and biphasic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarz, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Centre SMS, URA CNRS 1884, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This overview deals with the effects of microstructural parameters in different single phase and biphasic stainless steels on short crack behaviour and on fatigue life in the low cycle regime. The effect of the grain size is investigated in a single phase austenitic stainless steel. Under plastic strain control, the fatigue life increases when the grain size decreases. The results are discussed by analysing the distributions of crack depths as a function of the grain size. The second type of material is a metastable austenitic steel which partially transforms into martensite during LCF at temperatures between -50 C and +120 C. The grain size of the initially single phase austenitic microstructure has a combined influence on the volume fraction of martensite produced during fatigue and on the fatigue life. In this case, the grain size effect is still considerable but totally indirect because all fatigue cracks grow exclusively in the martensite. The cyclic behaviour analysis in biphasic alloys in which two phases undergo plastic deformation during LCF is considerably more complex because the conventional concept of microstructural barriers cannot be applied. The possible damage patterns in a pair of grains with different mechanical properties are discussed on the example of a solution treated and aged superduplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel (SDSS). The hardening of one phase (ferrite) through ageing at 475 C changes the cyclic behaviour of the initial ''quasi single phase'' microstructure. Consequently, the fatigue life under plastic strain control decreases compared with the solution treated SDSS. The discussion is focussed on LCF damage mechanisms at the microstructure size scale with a particular accent put on the propagation of short cracks in the bulk. All the microstructures exhibit some common features with respect to the behaviour of short cracks. In particular a strong effect of microstructural barriers in the bulk and the

  18. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.

  19. Seizure characteristics of epilepsy in childhood after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain

  20. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  1. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    Biphasic nanoparticle mixtures composed of attractive and repulsive colloidal species enable the direct-write assembly of 3D structures with much finer features than those produced by pure colloidal gels. These mixtures rely on the use of comb polymer dispersants to render one particle population stable, while the other population is attractive. In this thesis, we systematically investigate the effects of comb polymer architecture and particle size ratio on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks with the overarching aim of further advancing the direct-write assembly of 3D colloidal structures. We first investigated the effects of both pure polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and comb polymer dispersants composed of a PMAA backbone with methoxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (mPEO) teeth of varying molecular weights on the stability of barium titanate (BaTiO 3) suspensions. While each dispersant imparts stability to BaTiO 3 nanoparticles at low ionic strength (teeth (MWteeth = 2000) provides stability at higher ionic strengths over a broad range of particle sizes and counterion valencies. These results provide guidelines for tailoring the molecular architecture and functionality of comb polymer dispersants for optimal stabilization of the repulsive particle population within the biphasic inks. Next, particle size effects on the rheological properties of biphasic nanoparticle suspensions are studied. Shear elastic modulus, shear yield stress, and compressive yield stress are measured for mixtures of varying total volume fraction, attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction, and particle size ratio between attractive and repulsive species. Our observations indicate that the repulsive particles hinder the formation of the attractive gel network. The time required for shear elastic modulus to approach a steady-state value increases with the fraction of repulsive species. Furthermore, this behavior becomes more significant with increasing

  2. Hypothermic machine perfusion reduces delayed graft function and improves one-year graft survival of kidneys from expanded criteria donors: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanded criteria donors (ECDs are currently accepted as potential sources to increase the donor pool and to provide more chances of kidney transplantation for elderly recipients who would not survive long waiting periods. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP is designed to mitigate the deleterious effects of simple cold storage (CS on the quality of preserved organs, particularly when the donor is in a marginal status. METHODS: We compared the transplant outcomes in patients receiving ECD kidneys with either HMP or CS graft preservation. Articles from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched and all studies reporting outcomes from HMP versus CS methods of kidney preservation were included in this meta-analysis. The parameters analyzed included the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, primary non-function (PNF and one-year graft and patient survival. RESULTS: A total of seven studies qualified for the review, involving 2374 and 8716 kidney grafts with HMP or CS preservation respectively, all from ECD donors. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF was significantly reduced with an odd ratio(OR of 0.59 (95% CI 0.54-0.66, P<0.001 and one-year graft survival was significantly improved with an OR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.03-1.21, P = 0.005 in HMP preservation compared to CS. However, there was no difference in the incidence of PNF (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.21-1.40, P = 0.20, and one-year patient survival (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.02, P = 0.36 between HMP and CS preservation. CONCLUSIONS: HMP was associated with a reduced incidence of DGF and an with increased one-year graft survival, but it was not associated with the incidence of PNF and one-year patient survival.

  3. Antegrade versus retrograde cerebral perfusion for hemiarch replacement with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: does it matter? A propensity-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Asvin M; Hanna, Jennifer M; Schechter, Matthew A; Englum, Brian R; Castleberry, Anthony W; Gaca, Jeffrey G; Hughes, G Chad

    2014-12-01

    The choice of cerebral perfusion strategy for aortic arch surgery has been debated, and the superiority of antegrade (ACP) or retrograde (RCP) cerebral perfusion has not been shown. We examined the early and late outcomes for ACP versus RCP in proximal (hemi-) arch replacement using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for all patients undergoing elective and nonelective hemiarch replacement at a single referral institution from June 2005 to February 2013. Total arch cases were excluded to limit the analysis to shorter DHCA times and a more uniform patient population for whom clinical equipoise regarding ACP versus RCP exists. A total of 440 procedures were identified, with 360 (82%) using ACP and 80 (18%) using RCP. The endpoints included 30-day/in-hospital and late outcomes. A propensity score with 1:1 matching of 40 pre- and intraoperative variables was used to adjust for differences between the 2 groups. All 80 RCP patients were propensity matched to a cohort of 80 similar ACP patients. The pre- and intraoperative characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups after matching. No differences were found in 30-day/in-hospital mortality or morbidity outcomes. The only significant difference between the 2 groups was a shorter mean operative time in the RCP cohort (P = .01). No significant differences were noted in late survival (P = .90). In proximal arch operations using DHCA, equivalent early and late outcomes can be achieved with RCP and ACP, although the mean operative time is significantly less with RCP, likely owing to avoidance of axillary cannulation. Questions remain regarding comparative outcomes with straight DHCA and lesser degrees of hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The study of 1H-MRS on monkey of resuscitation after cerebral selection ultra-profound hypothermic blood flow occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Jun; Xu Wei; Fang Shaolong; Zhao Xinxiang; Feng Zhongtang; Jiang Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the appearance and feature of 1 H/protion magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) on resuscitation after cerebral selective ultra-profound hypothermic and blood flow occlusion. To study effects of cerebral biochemical metabolism after cerebral selective ultra-profound hypothermia and blood flow occlusion and to explore the validity and feasibility of it. Methods: Bilateral carotid arteries and jugular veins were clipped about 10 minutes before perfusion. Then selective cerebral circulation was established by perfusion of cooling lingers liquid through right internal carotid artery and flow out of left jugular vein with clip of other carotid arteries and jugular veins. Brain temperature reached (15.1 ± 0.9) degree C, while the body temperature maintained (32.50 ± 0.58) degree C. Cerebral blood recovered after 60 minutes of cerebral ischemia and monkey came back. The cerebral MAI and DWI as well as 1 H-MRS were examined 4, 24, 72 h, 21 days before and after cerebral selective ultro-profound hypothermia and blood flow occlusion. The peak of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr, PCr) of VOL were compare with those of control group in different time. Results: MRI T 1 WI, MRI T 2 WI and DWI is normal in different time in different region; there was not a significant difference in the ratio of NAA/(Cr+PCr), Cho/(Cr+PCr) in ROI in different time in the different region in the light of statistical analysis (P>0.05). Conclusion: The light of cerebral biochemical metabolism, selective ultra-profound hypothermia is safety and may provide effective protective effects and safety during cerebral ischemia. (authors)

  5. Selective cerebral perfusion prevents abnormalities in glutamate cycling and neuronal apoptosis in a model of infant deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2016-10-01

    Rationale: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is often required for the repair of complex congenital cardiac defects in infants. However, DHCA induces neuroapoptosis associated with later development of neurocognitive abnormalities. Selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) theoretically provides superior neural protection possibly through modifications in cerebral substrate oxidation and closely integrated glutamate cycling. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that SCP modulates glucose entry into the citric acid cycle, and ameliorates abnormalities in glutamate flux which occur in association neuroapoptosis during DHCA. Methods and Results: Eighteen male Yorkshire piglets (age 34-44 days) were assigned randomly to 2 groups of 7 (DHCA or DHCA with SCP for 60 minutes at 18 °C) and 4 control pigs without cardiopulmonary bypass support. After the completion of rewarming from DHCA, 13-Carbon-labeled (13C) glucose as a metabolic tracer was infused. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance for metabolic analysis in the frontal cortex. Following 2.5 hours of cerebral reperfusion, we observed similar cerebral ATP levels, absolute levels of lactate and citric acid cycle intermediates, and 13C-enrichment. However, DHCA induced significant abnormalities in glutamate cycling resulting in reduced glutamate/glutamine and elevated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate along with neuroapoptosis (TUNEL), which were all prevented by SCP. Conclusions: DHCA alone induces abnormalities in cycling of the major neurotransmitters in association with neuroapoptosis, but does not alter cerebral glucose utilization during reperfusion. The data suggest that SCP prevents these modifications in glutamate/glutamine/GABA cycling and protects the cerebral cortex from neuroapoptosis.

  6. Forbidden word entropy of cerebral oximetric values predicts postoperative neurocognitive decline in patients undergoing aortic arch surgery under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dubovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Up to 53% of cardiac surgery patients experience postoperative neurocognitive decline. Cerebral oximetry is designed to detect changes in cerebral tissue saturation and therefore may be useful to predict which patients are at risk of developing neurocognitive decline. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective study originally designed to determine if treatment of cerebral oximetry desaturation is associated with improvement in postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Cognitive function was measured, preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, with 15 neuropsychologic tests administered by a psychologist; the individual test scores were summed and normalized. Bilateral cerebral oximetry data were stored and analyzed using measures of entropy. Cognitive decline was defined as any decrease in the summed normalized score from baseline to 3 months. Results: Seven of 17 (41% patients suffered cognitive decline. There was no association between baseline cerebral oximetry and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Nor were changes in oximetry values associated with cognitive decline. However, cognitive decline was associated with loss of forbidden word entropy (FwEn (correlation: Rho ρ = 0.51, P = 0.037 for left cerebral oximetry FwEn and ρ = 0.54, P = 0.025 for right cerebral oximetry FwEn. Conclusion: Postoperative cognitive decline was associated with loss of complexity of the time series as shown by a decrease in FwEn from beginning to end of the case. This suggests that regulation of cerebral oximetry is different between those who do and those who do not develop cognitive decline.

  7. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C.; Koenig, J.; Liu Li; Schuck, A.; Willich, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, interleukin-(IL)-1α and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-α and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1α and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute pneumonitis. (orig.)

  8. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  9. Square biphasic pulse deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: The BiP tremor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Sol; Almeida, Leonardo; Shahgholi, Leili; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Roper, Jaimie; Hass, Chris J; Akbar, Umer; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Raike, Robert S; Okun, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) utilizes regular, high frequency pulses to treat medication-refractory symptoms in essential tremor (ET). Modifications of DBS pulse shape to achieve improved effectiveness is a promising approach. The current study assessed the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of square biphasic pulse shaping as an alternative to conventional ET DBS. This pilot study compared biphasic pulses (BiP) versus conventional DBS pulses (ClinDBS). Eleven ET subjects with clinically optimized ventralis intermedius nucleus DBS were enrolled. Objective measures were obtained over 3 h while ON BiP stimulation. There was observed benefit in the Fahn-Tolosa Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) for BiP conditions when compared to the DBS off condition and to ClinDBS setting. Total TRS scores during the DBS OFF condition (28.5 IQR = 24.5-35.25) were significantly higher than the other time points. Following active DBS, TRS improved to (20 IQR = 13.8-24.3) at ClinDBS setting and to (16.5 IQR = 12-20.75) at the 3 h period ON BiP stimulation (p = 0.001). Accelerometer recordings revealed improvement in tremor at rest (χ 2  = 16.1, p = 0.006), posture (χ 2  = 15.9, p = 0.007) and with action (χ 2  = 32.1, p=<0.001) when comparing median total scores at ClinDBS and OFF DBS conditions to 3 h ON BiP stimulation. There were no adverse effects and gait was not impacted. BiP was safe, tolerable and effective on the tremor symptoms when tested up to 3 h. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a novel DBS waveform in the clinic setting. Larger prospective studies with longer clinical follow-up will be required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Selective use of the biphasic-contrast barium enema study for evaluation of colonic lesions: Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr.; Riddervold, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to determine the value of selective use of the biphasic contrast technique for a variety of indications. In a series of 571 double-contrast barium enema examinations, the examination was immediately followed by a single-contrast study in 85 cases. The biphasic procedure was performed to reexamine a colonic segment that was poorly evaluated initially because of diverticulosis (eta = 35), incomplete filling (eta = 28), or poor mucosal coating (eta = 26); or to verify or exclude a possible lesion identified during the double-contrast examination (eta = 22). The single-contrast study confirmed five polyps and excluded lesions in 17 cases with suspected polyps (eta = 5), strictures (eta = 4), and spasm (eta = 8). Six polyps not visualized on the double-contrast examination were detected with the single-contrast procedure

  11. Species dependent radiotracer study of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) using an aqueous biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, K.; Lahiri, S. [Chemical Sciences Div., Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2008-07-01

    The speciation study of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was carried out using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) based aqueous biphasic extraction system (ABS). Neutron activated Cr(III) and Cr(VI) salts were assayed in a HPGe detector before and after employing aqueous biphasic extraction. Different salts of various salting out abilities were taken as the salt rich phase. The best condition for extraction of Cr(VI) and the maximum differential attitude of ABS to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was observed when 2 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and PEG 4000 (50% w/w) solutions were used. Cr(III) can also be extracted by the PEG with prior complexation with diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone). The chromium dithizonate complex is quantitatively extracted by the PEG rich phase. (orig.)

  12. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Posterior mediastinal biphasic synovial sarcoma in a 12 year-old boy: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Madhumay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of biphasic synovial sarcoma of the mediastinum, a very rare tumor, in a 12-year-old boy with left-sided chest pain of 3 years duration at presentation. Chest X-ray showed left-sided opacity with loss of cardiac silhouette and the mediastinum deviated to the opposite side. Computed tomography (CT of thorax showed left-sided posterior mediastinal mass with left-sided pleural effusion and pleural thickening. CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the mass reported it as spindle cell variant of adenocarcinoma. Ultrasonography (USG of the whole abdomen revealed no abnormality. The mediastinal tumor was resected by left thoracotomy and histopathological report confirmed it to be a biphasic synovial sarcoma with capsule invasion at places.

  14. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biphasic whole-cell synthesis of R-2-octanol with recycling of the ionic liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Dennewald, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Whole-cell biocatalysis in biphasic systems permits the synthesis of inhibiting chiral alcohols if appropriate non-water miscible ionic liquids are used. Taking the asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone to R-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli as a model reaction, a detailed characterisation of the biocatalytic reaction was performed with [HMPL][NTF] as ionic liquid. This made the asymmetric synthesis of R-2-octanol in a simple batch at a conversion > 99 % and at an enantiomeric excess >...

  16. Production of Phytotoxic Metabolite Using Biphasic Fermentation System from Strain C1136 of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a Potential Bioherbicidal Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI; Julius Kola OLOKE; Gandham PRASAD; Moses ABALAKA; Emenike Onyebum IROKANULO

    2017-01-01

    Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90) produced th...

  17. Intraintestinal drainage as a damage control surgery adjunct in a hypothermic traumatic shock swine model with multiple bowel perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wu; Ding, Weiwei; Liu, Xingdong; Kao, Xiaomin; Xu, Xingwei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-11-01

    Temporary bowel ligation (TL) has been proposed to prevent contamination as a damage control procedure in multiple bowel perforations. However, bacteria translocation and intestinal ischemia may develop in a prolonged duration. We here hypothesized that intraintestinal drainage combined with temporary ligation (D-TL) would decrease intestinal injury and improve survivals in a gunshot multiple bowel perforation swine model in the setting of a damage control surgery. The abdomen was shot one time with an experimental modified gun whereas pigs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg and maintained in shock for 40 min. Cold lactated Ringer solution was gradually infused to induce hypothermia. Animals were randomized to primary anastomosis, TL and intraintestinal D-TL groups (n = 8). Animals were resuscitated for 12 h with the shed blood and lactated Ringer solution. Delayed anastomosis was performed in TL and D-TL animals after resuscitation. Surviving animals were humanely killed 24 h after operation. Systemic hemodynamic parameters were recorded and blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays. Intra-abdominal pressure, portal vein and peripheral vein bacterial cultures, small intestine hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy examination were performed at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after the surgery. All animals suffered extreme physiologic conditions as follows: hypothermia, severe acidosis, hypotension, and depressed cardiac output. Compared with the primary anastomosis and TL group, D-TL animals required less resuscitation fluid, suffered a lower intra-abdominal hypertension and bacterial translocation, normalized lactate levels faster, had lower serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase levels and tissue TNF-α level, and nuclear factor-kB activations and thus had greater early survival. Compared with primary intestinal anastomosis and TL, rapid bowel ligation combined with intraintestinal drainage as a damage

  18. A Biphasic Pleural Tumor with Features of an Epithelioid and Small Cell Mesothelioma: Morphologic and Molecular Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hackman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesotheliomas are generally classified into epithelioid, sarcomatoid, desmoplastic, and biphasic types with rare reports of a small cell form. These small cell variants display some morphologic overlap with desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs which generally occur within the abdominal cavity of young males and are defined by a characteristic t(11;22(p13;q12 translocation. However, there are rare reports of DSRCTs lacking this translocation. We present a 78-year-old man with a pleura-based biphasic neoplasm with features of both epithelioid mesothelioma and a small cell blastema-like neoplasm. The epithelioid portion showed IHC reactivity for pan cytokeratin, CK5/6, D2-40, and calretinin and the small cell portion marked with CD99, pan cytokeratin, WT1, FLI1, S100, CD200, MyoD1, and CD15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for the t(11;22(p13;q12 translocation disclosed loss of the EWSR1 gene in 94% of tumor cell nuclei, but there was no evidence of the classic translocation. Array based-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH confirmed the tumor had numerous chromosome copy number losses, including 11p15.5-p11.12 and 22q12.1-q13.33, with loss of the EWSR1 and WT1 gene regions. Herein, we report novel complex CGH findings in a biphasic tumor and review the molecular genetic alterations in both mesothelioma and DSRCTs.

  19. Design and development of a low-cost biphasic charge-balanced functional electric stimulator and its clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendkar, Chandrashekhar; Lenka, Prasanna K; Biswas, Abhishek; Kumar, Ratnesh; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2015-10-01

    Functional electric stimulators that produce near-ideal, charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveforms with interphase delay are considered safer and more efficacious than conventional stimulators. An indigenously designed, low-cost, portable FES device named InStim is developed. It features a charge-balanced biphasic single channel. The authors present the complete design, mathematical analysis of the circuit and the clinical evaluation of the device. The developed circuit was tested on stroke patients affected by foot drop problems. It was tested both under laboratory conditions and in clinical settings. The key building blocks of this circuit are low dropout regulators, a DC-DC voltage booster and a single high-power current source OP-Amp with current-limiting capabilities. This allows the device to deliver high-voltage, constant current, biphasic pulses without the use of a bulky step-up transformer. The advantages of the proposed design over the currently existing devices include improved safety features (zero DC current, current-limiting mechanism and safe pulses), waveform morphology that causes less muscle fatigue, cost-effectiveness and compact power-efficient circuit design with minimal components. The device is also capable of producing appropriate ankle dorsiflexion in patients having foot drop problems of various Medical Research Council scale grades.

  20. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Prinz

    Full Text Available The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  1. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Robert D; Willis, Catherine M; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Klüppel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  2. Aerosol Particle Interfacial Thermodynamics and Phase Partitioning Measurements Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari; Metcalf, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remain large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. Interfacial properties affect the ambient aerosol morphology, or internal structure of the particle, which in turn can affect the way a particle interacts with an environment of condensable clusters and organic vapors. To improve our ability to accurately predict ambient aerosol morphology, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Unfortunately, many techniques employed to measure interfacial properties do so in bulk solutions or in the presence of a ternary (e.g. solid) phase. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface or interfacial tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred.

  3. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  4. The Effect of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Coated Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft Material on Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jin-Ju; Bae, Eun-Bin; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun; Han, Dong-Wook; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-08-08

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as bone graft materials on bone regeneration. The rGO-coated BCP bone graft material was fabricatied by mixing rGO and BCP at various concentrations. The surface charge of rGO-coated BCP was measured to be -14.43 mV, which formed a static electrostatic interaction. Cell viabilities were significantly diminished at higher concentrations of ≥100 μg/mL. The calvarial defects of 48 rats were implanted rGO-coated BCPs at a weight ratio of 2:1000 (rGO2), 4:1000 (rGO4), and 10:1000 (rGO10), repectively. BCP was used as a control group. The micro-CT and histological analysis were performed to evaluate new bone formation at 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. The results showed that the new bone volume (mm³) was significantly higher in the experimental groups than in the control group. Histological analysis showed that new bone areas (%) were significantly higher in the rGO2 and rGO10 than in the control, and significantly higher in rGO4 than in the rGO2 and rGO10. Conclusively, the rGO-coated BCP was found to be effective on osteogenesis and the concentration of the composite was an important factor.

  5. Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure: a systematic review of definitional criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Hawkins, Martyn

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the definitional criteria for the pressure-limited and time-cycled modes: airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) available in the published literature. Systematic review. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases (1982-2006) were searched using the following terms: APRV, BIPAP, Bilevel and lung protective strategy, individually and in combination. Two independent reviewers determined the paper eligibility and abstracted data from 50 studies and 18 discussion articles. Of the 50 studies, 39 (78%) described APRV, and 11 (22%) described BIPAP. Various study designs, populations, or outcome measures were investigated. Compared to BIPAP, APRV was described more frequently as extreme inverse inspiratory:expiratory ratio [18/39 (46%) vs. 0/11 (0%), P = 0.004] and used rarely as a noninverse ratio [2/39 (5%) vs. 3/11 (27%), P = 0.06]. One (9%) BIPAP and eight (21%) APRV studies used mild inverse ratio (>1:1 to branding may further add to confusion. Generic naming of modes and consistent definitional parameters may improve consistency of patient response for a given mode and assist with clinical implementation.

