Sample records for biparietal diameter bpd

  1. Discrepancy in ultrasound biometric parameters of the head (HC--head circumference, BPD--biparietal diameter) in breech presented fetuses. (United States)

    Lubusky, Marek; Prochazka, Martin; Langova, Martina; Vomackova, Katherine; Cizek, Ludek


    A comparison of fetal ultrasonographic biometric parameters of the head (head circumference - HC, biparietal diameter - BPD) in breech presented fetuses. Ultrasound biometry was performed in accordance with the method presented in the reference tables. In all breech presented fetuses, the HC, BPD and FL (femur length) were measured. High-risk and multiple pregnancies were excluded from the study. A total of 111 ultrasonographic biometries were performed between the 31(st) - 38(th) week of gestation. Fetuses in the breech position had a significantly lower BPD compared to HC and FL. The difference between BPD and HC was 16.2 days (95%Cl 14.3-18.1; p = 0.001). Maternal age at delivery was 20 - 36 years (average 28.1; median 28.0). According to our results, fetuses in the breech position have a significantly lower BPD compared to HC or FL. HC and FL parameters correlate with gestational age. In cases of ultrasonographic biometric discrepancy between BPD and FL, the fetal position should be taken into account. Breech-presented fetuses have an elongated head shape and ultrasound biometrics should evaluate its circumference (HC). It is important to responsibly interpret the results so as not to stress the expecting mother with suspicions of fetal pathology.

  2. [Discrepancy of ultrasound biometric parameters of the head (HC--head circumference, BPD--biparietal diameter) and femur length in relation to sex of the fetus and duration of pregnancy]. (United States)

    L'ubuský, M; Mícková, I; Procházka, M; Dzvincuk, P; Malá, K; Cízek, L; Janout, V


    To compare female and male fetuses in terms of intrauterine ultrasound growth measurements (HC--head circumference, BPD--biparietal diameter, FL--femur lenght) depending on gestational age. A prospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Medical Genetics and Fetal Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, University Hospital, Olomouc. All ultrasound biometric measurements were performed according to the methodology published with the reference charts. Risk pregnancies, multiple pregnancies and breech presentations were excluded. Fetal HC, BPD and FL were measured in 427 ultrasound examinations at 16-38 weeks. Male fetuses had significantly larger HC and BPD measurements compared to female fetuses and these differences increased with advancing gestation. In the 16-21 week scans estimated difference was (HC + 3.9 days, 3.0% and BPD + 4.1, 3.2%), during the 21-30 week scans (HC + 6.8 days, 4.3% and BPD + 6.9, 4.4%) and in the 31-38 week scans (HC + 12.3 days, 5.6% and BPD + 12.9, 5.9%) for males. Male fetuses had significantly larger HC compared to FL measurements. In the 16-21 week scans, estimated difference was + 2.1 days (95%CI 1.7-2.6, P BPD) measurements compared to female fetuses. These prenatal sex-related differences are established by as early as 16 weeks of gestation and tend to increase with advancing gestational age. In the case of discrepancy finding between head (HC, BPD) and femur lenght (FL) measurements the fetal gender should be taken into account.

  3. Ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter and femur in foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our objective was to verify ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter and femur in foetal age determination in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The prospective cross sectional ... (3) L'errur standard pour la longueur du femur était de 0.2552 contre 0.3009 pour l'estimation du diameter bi-pariétal. Les résultats ...

  4. Biparietal diameter at 11-13 weeks' gestation in fetuses with open spina bifida. (United States)

    Khalil, A; Coates, A; Papageorghiou, A; Bhide, A; Thilaganathan, B


    To ascertain the reported association between reduced biparietal diameter (BPD) at 11-13 weeks' gestation and open spina bifida and to investigate its predictive value in a single-center study. This was a retrospective study of fetuses in which BPD was measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation, including 27 fetuses with isolated open spina bifida subsequently diagnosed at 16-24 weeks and 7775 unaffected controls. BPD values were converted into multiples of the expected median (MoM) after adjustment for crown-rump length and maternal characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the maternal characteristics significantly associated with spina bifida. The performance of screening was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. BPD values at 11-13 weeks' gestation were compared with those measured in the second trimester using Z-scores. BPD values at 11-13 weeks' gestation were below the 5(th) centile in 44.4% of cases of open spina bifida. In these fetuses, the median BPD MoM value was significantly smaller than that in the control group (0.930 vs 0.998 MoM; P spina bifida. The detection rate using BPD measurements in the first trimester was 55.6% with a false-positive rate of 11.6%. In fetuses with open spina bifida, the BPD Z-scores were significantly lower at 16-24 weeks compared to those recorded at 11-13 weeks (median, -1.71 (range, -3.98 to -0.20) vs -1.30 (-3.75 to 2.61); P = 0.006). Fetuses with open spina bifida have a smaller BPD in the first trimester. This observation may be useful in early screening. It is likely that a combination of maternal characteristics such as age and BMI, fetal BPD and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein measured in the first trimester would provide a clinically useful screening test for open spina bifida. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Screening for fetal spina bifida by ultrasound examination in the first trimester of pregnancy using fetal biparietal diameter. (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Cuckle, Howard S; Stirnemann, Julien J; Salomon, Laurent J; Ville, Yves