  6. Enhanced refrigerant capacity in Gd-Al-Co microwires with a biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H. X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Xing, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Sun, J. F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sánchez Llamazares, J. L. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Belliveau, H.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H., E-mail: phanm@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Wang, H.; Qin, F. X. [Institute for Composites Science and Innovation (InCSI), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-02-29

    A class of biphase nanocrystalline/amorphous Gd{sub (50+5x)}Al{sub (30−5x)}Co{sub 20} (x = 0, 1, 2) microwires fabricated directly by melt-extraction is reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier function transform based analysis indicate the presence of a volume fraction (∼20%) of ∼10 nm sized nanocrystallities uniformly embedded in an amorphous matrix. The microwires possess excellent magnetocaloric properties, with large values of the isothermal entropy change (−ΔS{sub M} ∼ 9.7 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}), the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad} ∼ 5.2 K), and the refrigerant capacity (RC ∼ 654 J kg{sup −1}) for a field change of 5 T. The addition of Gd significantly alters T{sub C} while preserving large values of the ΔS{sub M} and RC. The nanocrystallites allow for enhanced RC as well as a broader operating temperature span of a magnetic bed for energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration.

  7. Microstructure and phase evolution during the dealloying of bi-phase Al–Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T.T.; Gao, Y.L.; Zhang, Z.H.; Zhai, Q.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Selective leaching of α-Al(Ag) and Ag 2 Al occurs simultaneously during dealloying. ► Diffusion of Al and vacancy controlled mechanism dominate the etching of Ag 2 Al. ► The coarsening of ligaments in NPS follows a time dependence of d ∝t 2/5 . - Abstract: The chemical dealloying of bi-phase Al-35Ag alloy has been investigated within the parting limit. The dealloying of α-Al(Ag) and Ag 2 Al commenced simultaneously, and all α-Al(Ag) and part of Ag 2 Al were dealloyed, leaving residual Ag 2 Al to be dealloyed afterwards. The dealloying of the residual Ag 2 Al is associated with vacancy controlled mechanism and diffusion of Al atoms. It is revealed that the diffusions of the Al and Ag atoms during dealloying are significant. The Ag skeletons formed at the initial stage, and became coarsened gradually with a time dependence of d ∝t 2/5 , illustrating the vital role of diffusion of Ag atoms.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of magnetic biphasic calcium sulfate-bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2015-08-01

    Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV–vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeO{sub x} oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment. - Highlights: • Biphasic calcium sulphate-bioactive glass containing iron was prepared. • Composite bioglass was superparamagnetic in nature. • All samples promoted the growth of apatite layer with Ca/P close to 1.67.

  9. Biphasic Regulation of Lipid Metabolism: A Meta-Analysis of Icodextrin in Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this systematic meta-analysis was to study the impact of icodextrin (ICO on lipid profiles. Methods. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature, and the Cochrane Library and Reference lists were searched (last search September 2014 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results. Searches identified 13 eligible trials with a total of 850 patients. The differentials of total cholesterol (TC and free fatty acid (FFA in the ICO group were greater than those in the GLU group. Metaregression analysis showed that TC levels positively correlated with its baseline levels. In the subgroup of patients with dialysis duration more than 6 months, TC and TG in the ICO group were less. In pooled data from cross-sectional studies, differential of TG in the ICO group was less. In the subgroup of patients with diabetes (Martikainen et al., 2005, Sniderman et al., 2014, and Takatori et al., 2011, differential of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in the ICO group was less. There was no significant effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, or lipoprotein(a. Conclusions. ICO may be beneficial to lipid metabolism, especially for its biphasic regulation of plasma TC levels.

  10. Biphasic dose responses in biology, toxicology and medicine: Accounting for their generalizability and quantitative features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The most common quantitative feature of the hormetic-biphasic dose response is its modest stimulatory response which at maximum is only 30–60% greater than control values, an observation that is consistently independent of biological model, level of organization (i.e., cell, organ or individual), endpoint measured, chemical/physical agent studied, or mechanism. This quantitative feature suggests an underlying “upstream” mechanism common across biological systems, therefore basic and general. Hormetic dose response relationships represent an estimate of the peak performance of integrative biological processes that are allometrically based. Hormetic responses reflect both direct stimulatory or overcompensation responses to damage induced by relatively low doses of chemical or physical agents. The integration of the hormetic dose response within an allometric framework provides, for the first time, an explanation for both the generality and the quantitative features of the hormetic dose response. -- Highlights: •The hormetic stimulation is at maximum 30–60% greater than control responses. •Hormesis is a measure of biological performance and plasticity. •The hormetic response is evolutionary based and highly generalizable. -- This paper provides a biologically based explanation for the generalizability/quantitative features of the hormetic dose response, representing a fundamental contribution to the field

  11. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B., E-mail: william.otero@hotmail.com, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  12. Liquid / liquid biphasic electrochemistry in ultra-turrax dispersed acetonitrile / aqueous electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Amemiya, Fumihiro; Atobe, Mahito; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Unstable acetonitrile | aqueous emulsions generated in situ with ultra-turrax agitation are investigated for applications in dual-phase electrochemistry. Three modes of operation for liquid / liquid aqueous-organic electrochemical processes are demonstrated with no intentionally added electrolyte in the organic phase based on (i) the formation of a water-soluble product in the aqueous phase in the presence of the organic phase, (ii) the formation of a product and ion transfer at the liquid / liquid-electrode triple phase boundary, and (iii) the formation of a water-insoluble product in the aqueous phase which then transfers into the organic phase. A three-electrode electrolysis cell with ultra-turrax agitator is employed and characterised for acetonitrile / aqueous 2 M NaCl two phase electrolyte. Three redox systems are employed in order to quantify the electrolysis cell performance. The one-electron reduction of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ in the aqueous phase is employed to determine the rate of mass transport towards the electrode surface and the effect of the presence of the acetonitrile phase. The one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene in acetonitrile is employed to study triple phase boundary processes. Finally, the one-electron reduction of cobalticenium cations in the aqueous phase is employed to demonstrate the product transfer from the electrode surface into the organic phase. Potential applications in biphasic electrosynthesis are discussed.

  13. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schachtner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

  14. Disrupted glutamate-glutamine cycle in acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Terai, Masaru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Yachiyo-shi (Japan); Mizuguchi, Masashi [The University of Tokyo, Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Barkovich, A.J. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most common subtype of infectious pediatric encephalopathy in Japan. It is sometimes difficult to make an early diagnosis of AESD; excitotoxicity is postulated to be the pathogenesis based on elevated glutamine (Gln) and glutamate (Glu) complex (Glx = Glu + Gln) observed on MR spectroscopy. It is uncertain whether Gln or Glu contributes to the elevated Glx, or whether MR spectroscopy is useful for an early diagnosis. Five Japanese patients with AESD (three boys and two girls, 1 year of age) were enrolled in this study. MR spectroscopy was acquired from the frontal white matter (repetition time (TR) of 5000 ms, echo time (TE) of 30 ms) with a 1.5- or 3.0-T scanner. MR spectroscopy was performed four times for two patients, three times for one patient, and two times for two patients. Quantification of Glu and Gln was performed using LCModel. Glu was elevated in three of four studies on days 1-4 and became normal or low afterward. Gln was normal in three studies on days 1-2, elevated in all seven studies on days 4-12, and became normal or low afterward. These findings suggest that MR spectroscopy may be useful for an early diagnosis. Acute Glu elevation changes to subacute Gln elevation, suggesting that a disrupted Glu-Gln cycle may play an important role. (orig.)

  15. [Development of biphasic drug-loading lipid emulsion of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Yan; Li, Xi; Lai, Xiu-Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Ya-Jing; Chu, Ting; Mao, Sheng-Jun

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility of simultaneously loading both liposoluble and water-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in emulsion was discussed, in order to provide new ideas in comprehensive application of effective components in S. miltiorrhiza in terms of technology of pharmaceutics. With tanshinone II (A) and salvianolic acid B as raw materials, soybean phospholipid and poloxamer 188 as emulsifiers, and glycerin as isoosmotic regulator, the central composite design-response surface method was employed to optimize the prescription. The coarse emulsion was prepared with the high-speed shearing method and then homogenized in the high pressure homogenizer. The biphasic drug-loading intravenous emulsion was prepared to investigate its pharmaceutical properties and stability. The prepared emulsion is orange-yellow, with the average diameter of 241 nm and Zeta potential of -35.3 mV. Specifically, the drug loading capacity of tanshinone II (A) and salvianolic acid B were 0.5 g x L(-1) and 1 g x L(-1), respectively, with a good stability among long-term retention samples. According to the results, the prepared emulsion could load liposoluble tanshinone II (A) and water-soluble salvianolic acid B simultaneously, which lays a pharmaceutical foundation for giving full play to the efficacy of S. miltiorrhiza.

  16. Possible biphasic sweating response during short-term heat acclimation protocol for tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antônio; Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Lima, Nilo Resende Viana; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sweat loss response during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives. Six healthy young male subjects, inhabitants of a tropical region, were heat acclimated by means of nine days of one-hour heat-exercise treatments (40+/-0 degrees C and 32+/-1% relative humidity; 50% (.)VO(2peak) on a cycle ergometer). On days 1 to 9 of heat acclimation whole-body sweat loss was calculated by body weight variation corrected for body surface area. On days 1 and 9 rectal temperature (T(re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) every 4 minutes. Heat acclimation was confirmed by reduced HR (day 1 rest: 77+/-5 b.min(-1); day 9 rest: 68+/-3 b.min(-1); day 1 final exercise: 161+/-15 b.min(-1); day 9 final exercise: 145+/-11 b.min(-1), p0.05) of the protocol. These findings are consistent with the heat acclimation induced adaptations and suggest a biphasic sweat response (an increase in the sweat rate in the middle of the protocol followed by return to initial values by the end of it) during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives.

  17. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy (α+β) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  18. Integration process of fermentation and liquid biphasic flotation for lipase separation from Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Revathy; Show, Pau Loke; Lee, Sze Ying; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) is an advanced recovery method that has been effectively applied for biomolecules extraction. The objective of this investigation is to incorporate the fermentation and extraction process of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia using flotation system. Initial study was conducted to compare the performance of bacteria growth and lipase production using flotation and shaker system. From the results obtained, bacteria shows quicker growth and high lipase yield via flotation system. Integration process for lipase separation was investigated and the result showed high efficiency reaching 92.29% and yield of 95.73%. Upscaling of the flotation system exhibited consistent result with the lab-scale which are 89.53% efficiency and 93.82% yield. The combination of upstream and downstream processes in a single system enables the acceleration of product formation, improves the product yield and facilitates downstream processing. This integration system demonstrated its potential for biomolecules fermentation and separation that possibly open new opportunities for industrial production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of volume fractions on biphasic stratified regime using gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandão, Luis E.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the oil industries, interconnected pipelines are used to carry large quantities of petroleum and its byproducts. This modal has an advantage because they are more economical, eliminate a need for stocks and, in addition, great safety in operation minimizing a possibility of loss or theft when transported another way. In many cases, especially in the petrochemical industry, the same pipeline is used to carry more than one type of product. They are called poliduct. In the operation of a poliduct there is a sequence of products to be transported and during the exchange of the product, there are still fractions of the previous product and this generates contamination. It is therefore important to identify precisely this region in order to reduce the costs of reprocessing and treatment of discarded products. In this way, this work presents a methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of the gamma densitometry technique in a study of the calculation of volume fractions in biphasic systems, submitted to the stratified flow regime. Using computational simulations using the Monte Carlo Method with the MCNPX code measurement geometry was proposed that presented a higher sensitivity for the calculation of volume fractions. The relevant technical data to perform a simulation of the scintillator detectors were based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. The study had a theoretical validation through analytical equations, and the results show that it is possible to identify volume fractions equivalent to 3%. (author)

  20. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-07-28

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  1. Biphasic threat to femoral head perfusion in abduction: arterial hypoperfusion and venous congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefzadeh, David K. [Comer Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Doerger, Kirk [Radiology Associates of Northern Kentucky, Crestview Hills, KY (United States); Sullivan, Christopher [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Hip abduction can cause avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head in infants. To compare the US perfusion pattern of femoral head cartilage in neutral position with that in different degrees and duration of abduction, testing the venous congestion theory of post-abduction ischemia. In 20 neonates, the Doppler flow characteristics of the posterosuperior (PS) branch of the femoral head cartilage feeding vessels were evaluated in neutral and at 30 , 45 , and 60 abduction. In three neonates the leg was held in 45-degree abduction and flow was assessed at 5, 10, and 15 min. Male/female ratio was 11/9 with a mean age of 1.86 {+-} 0.7 weeks. The peak systolic velocities (PSV) declined in all three degrees of abduction. After 15 min of 45-degree abduction, the mean PSV declined and showed an absent or reversed diastolic component and undetectable venous return. No perfusion was detected at 60-degree abduction. Abduction-induced femoral head ischemia is biphasic and degree- and duration-dependent. In phase I there is arterial hypoperfusion and in phase II there is venous congestion. A new pathogeneses for femoral head ischemia is offered. (orig.)

  2. Nanoscopic characterization of the water vapor-salt interfacial layer reveals a unique biphasic adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; He, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-08-01

    Our quantitative understanding of water adsorption onto salt surfaces under ambient conditions is presently quite poor owing to the difficulties in directly characterizing this interfacial layer under these conditions. Here we determine the thickness of the interfacial layer on NaCl at different relative humidities (RH) based on a novel application of atomic force spectroscopy and capillary condensation theory. In particular, we take advantage of the microsecond-timescale of the capillary condensation process to directly resolve the magnitude of its contribution in the tip-sample interaction, from which the interfacial water thickness is determined. Further, to correlate this thickness with salt dissolution, we also measure surface conductance under similar conditions. We find that below 30% RH, there is essentially only the deposition of water molecules onto this surface, typical of conventional adsorption onto solid surfaces. However, above 30% RH, adsorption is simultaneous with the dissolution of ions, unlike conventional adsorption, leading to a rapid increase of surface conductance. Thus, water adsorption on NaCl is an unconventional biphasic process in which the interfacial layer not only exhibits quantitative differences in thickness but also qualitative differences in composition.

  3. Transient dysautonomia in an acute phase of encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimiya, Yuko; Kaku, Noriyuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Yamashita, Fumiya; Matsuoka, Wakato; Muraoka, Mamoru; Akamine, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Soichi; Torio, Michiko; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hidetoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-08-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection. Whereas the seizure was terminated by systemic infusion of midazolam, consciousness remained disturbed for the next 48h. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) evolved on 3days after the seizure. Therapeutic hypothermia was immediately introduced, however, the brain lesion extended to the whole subcortical white matters on day 8. The intermittent bilateral dilation of pupils with increased blood pressure and tachycardia were observed until day 12. Real-time monitoring of electroencephalograms ruled out the recurrent attacks of seizures. The abnormal signs of autonomic nervous system gradually ceased and never relapsed after recovery from the hypothermia. PSH or a transient condition of dysautonomia may emerge and persist during the acute phase of AESD. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  5. Biphasic insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67 582 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, D A; Bailey, C J

    1998-12-01

    BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is being developed as a short-acting anti-diabetic insulin secretagogue. The effect of BTS 67 582 on the phasic pattern of insulin release was assessed in anaesthetized normal rats by measuring arterial plasma insulin concentrations while arterial glucose concentrations were fixed at 6, 8.5 and 12.5 mM. Intravenous BTS 67 582 (10 mg kg(-1)) induced an immediate but transient increase in insulin concentrations which declined by 10 min (first phase). This was followed by a smaller but sustained increase in insulin concentrations (second phase). The increment from basal to peak insulin release (0-2 min) was independent of glucose, but the first phase was maintained for longer and the second phase was greater at the highest concentration of glucose (12.5 mM). BTS 67 582 also extended the first-phase insulin response to a standard intravenous glucose challenge and enhanced the rate of glucose disappearance by approximately 12%. Thus BTS 67 582 causes biphasic stimulation of insulin release and augments the insulin-releasing effect of glucose.

  6. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Leigh R.; Zalupski, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR and D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR and D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 ± 1.1 and -16.8 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  7. Biphasic Fluence-Response Curves for Phytochrome-Mediated Kalanchoë Seed Germination 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, Roger; Dedonder, Andrée; De Petter, Edwin; Van Wiemeersch, Luc; Fredericq, Henri; De Greef, Jan; Steyaert, Herman; Stevens, Hilde

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA3) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA3 induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA3 concentration. GA3 having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA3 appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal. PMID:16665187

  8. Biphasic effect of alcohol intake on the development of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Ono, Masafumi; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Chika; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Ono, Naofumi; Eguchi, Takahisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Chayama, Kazuaki; Saibara, Toshiji; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro

    2015-11-01

    Fatty liver is an important clinical feature not only in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, but in other chronic liver diseases as well. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and relationship between habitual alcohol intake and obesity in the development of fatty liver disease. We enrolled 8,029 subjects undergoing abdominal ultrasonography with general medical examinations, and analyzed the factors associated with fatty liver based on daily alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. For fatty liver, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were significant and independent risk factors. Heavy alcohol intake (50 g/day) was a significant risk factor for fatty liver in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.35). Analysis based on the presence or absence of obesity revealed that moderate alcohol intake was a significant negative risk factor for fatty liver in both male and female obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) subjects (OR, 0.74 for non-obese and 0.39 for obese patients, respectively). Heavy alcohol intake was also a significant negative risk factor in obese males (0.62). In contrast, heavy alcohol intake was a risk factor in non-obese males (OR, 1.29) and in all females (OR, 2.22 for non-obese and 6.6 for obese patients, respectively). The influence of alcohol intake on fatty liver differed depending on the level of alcohol consumption, gender, and the presence of obesity, and showed biphasic effects.

  9. Study on biphasic material model and mechanical analysis of knee joint cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, A; Sakashita, A [Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: nakatani@ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    A material model of articular cartilage is formulated, and fundamental problems are analyzed. The soft tissue is assumed to comprise two phases: solid and fluid. The biphasic theory proposed by Spilker and Suh (1990) to deal with such materials is reviewed, and some new additional analyses are carried out on the basis of this theory. Assuming the elasticity for the solid phase and introducing the pressure, which is defined by the product of the volume change and penalty coefficient, it is shown that the viscoelastic property of the soft tissue can be reproduced. A preferable solution is obtained for the solid phase by using the reduction integral, even if a high-order interpolation function is used. However, the high-order element cannot satisfactorily capture the velocity distribution of fluids. The pressure distribution is studied by assuming the change in the surface characteristics of the cartilage tissue with the progress of osteoarthritis. The pressure is strongly related to the lubrication conditions, i.e., perfect lubrication, perfect adhesion, and partial adhesion.

  10. Renal Resistance Trend During Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Is More Predictive of Postoperative Outcome Than Biopsy Score: Preliminary Experience in 35 Consecutive Kidney Transplantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissolati, Massimiliano; Gazzetta, Paolo Giovanni; Caldara, Rossana; Guarneri, Giovanni; Adamenko, Olga; Giannone, Fabio; Mazza, Michele; Maggi, Giulia; Tomanin, Deborah; Rosati, Riccardo; Secchi, Antonio; Socci, Carlo

    2018-03-30

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HPM) grants a better postoperative outcome in transplantation of organs procured from extended criteria donors (ECDs) and donors after cardiac death (DCD). So far, the only available parameter for outcome prediction concerning those organs is pretransplant biopsy score. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether renal resistance (RR) trend during HPM may be used as a predictive marker for post-transplantation outcome. From December 2015 to present, HMP has been systematically applied to all organs from ECDs and DCD. All grafts underwent pretransplantation biopsy evaluation using Karpinski's histological score. Only organs that reached RR value ≤1.0 within 3 hours of perfusion were transplanted. Single kidney transplantation (SKT) or double kidney transplantation (DKT) were performed according to biopsy score results. Sixty-five HMPs were performed (58 from ECDs and 7 from DCD/ECMO donors). Fifteen kidneys were insufficiently reconditioned (RR > 1) and were therefore discarded. Forty-nine kidneys were transplanted, divided between 21 SKT and 14 DKT. Overall primary nonfunction (PNF) and delayed graft function (DGF) rate were 2.9 and 17.1%, respectively. DGF were more common in kidneys from DCD (67 vs. 7%; P = 0.004). Biopsy score did not correlate with PNF/DGF rate (P = 0.870) and postoperative creatinine trend (P = 0.796). Recipients of kidneys that reached RR ≤ 1.0 within 1 hour of HMP had a lower PNF/DGF rate (11 vs. 44%; P = 0.033) and faster serum creatinine decrease (POD10 creatinine: 1.79 mg/dL vs. 4.33 mg/dL; P = 0.019). RR trend is more predictive of post-transplantation outcome than biopsy score. Hence, RR trend should be taken into account in the pretransplantation evaluation of the organs. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prospective comparative study of brain protection in total aortic arch replacement: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion or selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Y; Minatoya, K; Tagusari, O; Ando, M; Nagatsuka, K; Kitamura, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of total aortic arch replacement using two different methods of brain protection, particularly with respect to neurologic outcome. From June 1997, 60 consecutive patients who underwent total arch replacement through a midsternotomy were alternately allocated to one of two methods of brain protection: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP: 30 patients) or with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SCP: 30 patients). Preoperative and postoperative (3 weeks) brain CT scan, neurological examination, and cognitive function tests were performed. Serum 100b protein was assayed before and after the cardiopulmonary bypass, as well as 24 hours and 48 hours after the operation. Hospital mortality occurred in 2 patients in the RCP group (6.6%) and 2 in the SCP group (6.6%). New strokes occurred in 1 (3.3%) of the RCP group and in 2 (6.6%) of the SCP group (p = 0.6). The incidence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in the RCP group than in the SCP group (10, 33.3% vs 4, 13.3%, p = 0.05). Except in patients with strokes, S-100b values showed no significant differences in the two groups (RCP: SCP, prebypass 0.01+/-0.04: 0.05+/-0.16, postbypass 2.17+/-0.94: 1.97+/-1.00, 24 hours 0.61+/-0.36: 0.60+/-0.37, 48 hours 0.36+/-0.45: 0.46+/-0.40 microg/L, p = 0.7). There were no intergroup differences in the scores of memory decline (RCP 0.74+/-0.99; SCP 0.55+/-1.19, p = 0.6), orientation (RCP 1.11+/-1.29; SCP 0.50+/-0.76, p = 0.08), or intellectual function (RCP 1.21+/-1.27; SCP 1.05+/-1.15, p = 0.7). Both methods of brain protection for patients undergoing total arch replacement resulted in acceptable levels of mortality and morbidity. However, the prevalence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with the RCP.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrouz Ghadimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 . The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO 3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU or hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO 3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients (86% received NaHCO 3 . Total NaHCO 3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0-535 mEq per patient. Total NaHCO 3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001, minimum serum bicarbonate (r = −0.40, P < 0.001, maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007, duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002, and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007. Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO 3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Conclusion: Routine administration of NaHCO 3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO 3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO 3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO 3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes.

  13. Time course of air hunger mirrors the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S H; Banzett, R B; Butler, J P

    2004-12-01

    Determining response dynamics of hypoxic air hunger may provide information of use in clinical practice and will improve understanding of basic dyspnea mechanisms. It is hypothesized that air hunger arises from projection of reflex brain stem ventilatory drive ("corollary discharge") to forebrain centers. If perceptual response dynamics are unmodified by events between brain stem and cortical awareness, this hypothesis predicts that air hunger will exactly track ventilatory response. Thus, during sustained hypoxia, initial increase in air hunger would be followed by a progressive decline reflecting biphasic reflex ventilatory drive. To test this prediction, we applied a sharp-onset 20-min step of normocapnic hypoxia and compared dynamic response characteristics of air hunger with that of ventilation in 10 healthy subjects. Air hunger was measured during mechanical ventilation (minute ventilation = 9 +/- 1.4 l/min; end-tidal Pco(2) = 37 +/- 2 Torr; end-tidal Po(2) = 45 +/- 7 Torr); ventilatory response was measured during separate free-breathing trials in the same subjects. Discomfort caused by "urge to breathe" was rated every 30 s on a visual analog scale. Both ventilatory and air hunger responses were modeled as delayed double exponentials corresponding to a simple linear first-order response but with a separate first-order adaptation. These models provided adequate fits to both ventilatory and air hunger data (r(2) = 0.88 and 0.66). Mean time constant and time-to-peak response for the average perceptual response (0.36 min(-1) and 3.3 min, respectively) closely matched corresponding values for the average ventilatory response (0.39 min(-1) and 3.1 min). Air hunger response to sustained hypoxia tracked ventilatory drive with a delay of approximately 30 s. Our data provide further support for the corollary discharge hypothesis for air hunger.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro behavior of nanostructured diopside/biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezani, Samira; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Kharaziha, Mahshid [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavangarian, Fariborz, E-mail: f_tavangarian@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Program, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Penn State Harrisburg, Middletown, PA 17057 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A significant challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of 3D constructs serving as scaffolds to fill bone defects, support osteoblasts, and promote bone regeneration. In this paper, highly porous (∼79%) nanostructured diopside/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with interconnected porosity were developed using various diopside contents via space holder method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were utilized to evaluate different samples. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were studied as well. The results showed that the produced scaffolds had an average pore size and density of 200–340 μm and 2.5 ± 0.3–1.8 ± 0.3 gr/cm{sup 3}, respectively, depending on the diopside content. Besides, increasing the diopside content of scaffolds from 0 to 15 wt% enhanced the bioactivity, biodegradability, and compressive strength from 1.2 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.3 MPa, respectively. In addition, MTT assay also confirmed that the BCP15 scaffold (containing 15 wt% diopside) significantly promoted cell viability and cell adhesion compared to BCP0 scaffold. Overall, our study suggests that nanostructured diopside/BCP scaffolds with improved biological and mechanical properties could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Highly porous (∼79%) scaffolds were synthesized by space holder method. • Adding diopside nanopowder reduced the average pore size of the scaffolds. • Diopside increased the compressive strength of the scaffolds by three-times. • Nanostructured diopside/BCP scaffolds significantly promoted cell viability. • The nanostructured composite scaffold of BCP15 is cell-friendly.

  15. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx arising from compartmentalized electrical signals in dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bloodgood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory synapses on mammalian principal neurons are typically formed onto dendritic spines, which consist of a bulbous head separated from the parent dendrite by a thin neck. Although activation of voltage-gated channels in the spine and stimulus-evoked constriction of the spine neck can influence synaptic signals, the contribution of electrical filtering by the spine neck to basal synaptic transmission is largely unknown. Here we use spine and dendrite calcium (Ca imaging combined with 2-photon laser photolysis of caged glutamate to assess the impact of electrical filtering imposed by the spine morphology on synaptic Ca transients. We find that in apical spines of CA1 hippocampal neurons, the spine neck creates a barrier to the propagation of current, which causes a voltage drop and results in spatially inhomogeneous activation of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs on a micron length scale. Furthermore, AMPA and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively that are colocalized on individual spine heads interact to produce two kinetically and mechanistically distinct phases of synaptically evoked Ca influx. Rapid depolarization of the spine triggers a brief and large Ca current whose amplitude is regulated in a graded manner by the number of open AMPARs and whose duration is terminated by the opening of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK channels. A slower phase of Ca influx is independent of AMPAR opening and is determined by the number of open NMDARs and the post-stimulus potential in the spine. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx only occurs when AMPARs and NMDARs are coactive within an individual spine. These results demonstrate that the morphology of dendritic spines endows associated synapses with specialized modes of signaling and permits the graded and independent control of multiple phases of synaptic Ca influx.

  16. Early Peritoneal Immune Response during Echinococcus granulosus Establishment Displays a Biphasic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide distributed helminth zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Human secondary cystic echinococcosis is caused by dissemination of protoscoleces after accidental rupture of fertile cysts and is due to protoscoleces ability to develop into new metacestodes. In the experimental model of secondary cystic echinococcosis mice react against protoscoleces producing inefficient immune responses, allowing parasites to develop into cysts. Although the chronic phase of infection has been analyzed in depth, early immune responses at the site of infection establishment, e.g., peritoneal cavity, have not been well studied. Because during early stages of infection parasites are thought to be more susceptible to immune attack, this work focused on the study of cellular and molecular events triggered early in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. Principal Findings Data obtained showed disparate behaviors among subpopulations within the peritoneal lymphoid compartment. Regarding B cells, there is an active molecular process of plasma cell differentiation accompanied by significant local production of specific IgM and IgG2b antibodies. In addition, peritoneal NK cells showed a rapid increase with a significant percentage of activated cells. Peritoneal T cells showed a substantial increase, with predominance in CD4+ T lymphocytes. There was also a local increase in Treg cells. Finally, cytokine response showed local biphasic kinetics: an early predominant induction of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-15), followed by a shift toward a Th2-type profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13). Conclusions Results reported here open new ways to investigate the involvement of immune effectors players in E. granulosus establishment, and also in the sequential promotion of Th1- toward Th2-type responses in experimental secondary cystic echinococcosis. These data would be relevant for designing rational therapies

  17. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ({sup 137}Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  18. Response of stem cells from different origins to biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Sonja E; Glickman, Robert; da Silva, Wagner N; Arinzeh, Treena L; Kerkis, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics have been successfully applied in a broad variety of presentation forms and with different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). BCPs have been loaded with stem cells from different origins for bone tissue engineering purposes, but evidence of stem cell behavior on different compositions (various HA/β-TCP ratios) and physical features of BCPs is limited. We compared the adhesion, proliferation, viability and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on granular BCPs with equal HA/β-TCP ratio of diverse particle sizes and on porous blocks which had different chemical compositions. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was compared to adipose-derived (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC) stem cells, as well as to pre-osteoblasts on a particulate BCP. MSCs growing on granular BCPs demonstrated increased number as compared to MSCs growing on blocks. Cells proliferated to a greater extent on small granular BCPs, while large granular BCPs and blocks promoted cell differentiation. Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in osteogenesis was upregulated in MSCs on bioceramics in basal medium which indicates that BCPs may have osteoinductive potential. This was confirmed with the upregulation of osteochondrogenic markers, at different time points, when stem cells from various tissues were grown on the BCP. This study demonstrates that BCPs, depending on their physical features and chemical composition, modulate stem cell behavior, and that stem cells from different origins are inherently distinct in their gene expression profile and can be triggered toward osteochondrogenic fate by BCPs.

  19. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Pires, Inês; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials. (paper)

  20. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B.

    2015-01-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ( 137 Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  1. Biphasic stimulation of cellular calcium concentration by 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in rat thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, J.

    1988-01-01

    3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) produced a rapid and transient increase in 45 Ca uptake and cytoplasmic free calcium concentration in rat thymocytes, which is the most rapid effect of T 3 in this system. This effect was manifested in cells suspended in medium containing 1 mM calcium. The T 3 effect on 45 Ca uptake was evident at 15-30 s, reached maximum at 30-60 s, and returned to control values at 5 min. The T 3 effect on cytoplasmic free calcium concentration was seen after 30 s, reached maximum at 7 min, and returned to control values after 24 min. In cells suspended in Ca 2+ -free medium, T 3 produced a similar rapid increase in 45 Ca uptake, which was sustained for at least 60 min, but T 3 failed to change cytoplasmic free calcium concentration. Alprenolol (10 μM) blocked the stimulatory effects of T 3 on these two functions in a similar fashion. From these results, the authors suggest that in rat thymocytes T 3 influences cellular calcium economy through a biphasic mechanism in which T 3 first increases calcium uptake which, in turn, if followed by a release of calcium from intracellular pool(s), resulting in a further increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration and the activation of Ca 2+ -regulated systems. Moreover, the present study provides further support for the postulate that in the rat thymocyte calcium serves as the first messenger for the plasma membrane-mediated stimulatory effects of T 3 on several metabolic functions

  2. Low cadmium exposure triggers a biphasic oxidative stress response in mice kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, Sandy; Cuypers, Ann; Maringwa, John; Smeets, Karen; Horemans, Nele; Lambrichts, Ivo; Van Kerkhove, Emmy

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to participate in the early processes of cadmium (Cd)-induced proximal tubular kidney damage. Mice were chronically exposed up to 23 weeks to low Cd concentrations (10 and 100 mg CdCl 2 /l) via the drinking water. Pro- and antioxidant gene expression levels, glutathione, ascorbate and lipid peroxidation levels were measured. Our study provided evidence for an early and a late stress response in the kidney. Metallothioneins were upregulated from 1 week of exposure on and they stayed important during the whole exposure period. After 8 weeks the expression of Bcl2 (anti-apoptotic), Prdx2 and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Sod1) was reduced in the group exposed to 100 mg CdCl 2 /l, which might indicate a response to Cd-stress. However glutathione, ascorbate and lipid peroxidation levels did not significantly change, and the overall redox balance remained stable. Stable Sod2 transcriptional levels suggested that an increased formation of superoxide anions, which can arise upon Cd-induced mitochondrial free radical generation, was not appearing. A second defence activation was observed after 23 weeks: i.e. an increase of catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), together with NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), of which the role has not been studied yet in Cd nephrotoxicity. These findings were in contrast with previous studies, where Cd-induced oxidative stress was detrimental when high Cd concentrations were applied. In conclusion our study provided evidence that a chronic exposure to low Cd concentrations triggered a biphasic defence activation in the kidney that might lead to adaptation and survival

  3. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, T Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-04-22

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB(-)) was employed within a water|P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. (137)Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6×10(11) at the w|P66614TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ(α), with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ(α) of 2 and 8.2×10(7), respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass spectra obtained by the direct injection of an emulsified water-organic solvent mixture into an electron spray ionization mass spectrometer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S., E-mail: para_kanna@yahoo.com

    2015-11-15

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg{sup 2+} at the crystal lattice of β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The concentration of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg{sup 2+} precipitates as Mg(OH){sub 2} and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} is discarded from the investigation. - Highlights: • Aqueous co-precipitation of calcium deficient apatites with excess magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) additions. • Heat treatments beyond 800 °C results in the formation of biphasic apatite mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} gets accommodated at the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice of biphasic mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} additions exceeding stoichiometric value (Ca/P>1.67) results in its formation as MgO. • Mg{sup 2+} occupancy at β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice delays its allotropic conversion α-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} till 1350 °C.

  5. Effect of apatite formation of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) on osteoblastogenesis using simulated body fluid (SBF) with or without bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Department of Orthopaedic Trauma and Hand Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhou, Bo; Wu, Huayu [Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, School of Premedical Sciences, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zheng, Li, E-mail: zhengli224@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); The Medical and Scientific Research Center, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhao, Jinmin, E-mail: zhaojinmin@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Department of Orthopaedic Trauma and Hand Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China)

    2017-01-01

    Although biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) holds promise in therapy of bone defect, surface mineralization prior to implantation may improve the bioactivity to better integrate with the host. Immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and bovine serum albumin-simulated body fluid (BSA-SBF) are common methods to form apatite interface layer. This study was intended to investigate the effect of SBF and BSA-SBF treatment on the bioactivity of BCP in vitro. In this study, osteoblasts were grown on BCP with or without treatment of SBF or BSA-SBF, and detected with general observation, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cell proliferation assay, morphology observation, viability assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, and osteogenic specific gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (BGLAP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) after culture of 2, 5 and 8 days. As the results shown, BCP pre-incubated in SBF and BSA-SBF up-regulated ALP activity and osteogenic related genes and proteins, which testified the positive effect of SBF and BSA-SBF. Especially, BSA-SBF enhanced the cell growth significantly. This study indicated that treatment by BSA-SBF is of importance for BCP before clinical application. - Highlights: • BCP pre-incubated in SBF and BSA-SBF significantly promoted osteogenic differetiation of osteoblasts. • BSA-SBF enhanced the cell growth more significantly than SBF. • SBF may be a little toxic to osteoblasts.

  6. Hypothermic overdose, not all bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Petterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old woman was brought into the Emergency Department (ED following an intentional overdose of alcohol and her medication. Along with two bottles of wine it was estimated that she had taken 5800 mg of Quetiapine and 240 mg of Citalopram along with the wine. The ambient temperature in her flat was thought to be 10°C. On arrival to the ED her GCS was 8. She had agonal respirations with a pulse of 56/min, hypotensive 55/35 mmHg and a temperature 24°C. The patient was intubated and was given sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulphate, calcium gluconate and an adrenaline infusion. She received active and passive rewarming measures. She had significant ECG findings related to her hypothermia and polypharmacy overdose which seemed to have been cumulative. The patient recovered and the only neurological deficit was numbness in her left leg which was thought to be related to prolonged immobility. Hypothermia may have contributed to her good outcome as hypothermia has been shown to improve both cardiac and neurological outcome.

  7. Micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone distribution in vivo in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustom, Laurence E; Boudou, Thomas; Lou, Siyu; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Nemke, Brett W; Lu, Yan; Markel, Mark D; Picart, Catherine; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2016-10-15

    The increasing demand for bone repair solutions calls for the development of efficacious bone scaffolds. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with both macropores and micropores (MP) have improved healing compared to those with macropores and no micropores (NMP), but the role of micropores is unclear. Here, we evaluate capillarity induced by micropores as a mechanism that can affect bone growth in vivo. Three groups of cylindrical scaffolds were implanted in pig mandibles for three weeks: MP were implanted either dry (MP-Dry), or after submersion in phosphate buffered saline, which fills pores with fluid and therefore suppresses micropore-induced capillarity (MP-Wet); NMP were implanted dry. The amount and distribution of bone in the scaffolds were quantified using micro-computed tomography. MP-Dry had a more homogeneous bone distribution than MP-Wet, although the average bone volume fraction, BVF‾, was not significantly different for these two groups (0.45±0.03 and 0.37±0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference in the radial bone distribution of NMP and MP-Wet, but the BVF‾, of NMP was significantly lower among the three groups (0.25±0.02). These results suggest that micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone regeneration by improving the homogeneity of bone distribution in BCP scaffolds. The explicit design and use of capillarity in bone scaffolds may lead to more effective treatments of large and complex bone defects. The increasing demand for bone repair calls for more efficacious bone scaffolds and calcium phosphate-based materials are considered suitable for this application. Macropores (>100μm) are necessary for bone ingrowth and vascularization. However, studies have shown that microporosity (micropore-induced capillarity had the potential to enhance bone growth in vivo. This work illustrates the positive effects of capillarity on bone regeneration in vivo; it demonstrates that micropore-induced capillarity significantly

  8. Biphasic character of ribosomal translocation and non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the kinetics of mRNA translocation in the wild-type (WT) Escherichia coli ribosome, which is composed of a small 30 S and large 50 S subunit, and the ribosomes with mutations to some intersubunit bridges such as B1a, B4, B7a, and B8. The theoretical results reproduce well the available in vitro experimental data on the biphasic kinetics of the forward mRNA translocation catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G) hydrolyzing GTP, which can be best fit by the sum of two exponentials, and the monophasic kinetics of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation in the absence of the elongation factor, which can be best fit by a single-exponential function, in both the WT and mutant ribosomes. We show that both the mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the slow phase for the forward mRNA translocation and that in the rate of the spontaneous reverse mRNA translocation result from a reduction in the intrinsic energy barrier to resist the rotational movements between the two subunits, giving the same degree of increase in the two rates. The mutation-induced increase in the maximal rate of the fast phase for the forward mRNA translocation results mainly from the increase in the rate of the ribosomal unlocking, a conformational change in the ribosome that widens the mRNA channel for the mRNA translocation to take place, which could be partly due to the effect of the mutation on the intrasubunit 30S head rotation. Moreover, we study the translation rate of the WT and mutant ribosomes. It is shown that the translation rate versus the concentration of EF-G-GTP does not follow the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetics, which is in sharp contrast to the general property of other enzymes that the rate of the enzymatic reaction versus the concentration of a substrate follows the MM kinetics. The physical origin of this non-MM kinetics for the ribosome is revealed.

  9. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoqing; Chen Rui; Yang Ping; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei; Liu Qizhan

    2007-01-01

    Biphasic dose-response relationship induced by environmental agents is often characterized with the effect of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Some studies showed that arsenite may induce cell proliferation and apoptosis via biphasic dose-response relationship in human cells; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the relationship between biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis and activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation may be stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 μM) arsenite but inhibited at higher concentrations (5 and 10 μM). When cell apoptosis was used as the endpoint, the concentration-response curves were changed to U-shapes. During stimulation phospho-JNK levels were significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 h after 0.1 or 0.5 μM arsenite exposure. Phospho-ERK1/2 levels were increased with different concentrations (0.1-10 μM) of arsenite at 6, 12, and 24 h. Blocking of JNK pathway with 20 μM SP600125 or ERK1/2 by 100 μM PD98059 significantly inhibited biphasic effect of arsenite in cells. Data in the present study suggest that activation of JNK and ERK1/2 may be involved in biphasic effect of arsenite when measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis in HELF cells. JNK activation seems to play a more critical role than ERK1/2 activation in the biphasic process

  11. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release.

  13. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lignocellulose fractionation into furfural and glucose by AlCl3-catalyzed DES/MIBK biphasic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kun; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Ying-Qiu; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Wang, Xing; Liu, Li

    2018-06-01

    Herein, an efficient DES/MIBK biphasic pretreatment system for preparation of furfural and fermentable glucose from lignocellulose was developed with AlCl 3 as catalysis. The low-cost and renewable DES (Choline chloride-Oxalic acid) served not only as a Brønsted acid catalyst, but also as a pretreatment solvent in present work, and MIBK as an extracting reagent which can increase the yield of furfural in DES phase. The effects of this biphasic pretreatment on the furfural yield and saccharification of the lignocellulose before and after pretreatment were explored using HPLC, HAPEC, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Under the best pretreatment condition (at 140 °C for 90 min), furfural could be obtained in 70.3% yield and 80.8% of the pretreated lignocellulose was saccharified, which was 8.4 times higher than that of the raw lignocellulose without pretreatment. In a word, this pretreatment system can be considered as a potential technique for efficient valorization of lignocellulose for production of furfural and fermentable glucose. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Nobuaki; Nabe, Takeshi; Shimazu, Masaji; Yoshino, Shin; Kohno, Shigekatsu

    2012-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL), an oriental medical mushroom, has been used in Asia for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the effect of GL on allergic rhinitis has not been well defined. The current study describes the inhibitory effect of GL on the biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated antigen challenge in a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Intranasally sensitized guinea pigs were repeatedly challenged by inhalation of Japanese cedar pollen once every week. Ganoderma lucidum was orally administered once daily for 8 weeks from the time before the first challenge. The treatment with GL dose-dependently inhibited the early and late phase nasal blockage at the fifth to ninth antigen challenges. Furthermore, nasal hyperresponsiveness to intranasally applied leukotriene D₄ on 2 days after the eighth antigen challenge was also inhibited by the treatment with GL. However, Cry j 1-specific IgE antibody production was not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the pollen-induced biphasic nasal blockage and nasal hyperresponsiveness were suppressed by the daily treatment with GL in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. These results suggest that GL may be a useful therapeutic drug for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Low temperature N,N-dimethylformamide-assisted synthesis and characterization of anatase-rutile biphasic nanostructured titania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estruga, M; Domenech, X; Ayllon, J A [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, C [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: joseantonio.ayllon@uab.es, E-mail: mestruga@qf.uab.cat

    2009-03-25

    Anatase and rutile biphasic nanostructured titania (TiO{sub 2}) has been synthesized via hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in an aqueous solution of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 80 deg. C for 16 h. The presence of DMF, which was partially hydrolyzed during the process, determined the formation of a biphasic material. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the presence of both anatase and rutile titania phases in a ratio of approx. 1:1. Transmission electron microscope analysis showed that rutile was present as radial flower-like nanorods, which were surrounded by anatase spherical nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter. Low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis showed the characteristic hysteresis loop of a mesoporous material. Specific surface area reached a value of 120 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the average pore diameter was 50 A. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that interstitial nitrogen was incorporated (0.35 at.%) during the annealing process. According to ultraviolet (UV)-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscope characterization, the N-doping caused a bandgap reduction from 3.0 to 2.9 eV. Photocatalytic activity of the material was tested for the degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange and 4-nitrophenol under near-UV and visible light radiation.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieda, Nicola; McInnes, Matthew D.F.; Cao, Lilly

    2014-01-01

    To use systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion (SEI) at contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. Several electronic databases were searched through October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted data. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. The primary 2 x 2 data were investigated with forest plot and ROC plot of sensitivity and specificity. Four studies met the inclusion criteria (307 patients). Considerable heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. Two studies from the same group of investigators demonstrated reasonable diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 59-80 % and specificity 87-99 %), while two others did not (sensitivity 0-6 %, specificity 93-100 %). Possible reasons for this include timing of biphasic MDCT and methods of interpretation but not size of lesion. SEI is a specific imaging finding of renal oncocytoma with highly variable sensitivity. This substantial heterogeneity across studies and between institutions suggests that further validation of this imaging finding is necessary prior to application in clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion for diagnosis of renal oncocytoma at biphasic contrast enhanced CT: systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; McInnes, Matthew D.F.; Cao, Lilly [Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    To use systematic review to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of segmental enhancement inversion (SEI) at contrast-enhanced biphasic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. Several electronic databases were searched through October 2013. Two reviewers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and extracted data. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. The primary 2 x 2 data were investigated with forest plot and ROC plot of sensitivity and specificity. Four studies met the inclusion criteria (307 patients). Considerable heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. Two studies from the same group of investigators demonstrated reasonable diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 59-80 % and specificity 87-99 %), while two others did not (sensitivity 0-6 %, specificity 93-100 %). Possible reasons for this include timing of biphasic MDCT and methods of interpretation but not size of lesion. SEI is a specific imaging finding of renal oncocytoma with highly variable sensitivity. This substantial heterogeneity across studies and between institutions suggests that further validation of this imaging finding is necessary prior to application in clinical practice. (orig.)