    Prenatal screening for aneuploidies is best achieved in the first trimester when there is no reliable screening test for spina bifida. Early ultrasound features may be too complex for routine screening. We assessed screening potential of simple and reproducible fetal biometric measurements at 11-14 weeks of gestation. A total of 34,951 unselected consecutive pregnancies included 18 with spina bifida. Another 28 cases were referred for assessment. Biometric measurements were expressed in multiples of the median for crown-rump length. Biparietal diameter (BPD) was smaller in spina bifida (P bifida aperta had a BPD bifida by identifying 5% of pregnancies for expert scanning in first- and second-trimester examinations of the fetal spine and cranium. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biparietal/transverse abdominal diameter ratio ≤ 1: potential marker for open spina bifida at 11-13-week scan. (United States)

    Simon, E G; Arthuis, C J; Haddad, G; Bertrand, P; Perrotin, F


    In the first trimester of pregnancy, a biparietal diameter (BPD) below the 5(th) percentile is a simple marker that enables the prenatal detection of half of all cases of open spina bifida. We hypothesized that relating the BPD measurement to the transverse abdominal diameter (TAD) might be another simple and effective screening method. In this study we assessed the performance of using the BPD/TAD ratio during the first trimester of pregnancy in screening for open spina bifida. A total of 20,551 first-trimester ultrasound scans (11-13 weeks' gestation), performed between 2000 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively; there were 26 cases of open spina bifida and 17,665 unaffected pregnancies with a crown-rump length of 45-84 mm and a record of both BPD and TAD measurements. The mean (± SD) BPD/TAD ratio was 1.00 ± 0.06 for fetuses with spina bifida and 1.13 ± 0.06 for those without (P spina bifida cases, while a BPD/TAD ratio of ≤ 1.00 detected 69.2%. If we considered cases in which either BPD was ≤ 5(th) percentile or BPD/TAD ratio was ≤ 1, we identified 76.9% of cases. In the latter case, the false-positive rate was 5.1%, while that for using a combination of both BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 was 0.6%, with a sensitivity of 38.5%. The positive predictive value of using a combination of BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 for detecting spina bifida was 8.5%. Between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, relating BPD to TAD improves considerably the diagnostic performance of using BPD measurement alone in screening for open spina bifida. Screening using this marker is simple and applicable to a large population. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Is the biparietal diameter of fetuses in late gestation too variable to predict readiness for cesarean section in dogs? (United States)

    De Cramer, K G M; Nöthling, J O


    Correct assessment of readiness for cesarean section is essential for timing elective cesarean section during late pregnancy in the bitch. In humans, biparietal diameter is sufficiently precise and accurate and used in a clinical setting daily. The objectives of this study were to determine whether fetal biparietal diameter in late gestation in the dog could be used to predict readiness for cesarean section by having reached a minimum cut-off value and to correlate the biparietal diameter to birth weight. The biparietal diameter of 208 puppies in 34 litters from 31 English bulldog bitches and 660 puppies in 78 litters from 70 Boerboel bitches were measured immediately after delivery by cesarean section, performed at full term, using digital calipers. At the same time the birth weight of the same 208 English bulldog puppies and 494 of the same Boerboel puppies in 59 litters from 54 bitches was measured by means of an electronic scale. With a cesarean section, all the puppies in a litter are delivered simultaneously and readiness for cesarean section must be determined for a litter. The minimum, median and maximum biparietal diameter varied from 21.1 to 47.8, 32.9 to 50.0 and 34.2-58.2 mm, respectively, among English bulldog litters and from 18.4 to 48.7, 35.5 to 49.7 and 39.8-54.3 mm among Boerboel litters. This large variation suggests that biparietal diameter is too variable within and among litters to be useful as a means of determining readiness for cesarean section. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted gene panel sequencing prenatally detects two novel mutations of DYNC2H1 in a fetus with increased biparietal diameter and polyhydramnios. (United States)