  19. Injectable glycosaminoglycan-protein nano-complex in semi-interpenetrating networks: A biphasic hydrogel for hyaline cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Subramanian, Anuradha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2017-11-01

    Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration remains challenging due to its less intrinsic reparability. The study develops injectable biphasic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN) hydrogel impregnated with chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanoparticles for functional cartilage restoration. ChS loaded zein nanoparticles (∼150nm) prepared by polyelectrolyte-protein complexation were interspersed into injectable SIPNs developed by blending alginate with poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous microstructure (39.9±5.8μm pore diameter, 57.7±5.9% porosity), 92% swellability and >350Pa elastic modulus. Primary chondrocytes compatibility, chondrocyte-matrix interaction with cell-cell clustering and spheroidal morphology was demonstrated in ChS loaded hydrogel and long-term (42days) proliferation was also determined. Higher fold expression of cartilage-specific genes sox9, aggrecan and collagen-II was observed in ChS loaded hydrogel while exhibiting poor expression of collagen-I. Immunoblotting of aggregan and collagen II demonstrate favorable positive influence of ChS on chondrocytes. Thus, the injectable biphasic SIPNs could be promising composition-mimetic substitute for cartilage restoration at irregular defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of Organ Culture storage of donor corneas: a 3 year study of its impact on the corneal transplant wait list at the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasahayam, Raj; Georges, Pierre; Hodge, Christopher; Treloggen, Jane; Cooper, Simon; Petsoglou, Con; Sutton, Gerard; Zhu, Meidong

    2016-09-01

    Organ Culture corneal storage offers an extended storage time and increased donor pool and tissue assessment opportunities. In September 2011, the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank (LNSWEB) moved from hypothermic storage to Organ Culture corneal storage. This study evaluates the impact of implementation of Organ Culture on donor eye retrieval and the corneal transplant waiting list over a 3 year period in NSW, Australia. Retrospective review of the LNSWEB data from September 2011 to August 2014. Tissue collection, waiting list and tissue utilization data were recorded. The data from September 2008 to August 2011 for Optisol-GS storage was used for comparison. The annual donor and cornea collection rate increased 35 % and 44 % respectively with Organ Culture compared to Optisol-GS storage. The utilization rate of corneal tissue increased from 73.4 % with hypothermic storage to 77.2 % with Organ Culture storage. The transplant wait list decreased by 77.3 % from September 2011 to August 2014 and correlated with the increased rate of corneal transplantation (r = -0.9381, p banks. The practical benefits of the extended storage time and increased donor assessment opportunities have directly led to an increase in corneal utilization rate and a significant decrease in recipient wait list time.

  1. Application of a Three-Dimensional Poroelastic BEM to Modeling the Biphasic Mechanics of Cell-Matrix Interactions in Articular Cartilage (REVISION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mansoor A; Guilak, Farshid

    2007-06-15

    Articular cartilage exhibits viscoelasticity in response to mechanical loading that is well described using biphasic or poroelastic continuum models. To date, boundary element methods (BEMs) have not been employed in modeling biphasic tissue mechanics. A three dimensional direct poroelastic BEM, formulated in the Laplace transform domain, is applied to modeling stress relaxation in cartilage. Macroscopic stress relaxation of a poroelastic cylinder in uni-axial confined compression is simulated and validated against a theoretical solution. Microscopic cell deformation due to poroelastic stress relaxation is also modeled. An extended Laplace inversion method is employed to accurately represent mechanical responses in the time domain.

  2. Phosphate regulates chondrogenesis in a biphasic and maturation-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Biming; Durisin, Emily K; Decker, Joseph T; Ural, Evran E; Shea, Lonnie D; Coleman, Rhima M

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has been recognized as an important signaling molecule that modulates chondrocyte maturation and cartilage mineralization. However, conclusive experimental evidence for its involvement in early chondrogenesis is still lacking. Here, using high-density monolayer (2D) and pellet (3D) culture models of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the cell response to Pi does not correlate with the Pi concentration in the culture medium but is better predicted by the availability of Pi on a per cell basis (Pi abundance). Both culture models were treated with ITS+, 10mM β-glycerophosphate (βGP), or ITS+/10mM βGP, which resulted in three levels of Pi abundance in cultures: basal (Pi/DNA 60ng/µg). In chondrogenic medium alone, the abundance levels were at the basal level in 2D culture and moderate in 3D cultures. The addition of 10mM βGP resulted in moderate abundance in 2D and high abundance in 3D cultures. Moderate Pi abundance enhanced early chondrogenesis and production of aggrecan and type II collagen whereas high Pi abundance inhibited chondrogenic differentiation and induced rapid mineralization. Inhibition of sodium phosphate transporters reduced phosphate-induced expression of chondrogenic markers. When 3D ITS+/βGP cultures were treated with levamisole to reduce ALP activity, Pi abundance was decreased to moderate levels, which resulted in significant upregulation of chondrogenic markers, similar to the response in 2D cultures. Delay of phosphate delivery until after early chondrogenesis occurs (7 days) no longer enhanced chondrogenesis, but instead accelerated hypertrophy and mineralization. Together, our data highlights the dependence of chondroprogenitor cell response to Pi on its availability to individual cells and the chondrogenic maturation stage of these cells and suggest that appropriate temporal delivery of phosphate to ATDC5 cells in 3D cultures represents a rapid model for mechanistic studies into the effects of

  3. Multi-scale osteointegration and neovascularization of biphasic calcium phosphate bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheeny K.

    Bone grafts are utilized clinically to guide tissue regeneration. Autologous bone and allogeneic bone are the current clinical standards. However, there are significant limitations to their use. To address the need for alternatives to autograft and allograft, researchers have worked to develop synthetic grafts, also referred to as scaffolds. Despite extensive efforts in this area, a gap persists between basic research and clinical application. In particular, solutions for repairing critical size and/or load-bearing defects are lacking. The aim of this thesis work was to address two critical barriers preventing design of successful tissue engineering constructs for bone regeneration within critical size and/or load-bearing defects. Those barriers are insufficient osteointegration and slow neovascularization. In this work, the effects of scaffold microporosity, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery and endothelial colony forming cell vasculogenesis were evaluated in the context of bone formation in vivo. This was accomplished to better understand the role of these factors in bone regeneration, which may translate to improvements in tissue engineering construct design. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with controlled macro- and microporosity were implanted in porcine mandibular defects. Evaluation of the BCP scaffolds after in vivo implantation showed, for the first time, osteocytes embedded in bone within scaffold micropores (macro and micro length scales, leaving no "dead space" or discontinuities of bone in the defect site. The scaffold forms a living composite upon integration with regenerating bone and this has significant implications with regard to improved scaffold mechanical properties. The presence of osteocytes within scaffold micropores is an indication of scaffold osteoinductivity because a chemotactic factor must be present to induce cell migration into pores on the order of the cell diameter. It is likely that the scaffold

  4. Metabolomics reveals metabolic targets and biphasic responses in breast cancer cells treated by curcumin alone and in association with docetaxel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bayet-Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX. In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l(-1-28 µM- (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01, but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l(-1 -70 µM- (-49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and -56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025. At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (-60 to -80%, all, P<0.05. Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025, and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about -60%, P<0.025. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l(-1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  5. Biphasic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT in patients with recurrent and high-risk prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlmann, Carsten-Oliver; Meller, Birgit; Bouter, Caroline; Meller, Johannes [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goettingen (Germany); Ritter, Christian Oliver; Lotz, Joachim [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Stroebel, Philipp [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Trojan, Lutz; Hijazi, Sameh [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Urology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Binding of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC ({sup 68}Ga-PSMA) at prostate cancer (PC) cells increases over time. A biphasic protocol may help separating benign from tumor lesions. The aim of this study was the retrospective evaluation of a diagnostic incremental value of a dual-time point (biphasic) {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer. Retrospective analysis of 35 consecutive patients (49-78 years, median 71) with newly diagnosed PC (12/35) or recurrence of PC (23/35). PET/CT (Gemini TF16, Philips) was acquired 1 h and 3 h p. i. of 140-392 MBq (300 MBq median) {sup 68}Ga-PSMA, followed by a diagnostic contrast CT. PET findings were correlated with histology or unequivocal CT findings. Semiquantitative PET data (SUVmax, SUV mean) were acquired and target-to-background-ratios (T/B-ratio) were calculated for benign and malign lesions for both time points. Size of lymph nodes (LN) on diagnostic CT was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed for assessment of significant changes of semiquantitative PET-parameters over time and for correlation of size and uptake of lymph nodes. One hundred and four lesions were evaluated. Sixty lesions were referenced by histology or unequivocal CT findings, including eight (13.3 %) histopathologically benign lymph nodes, 12 (20 %) histopathologically lymph node metastases, 12 (20 %) primary tumors, three (5 %) local recurrences, and 25 (41.7 %) bone metastases. Forty-four lesions were axillary LN with normal CT-appearance. Benign lesions had significantly lower SUVmax and T/B-ratios compared with malignant findings. Malign lesions showed a significant increase of both parameters over time compared to benign findings. There was no correlation between LN size and SUVmax. The sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT regarding pelvic LN was 94 %, 99 %, 89 %, and 99.5 %, respectively. In contrast to benign tissues, the uptake of proven tumor lesions increases on {sup 68

  6. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  7. Stereoisomeric products of electrochemical reduction of heterocyclic Fischer aminocarbene Cr(0) complexes. Development of the electrochemistry-mass spectrometry tandem approach using biphasic (acetonitrile-hexane) preparative electrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Metelková, R.; Hoskovcová, I.; Polášek, Miroslav; Urban, Jiří; David, T.; Ludvík, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, APR 2015 (2015), s. 17-23 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/0727 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fischer aminocarbene complexes biphasic electrolysis * EC-MS * HPLC-NMR Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  8. Evaluation of parallel milliliter-scale stirred-tank bioreactors for the study of biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis with ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennewald, Danielle; Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    As clear structure-activity relationships are still rare for ionic liquids, preliminary experiments are necessary for the process development of biphasic whole-cell processes involving these solvents. To reduce the time investment and the material costs, the process development of such biphasic reaction systems would profit from a small-scale high-throughput platform. Exemplarily, the reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system was studied in a miniaturized stirred-tank bioreactor system allowing the parallel operation of up to 48 reactors at the mL-scale. The results were compared to those obtained in a 20-fold larger stirred-tank reactor. The maximum local energy dissipation was evaluated at the larger scale and compared to the data available for the small-scale reactors, to verify if similar mass transfer could be obtained at both scales. Thereafter, the reaction kinetics and final conversions reached in different reactions setups were analysed. The results were in good agreement between both scales for varying ionic liquids and for ionic liquid volume fractions up to 40%. The parallel bioreactor system can thus be used for the process development of the majority of biphasic reaction systems involving ionic liquids, reducing the time and resource investment during the process development of this type of applications. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Comparison of a soluble co-formulation of insulin degludec/insulin aspart vs biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niskanen, Leo; Leiter, Lawrence A; Franek, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a soluble co-formulation of insulin degludec (70%) and insulin aspart (IAsp: 30%). Here, we compare the efficacy and safety of IDegAsp, an alternative IDegAsp formulation (AF: containing 45% IAsp), and biphasic IAsp 30 (BIAsp 30)....

  10. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaokun [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Li, Teng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tang, Kan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhou, Xinpei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lu, Mi [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ounkham, Whalmany L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Spain, Stephen M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Frost, Brian J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lin, Hongfei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reaction mechanism is discussed.

  11. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    concentrations (less than 1 mM), QX-314 potently inhibited capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents with an IC₅₀ of 8.0 ± 0.6 μM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 exerts biphasic effects on TRPV1 channels, inhibiting capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents at lower...... channels. METHODS: The authors conducted an in vitro laboratory study in which they expressed TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and recorded cation currents with the two-electrode voltage clamp method. They used confocal microscopy for Ca²⁺ imaging in TRPV1 transient transfected tsA201...

  12. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  13. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  14. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: 12......-15 h., IV: 24-28 h. and V: 32-36 h. after removal of water and food. It was found that the PGE2 excretion rate changed in a biphasic pattern. During the first 2 experimental periods it increased. Thereafter it decreased towards the control value. There was an increase in PGE2 excretion with urinary...

  15. Amplification of a bi-phase shift-key modulated signal by a mm-wave FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Sheaffer, M.K.

    1991-10-01

    Bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) is a modulation scheme used in communications and radar in which the phase of a transmitted rf signal is switched in a coded pattern between discrete values differing by π radians. The transmitted information rate (in communications) or resolution (in imaging radar) depends on the rate at which the transmitted signal can be modulated. Modulation rates of greater than 1 GHz are generally desired. Although the instantaneous gain bandwidth of a mm-wave FEL amplifier can be much greater than 10 GHz, slippage may limit the BPSK modulation rate that can be amplified. Qualitative slippage arguments would limit the modulation rate to relatively low values; nevertheless, simulations with a time-dependent FEL code (GINGER) indicate that rates of 2 GHz or more are amplified without much loss in modulation integrity. In this paper we describe the effects of slippage in the simulations and discuss the limits of simple arguments

  16. The adhesion strength and residual stress of colloidal-sol gel derived β-Tricalcium-Phosphate/Fluoridated-Hydroxyapatite biphasic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Kui; Zhang, Sam; Weng Wenjian; Khor, Khiam Aik; Miao Shundong; Wang Yongsheng

    2008-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powders are embedded in a fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) matrix to form β-TCP-FHA composites via colloidal-sol gel method. This composite layer is deposited on top of a FHA layer to form a β-TCP-FHA/FHA biphasic coating. The effect of the nanosized powder on the residual stress is characterized through the X-ray diffraction peak shift. The powder incorporation increases the residual stress, while a large amount of β-TCP (Ca powder /Ca sol ratio is higher than 1/2) results in less gel shrinkage that partially compensates the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient and thus the residual stress. Despite the elevated residual stress as more powders are embedded, the coating adhesion strength remains virtually constant: around 430 mN-500 mN in scanning scratch test

  17. Structural and mechanical characterization of boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate produced by wet chemical method and subsequent thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Onder, E-mail: albayrakonder@mersin.edu.tr

    2016-03-15

    In the current study, boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics consisting of a mixture of boron doped hydroxyapatite (BHA) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) of varying BHA/β-TCP ratios were obtained after sintering stage. The effects of varying boron contents and different sintering temperatures on the BHA/β-TCP ratios and on the sinterability of the final products were investigated. Particle sizes and morphologies of the obtained precipitates were determined using SEM. XRD and FTIR investigation were conducted to detect the boron formation in the structure of HA and quantitative analysis was performed to determine the BHA/β-TCP ratio before and after sintering stage. In order to determine the sinterability of the obtained powders, pellets were prepared and sintered; the rates of densification were calculated and obtained results were correlated by SEM images. Also Vickers microhardness values of the sintered samples were determined. The experimental results verified that boron doped hydroxyapatite powders were obtained after sintering stage and the structure consists of a mixture of BHA and β-TCP. As the boron content used in the precipitation stage increases, β-TCP content of the BHA/β-TCP ratio increases but sinterability, density and microhardness deteriorate. As the sintering temperature increases, β-TCP content, density and microhardness of the samples increase and sinterability improves. - Highlights: • This is the first paper about boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics. • Boron doping affects the structural and mechanical properties. • BHA/β-TCP ratio can be adjustable with boron content and sintering temperature.

  18. Cancer: brain-regulated biphasic stress response induces cell growth or cell death to adapt to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.

  19. Distinct moieties underlie biphasic H+ gating of connexin43 channels, producing a pH optimum for intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciarena, Carolina D.; Malik, Akif; Swietach, Pawel; Moreno, Alonso P.; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Most mammalian cells can intercommunicate via connexin-assembled, gap-junctional channels. To regulate signal transmission, connexin (Cx) channel permeability must respond dynamically to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. One key stimulus is intracellular pH (pHi), which is modulated by a tissue’s metabolic and perfusion status. Our understanding of the molecular mechanism of H+ gating of Cx43 channels—the major isoform in the heart and brain—is incomplete. To interrogate the effects of acidic and alkaline pHi on Cx43 channels, we combined voltage-clamp electrophysiology with pHi imaging and photolytic H+ uncaging, performed over a range of pHi values. We demonstrate that Cx43 channels expressed in HeLa or N2a cell pairs are gated biphasically by pHi via a process that consists of activation by H+ ions at alkaline pHi and inhibition at more acidic pHi. For Cx43 channel–mediated solute/ion transmission, the ensemble of these effects produces a pHi optimum, near resting pHi. By using Cx43 mutants, we demonstrate that alkaline gating involves cysteine residues of the C terminus and is independent of motifs previously implicated in acidic gating. Thus, we present a molecular mechanism by which cytoplasmic acid–base chemistry fine tunes intercellular communication and establishes conditions for the optimal transmission of solutes and signals in tissues, such as the heart and brain.—Garciarena, C. D., Malik, A., Swietach, P., Moreno, A. P., Vaughan-Jones, R. D. Distinct moieties underlie biphasic H+ gating of connexin43 channels, producing a pH optimum for intercellular communication. PMID:29183963

  20. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fupo; Ren, Weiwei; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  1. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fupo, E-mail: fphebm@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Weiwei [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tian, Xiumei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmchenw@126.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4 week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vivo response of CC/PG and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was compared. • CC/PG showed faster in vitro degradation rate compared to BCP. • CC/PG showed less in vivo degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 4. • CC/PG had larger increment of degradation and bone formation than BCP at week 8.

  2. Biphasic Effect of Curcumin on Morphine Tolerance: A Preliminary Evidence from Cytokine/Chemokine Protein Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-An Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on morphine tolerance and the corresponding cytokine/chemokine changes. Male ICR mice were made tolerant to morphine by daily subcutaneous injection for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, low-dose or high-dose curcumin were administered 15 min after morphine injection, either acutely or chronically for 7 days to test the effect of curcumin on morphine-induced antinociception and development of morphine tolerance. On day 8, cumulative dose-response curves were generated and the 50% of maximal analgesic dose values were calculated and compared among groups. Corresponding set of mice were used for analyzing the cytokine responses by antibody-based cytokine protein array. Acute, high-dose curcumin enhanced morphine-induced antinociception. While morphine tolerance was attenuated by administration of low-dose curcumin following morphine injections for 7 days, it was aggravated by chronic high-dose curcumin following morphine injection, suggesting a biphasic effect of curcumin on morphine-induced tolerance. Of the 96 cytokine/chemokines analyzed by mouse cytokine protein array, 14 cytokines exhibited significant changes after the different 7-day treatments. Mechanisms for the modulatory effects of low-dose and high-dose curcumin on morphine tolerance were discussed. Even though curcumin itself is a neuroprotectant and low doses of the compound serve to attenuate morphine tolerance, high-doses of curcumin might cause neurotoxicity and aggravate morphine tolerance by inhibiting the expression of antiapoptotic cytokines and neuroprotective factors. Our results indicate that the effect of curcumin on morphine tolerance may be biphasic, and therefore curcumin should be used cautiously.

  3. TSDC and impedance spectroscopy measurements on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate biphasic bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezas, P. R.; Melo, B. M. G.; Costa, L. C.; Valente, M. A.; Lança, M. C.; Ventura, J. M. G.; Pinto, L. F. V.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Bone grafting and surgical interventions related with orthopaedic disorders consist in a big business, generating large revenues worldwide every year. There is a need to replace the biomaterials that currently still dominate this market, i.e., autografts and allografts, due to their disadvantages, such as limited availability, need for additional surgeries and diseases transmission possibilities. The most promising replacement materials are biomaterials with bioactive properties, such as the calcium phosphate-based bioceramics group. The bioactivity of these materials, i.e., the rate at which they promote the growth and directly bond with the new host biological bone, can be enhanced through their electrical polarization. In the present work, the electrical polarization features of pure hydroxyapatite (Hap), pure β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composites (HTCP) were analyzed by measuring thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC). The samples were thermoelectrically polarized at 500 °C under a DC electric field with a magnitude of 5 kV/cm. The biphasic samples were also polarized under electric fields with different magnitudes: 2, 3, 4 and 5 kV/cm. Additionally, the depolarization processes detected in the TSDC measurements were correlated with dielectric relaxation processes observed in impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements. The results indicate that the β-TCP crystalline phase has a considerable higher ability to store electrical charge compared with the Hap phase. This indicates that it has a suitable composition and structure for ionic conduction and establishment of a large electric charge density, providing great potential for orthopaedic applications.

  4. Biphase Cobalt-Manganese Oxide with High Capacity and Rate Performance for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Charles, Daniel S. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Xu, Wenqian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS). X-ray Science Division; Feygenson, Mikhail [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) outstation Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Teng, Xiaowei [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2017-11-22

    Manganese-based metal oxide electrode materials are of great importance in electrochemical energy storage for their favorable redox behavior, low cost and environmental-friendliness. However, their storage capacity and cycle life in aqueous Na-ion electrolytes is not satisfactory. In this paper, we report the development of a bi-phase cobalt-manganese oxide (Co-Mn-O) nanostructured electrode material, comprised of a layered MnO2.H2O birnessite phase and a (Co0.83Mn0.13Va0.04)tetra(Co0.38Mn1.62)octaO3.72 (Va: vacancy; tetra: tetrahedral sites; octa: octahedral sites) spinel phase, verified by neutron total scattering and pair distribution function analyses. The bi-phase Co-Mn-O material demonstrates an excellent storage capacity towards Na-ions in an aqueous electrolyte (121 mA h g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 in the half-cell and 81 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 after 5000 cycles in full-cells), as well as high rate performance (57 mA h g-1 a rate of 360 C). Electro-kinetic analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction measurements further confirm that the synergistic interaction between the spinel and layered phases, as well as the vacancy of the tetrahedral sites of spinel phase, contribute to the improved capacity and rate performance of the Co-Mn-O material by facilitating both diffusion-limited redox and capacitive charge storage processes.