    Deng, Linbei; Cheung, Sau Wai; Schmitt, Eric S; Xiong, Shiyi; Yuan, Meizhen; Chen, Zhonghai; Chen, Lei; Sun, Luming


    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous with more than 350 genes accounting for the diversity of disease phenotypes. Prenatal diagnosis of these disorders has been challenging because of the limited but variable prenatal phenotypes, highlighting the need of a novel genetic approach. Short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) Type III is an autosomal recessive GSD characterized by extreme narrowness of the thorax, severely shortened tubular bones, polydactyly and multiple malformations. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses using GTG-banding, single nucleotide polymorphism array and a novel GSDs targeted gene panel sequencing were performed in a 24 weeks fetus with increased biparietal diameter (BPD), short limbs, narrow thorax and polyhydramnios. No chromosomal abnormalities and pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected in the fetus. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations c.2992C > T and c.12836G > C in the DYNC2H1 gene were identified by targeted genes panel sequencing. A literature review was performed to delineate the prenatal phenotype of SRPS Type III. This is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of DYNC2H1 mutations causing SRPS Type III in a fetus with increased BPD associated with polyhydramnios in China. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of DYNC2H1 in this rare disease and demonstrate that targeted gene panel capture followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an efficient and cost-effective method to perform a molecular prenatal diagnosis of a rare genetic skeletal disorder. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ultrasonographic fetometry formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter and biparietal diameter for medium-sized dogs can be used in giant breeds. (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Janowski, Tomasz; Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the ultrasonographic fetometry method, involving inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) measurements, to predict the parturition date in giant breed dogs. Overall, 30 ICC and 24 BP measurements were taken on 24 giant breed bitches. The measured values were substituted into Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches because formulas with ICC and BP to dogs with a body mass greater than 40 kg have not been defined. The accuracy of the parturition date predictions proved the method to be highly useful in the observed group of dogs. Prediction accuracy in the giants ranged between 54.16% (± 1 day, using BP) and 90% (± 2 days, using ICC), depending on the parameter measured and precision levels used. Numerically, the results obtained using ICC were better; however, no statistically significant differences between ICC and BP accuracy were found when comparing the effectiveness of the parturition date predictions. Regression lines based on the own fetometric measurements were highly convergent with the lines defined by Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches. This outcome suggests a similar gestational development of fetuses in giant dogs and the possible use of Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized dogs with breeds weighing greater than 40 kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting the Parturition Date in Bitches of Different Body Weight by Ultrasonographic Measurements of Inner Chorionic Cavity Diameter and Biparietal Diameter. (United States)

    Socha, P; Janowski, T


    Predicting the parturition date in dogs by taking ultrasonographic foetometry has opened interesting research areas of veterinary obstetrics. Recently developed calculation formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) are formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000). This study is one of the first reports referring to ICC and BP with the use of Luvoni and Grioni formulas for predicting the parturition time in dogs of different body weight in clinical practice conditions. The research material consists of 70 clinically healthy pregnant bitches of 27 breeds and cross-breeds. Bitches were divided into 4 groups according to their body weight. In each of the bitches, ultrasonographic examination of pregnancy was performed at least twice (ICC and BP measurements). Parturition dates for dogs with a body weight over 25 kg were calculated based on formulas intended for the group of medium dogs. It was caused by the lack of appropriate formulas for these groups of dogs. The predicting parturition dates were compared with the actual dates of delivery provided by the bitch owners. Generally, the results obtained in this study are very encouraging and similar or even better than those published by other authors using foetometric measurements. In our research, when comparing the effectiveness of predicting the delivery date based on foetometric formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000), it was proved that in all groups of dogs, even those over 25 kg, ICC and BP measurements at both accuracy levels were characterized similar reliability. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2014 ... Shipp TD, Bromley B, Mascola M, Benacerraf B. Variation in fetal femur length with respect to maternal race. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:141‑4. 25. Deter RL, Harrist RB, Birnholz JC, Hadlock FP. Quantitative Obstetrical. Ultrasonography. New York: Wiley; 1986. 26. Yeh MN, Bracero L, Reilly KB, Murtha L, ...

  12. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2014 ... A regression model for prediction of fetal age using the fetal biometry was also deduced ... done using a linear array real time ultrasound machine. Siemens Sonoline 1 with a 3.5 MHz transducer. ... values were regressed on GA using a simple linear equation. (y = a + b × GA). The 3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, ...