  5. Biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30 in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Valensi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul ValensiDepartment of Endocrinology-Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Verdier Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Nord University, CRNH-IdF, Bondy, FranceAbstract: The pharmacological advantages of the rapid-acting analog, insulin aspart, over human insulin have contributed to the widespread prescription of the premix, biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30, in type 1 (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM. This article reviews the available literature on the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of BIAsp 30 in T1DM and T2DM from an online search of the PubMed database. Following injection, BIAsp 30 reaches higher plasma insulin levels more quickly than human premix or basal insulin, giving effective reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia. In T1DM patients, randomized controlled trials (RCTs have shown that HbA1c reduction is similar, but postprandial glycemic control is better, with BIAsp 30 than with human insulin regimens. In T2DM patients, lowering of HbA1c and postprandial hyperglycemia with BIAsp 30 compare favorably with optimized oral antidiabetes drug treatment, insulin glargine, and, in obese patients, human premix. An increase in minor hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 relative to basal insulin has been reported in T2DM patients, but major and nocturnal hypoglycemia rates are generally low. Findings from RCTs in T2DM patients are supported by large observational studies. In summary, BIAsp 30 once to three times daily represents a simple and effective tool for the modern management of diabetes.Keywords: biphasic insulin aspart, BIAsp 30, premix, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes

  6. Average current is better than peak current as therapeutic dosage for biphasic waveforms in a ventricular fibrillation pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Yu, Tao; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin

    2014-10-01

    Defibrillation current has been shown to be a clinically more relevant dosing unit than energy. However, the effects of average and peak current in determining shock outcome are still undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between average current, peak current and defibrillation success when different biphasic waveforms were employed. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in 22 domestic male pigs. Animals were then randomized to receive defibrillation using one of two different biphasic waveforms. A grouped up-and-down defibrillation threshold-testing protocol was used to maintain the average success rate of 50% in the neighborhood. In 14 animals (Study A), defibrillations were accomplished with either biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) or rectilinear biphasic waveforms. In eight animals (Study B), shocks were delivered using two BTE waveforms that had identical peak current but different waveform durations. Both average and peak currents were associated with defibrillation success when BTE and rectilinear waveforms were investigated. However, when pathway impedance was less than 90Ω for the BTE waveform, bivariate correlation coefficient was 0.36 (p=0.001) for the average current, but only 0.21 (p=0.06) for the peak current in Study A. In Study B, a high defibrillation success (67.9% vs. 38.8%, pcurrent (14.9±2.1A vs. 13.5±1.7A, pcurrent unchanged. In this porcine model of VF, average current was better than peak current to be an adequate parameter to describe the therapeutic dosage when biphasic defibrillation waveforms were used. The institutional protocol number: P0805. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heparin functionalization increases retention of TGF-β2 and GDF5 on biphasic silk fibroin scaffolds for tendon/ligament-to-bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Tellado, Sònia; Chiera, Silvia; Bonani, Walter; Poh, Patrina S P; Migliaresi, Claudio; Motta, Antonella; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2018-05-01

    The tendon/ligament-to-bone transition (enthesis) is a highly specialized interphase tissue with structural gradients of extracellular matrix composition, collagen molecule alignment and mineralization. These structural features are essential for enthesis function, but are often not regenerated after injury. Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for enthesis repair. Engineering of complex tissue interphases such as the enthesis is likely to require a combination of biophysical, biological and chemical cues to achieve functional tissue regeneration. In this study, we cultured human primary adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMCs) on biphasic silk fibroin scaffolds with integrated anisotropic (tendon/ligament-like) and isotropic (bone/cartilage like) pore alignment. We functionalized those scaffolds with heparin and explored their ability to deliver transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) and growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5). Heparin functionalization increased the amount of TGF-β2 and GDF5 remaining attached to the scaffold matrix and resulted in biological effects at low growth factor doses. We analyzed the combined impact of pore alignment and growth factors on AdMSCs. TGF-β2 and pore anisotropy synergistically increased the expression of tendon/ligament markers and collagen I protein content. In addition, the combined delivery of TGF-β2 and GDF5 enhanced the expression of cartilage markers and collagen II protein content on substrates with isotropic porosity, whereas enthesis markers were enhanced in areas of mixed anisotropic/isotropic porosity. Altogether, the data obtained in this study improves current understanding on the combined effects of biological and structural cues on stem cell fate and presents a promising strategy for tendon/ligament-to-bone regeneration. Regeneration of the tendon/ligament-to-bone interphase (enthesis) is of significance in the repair of ruptured tendons/ligaments to bone to improve implant integration and

  8. Parallel expression of synaptophysin and evoked neurotransmitter release during development of cultured neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Treiman, M; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1991-01-01

    Primary cultures of GABAergic cerebral cortex neurons and glutamatergic cerebellar granule cells were used to study the expression of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle marker protein, along with the ability of each cell type to release neurotransmitter upon stimulation. The synaptophysin expression...... by quantitative immunoblotting and light microscope immunocytochemistry, respectively. In both cell types, a close parallelism was found between the temporal pattern of development in synaptophysin expression and neurotransmitter release. This temporal pattern differed between the two types of neurons....... The cerebral cortex neurons showed a biphasic time course of increase in synaptophysin content, paralleled by a biphasic pattern of development in their ability to release [3H]GABA in response to depolarization by glutamate or elevated K+ concentrations. In contrast, a monophasic, approximately linear increase...

  9. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H 2 O 2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V 2 O 5 ) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  10. Study of the sensitising potential of various textile dyes using a biphasic murine local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, V; Platzek, T; Fink, H; Sonnenburg, A; Stahlmann, R

    2010-09-01

    Disperse dyes, which are suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres, are responsible for the great majority of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) cases to textile dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Briefly, mice were shaved over a surface of approximately 2 cm(2) on their backs and treated using a "sensitisation-challenge protocol". The shaved surface was treated once daily on days 1-3 with 50 microl of the test solution. Animals remained untreated on days 4-14. On days 15-17, mice were treated with 25 microl of the test solution on the dorsum of both ears. Mice were killed on day 19 with deep CO(2) anaesthesia, the lymph nodes prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations, were determined by flow cytometry. The results were compared to control group treated with the vehicle alone. Our results showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight. We also observed an increase in ear thickness and ear punch weight in most of the concentrations tested for various textile dyes. We observed a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells and an increase in CD19+, CD45+ and CD45+/1A+ cells in most of the cases, which is characteristic for allergens. The CD4+/CD69+ cells increased in only few experiments mainly with Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106. Based on our results, the disperse dyes could be arranged in four groups on the basis of their sensitising potency in the following decreasing order (in parenthesis: lowest concentration causing a significant increase in lymph node cell number): group 1, strong: Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106 (0.003%); group 2, moderate: Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Blue 1 (3%); group 3, weak: Disperse Orange 37 and

  11. A feasible process for furfural production from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of corncob via biochar catalysts in a new biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aojie; Lin, Qixuan; Yan, Yuhuan; Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Runcang

    2016-09-01

    A feasible approach was developed to produce furfural from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of corncob via biochar catalysts as the solid acid catalyst in a new biphasic system with dichloromethane (DCM) as the organic phase and the concentrated pre-hydrolysis liquor (CPHL) containing NaCl as the aqueous phase. The biochar catalyst possessing many acidity groups (SO3H, COOH and phenolic OH groups) was prepared by the carbonization and sulfonation process of the corncob hydrolyzed residue. The influence of the catalytic condition on furfural yield and selectivity was comparatively studied. It was found that 81.14% furfural yield and 83.0% furfural selectivity were obtained from CPHL containing 5wt% xylose using this biochar catalyst in the CPHL-NaCl/DCM biphasic system at 170°C for 60min. In addition, with the regeneration process, this catalyst displayed the high performance and excellent recyclability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  13. Comparative Efficacies of Collagen-Based 3D Printed PCL/PLGA/?-TCP Composite Block Bone Grafts and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kyoung-Sub; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Ho Yun; Jin, Songwan; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yun, Won-Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone regeneration and space maintaining ability of three-dimensional (3D) printed bone grafts with conventional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). After mixing polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in a 4:4:2 ratio, PCL/PLGA/?-TCP particulate bone grafts were fabricated using 3D printing technology. Fabricated particulate bone grafts were mixed with atelocollagen to produce collagen-based PCL/P...

  14. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mun-Hwan Lee; Changkook You; Kyo-Han Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell p...

  15. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  16. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  17. A promising tritium breeding material: Nanostructured 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chen; Yang, Mao; Gong, Yichao; Feng, Lan; Wang, Hailiang; Shi, Yanli; Shi, Qiwu; Qi, Jianqi; Lu, Tiecheng

    2018-03-01

    As an advanced tritium breeder material for the fusion reactor blanket of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic has attracted widely attention due to its merits. In this paper, the uniform precursor powders were prepared by hydrothermal method, and nanostructured 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 biphasic ceramic pebbles were fabricated by an indirect wet method at the first time. In addition, the composition dependence (x/y) of their microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that the crush load of biphasic ceramic pebbles was better than that of single phase ceramic pebbles under identical conditions. The 2Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 ceramic pebbles have good morphology, small grain size (90 nm), satisfactory crush load (37.8 N) and relative density (81.8 %T.D.), which could be a promising breeding material in the future fusion reactor.

  18. Facile synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate microspheres with engineered surface topography for controlled delivery of drugs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkesh, Ibrahim; Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Azami, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Baharvand, Hossein; Mohammadi, Javad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban

    2017-09-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) microspheres are of great interest due to their high stability and osteoinductive properties at specific compositions. However, the need for optimal performance at a unique composition limits their flexibility for tuning drug release by modulation of bulk properties and presents the question of engineering surface topography as an alternative. It is necessary to have a facile method to control surface topography at a defined bulk composition. Here, we have produced BCP microspheres with different surface topographies that have the capability to be used as tunable drug release systems. We synthesized calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) microparticles by precipitating calcium and phosphate ions onto ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) templates. The morphology and surface topography of CDHA microparticles were controlled using process parameters, which governed nucleation and growth. These parameters included template concentration, heat rate, and stirring speed. Under low heat rate and static conditions, we could obtain spherical microparticles with long and short nanosheets on their surfaces at low and high EDTA concentrations, respectively. These nanostructured microspheres were subsequently crystallized by thermal treatment to produce EDTA-free BCP microspheres with intact morphology. These biocompatible BCP microspheres were highly effective in loading and prolonged release of both small molecule [dexamethasone (Dex)] and protein [bovine serum albumin (BSA)] models. This strategy has enabled us to control the surface topography of BCP microspheres at defined compositions and holds tremendous promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biphasic Estradiol-induced AKT Phosphorylation Is Modulated by PTEN via MAP Kinase in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo; Trentalance, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We reported previously in HepG2 cells that estradiol induces cell cycle progression throughout the G1–S transition by the parallel stimulation of both PKC-α and ERK signaling molecules. The analysis of the cyclin D1 gene expression showed that only the MAP kinase pathway was involved. Here, the presence of rapid/nongenomic, estradiol-regulated, PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, its modulation by the levels of the tumor suppressor PTEN, its cross-talk with the ERK pathway, and its involvement in DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 gene promoter activity have all been studied in HepG2 cells. 17β-Estradiol induced the rapid and biphasic phosphorylation of AKT. These phosphorylations were independent of each other, being the first wave of activation independent of the estrogen receptor (ER), whereas the second was dependent on ER. Both activations were dependent on PI3K activity; furthermore, the ERK pathway modulated AKT phosphorylation by acting on the PTEN levels. The results showed that the PI3K pathway, as well as ER, were strongly involved in both G1–S progression and cyclin D1 promoter activity by acting on its proximal region (-254 base pairs). These data indicate that in HepG2 cells, different rapid/nongenomic estradiol-induced signal transduction pathways modulate the multiple steps of G1–S phase transition. PMID:12808053

  20. Synthesis of bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Liu, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao; Fang, Ning; Wang, Xian-Hong; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified nanoemulsion process using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles were studied by TEM/HRTEM and XRD. The nanoparticles manifest soft ferromagnetic and/or near superparamagnetic behavior with a small coercivity of ~19 Oe at room temperature. The corresponding magnetic hysteresis curves were elucidated by the modified Langevin equation. The FTIR study confirms the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules on the surface of the nanoparticles. The UV-vis and PL results reveal the well-behaved absorption bands including surface plasmon resonance and multiple visible fingerprint photoluminescent emissions of the nanoparticles dispersed in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents. Moreover, the processes of solvent dispersion-collection of the nanoparticles were demonstrated for application readiness of such core-shell nanostructures.

  1. Investigation of structural resorption behavior of biphasic bioceramics with help of gravimetry, μCT, SEM, and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Michael; Amacher, Fabienne; Bradbury, Christopher R; Molenberg, Aart

    2016-04-01

    Resorbable bone substitute materials are widely used for bone augmentation after tumor resection, parallel to implant placement, or in critical size bone defects. In this study, the structural dissolution of a biphasic calcium phosphate bone substitute material with a hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratio of 60/40 was investigated by repeatedly placing porous blocks in EDTA solution at 37 °C. At several time points, the blocks were investigated by SEM, µCT, and gravimetry. It was found that always complete 2-3 µm sized grains were removed from the structure and that the β-TCP is dissolved more rapidly. This selective dissolution of the β-TCP grains was confirmed by XRD measurements. The blocks were eroded from the outside toward the center. The structure remained mechanically stable because the central part showed a delayed degradation and because the slower dissolving HA grains preserved the integrity of the structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analyzing the effects of instillation volume on intravesical delivery using biphasic solute transport in a deformable geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean G; Griffith, Boyce E; Zaharoff, David A

    2018-04-05

    Ailments of the bladder are often treated via intravesical delivery-direct application of therapeutic into the bladder through a catheter. This technique is employed hundreds of thousands of times every year, but protocol development has largely been limited to empirical determination. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of intravesical delivery performed to date have been restricted to static geometries and have not accounted for bladder deformation. This study uses a finite element analysis approach with biphasic solute transport to investigate several parameters pertinent to intravesical delivery including solute concentration, solute transport properties and instillation volume. The volume of instillation was found to have a substantial impact on the exposure of solute to the deeper muscle layers of the bladder, which are typically more difficult to reach. Indeed, increasing the instillation volume from 50-100 ml raised the muscle solute exposure as a percentage of overall bladder exposure from 60-70% with higher levels achieved for larger instillation volumes. Similar increases were not seen for changes in solute concentration or solute transport properties. These results indicate the role that instillation volume may play in targeting particular layers of the bladder during an intravesical delivery.

  3. The biphasic effect of extracellular glucose concentration on carbachol-induced fluid secretion from mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terachi, Momomi; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Sugita, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Cholinergic agonists evoke elevations of the cytoplasmic free-calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) to stimulate fluid secretion in salivary glands. Salivary flow rates are significantly reduced in diabetic patients. However, it remains elusive how salivary secretion is impaired in diabetes. Here, we used an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique to characterize the dependency of salivary flow rates on extracellular glucose concentration and activities of glucose transporters expressed in the glands. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced sustained fluid secretion, the rates of which were modulated by the extracellular glucose concentration in a biphasic manner. Both lowering the extracellular glucose concentration to less than 2.5 mM and elevating it to higher than 5 mM resulted in decreased CCh-induced fluid secretion. The CCh-induced salivary flow was suppressed by phlorizin, an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) located basolaterally in submandibular acinar cells, which is altered at the protein expression level in diabetic animal models. Our data suggest that SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake in acinar cells is required to maintain the fluid secretion by sustaining Cl - secretion in real-time. High extracellular glucose levels may suppress the CCh-induced secretion of salivary fluid by altering the activities of ion channels and transporters downstream of [Ca 2+ ] i signals. © 2018 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets for visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Raja, V.; Shiamala, L.; Jaffar Ali, B. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present characterization of biphasic TiO2 nanoparticles and its graphene nanocomposite synthesized by cost effective, hydrothermal method. The structural properties and morphology of the samples were characterized by series of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Introducing high surface area graphene could suppress the electron hole pair recombination rate in the nanocomposite. Further, the nanocomposite shows red-shift of the absorption edge and contract of the band gap from 2.98 eV to 2.85 eV. We have characterized its photocatalytic activity under natural sunlight and UV filtered sunlight irradiation. Data reveal graphene-TiO2 composite exhibit about 15 and 3.5 folds increase in degradability of Congo red and Methylene Blue dyes, respectively, comparison to pristine TiO2. This underscores the marginal effect of UV component of sunlight on the degradation ability of composite, implying its increased efficiency in harnessing visible region of solar spectrum. We have thus developed a visible light active graphene composite catalyst that can degrade both cationic and anionic dyes and making it potentially useful in environmental remediation and water splitting applications, under direct sunlight.

  5. Azolla along a phosphorus gradient: biphasic growth response linked to diazotroph traits and phosphorus-induced iron chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmink, Ralph J M; Harpenslager, Sarah F; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Dijk, Gijs; Peters, Roy C J H; Lamers, Leon P M; van Kempen, Monique M L

    2018-03-13

    Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N 2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l -1 . Diazotrophic N sequestration increased upon P addition, and rates were three times higher at high P than at low P. At 10 µmol P l -1 , N sequestration rates reached its maximum and A. filiculoides growth became saturated. Due to luxury consumption, P sequestration rates increased until 50 µmol P l -1 . At higher P concentrations (≥50 µmol l -1 ), however, chlorosis occurred that seems to be caused by iron- (Fe-), and not by N-deficiency. We demonstrate that traits of the complete symbiosis in relation to P and Fe availability determine plant performance, stressing the role of nutrient stoichiometry. The results are discussed regarding Azolla's potential use in a bio-based economy.

  6. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webler, Geovana D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano [Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Fonseca, Eduardo J.S., E-mail: eduardo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity.

  7. Involuntary movements and coma as the prognostic marker for acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyoung; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torio, Michiko; Kaku, Noriyuki; Ichimiya, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Soichi; Baba, Haruhisa; Sakai, Yasunari; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Kira, Ryutaro; Hara, Toshiro; Ohga, Shouichi

    2016-11-15

    Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) occurs in children associated with infection. It is characterized by a prolonged febrile seizure in the first phase, and a cluster of seizures, deterioration of consciousness and the white matter lesions with reduced diffusion in the second phase. The patients often have severe neurological sequelae, but the prognostic indicators remain unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of AESD patients who subsequently exhibited severe neurological sequelae. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings along with the brain imaging in patients who had severe (n=8) and non-severe neurodevelopmental outcomes (n=12). Severe group more frequently showed coma (p=0.014) or involuntary movements including dystonia and oral dyskinesia (p=0.018) before the second phase than non-severe group. Severe group exhibited higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase than non-severe group (p=0.001). Quantitatively assessed MRI in the second phase revealed that severe group had more extensive lesions than non-severe group, in the anterior (p=0.015) and posterior parts (p=0.011) of the cerebrum and basal ganglia (p=0.020). Early appearing involuntary movements or coma might account for the extension of acute brain lesions and the poor neurological outcomes in AESD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Non steady-state descriptions of drug permeation through stratum corneum. I. The biphasic brick-and-mortar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, M; Lieckfeldt, R; Wittum, G; Mazurkevich, G; Lee, G

    1996-03-01

    The diffusion equation should be solved for the non-steady-state problem of drug diffusion within a two-dimensional, biphasic stratum corneum membrane having homogeneous lipid and corneocyte phases. A numerical method was developed for a brick-and-mortar SC-geometry, enabling an explicit solution for time-dependent drug concentration within both phases. The lag time and permeability were calculated. It is shown how the barrier property of this model membrane depends on relative phase permeability, corneocyte alignment, and corneocyte-lipid partition coefficient. Additionally, the time-dependent drug concentration profiles within the membrane can be observed during the lag and steady-state phases. The model SC-membrane predicts, from purely morphological principles, lag times and permeabilities that are in good agreement with experimental values. The long lag times and very small permeabilities reported for human SC can only be predicted for a highly-staggered corneocyte geometry and corneocytes that are 1000 times less permeable than the lipid phase. Although the former conclusion is reasonable, the latter is questionable. The elongated, flattened corneocyte shape renders lag time and permeability insensitive to large changes in their alignment within the SC. Corneocyte/lipid partitioning is found to be fundamentally different to SC/donor partitioning, since increasing drug lipophilicity always reduces both lag time and permeability.

  9. Biphasic regulation of intracellular calcium by gemfibrozil contributes to inhibiting L6 myoblast differentiation: implications for clinical myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Yang, Julin; Gonzalez, Frank J; Cheng, Gary Q; Dai, Renke

    2011-02-18

    Gemfibrozil is the most myotoxic fibrate drug commonly used for dyslipidemia, but the mechanism is poorly understood. The current study revealed that gemfibrozil inhibits myoblast differentiation through the regulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) as revealed in L6 myoblasts by use of laser scan confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using Fluo-4 AM as a probe. Gemfibrozil at 20-400 μM, could regulate [Ca(2+)]i in L6 cells in a biphasic manner, and sustained reduction was observed when the concentration reached 200 μM. Inhibition of L6 differentiation by gemfibrozil was concentration-dependent with maximal effect noted between 200 and 400 μM, as indicated by creatine kinase activities and the differentiation index, respectively. In differentiating L6 myoblasts, gemfibrozil at concentrations below 400 μM led to no significant signs of apoptosis or cytotoxicity, whereas differentiation, inhibited by 200 μM gemfibrozil, was only partially recovered. A good correlation was noted between gemfibrozil concentrations that regulate [Ca(2+)]i and inhibit L6 myoblasts differentiation, and both are within the range of total serum concentrations found in the clinic. These data suggest a potential pharmacodynamic effect of gemfibrozil on myogenesis as a warning sign, in addition to the complex pharmacokinetic interactions. It is also noteworthy that mobilization of [Ca(2+)]i by gemfibrozil may trigger complex biological responses besides myocyte differentiation. Information revealed in this study explores the mechanism of gemfibrozil-induced myotoxicity through the regulation of intracellular calcium.

  10. Engineering amount of cell-cell contact demonstrates biphasic proliferative regulation through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Darren S.; Liu, Wendy F.; Shen, Colette J.; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cell-cell contact via VE-cadherin plays an important role in regulating numerous cell functions, including proliferation. However, using different experimental approaches to manipulate cell-cell contact, investigators have observed both inhibition and stimulation of proliferation depending on the adhesive context. In this study, we used micropatterned wells combined with active positioning of cells by dielectrophoresis in order to investigate whether the number of contacting neighbors affected the proliferative response. Varying cell-cell contact resulted in a biphasic effect on proliferation; one contacting neighbor increased proliferation, while two or more neighboring cells partially inhibited this increase. We also observed that cell-cell contact increased the formation of actin stress fibers, and that expression of dominant negative RhoA (RhoN19) blocked the contact-mediated increase in stress fibers and proliferation. Furthermore, examination of heterotypic pairs of untreated cells in contact with RhoN19-expressing cells revealed that intracellular, but not intercellular, tension is required for the contact-mediated stimulation of proliferation. Moreover, engagement of VE-cadherin with cadherin-coated beads was sufficient to stimulate proliferation in the absence of actual cell-cell contact. In all, these results demonstrate that cell-cell contact signals through VE-cadherin, RhoA, and intracellular tension in the actin cytoskeleton to regulate proliferation

  11. Mechanism of biphasic charge recombination and accumulation in TiO2 mesoporous structured perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yi; Wang, Yi; Yu, Man; Han, Jun; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Qin, Yujun

    2016-04-28

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells are becoming the next big thing in the photovoltaic field owing to their rapidly developing photoelectric conversion performance. Herein, mesoporous structured perovskite devices with various perovskite grain sizes are fabricated by a sequential dropping method, and the charge recombination dynamics is investigated by transient optical-electric measurements. All devices exhibit an overall power conversion efficiency around 15%. More importantly, a biphasic trap-limited charge recombination process is proposed and interpreted by taking into account the specific charge accumulation mechanism in perovskite solar cells. At low Fermi levels, photo-generated electrons predominately populate in the perovskite phase, while at high Fermi levels, most electrons occupy traps in mesoporous TiO2. As a result, the dynamics of charge recombination is, respectively, dominated by the perovskite phase and mesoporous TiO2 in these two cases. The present work would give a new perspective on the charge recombination process in meso-structured perovskite solar cells.

  12. Biphasic regulation of development of the high-affinity saxitoxin receptor by innervation in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.J.; Catterall, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Specific binding of 3 H-saxitoxin (STX) was used to quantitate the density of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. In adult triceps surae, a single class of sites with a KD . 2.9 nM and a density of 21 fmol/mg wet wt was detected. The density of these high-affinity sites increased from 2.0 fmol/mg wet wt to the adult value in linear fashion during days 2-25 after birth. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 11 or 17 reduced final saxitoxin receptor site density to 10.4 or 9.2 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively, without changing KD. Denervation of the triceps surae at day 5 did not alter the subsequent development of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 5-9 and accelerated the increase of saxitoxin receptor sites during days 9-13. After day 13, saxitoxin receptor development abruptly ceased and the density of saxitoxin receptor sites declined to 11 fmol/wg wet wt. These results show that the regulation of high-affinity saxitoxin receptor site density by innervation is biphasic. During the first phase, which is independent of continuing innervation, the saxitoxin receptor density increases to 47-57% of the adult level. After day 11, the second phase of development, which is dependent on continuing innervation, gives rise to the adult density of saxitoxin receptors

  13. A fast quadrature-based numerical method for the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic model of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebner, Michael; Haider, Mansoor A

    2010-06-18

    A new and efficient method for numerical solution of the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) model of articular cartilage is presented. Development of the method is based on a composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature approximation of the continuous spectrum relaxation function that leads to an exponential series representation. The separability property of the exponential terms in the series is exploited to develop a numerical scheme that can be reduced to an update rule requiring retention of the strain history at only the previous time step. The cost of the resulting temporal discretization scheme is O(N) for N time steps. Application and calibration of the method is illustrated in the context of a finite difference solution of the one-dimensional confined compression BPVE stress-relaxation problem. Accuracy of the numerical method is demonstrated by comparison to a theoretical Laplace transform solution for a range of viscoelastic relaxation times that are representative of articular cartilage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biphasic fluence-response curves for phytochrome-mediated kalanchoë seed germination : sensitization by gibberellic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, R; Dedonder, A; De Petter, E; Van Wiemeersch, L; Fredericq, H; De Greef, J; Steyaert, H; Stevens, H

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA(3)) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA(3) induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA(3) concentration. GA(3) having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA(3) appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal.

  15. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Geovana D.; Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano; Fonseca, Eduardo J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity

  16. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Suk Moon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assay (14 days of incubation and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P<0.05. Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose.

  17. Parametric response mapping of contrast-enhanced biphasic CT for evaluating tumour viability of hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Kaercher, Daniel; Hasdemir, Davut; Kaireit, Till; Lutat, Carolin; Meyer, Bernhard C.; Wacker, Frank K.; Rodt, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Murray, Tim [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Vogel, Arndt [Hannover Medical School, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the feasibility and role of parametric response mapping (PRM) for quantitative assessment of regional contrast-enhancement patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Biphasic CT of 19 patients receiving repetitive conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE) for intermediate stage HCC were retrospectively analysed at baseline and follow-up at 3, 6, and 9 months. Voxel-based registration of arterial and porto-venous phases, with segmentation of the largest target lesion was performed. Frequency distribution plots of density-pairs of segmented voxels were generated. To differentiate necrotic, hypervascular and non-hypervascular tumour, and lipiodol/calcification, thresholds of 30, 100, and 300 HU were applied. Changes in density frequency plots over time were analysed and compared to response and assessment criteria (WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST) and survival. PRM was feasible in all cases. Tumour volumes and hypervascular/non-hypervascular volume ratio showed significant longitudinal decrease (p < 0.05). Hypervascular volume at baseline was inversely correlated to survival (R = -0.57, p = 0.005). The only predictive parameter following cTACE to show significant survival difference was the change of the viable/non-viable ratio (p = 0.044), whereas common response assessment criteria showed no significant difference in survival. PRM allows a quantitative and more precise assessment of regional tumour vascularisation patterns and may be helpful for TACE treatment planning and response assessment. (orig.)

  18. Biphasic effect of oxygen radicals on prostaglandin production by rat mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.; Stahl, R.A.K.; Baker, P.J.; Chen, Y.P.; Pritzl, P.M.; Couser, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured rat mesangial cells were exposed to a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system (xanthine plus xanthine oxidase) to explore the effect of ROS on their metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). Cell viability, as assessed by 51 Cr release, was not affected by the concentrations of xanthine plus xanthine oxidase used. Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production following exposure to increasing quantities of xanthine plus xanthine oxidase was significantly decreased when cells were stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 or AA. Maximum suppression of production was seen within 10 min of ROS exposure. Thromboxane B 2 production was similarly decreased. This effect was reversed by addition of catalase to the ROS generating system but not by superoxide dismutase or mannitol, which suggested that H 2 O 2 was the responsible metabolite. High levels of H 2 O 2 suppressed PGE 2 production. Lower levels of H 2 O 2 resulted in significant stimulation of base-line PGE 2 production. Analysis of release of 3 H]AA-labeled metabolites from A23187-stimulated cells showed no effect of H 2 O 2 on phospholipase activity. Thus ROS can stimulate or inhibitor AA metabolism in the glomerular mesangium, which may have important effects on glomerular hemodynamics during glomerular injury

  19. Biphasic Finite Element Modeling Reconciles Mechanical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Constructs Across Testing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Gregory R; Fisher, Matthew B; Stoeckl, Brendan D; Dodge, George R; Mauck, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a promising treatment for osteoarthritis, and the field has progressed toward utilizing large animal models for proof of concept and preclinical studies. Mechanical testing of the regenerative tissue is an essential outcome for functional evaluation. However, testing modalities and constitutive frameworks used to evaluate in vitro grown samples differ substantially from those used to evaluate in vivo derived samples. To address this, we developed finite element (FE) models (using FEBio) of unconfined compression and indentation testing, modalities commonly used for such samples. We determined the model sensitivity to tissue radius and subchondral bone modulus, as well as its ability to estimate material parameters using the built-in parameter optimization tool in FEBio. We then sequentially tested agarose gels of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% weight/weight using a custom indentation platform, followed by unconfined compression. Similarly, we evaluated the ability of the model to generate material parameters for living constructs by evaluating engineered cartilage. Juvenile bovine mesenchymal stem cells were seeded (2 × 10 7 cells/mL) in 1% weight/volume hyaluronic acid hydrogels and cultured in a chondrogenic medium for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Samples were planed and tested sequentially in indentation and unconfined compression. The model successfully completed parameter optimization routines for each testing modality for both acellular and cell-based constructs. Traditional outcome measures and the FE-derived outcomes showed significant changes in material properties during the maturation of engineered cartilage tissue, capturing dynamic changes in functional tissue mechanics. These outcomes were significantly correlated with one another, establishing this FE modeling approach as a singular method for the evaluation of functional engineered and native tissue regeneration, both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  1. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  2. A multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the efficacy of escalating higher biphasic versus low biphasic energy defibrillations in patients presenting with cardiac arrest in the in-hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkataraman Anantharaman,1 Seow Yian Tay,2 Peter George Manning,3 Swee Han Lim,1 Terrance Siang Jin Chua,4 Mohan Tiru,5 Rabind Antony Charles,1 Vidya Sudarshan1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 3Emergency Medicine Department, National University Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre, 5Accident and Emergency Department, Changi General Hospital, Singapore Background: Biphasic defibrillation has been practiced worldwide for >15 years. Yet, consensus does not exist on the best energy levels for optimal outcomes when used in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT.Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 235 adult cardiac arrest patients with VF/VT was conducted in the emergency and cardiology departments. One group received low-energy (LE shocks at 150–150–150 J and the other escalating higher-energy (HE shocks at 200–300–360 J. If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was not achieved by the third shock, LE patients crossed over to the HE arm and HE patients continued at 360 J. Primary end point was ROSC. Secondary end points were 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival.Results: Both groups were comparable for age, sex, cardiac risk factors, and duration of collapse and VF/VT. Of the 118 patients randomized to the LE group, 48 crossed over to the HE protocol, 24 for persistent VF, and 24 for recurrent VF. First-shock termination rates for HE and LE patients were 66.67% and 64.41%, respectively (P=0.78, confidence interval: 0.65–1.89. First-shock ROSC rates were 25.64% and 29.66%, respectively (P=0.56, confidence interval: 0.46–1.45. The 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival rates were 85.71%, 74.29%, and 62.86% for first-shock ROSC LE patients and 70.00%, 50.00%, and 46.67% for first-shock ROSC HE patients, respectively. Conversion rates for further shocks at 200 J and

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  4. Effect of combined treatments of pepleomycin with x-ray in cultured cells of a mouse squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Masahiko; Wakamatsu, Yoshiko; Sairenji, Eiko; Ohara, Hirosi.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured SQ-1979 cells of C3H mouse squamous cell carcinomas in logarithmic growth phase were treated with either pepleomycin (PEP) or bleomycin (BLM), alone or in combination with X-rays. The lethal effect of PEP on the SQ cells was greater than that of BLM. The survival curves of the cells were biphasic at concentrations examined (5 to 60 μg/ml) of PEP. The survival depended on the concentration and treatment time up to 3 hr. The cells treated with BLM showed biphasic survival curves also. Regarding combined effects of either PEP or BLM and X-rays, there was no significant difference in the survival curves between the group with X-rays and the group with X-rays and drug. When a drug was given 4 hr after exposure to X-rays rather than before that, synergistic action of the drug and X-rays was attained. This was marked for PEP. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  6. Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Shahbazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT). We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen. Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups. Forty-eight patients (23 males, 25 females, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase. The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients

  7. Biphasic activation of liver regeneration-associated signals in an early stage after portal vein branch ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Kawai, Toru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Nagino, Masato; Oda, Koji; Nimura, Yuji; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    At an early stage in liver regeneration, a variety of factors including transcriptional factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and proto-oncogenes are activated or expressed. However, these responses are affected by surgical stress in the conventional portal vein branch ligation model (PVL). We sought to determine the net activation of early regeneration-associated signals after PVL using a newly developed non-surgical stress PVL model. Male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups, a stress-PVL (sPVL) model with laparotomy and portal vein branch ligation, and a non-stress-PVL (nsPVL) one subjected to portal vein branch ligation 1 week after laparotomy in which the effects of surgical stress were subsided. The activation of transcriptional factors and expression of immediate early genes were analyzed at an early time point (within 24 h) by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. A monophasic upregulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) peaked at 3 h after sPVL was observed. In contrast, the expression pattern of these factors was biphasic (first peak at 0.5-1 h, second peak at 3-6 h) in nsPVL group. The expression pattern of immediate early genes showed a similar trend between sPVL and nsPVL. cDNA array analysis for the non-ligated lobe at 2 h after PVL revealed a much higher gene activation in sPVL than in nsPVL. These results indicate that previously observed activation pattern of regeneration-associated signals after PVL is significantly affected by the effect of laparotomy and our results using nsPVL model may more accurately represent liver regeneration-associated signal pattern

  8. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramonian, S.; Sivakumar, D.; Kumar, Shekhar; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-01-01

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  9. Biphasic functional regulation in hippocampus of rat with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Bang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO in rats has been commonly used for the study of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Despite the apparent cognitive dysfunction in rats with BCCAO, the molecular markers or pathways involved in the pathological alternation have not been clearly identified. METHODS: Temporal changes (sham, 21, 35, 45, 55 and 70 days in gene expression in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO were measured using time-course microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analyses were performed to identify the functional involvement of temporally regulated genes in BCCAO. RESULTS: Two major gene expression patterns were observed in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO. One pattern, which was composed of 341 early up-regulated genes after the surgical procedure, was dominantly involved in immune-related biological functions (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.01. Another pattern composed of 182 temporally delayed down-regulated genes was involved in sensory perception such as olfactory and cognition functions (FDR<0.01. In addition to the two gene expression patterns, the temporal change of GO and the pathway activities using all differentially expressed genes also confirmed that an immune response was the main early change, whereas sensory functions were delayed responses. Moreover, we identified FADD and SOCS3 as possible core genes in the sensory function loss process using text-based mining and interaction network analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The biphasic regulatory mechanism first reported here could provide molecular evidence of BCCAO-induced impaired memory in rats as well as mechanism of the development of vascular dementia.

  10. Aqueous biphasic systems containing PEG-based deep eutectic solvents for high-performance partitioning of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Yang, Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, 16 kinds of novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and quaternary ammonium salts, were coupled with Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs) to extract RNA. The phase forming ability of ABSs were comprehensively evaluated, involving the effects of various proportions of DESs' components, carbon chain length and anions species of quaternary ammonium salts, average molecular weights of PEG and inorganic salts nature. Then the systems were applied in RNA extraction, and the results revealed that the extraction efficiency values were distinctly enhanced by relatively lower PEG content in DESs, smaller PEG molecular weights, longer carbon chain of quaternary ammonium salts and more hydrophobic inorganic salts. Then the systems composed of [TBAB][PEG600] and Na 2 SO 4 were utilized in the influence factor experiments, proving that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant force for RNA extraction. Therefore, back-extraction efficiency values ranging between 85.19% and 90.78% were obtained by adjusting the ionic strength. Besides, the selective separation of RNA and tryptophane (Trp) was successfully accomplished. It was found that 86.19% RNA was distributed in the bottom phase, while 72.02% Trp was enriched in the top phase in the novel ABSs. Finally, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to further investigate the extraction mechanism. The proposed method reveals the outstanding feasibility of the newly developed ABSs formed by PEG-based DESs and inorganic salts for the green extraction of RNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian Felix; Fasser, Mariette; Polzer, Hans; Sieb, Michael; Regauer, Markus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias; Blauth, Michael

    2013-01-14

    Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. 60 patients, aged 18-40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for

  12. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumbach Sebastian Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various

  13. Methyl jasmonate-induced emission of biogenic volatiles is biphasic in cucumber: a high-resolution analysis of dose dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifan; Ye, Jiayan; Li, Shuai; Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-07-20

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a key airborne elicitor activating jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways, including induction of stress-related volatile emissions, but how the magnitude and timing of these emissions scale with MeJA dose is not known. Treatments with exogenous MeJA concentrations ranging from mild (0.2 mM) to lethal (50 mM) were used to investigate quantitative relationships among MeJA dose and the kinetics and magnitude of volatile release in Cucumis sativus by combining high-resolution measurements with a proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and GC-MS. The results highlighted biphasic kinetics of elicitation of volatiles. The early phase, peaking in 0.1-1 h after the MeJA treatment, was characterized by emissions of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway volatiles and methanol. In the subsequent phase, starting in 6-12 h and reaching a maximum in 15-25 h after the treatment, secondary emissions of LOX compounds as well as emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were elicited. For both phases, the maximum emission rates and total integrated emissions increased with applied MeJA concentration. Furthermore, the rates of induction and decay, and the duration of emission bursts were positively, and the timing of emission maxima were negatively associated with MeJA dose for LOX compounds and terpenoids, except for the duration of the first LOX burst. These results demonstrate major effects of MeJA dose on the kinetics and magnitude of volatile response, underscoring the importance of biotic stress severity in deciphering the downstream events of biological impacts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  15. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 ∼ 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic

  16. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J.; Chen, L. F.; Wang, J. A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H2O2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V5+/(V4+ + V5+) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V2O5) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V2O5/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  17. A bidirectional association between the gut microbiota and CNS disease in a biphasic murine model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Sara L; Kasper, Eli J; Keever, Abigail; Liljenberg, Caleb; Kirby, Trevor; Magori, Krisztian; Kasper, Lloyd H; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier

    2017-11-02

    The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS). This non-obese diabetic (NOD) model of EAE develops a biphasic pattern of disease that more closely resembles the human condition when transitioning from relapsing-remitting (RR)-MS to SP-MS. We compared the gut microbiome of NOD mice with either mild or severe disease to that of non-immunized control mice. We found that the mice which developed a severe secondary form of EAE harbored a dysbiotic gut microbiome when compared with the healthy control mice. Furthermore, we evaluated whether treatment with a cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics would modify the outcome of the progressive stage of EAE in the NOD model. Our results indicated reduced mortality and clinical disease severity in mice treated with antibiotics compared with untreated mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that there are reciprocal effects between experimental CNS inflammatory demyelination and modification of the microbiome providing a foundation for the establishment of early therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiome that could potentially limit disease progression.

  18. Aqueous biphasic systems composed of ionic liquids and sodium carbonate as enhanced routes for the extraction of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos F C; Mourão, Teresa; Neves, Catarina M S S; Lima, Alvaro S; Boal-Palheiros, Isabel; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) using ionic liquids (ILs) offer an alternative approach for the extraction, recovery, and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two aqueous liquid phases. In this work, the ability of a wide range of ILs to form ABS with aqueous solutions of Na2 CO3 was evaluated. The ABS formed by IL + water + Na2 CO3 were determined at 25°C, and the respective solubility curves, tie-lines, and tie-line lengths are reported. The studied ILs share the common chloride anion, allowing the IL cation core, the cation isomerism, the presence of functionalized groups, and alkyl side chain length effects to be evaluated. An increase in the cation side alkyl chain length leads to a higher ability for liquid-liquid demixing whereas different positional isomers and the presence of an allyl group have no major influence in the phase diagrams behavior. Quaternary phosphonium- and ammonium-based fluids are more able to form an ABS when compared with imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidium-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of an aromatic cation core has no major contribution to the formation of ABS when compared to the respective nonaromatic counterparts. Finally, to appraise on the systems applicability in downstream processing, selected systems were used for the partitioning of tetracyclines (neutral and salt forms) - a class of antibiotics produced by bacteria fermentation. Single-step extraction efficiencies for the IL-rich phase were always higher than 99% and confirm the great potential of ILs to be applied in the biotechnological field. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Mechanisms and rules of anion partition into ionic liquids: phenolate ions in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-19

    It is important to understand the mechanisms and general rules of ion partitioning in hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL)/water biphasic systems in order to predict the extractability of an ionic species with various ILs. In this study, we have investigated the partition of picrate ion (target anion, T(-)) from aqueous sodium picrate solutions into several ILs and the accompanying changes in aqueous concentrations of the IL component cation (C(+)) and anion (A(-)) at 298.2 K. The main ILs examined are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) decreased and increased, respectively, with the extraction of T(-) into the IL phase. From the standpoint of equilibrium, the partition behavior of T(-) can be explained both by the anion exchange with A(-) in the IL phase and by the ion pair extraction with C(+) in the aqueous phase. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) are governed by the solubility product of the IL (K(sp)). The distribution ratio of T(-) is expressed as a function of Δ[T(-)](W), namely, the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(-) in the aqueous phase; the distribution ratio of T(-) is nearly constant when Δ[T(-)](W) < K(sp)(1/2), but decreases with increasing Δ[T(-)](W) in the larger Δ[T(-)](W) region. The equilibrium constants of the ion pair extraction and the ion exchange extraction have been determined for picrate and other phenolate ions whose partition data were previously reported. The dependences of the extraction constants and extractability on the kinds of IL component ions can be quantitatively explained on the basis of the variations of K(sp).

  20. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  1. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  2. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  3. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  4. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  5. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are

  6. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  7. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease

  8. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. ► Endothelial VEGFR levels are

  9. Development of Bi-phase sodium-oxygen-hydrogen chemical equilibrium calculation program (BISHOP) using Gibbs free energy minimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi

    1999-08-01

    In order to analyze the reaction heat and compounds due to sodium combustion, the multiphase chemical equilibrium calculation program for chemical reaction among sodium, oxygen and hydrogen is developed in this study. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP; which denotes Bi-Phase, Sodium - Oxygen - Hydrogen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the special merits that easily add and change chemical species, and generally deal many thermochemical reaction systems in addition to constant temperature and pressure one. Three new methods are developed for solving multi-phase sodium reaction system in this study. One is to construct equation system by simplifying phase, and the other is to expand the Gibbs free energy minimization method into multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the effective searching method for the minimum value. Chemical compounds by the combustion of sodium in the air are calculated using BISHOP. The Calculated temperature and moisture conditions where sodium-oxide and hydroxide are formed qualitatively agree with the experiments. Deformation of sodium hydride is calculated by the program. The estimated result of the relationship between the deformation temperature and pressure closely agree with the well known experimental equation of Roy and Rodgers. It is concluded that BISHOP can be used for evaluated the combustion and deformation behaviors of sodium and its compounds. Hydrogen formation condition of the dump-tank room at the sodium leak event of FBR is quantitatively evaluated by BISHOP. It can be concluded that to keep the temperature of dump-tank room lower is effective method to suppress the formation of hydrogen. In case of choosing the lower inflammability limit of 4.1 mol% as the hydrogen concentration criterion, formation reaction of sodium hydride from sodium and hydrogen is facilitated below the room temperature of 800 K, and concentration of hydrogen

  10. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  11. Hepatitis C virus core protein expression leads to biphasic regulation of the p21 cdk inhibitor and modulation of hepatocyte cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau; Mudryj, Maria; Guadalupe, Moraima; Dandekar, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein is implicated in viral pathogenesis by the modulation of hepatocyte gene expression and function. To determine the effect of Core protein on the cell-cycle control of hepatocytes, a HepG2 cell line containing a Flag-tagged Core under the control of an inducible promoter was generated. Initial Core protein expression included the presence of unprocessed (191 aa) and processed (173 aa) forms of the Core proteins with the processed form becoming dominant later. Expression of the 191 aa form of Core protein corresponded to an increase in the expression of the p21, a decrease in cdk2-dependent kinase activity, and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S-phase along with an accumulation of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle. As the processed form accumulated, the p21 levels started to decline, suggesting that Core protein regulates p21 expression in a biphasic manner. These findings implicate Core protein in potentially modulating hepatocyte cell cycle differentially in the early stages of infection through biphasic regulation of p21 cdk kinase inhibitor

  12. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Casablanca cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farouqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Casablanca, Morocco. Results: A total of 495 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 231, insulin detemir (n = 151, insulin aspart (n = 19, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 53 and other insulin combinations (n = 41. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.2% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.3%, insulin users: −1.8%. Major hypoglycaemia was observed in the insulin naïve group after 24 weeks. SADRs were reported in 1.2% of insulin naïve and 2.1% of insulin user groups. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  13. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Kolkata cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Kolkata, India. Results: A total of 576 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 417, insulin detemir (n = 70, insulin aspart (n = 55, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 19 and other insulin combinations (n = 15. At baseline, glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.6% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.3%, insulin users: −1.4%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  14. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husain, Mainul; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally...... to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure....... transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also...... differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3d, increasing again at 14d, and then persisting to 42d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent...

  15. Biosynthesis of tert-butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate by carbonyl reductase from Rhodosporidium toruloides in mono and biphasic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Lin; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Jin, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-01

    tert-Butyl (3R,5S)-6-chloro-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5S)-CDHH) is the key intermediate for synthesis of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Carbonyl reductase exhibits excellent activity toward tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) to synthesize (3R,5S)-CDHH. In this study, a whole cell biosynthesis reaction system to produce (3R,5S)-CDHH was constructed in organic solvents. A solution of 10% (v/v) Tween-80 was introduced to the reaction system as a co-solvent, which greatly enhanced biotransformation process, giving 98.9% yield, >99% ee and 1.8-fold higher space time yield in 5 h bioconversion of 1 M (S)-CHOH, compared with 98.7% yield and >99% ee in 9 h bioconversion of a purely aqueous reaction system. Moreover, a water-octanol biphasic reaction system was built and 20% of octanol was added as reservoir of substrate resulting in 98% yield, >99% ee and 4.08 mmol L -1  h -1  g -1 (wet cell weight) space time yield. This study paved a way for the whole cell biosynthesis of (3R,5S)-CDHH in mono and biphasic media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Mumbai cohort of the A1chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwalkar, P G; Gupta, Vishal; Kovil, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Mumbai, India. A total of 2112 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 1561), insulin detemir (n = 313), insulin aspart (n = 144), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 53) and other insulin combinations (n = 41). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 8.7%) and insulin user (mean HbA1c: 9.2%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: -1.4%, insulin users: -1.8%). SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  17. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Broznić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold-pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ- in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  18. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    Summary The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways. PMID:27904410

  19. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  20. New biphasic solvent system based on cyclopentyl methyl ether for the purification of a non-polar synthetic peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Borie, Nicolas; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, Florence; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-06-01

    A new type 1 ternary biphasic system composed of cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide and water was developed, characterized and successfully used for the purification of a lipophilic, protected peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography. The protected peptide is an 8-mer, key intermediate in bivalirudin (Angiomax®) synthesis and shows a very low solubility in the solvents usually used in liquid chromatography. All ionic groups, except the N-terminal end of the peptide, are protected by a benzyl group. The purification of this peptide was achieved with a purity of about 99.04% and a recovery of 94% using the new ternary biphasic system cyclopentyl methyl ether/dimethylformamide/water (49:40:11, v/v) in the descending pH-zone refining mode with triethylamine (28 mM) as the retainer and methanesulfonic acid (18 mM) as the eluter. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Appraisal of the sensitising potential of orally and dermally administered mercaptobenzothiazole by a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Varun; Wanner, Reinhard; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used while manufacturing natural rubber products. Our study deals with assessing its allergenic potential following dermal and oral routes of exposure, using a biphasic local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice were treated with MBT (dermally 3, 10, 30% concentrations in DMSO; orally 1, 10, 100 mg/kg doses in corn oil) on the back (dermal study) or through oral administration (oral study) on days 1-3 followed by auricular application of 3, 10 and 30% concentrations, respectively, on days 15-17. End points determined on day 19 included ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count, and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+, CD45+). After dermal application of 3% or 10% solution, a significant increase in cell count and lymph node weight along with significant decrease in CD8+ cells was observed. After initial oral administration of 1 mg/kg, we noticed a significant amplification in cell count. Following oral administration of 10 mg/kg, we observed a similar increase in cell count and lymph node weight. The results of our study show that the modified biphasic LLNA protocol can be used to study the sensitising potential of a compound also following the oral route of exposure.

  2. Investigation of the sensitising and cross-sensitising potential of textile dyes and beta-lactam antibiotics using a biphasic mice local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Varun; Schreiber, Clemens; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2009-07-01

    We used a modified protocol of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) to study the cross-sensitising potential of (a) textile dye disperse yellow 3 and its metabolite 2-amino-p-cresol, (b) two antibiotics, penicillin G and cefotiam. The test substances were applied in a biphasic manner, i.e. first on the shaved skin of the back followed by application on the dorsal side of the ears after 2 weeks. The end-points analysed included thickness and weight of an ear-biopsy, weight and cell number of the draining lymph node, and lymphocyte cell surface markers analysed by flow-cytometry. Disperse yellow 3 and its metabolite significantly altered the various end-points at both the tested concentrations (0.5 and 1%), thus demonstrating the sensitising potential of the two substances. The cross-sensitisation study showed significant modulation in the tested variables in the treated group as compared to the control, signifying cross-sensitisation potential of the two substances. Penicillin G and cefotiam showed significant changes in various end-points, pointing towards their sensitising potential. However, even at 50% concentration of the beta-lactams no significant change in any end-point indicating absence of cross-reactivity of the antibiotics was noticed. We conclude that a biphasic, modified protocol of the LLNA is a suitable approach to test for a cross-reactivity potential of two related compounds.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of C-arm CT during selective transcatheter angiography for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with intravenous contrast-enhanced, biphasic, dynamic MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashihara, Hiroki; Osuga, Keigo; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Maeda, Noboru; Hori, Masatoshi; Kim, Tonsok; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    This study was aimed to compare the accuracy, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of C-arm CT (CACT) during selective transcatheter angiography with those of multidetector CT (MDCT) in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this prospective study, 30 patients (mean age, 73 years) with unresectable HCC were examined with CACT before chemoembolisation. Images of a combination of CACT during arterial portography (CACTAP) and dual-phase CACT during hepatic arteriography (CACTHA) was obtained and images of intravenous contrast-enhanced, biphasic, dynamic, MDCT was also obtained beforehand. Three blinded observers independently reviewed CACT and MDCT. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) method. Sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV) were analyzed with the paired t-test. In the mean area under the AFROC curve (Az), there was no significant difference between MDCT and CACT (MDCT, mean Az value, 0.83; CACT, 0.85, respectively) (P = 0.32). There was also no significant difference between the two techniques in sensitivity (MDCT, mean 0.65; CACT, 0.60) and PPV (MDCT, mean 0.98; CACT, 0.97) (P = 0.40, P = 0.68, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of CACT was equivalent to that of biphasic CT in the diagnosis of HCC. (orig.)

  4. The Combination of GIS and Biphasic to Better Predict In Vivo Dissolution of BCS Class IIb Drugs, Ketoconazole and Raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Igawa, Naoto; Drelich, Adam J; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-01-01

    The formulation developments and the in vivo assessment of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drugs are challenging due to their low solubility and high permeability in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since the GI environment influences the drug dissolution of BCS class II drugs, the human GI characteristics should be incorporated into the in vitro dissolution system to predict bioperformance of BCS class II drugs. An absorptive compartment may be important in dissolution apparatus for BCS class II drugs, especially for bases (BCS IIb) because of high permeability, precipitation, and supersaturation. Thus, the in vitro dissolution system with an absorptive compartment may help predicting the in vivo phenomena of BCS class II drugs better than compendial dissolution apparatuses. In this study, an absorptive compartment (a biphasic device) was introduced to a gastrointestinal simulator. This addition was evaluated if this in vitro system could improve the prediction of in vivo dissolution for BCS class IIb drugs, ketoconazole and raloxifene, and subsequent absorption. The gastrointestinal simulator is a practical in vivo predictive tool and exhibited an improved in vivo prediction utilizing the biphasic format and thus a better tool for evaluating the bioperformance of BCS class IIb drugs than compendial apparatuses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  6. Cultural contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  7. Culture evolves

    OpenAIRE

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to...

  8. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  9. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  10. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  11. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  12. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  13. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  14. Boosting Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives, just like material comfort. It is thought of as an important source of a nation’s vitality and creativity, and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries. It is also said culture is a productiv

  15. Internet culture

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  16. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  17. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  18. Validation of a closed bi-phasic extraction system and of the pancake probe as instruments to radiopharmaceutical quality control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.L.N.; Okamoto, M.R.Y.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ferraro, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is not a common practice in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. One frequent limitation is that the well counter, used to radioactivity measurement of chromatographic strips, is not available in most services. On the other hand, it's mandatory that all services have a pancake probe to control contaminations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quality control (QC) of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals using a pancake probe, including chromatography of 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-DMSA-V, 99m Tc-Pyp, 99m Tc-ECD, 99m Tc-Dextran, 99m Tc-colloid. Also, we had available a solvent extraction methods using a multi-use closed bi-phasic system to 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI, to replace the classical single-use open bi-phasic system. Material and Methods: Classical chromatographic well counter reading and solvent extraction radiochemical controls were used as standards. To variant radiation reading method, pancake probe was covered with a lead disk 3 mm thick, with a 40x10 mm slit; the activity on chromatographic strips (80x10 mm) was read over the slit. The multi-use closed bi-phasic system was done closing the extremities of a 5 or 10 mL glass pipette using flame in the point side, and rubber septa in the other side. The pipette was filled with 2.5 or 3 mL, both organic solvent and aqueous NaCl 0.9 %; then two or three drops of the sample were applied and the tube shook during 30 seconds. Two minutes after, the activity was measured over each phase using the pancake detector. The same solvent mixture was used 3 times, with 48 h interval to allow radioactivity decay. Results: Radiochemical purity determined by the classical or the modified procedures showed Pearson's correlation of 0.973 (n=17) to chromatography; 0.993 to ECD (n=14) extraction and 0.919 to MIBI (n=21) extraction. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the pancake can be used as a detection instrument in 99m Tc

  19. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Mainul; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Saber, Anne T.; Jensen, Keld A.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Williams, Andrew; Wallin, Håkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 162 μg CBNPs alongside vehicle controls. Lung tissues were examined 3 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, and 42 days (d) post-exposure. Global gene expression and pulmonary inflammation were assessed. DNA damage was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissue using the comet assay. Increased neutrophil influx was observed at all time-points. DNA strand breaks were increased in BAL cells 3 h post-exposure, and in lung tissues 2–5 d post-exposure. Approximately 2600 genes were differentially expressed (± 1.5 fold; p ≤ 0.05) across all time-points in the lungs of exposed mice. Altered transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3 h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3 d, increasing again at 14 d, and then persisting to 42 d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42 d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure. - Highlights: • A single exposure to CBNPs induced expression changes in over 2600 genes in mouse lungs. • Altered genes were associated with immune-inflammatory and acute phase responses. • Several genes were involved in DNA

  20. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Mainul, E-mail: mainul.husain@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kyjovska, Zdenka O., E-mail: zky@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie, E-mail: julie.bourdon-lacombe@hc-sc.gc.ca [Water and Air Quality Bureau, Safe Environments Directorate, HECSB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Keld A., E-mail: kaj@arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 162 μg CBNPs alongside vehicle controls. Lung tissues were examined 3 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, and 42 days (d) post-exposure. Global gene expression and pulmonary inflammation were assessed. DNA damage was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissue using the comet assay. Increased neutrophil influx was observed at all time-points. DNA strand breaks were increased in BAL cells 3 h post-exposure, and in lung tissues 2–5 d post-exposure. Approximately 2600 genes were differentially expressed (± 1.5 fold; p ≤ 0.05) across all time-points in the lungs of exposed mice. Altered transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3 h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3 d, increasing again at 14 d, and then persisting to 42 d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42 d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure. - Highlights: • A single exposure to CBNPs induced expression changes in over 2600 genes in mouse lungs. • Altered genes were associated with immune-inflammatory and acute phase responses. • Several genes were involved in DNA

  1. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  2. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla

    2006-01-01

    middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. K-means cluster analysis revealed two distinct biphasic gene expression patterns that contained 44 genes (including 18 immediate early genes), involved in cell signaling and plasticity (i.e. MAP2K7, Sprouty2, Irs-2, Homer1, GPRC5B, Grasp). The first gene...

  3. A histomorphometric and micro-computed tomography study of bone regeneration in the maxillary sinus comparing biphasic calcium phosphate and deproteinized cancellous bovine bone in a human split-mouth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, G.L.; Overman, J.R.; Farre-Guasch, E.; Korstjens, C.M.; Hartman, B.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The gain of mineralized bone was compared between deproteinized bovine bone allograft (DBA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) for dental implant placement. Study Design Five patients with atrophic maxillae underwent bilateral sinus elevation with DBA (Bio-Oss) and BCP (Straumann

  4. Paramilitary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  5. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  6. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), indicated a broad international interest in expansion of the concept of Safety Culture, in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This report responds to that need. In its manifestation, Safety Culture has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. 1 fig

  7. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite, β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Particles to Act as Local Delivery Carriers of Curcumin: Loading, Release and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Xidaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA, β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and two biphasic mixtures (BCPs of the two was performed by means of wet precipitation. The resulting crystals were characterized and the BCP composition was analyzed and identified as 13% HA—87% TCP and 41% HA—59% TCP. All samples were treated with curcumin solutions, and the degree of curcumin loading and release was found to be proportional to the TCP content of the ceramic. No further cytotoxicity was observed upon MG-63 treatment with the curcumin-loaded ceramics. Finally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells was found to increase with increasing content of TCP, which provides an encouraging proof of concept for the use of curcumin-loaded synthetic biomaterials in bone remodeling.

  8. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Le Guenic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  9. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guenic, Sarah; Gergela, David; Ceballos, Claire; Delbecq, Frederic; Len, Christophe

    2016-08-22

    Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  10. Combined Effect of a Microporous Layer and Type I Collagen Coating on a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Hwan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, type I collagen was coated onto unmodified and modified microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds. Surface characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a surface goniometer confirmed the modification of the BCP coating. The quantity of the collagen coating was investigated using Sirius Red staining, and quantitative assessment of the collagen coating showed no significant differences between the two groups. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cell proliferation and ALP activity on the modified BCP scaffolds. The modified microporous surfaces showed low contact angles and large surface areas, which enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. Coating of the BCP scaffolds with type I collagen led to enhanced cell-material interactions and improved MG63 functions, such as spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. The micropore/collagen-coated scaffold showed the highest rate of cell response. These results indicate that a combination of micropores and collagen enhances cellular function on bioengineered bone allograft tissue.

  11. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of 3 insulin analogue regimens on change in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2×3 factorial design, conducted at 8 hospitals in Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)≥7.5% (≥58 mmol/mol), body mass index >25 kg/m(2)) were, in addition to metformin versus placebo, randomised to 18 months open-label biphasic insulin aspart 1-3 times daily (n=137) versus insulin aspart 3 times daily......: Carotid IMT change did not differ between 3 insulin regimens despite differences in HbA1c, weight gain and insulin doses. The trial only reached 46% of planned sample size and lack of power may therefore have affected our results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00657943....

  12. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Rajasthan cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Rajasthan, India. Results: A total of 477 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 340, insulin detemir (n = 90, insulin aspart (n = 37, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 7 and other insulin combinations (n = 2. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 8.3% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 8.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −0.9%, insulin users: −1.2%. Major hypoglycaemic events decreased from 0.5 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group while no change from baseline (1.3 events/patients-year was observed for insulin users. SADRs were not reported in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  13. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Song, Doo-Hoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-01-01

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering

  14. Synthesis of furfural from xylose, xylan, and biomass using AlCl3·6H2O in biphasic media via xylose isomerization to xylulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Hu, Chang-Wei; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2012-02-13

    Furfural was prepared in high yields (75 %) from the reaction of xylose in a water-tetrahydrofuran biphasic medium containing AlCl(3)·6H2O and NaCl under microwave heating at 140 °C. The reaction profile revealed the formation of xylulose as an intermediate en route to the dehydration product (furfural). The reaction under these conditions reached completion in 45 min. The aqueous phase containing AlCl(3)·6H(2)O and NaCl could be recycled multiple times (>5) without any loss of activity or selectivity for furfural. Extension of this biphasic reaction system to include xylan as the starting material afforded furfural in 64 % yield. The use of corn stover, pinewood, switchgrass, and poplar gave furfural in 55, 38, 56, and 64 % yield, respectively, at 160 °C. Even though AlCl(3)·6H(2)O did not affect the conversion of crystalline cellulose, moderate yields of the by-product 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were noted. The highest HMF yield of 42 % was obtained from pinewood. The coproduction of HMF and furfural from biomass was attributed to the weakening of the cellulose network in the biomass, as a result of hemicellulose hydrolysis. The multifunctional capacity of AlCl(3)·6H(2)O (hemicellulose hydrolysis, xylose isomerization, and xylulose dehydration) in combination with its ease of recyclability make it an attractive candidate/catalyst for the selective synthesis of furfural from various biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. B-Raf and CRHR1 internalization mediate biphasic ERK1/2 activation by CRH in hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Juan J; Inda, Carolina; Senin, Sergio; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Refojo, Damián; Giacomini, Damiana; Turck, Christoph W; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Silberstein, Susana

    2013-03-01

    CRH is a key regulator of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral response to stress. CRH-stimulated CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates ERK1/2 depending on intracellular context. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CRH activates ERK1/2 in limbic areas of the mouse brain (hippocampus and basolateral amygdala). ERK1/2 is an essential mediator of hippocampal physiological processes including emotional behavior, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CRH activates ERK1/2 in hippocampal neurons, we used the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. We document for the first time that ERK1/2 activation in response to CRH is biphasic, involving a first cAMP- and B-Raf-dependent early phase and a second phase that critically depends on CRHR1 internalization and β-arrestin2. By means of mass-spectrometry-based screening, we identified B-Raf-associated proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with endogenous B-Raf after CRHR1 activation. Using molecular and pharmacological tools, the functional impact of selected B-Raf partners in CRH-dependent ERK1/2 activation was dissected. These results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins, protein kinase A, and Rap1, are essential for early CRH-induced ERK1/2 activation, whereas dynamin and vimentin are required for the CRHR1 internalization-dependent phase. Both phases of ERK1/2 activation depend on calcium influx and are affected by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inactivation. Thus, this report describes the dynamics and biphasic nature of ERK1/2 activation downstream neuronal CRHR1 and identifies several new critical components of the CRHR1 signaling machinery that selectively controls the early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation, thus providing new potential therapeutic targets for stress-related disorders.

  16. Antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of Ag+- and Cu2+-doped biphasic hydroxyapatite/α-tricalcium phosphate obtained from hydrothermally synthesized Ag+- and Cu2+-doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanović, Željko; Jokić, Bojan; Veljović, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Kojić, Vesna; Petrović, Rada; Janaćković, Djordje

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders doped with Ag + or Cu 2+ were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in order to obtain biomaterial with an antimicrobial effect. The synthesis was performed with two contents of dopant (Ag + or Cu 2+ ) by considering both the antimicrobial activities and biocompatibility of the powders. The doped HAp was annealed at 1200 °C for 2 h with the intention of investigating the influence of doping with Ag + and Cu 2+ on the creation of the biphasic HAp/α-tricalcium phosphate (HAp/α-TCP) and determining the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of the obtained biphasic powders. Analyses of all powders, undoped and doped HAp and HAp/α-TCP, were performed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The in vitro antibacterial activities of the powders were evaluated against: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. All powders showed good antimicrobial activity but generally the powders of doped HAp/α-TCP had more uniform results against all pathogenic microorganisms than the powders of doped HAp. In vitro biocompatibility tests, MTT and DET, were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of Ag + - and Cu 2+ -doped HAp/α-TCP with MRC-5 human fibroblast cells. These tests confirmed that powders do not have a cytotoxic effect. The HAp/α-TCP powders doped with the lower content of Ag + and Cu 2+ showed especially good biocompatibility. Antimicrobial and biocompatibility tests recommend the Ag + - and Cu 2+ -doped HAp/α-TCP as promising material for use in reconstructive surgery of bone.

  17. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  18. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  19. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrohman Taufiqurrohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle trash then take advantage of it by selling the collected and the recycled trash. It makes trash have good transformation of values, repelling against the prior stereotype. Finally, by taking example from Trash Bank management at schools, human can have so cultured trash that they would not be trapped by trash culture.

  20. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  1. Cultural Resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Who are we?Where are we from?"Humans have been pondering these questions since the day they first came into being.One of the ways we preserve memories of the past is through our cul- tural heritage that has been passed on from generation to genera- tion.Intangible cultural heritage,as well as tangible cultural her- itage,is essential to the continuity of human civilization. Since the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)unveiled the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001,China has had Kunqu opera,Guqin and its music,the art of Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang and the traditional Mongolian folk song Long Song added to UNESCO’s protection list.It is now one of the coun-

  2. Petrographic study of hypo-thermal and pyro-metasomatic deposits on the oriental border of Tichka mountain (Occidental High Atlas, Morocco); Contribution a l'etude des gites hypothermaux et pyrometasomatiques en fonction de la petrographie dans la bordure orientale du Massif du Tichka (Haut Atlas occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizard, C; Ziegler, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It describes the petrographic and metallogenic study of the oriental side of Tichka mountain (Occidental High Atlas, Morocco) which is the center of an anticlinal system, strongly folded, and approximately SW-NE oriented. The main object of this study is the description of its metallogenic activity and in particular the large variety of paragenesis which have been observed in the oriental part of Tichka mountain where the metamorphism is intense. This area presents a large abundance and diversity of deposits. The structural aspect of the oriental part of the Tichka mountain is described. The petrographic study of the complex structure of the oriental border, in particular the studies of the leucocratic complex of veins and apophyses and of the schistous and calcareous metamorphic complex, leads to make assumptions on the relationship between terminal phase of the metamorphism and the hypo-thermal paragenesis. The abundance of facies and the intensity of metamorphism also give the possibility to establish relationships between the different minerals deposits. The metallogenic study shows that mineralization are all peripheral on the Tichka mountain and increase with the number and size of the apophysis which is observed on the east side. The various hypo-thermal paragenesis are studied in the same order of the associated apophysis. The peripheral meso-thermal deposits of the north area are briefly described to complete the metallogenic aspects of the oriental border of the Tichka mountain. This study shows the nature of the two main factors which originate different types of paragenesis: one is the intrusion deep of the mineralizer, the second is the physical and chemical nature of the medium where the paragenesis occurred. (M.P.)

  3. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  4. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  5. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  6. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  7. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria or other disease-causing germs grow. A gram stain may also ... any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names ... Charnot-Katsikas A. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  8. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...

  9. Grindr Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    intersections of sexuality with other socio-cultural categories such as race and migration background, but also gender and ability. I find that user experiences with exclusion and discrimination can be related to Grindr’s interface, such as its drop-down menus, the discourses circulated by Grindr users...

  10. Hairy-root organ cultures for the production of human acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Tsafrir S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cholinesterases can be used as a bioscavenger of organophosphate toxins used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The practicality of this approach depends on the availability of the human enzymes, but because of inherent supply and regulatory constraints, a suitable production system is yet to be identified. Results As a promising alternative, we report the creation of "hairy root" organ cultures derived via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation from human acetylcholinesterase-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Acetylcholinesterase-expressing hairy root cultures had a slower growth rate, reached to the stationary phase faster and grew to lower maximal densities as compared to wild type control cultures. Acetylcholinesterase accumulated to levels of up to 3.3% of total soluble protein, ~3 fold higher than the expression level observed in the parental plant. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Enzymatic properties were nearly identical to those of the transgenic plant-derived enzyme as well as to those of mammalian cell culture derived enzyme. Pharmacokinetic properties of the hairy-root culture derived enzyme demonstrated a biphasic clearing profile. We demonstrate that master banking of plant material is possible by storage at 4°C for up to 5 months. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of using plant organ cultures as a successful alternative to traditional transgenic plant and mammalian cell culture technologies.

  11. Talking Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...

  12. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  13. General quantitative analysis of stress partitioning and boundary conditions in undrained biphasic porous media via a purely macroscopic and purely variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpieri, Roberto; Travascio, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi's postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using

  14. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahandzhieva, Katya; Maurer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  15. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VO{sub X}/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Chen, L.F., E-mail: lchen@ipn.mx [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J. [Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catálisis y Polímeros, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo No. 180, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  16. Phase III Study on Efficacy and Safety of Triple Combination (Exenatide/Metformin/Biphasic Insulin Aspart) Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ke; Lv, Chunmei; Ji, Zongwen; Wang, Yishu; Wang, Haifeng; Bai, Ying; Liu, Yaping

    2016-02-03

    Exenatide, metformin (MET), and biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIA30) have been widely used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, each of these medications has significant adverse effects, which limit their utilization. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple combination (exenatide/metformin/biphasic insulin aspart) therapy for T2DM. Two hundred patients with poorly controlled T2DM were randomly divided into the low-dose (0.5 μg exenatide, 0.05 U·kg·d BIA30, and 0.01 g MET twice daily) and normal-dose (2 μg exenatide, 0.2 U·kg·d BIA30, and 0.05 g MET twice daily) groups for 48 weeks of treatment. Of note, 82 and 90 individuals from the low-dose and normal-dose groups, respectively, completed the study. The levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and resistin were measured. The normal-dose treatment was more effective at lowering hemoglobin A1c levels than the low-dose therapy (HbA1c changes of -2.5 ± 0.19% and -0.8 ± 0.07%, respectively) after 48 weeks. The maximum weight decrease was 0.9 kg in the low-dose group and 4.0 kg in the normal-dose group. The triple combination therapy increased the levels of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin and reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. No significant difference in the adverse effects was found between the low-dose and normal-dose groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the investigated triple combination therapy for T2MD is therefore an effective and safe therapeutic strategy.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  17. Cultural neurolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area.

  18. Metabolismo miocárdico após cardioplegia sangüínea hipotérmica retrógrada contínua Myocardial metabolism after hypothermic retrograde continuous blood cardioplegia

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    Claudio G. SOBROSA

    2000-09-01

    çamento aórtico e que somente com 60 minutos de reperfusão houve uma recuperação metabólica parcial. Essas alterações são, provavelmente, o reflexo da injúria isquêmica celular ocorrida durante o pinçamento aórtico e são de efeito transitório.MATERIAL AND METHODS: An metabolic analyse of hypothermic retrograde continuous blood cardioplegia was done in a prospective study of 15 patients scheduled for elective CABG. Inclusions criteria were double or triple vessel coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular function (ejection fraction > 40%. Exclusions criteria were unstable angina, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and associated peroperative procedures. Three patients were excluded of the study (associated procedure and coronary sinus catether dislocation. Arterial and coronary sinus blood samples were simultaneouslly taken: before ECC (extracorporeal circulation, when the aortic clamp was takem off and 10, 30 and 60 minutes after reperfusion for analysing of oxygen content and lactate concentration. Four transmural left ventricular biopsies samples were obtained: before aortic clamping, immediately after the inicial cardioplegia bolus, immediately before aortic declamping and 30 minutes after reperfusion for analysing of the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate in the myocardial. The CK-MB isoenzyme was analysed in venous blood samples. RESULTS: There was no mortality in the group. There was a decrease in the arterial-venous extraction of oxygen and lactate in the heart during reperfusion, occurring a parcial recuperation only at 60 minutes of reperfusion. The ATP and the others nucleotides had their levels in the myocardium maintened during aortic clamping, but these levels decreased during the first 30 minutes of reperfusion. The lactate was accumulated in the heart muscle during aortic clamping and his levels also decreased during reperfusion. The CK-MB levels were elevated specially between the third and sixth post-operative hour. CONCLUSIONS

  19. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

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    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  20. Numerical analyses of the effect of a biphasic thermosyphon vapor channel sizes on the heat transfer intensity when heat removing from a power transformer of combined heat and power station

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    Nurpeiis Atlant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analyses of the effect of a biphasic thermosyphon vapor channel sizes on the heat transfer intensity was conducted when heat removing from an oil tank of a power transformer of combined heat and power station (CHP. The power transformer cooling system by the closed biphasic thermosyphon was proposed. The mathematical modeling of heat transfer and phase transitions of coolant in the thermosyphon was performed. The problem of heat transfer is formulated in dimensionless variables “velocity vorticity vector – current function – temperature” and solved by finite difference method. As a result of numerical simulation it is found that an increase in the vapor channel length from 0.15m to 1m leads to increasing the temperature difference by 3.5 K.

  1. Organotypic brain slice cultures of adult transgenic P301S mice--a model for tauopathy studies.

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    Agneta Mewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1 and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study

  2. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Northern Tunisia cohort of the A1chieve study

    OpenAIRE

    Blouza, Samira; Jamoussi, Henda

    2013-01-01

    Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Northern Tunisia. Results: A total of 443 patients were enrolle...

  3. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation Using of their Enantioselective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    AZZAM, Khaldun; ABDALLAH, Hassan; HALIM, Hairul; AHMAD, Maizatul; SHAIBAH, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simula...

  4. La arquitectura cultural. / Cultural architecture.

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    Lobos, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo releva la Arquitectura Cultural, que es plural y diversa en términos estéticos y conceptuales. Sugiere la apertura a otras dinámicas de comprensión de lo arquitectónico, a otras lógicas de construcción de las ciudades. Para aclarar el concepto se expone un breve ejemplo práctico./This article points out the "cultural architecture", which is plural and diverse in concept and aesthetic terms. It suggests the opening to other dinamics of comprehention of the architectural issue and the building of cities. The article presents a brief empirical example that clarifies the conceptual approach.

  5. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Natalie Pang; Doros Polydorou; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Ryohei Nakatsu; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  6. Late-onset running biphasically improves redox balance, energy- and methylglyoxal-related status, as well as SIRT1 expression in mouse hippocampus.

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    Stefano Falone

    Full Text Available Despite the active research in this field, molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced beneficial effects on brain physiology and functions are still matter of debate, especially with regard to biological processes activated by regular exercise affecting the onset and progression of hippocampal aging in individuals unfamiliar with habitual physical activity. Since such responses seem to be mediated by changes in antioxidative, antiglycative and metabolic status, a possible exercise-induced coordinated response involving redox, methylglyoxal- and sirtuin-related molecular networks may be hypothesized. In this study, hippocampi of CD1 mice undergoing the transition from mature to middle age were analyzed for redox-related profile, oxidative and methylglyoxal-dependent damage patterns, energy metabolism, sirtuin1 and glyoxalase1 expression after a 2- or 4-mo treadmill running program. Our findings suggested that the 4-mo regular running lowered the chance of dicarbonyl and oxidative stress, activated mitochondrial catabolism and preserved sirtuin1-related neuroprotection. Surprisingly, the same cellular pathways were negatively affected by the first 2 months of exercise, thus showing an interesting biphasic response. In conclusion, the duration of exercise caused a profound shift in the response to regular running within the rodent hippocampus in a time-dependent fashion. This research revealed important details of the interaction between exercise and mammal hippocampus during the transition from mature to middle age, and this might help to develop non-pharmacological approaches aimed at retarding brain senescence, even in individuals unfamiliar with habitual exercise.

  7. Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP of hydroxyapatite (HA and tricalcium phosphate (TCP as bone substitutes: Importance of physicochemical characterizations in biomaterials studies

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    Mehdi Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP: Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research” [1]. This article provides in depth study of BCP bone substitutes as valuable option in the field of tissue engineering. However, there are discrepancies in the literature regarding the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP and the ideal balance between different phase compositions for enhanced bone tissue engineering (M. Ebrahimi, M.G. Botelho, S.V. Dorozhkin, 2016; M. Ebrahimi, P. Pripatnanont, S. Suttapreyasri, N. Monmaturapoj, 2014 [1,2]. This is found to be mainly because of improper characterization of BCP bioceramics in basic studies and lack of standard study protocols in in vitro and in vivo research. This data article along with original article provide the basic data required for ideal characterization of BCP and other bioceramics in an attempt to provide basic standardized protocols for future studies.

  8. Low-Temperature Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase/Brookite Biphasic Nanoparticles with High Surface Area and Visible-Light Performance

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    Liang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doping in combination with the brookite phase or a mixture of TiO2 polymorphs nanomaterials can enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Generally, nitrogen-dopedanatase/brookite mixed phases TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal or solvothermal method need to be at high temperature and with long time heating treatment. Furthermore, the surface areas of them are low (<125 m2/g. There is hardly a report on the simple and direct preparation of N-doped anatase/brookite mixed phase TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel method at low heating temperature. In this paper, the nitrogen-doped anatase/brookite biphasic nanoparticles with large surface area (240 m2/g were successfully prepared using sol-gel method at low temperature (165 °C, and with short heating time (4 h under autogenous pressure. The obtained sample without subsequent annealing at elevated temperatures showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO with 4.2-, 9.6-, and 7.5-fold visible light activities compared to P25 and the amorphous samples heated in muffle furnace with air or in tube furnace with a flow of nitrogen at 165 °C, respectively. This result was attributed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping, mixed crystalline phases, and high surface area.

  9. A Human Clinical, Histological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Study on Biphasic HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Sinjari, Bruna; Shibli, Jamil A; Mangano, Francesco; Hamisch, Sabine; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-06-01

    By mixing hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics can be obtained, and by varying their ratio it is possible to tailor the characteristics of the biomaterial. The aim of the present human study was to evaluate the histological and radiographical aspects of bone formation in maxillary sinus augmentation using a 30/70 HA-beta-TCP with a reticular structure. A total of 12 patients, undergoing two-stage sinus augmentation procedure using HA-beta-TCP at a ratio of 30/70, were included in the present study. After a 6-month healing period, during implant insertion, radiographical analysis was performed, and then the bone core biopsies were harvested and processed for histology. At radiographic evaluation, the bone gain was on average 6.85 ± 0.60 mm. HA-beta-TCP 30/70 appeared to be lined by newly formed bone, with no gaps at the interface. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 26 ± 2% of residual grafted biomaterial, 29 ± 3% of newly formed bone, and 45 ± 2% of marrow spaces. The present results indicate histologically the high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of HA-beta-TCP 30/70, and clinically its successful use for sinus augmentation procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Decontamination Using a Desiccant with Air Powder Abrasion Followed by Biphasic Calcium Sulfate Grafting: A New Treatment for Peri-Implantitis

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    Giorgio Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is characterized by inflammation and crestal bone loss in the tissues surrounding implants. Contamination by deleterious bacteria in the peri-implant microenvironment is believed to be a major factor in the etiology of peri-implantitis. Prior to any therapeutic regenerative treatment, adequate decontamination of the peri-implant microenvironment must occur. Herein we present a novel approach to the treatment of peri-implantitis that incorporates the use of a topical desiccant (HYBENX, along with air powder abrasives as a means of decontamination, followed by the application of biphasic calcium sulfate combined with inorganic bovine bone material to augment the intrabony defect. We highlight the case of a 62-year-old man presenting peri-implantitis at two neighboring implants in positions 12 and 13, who underwent access flap surgery, followed by our procedure. After an uneventful 2-year healing period, both implants showed an absence of bleeding on probing, near complete regeneration of the missing bone, probing pocket depth reduction, and clinical attachment gain. While we observed a slight mucosal recession, there was no reduction in keratinized tissue. Based on the results described within, we conclude that the use of HYBENX and air powder abrasives, followed by bone defect grafting, represents a viable option in the treatment of peri-implantitis.

  11. A rare case of anal carcinosarcoma with human papilloma virus infection in both biphasic tumor elements: An immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Richard A; Bradshaw, Azore-Dee; Cassai, Nicholas; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhou, David; Fu, Tinghao; Lee, Peng; Pei, Zhiheng; Wieczorek, Rosemary

    2016-12-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the anus is rare and has yet to be reportedly associated with the keratinocyte-specific Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). We describe a case of anal carcinosarcoma with HPV infection in both the epithelial and mesenchymal components of the tumor by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) and further supported by electron microscopy (EM). Microscopic examination of the tumor showed nests of poorly-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid features intermixed with a hypercellular, atypical spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the epithelial component was positive for AE1/AE3, p63, CK5/6 and p16, whilst the mesenchymal component was positive for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and focally positive for desmin and p16, consistent with carcinosarcoma. The tumor was negative for GATA-3, CK7 and CK20. CISH demonstrated that the tumor was positive for high risk HPV (subtype 16/18) in both tumor components. EM further supported the presence of intracellular virus particles (~50 nm) that is compatible with HPV infection. Infection of both epithelial and mesenchymal tumor components by HPV has not been previously observed in the gastrointestinal tract. This finding may represent initial epithelial HPV infection with subsequent divergent tumoral differentiation and suggests the presence of viral replication in both biphasic tumor components.

  12. Modeling the impact of prostate edema on LDR brachytherapy: a Monte Carlo dosimetry study based on a 3D biphasic finite element biomechanical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountris, K. A.; Bert, J.; Noailly, J.; Rodriguez Aguilera, A.; Valeri, A.; Pradier, O.; Schick, U.; Promayon, E.; Gonzalez Ballester, M. A.; Troccaz, J.; Visvikis, D.

    2017-03-01

    Prostate volume changes due to edema occurrence during transperineal permanent brachytherapy should be taken under consideration to ensure optimal dose delivery. Available edema models, based on prostate volume observations, face several limitations. Therefore, patient-specific models need to be developed to accurately account for the impact of edema. In this study we present a biomechanical model developed to reproduce edema resolution patterns documented in the literature. Using the biphasic mixture theory and finite element analysis, the proposed model takes into consideration the mechanical properties of the pubic area tissues in the evolution of prostate edema. The model’s computed deformations are incorporated in a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate their effect on post-operative dosimetry. The comparison of Day1 and Day30 dosimetry results demonstrates the capability of the proposed model for patient-specific dosimetry improvements, considering the edema dynamics. The proposed model shows excellent ability to reproduce previously described edema resolution patterns and was validated based on previous findings. According to our results, for a prostate volume increase of 10-20% the Day30 urethra D10 dose metric is higher by 4.2%-10.5% compared to the Day1 value. The introduction of the edema dynamics in Day30 dosimetry shows a significant global dose overestimation identified on the conventional static Day30 dosimetry. In conclusion, the proposed edema biomechanical model can improve the treatment planning of transperineal permanent brachytherapy accounting for post-implant dose alterations during the planning procedure.

  13. Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation

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    Perumberkandgai A. Vivekanand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloridebenzene (BPMACB was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE using potassium persulphate (PPS as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries.

  14. Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations

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    Livingstone Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient′s body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient′s body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.

  15. A rare case of anal carcinosarcoma with human papilloma virus infection in both biphasic tumor elements: An immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Hickman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcoma of the anus is rare and has yet to be reportedly associated with the keratinocyte-specific Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. We describe a case of anal carcinosarcoma with HPV infection in both the epithelial and mesenchymal components of the tumor by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH and further supported by electron microscopy (EM. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed nests of poorly-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid features intermixed with a hypercellular, atypical spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the epithelial component was positive for AE1/AE3, p63, CK5/6 and p16, whilst the mesenchymal component was positive for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and focally positive for desmin and p16, consistent with carcinosarcoma. The tumor was negative for GATA-3, CK7 and CK20. CISH demonstrated that the tumor was positive for high risk HPV (subtype 16/18 in both tumor components. EM further supported the presence of intracellular virus particles (~50 nm that is compatible with HPV infection. Infection of both epithelial and mesenchymal tumor components by HPV has not been previously observed in the gastrointestinal tract. This finding may represent initial epithelial HPV infection with subsequent divergent tumoral differentiation and suggests the presence of viral replication in both biphasic tumor components. Keywords: Carcinosarcoma, Human Papilloma Virus, Gastrointestinal

  16. Alternative (Potentially Green) Separations Media: Aqueous Biphasic and Related Systems Extending the Frontier Final Report For Period September 1, 2002 January 31, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Robin D

    2007-06-25

    Through the current DoE-BES funding, we have extended our fundamental understanding of the critical phase separation of aqueous polymer solutions at the molecular level, and have developed a similar understanding of their application as novel solvent systems. Our principal aims included mode of delivery of the aqueous biphasic system (ABS) solvent system and the application of this system to problems of reactive extraction. In the former case we have developed novel solid phase analogues, in the form of cross-linked polyethylene glycol hydrogels, and in the latter case we have examined the role that ABS might play in reaction engineering, with a view to greener, simpler, and safer processes. We have also developed a new salt/salt ABS and have extended our understanding of this system as well. The major outcomes are as follows: (1) Through the use of variable temperature phase diagrams, coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the phases, a better understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation was obtained. Evidence to the existence and role of an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) (or both) in these systems was gained. With variable temperature solute partitioning, thermodynamic parameters were calculated, and inter-system comparisons were made. Through the use of Abraham's linear solvation energy regression (LSER) the solvent-solute properties of liquid/liquid ABS were examined. We have shown that ABS are indeed very tunable and LSERs have been used as a tool to compare these systems to traditional organic/water and other liquid/liquid systems. (2) We have successfully shown the development of novel reaction media for chemical synthesis and reaction; Aqueous Biphasic Reactive Extraction (ABRE). As a proof of concept, we have shown the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene in an ABS, which represents an important development in the exploitation of this technology

  17. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guido Mangano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results.

  18. Insight into Aluminum Sulfate-Catalyzed Xylan Conversion into Furfural in a γ-Valerolactone/Water Biphasic Solvent under Microwave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Yi-Han; Zhu, Sheng-Zhen; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2017-10-23

    A simple and efficient biphasic system with an earth-abundant metal salt catalyst was used to produce furfural from xylan with a high yield of up to 87.8 % under microwave conditions. Strikingly, the metal salt Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 exhibited excellent catalytic activity for xylan conversion, owing to a combination of Lewis and Brønsted acidity and its ability to promote good phase separation. The critical role of the SO 4 2- anion was first analyzed, which resulted in the aforementioned characteristics when combined with the Al 3+ cation. The mixed solvent system with γ-valerolactone (GVL) as the organic phase provided the highest furfural yield, resulting from its good dielectric properties and dissolving capacity, which facilitated the absorption of microwave energy and promoted mass transfer. Mechanistic studies suggested that the xylan-to-furfural conversion proceeded mainly through a hydrolysis-isomerization-dehydration pathway and the hexa-coordinated Lewis acidic [Al(OH) 2 (aq)] + species were the active sites for xylose-xylulose isomerization. Detailed kinetic studies of the subreaction for the xylan conversion revealed that GVL regulates the reaction rates and pathways by promoting the rates of the key steps involved for furfural production and suppressing the side reactions for humin production. Finally, the Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 catalyst was used for the production of furfural from several lignocellulosic feedstocks, revealing its great potential for other biomass conversions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hydrogen bond basicity of ionic liquids and molar entropy of hydration of salts as major descriptors in the formation of aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Dinis, Teresa B V; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2018-05-23

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and conventional salts have been largely investigated and successfully used in separation processes, for which the determination of the corresponding ternary phase diagrams is a prerequisite. However, due the large number of ILs that can be prepared and their high structural versatility, it is impossible to experimentally cover and characterize all possible combinations of ILs and salts that may form ABS. The development of tools for the prediction and design of IL-based ABS is thus a crucial requirement. Based on a large compilation of experimental data, a correlation describing the formation of IL-based ABS is shown here, based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction energies of ILs (EHB) obtained by the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) and the molar entropy of hydration of the salt ions. The ability of the proposed model to predict the formation of novel IL-based ABS is further ascertained.

  20. Bone Formation with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral or Biphasic Calcium Phosphate in the Presence of Autologous Platelet Lysate: Comparative Investigation in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Chakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes alone or supplemented with platelet-derived concentrates are widely used to promote bone regeneration but their potency remains controversial. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the regenerative potential of preparations containing autologous platelet lysate (APL and particles of either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, two bone substitutes with different resorption patterns. Rabbit APL was prepared by freeze-thawing a platelet suspension. Critical-size defects in rabbit femoral condyle were filled with DBBM or DBBM+APL and BCP or BCP+APL. Rabbits were sacrificed after six weeks and newly formed bone and residual implanted material were evaluated using nondemineralized histology and histomorphometry. New bone was observed around particles of all fillers tested. In the defects filled with BCP, the newly formed bone area was greater (70%; P<0.001 while the residual material area was lower (60%; P<0.001 than that observed in those filled with DBBM. New bone and residual material area of defects filled with either APL+DBBM or APL+BCP were similar to those observed in those filled with the material alone. In summary, osteoconductivity and resorption of BCP were greater than those of DBBM, while APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not have an additional benefit.

  1. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrocatalytic Production of C3-C4 Compounds by Conversion of CO2 on a Chloride-Induced Bi-Phasic Cu2O-Cu Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwa; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-12-01

    Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently received considerable attention as one of the most feasible CO2 utilization techniques. In particular, copper and copper-derived catalysts have exhibited the ability to produce a number of organic molecules from CO2. Herein, we report a chloride (Cl)-induced bi-phasic cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and metallic copper (Cu) electrode (Cu2OCl) as an efficient catalyst for the formation of high-carbon organic molecules by CO2 conversion, and identify the origin of electroselectivity toward the formation of high-carbon organic compounds. The Cu2OCl electrocatalyst results in the preferential formation of multi-carbon fuels, including n-propanol and n-butane C3-C4 compounds. We propose that the remarkable electrocatalytic conversion behavior is due to the favorable affinity between the reaction intermediates and the catalytic surface. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Biological characteristic effects of human dental pulp stem cells on poly-ε-caprolactone-biphasic calcium phosphate fabricated scaffolds using modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsupa, Natkrita; Nuntanaranont, Thongchai; Kamolmattayakul, Suttatip; Thuaksuban, Nuttawut

    2017-02-01

    Craniofacial bone defects such as alveolar cleft affect the esthetics and functions that need bone reconstruction. The advanced techniques of biomaterials combined with stem cells have been a challenging role for maxillofacial surgeons and scientists. PCL-coated biphasic calcium phosphate (PCL-BCP) scaffolds were created with the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition (mMSMD) technique and merged with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to fulfill the component of tissue engineering for bone substitution. In the present study, the objective was to test the biocompatibility and biofunctionalities that included cell proliferation, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, alizarin red staining for mineralization, and histological analysis. The results showed that mMSMD PCL-BCP scaffolds were suitable for hDPSCs viability since the cells attached and spread onto the scaffold. Furthermore, the co