  13. Subarachnoid space diameter in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina; Rouxinol-Dias, Ana Lidia; Loureiro, Teresa; Nicolaides, Kypros


    To examine the subarachnoid space diameters in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Stored three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes of the fetal head at 11-13 weeks' gestation from 407 euploid and 88 chromosomally abnormal fetuses (trisomy 21, n = 40; trisomy 18, n = 19; trisomy 13, n = 7; triploidy, n = 14; Turner syndrome, n = 8) were analyzed. The subarachnoid space diameters, measured in the sagittal and transverse planes of the fetal head, in relation to biparietal diameter (BPD) in each group of aneuploidies was compared to that in euploid fetuses. A total of 20 head volumes were randomly selected and all the measurements were recorded by two different observers to examine the interobserver variability in measurements. In euploid fetuses, the anteroposterior, transverse and sagittal diameters of the subarachnoid space increased with BPD. The median of the observed to expected diameters for BPD were significantly increased in triploidy and trisomy 13 but were not significantly altered in trisomies 21 and 18 or Turner syndrome. In triploidy, the subarachnoid space diameters for BPD were above the 95th centile of euploid fetuses in 92.9% (13 of 14) cases. The intraclass reliability or agreement was excellent for all three subarachnoid space diameters. Most fetuses with triploidy at 11-13 weeks' gestation demonstrate increased subarachnoid space diameters.

  14. Ureaplasma and BPD. (United States)

    Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H


    Ureaplasma is an organism with low virulence and is a commensal of the lower genito-urinary tract in females. From here, it can gain entry in the amniotic fluid to cause inflammation in the amniotic compartment during pregnancy. Ureaplasma spp. are the most common organisms isolated from women with chorioamnionitis. Ureaplasma spp. are associated with increased risk for preterm labor and morbidity in the preterm neonate. However, there is some controversy regarding the importance of Ureaplasma in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This article will review the microbiology of Ureaplasma, host innate immune responses, and the pathology of lung injury in animal models of Ureaplasma chorioamnionitis. We will review epidemiological studies of Ureaplasma and BPD in preterm infants and efficacy of antibiotics in preventing preterm labor and BPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. BPD: old and new problems. (United States)

    Mosca, Fabio; Colnaghi, Mariarosa; Fumagalli, Monica


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still one of the main long term complication of preterm birth, and it is the most common chronic respiratory disease in infants. Due to advances in perinatal care and neonatal respiratory therapy the clinical characteristics and the natural history of infants affected by BPD have widely changed in the last decades. The sever presentation of the old form of BPD has been replaced by a milder clinical form, without or with mild respiratory distress syndrome in the first days of life, that responds rapidly to surfactant therapy and instead requires prolonged ventilator support because of poor respiratory effort. "Old" and "new" BPD, are also histologically different, being two morphologic outcomes of variable combinations of factors injuring lungs of differing maturity. New BPD is characterized by diffusely reduced alveolar development, with airway injury, inflammation and fibrosis that are usually milder than in old form. Such "new" form of BPD is interpreted as a developmental disorder. The development of BPD is a multifactorial process with pathogenesis being linked to immature lung tissue, barotrauma and volutrauma resulting from mechanical ventilation, oxidant injury, and proinflammatory mediators.and inflammatory regulation may also have a role in the development of the new form. There is growing evidence that BPD results from an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, with a persistent imbalance that favors proinflammatory mechanisms. Reduction of the incidence and severity of BPD may be possible through a reduction of the amount of injury induced by respiratory support interventions.

  16. BPD, Not BPD, or iatrogenic BPD: findings of lung ultrasound examinations. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Shui-Wen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yan; Kong, Xiang-Yong; Li, Qiu-Ping; Huang, Jun-Jin


    Lung ultrasound has been extensively used to diagnose many types of lung disease. This study aimed to evaluate the pulmonary reasons for long-term oxygen dependence (LTOD) in premature infants using lung ultrasound.Lung ultrasound was routinely performed in 50 premature infants clinically diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).Among the 50 patients studied, there were 9 cases of atelectasis, 4 cases of pneumonia, 2 cases of severe pulmonary edema, and 3 cases of pulmonary edema and consolidation that coexisted with BPD. The oxygen dependence of the babies either completely resolved or significantly decreased following appropriate treatments.More than one-third of the cases of LTOD in premature babies were caused by either BPD alone or diseases other than BPD. Lung ultrasound plays an important role in differentiating pulmonary causes of LTOD in patients with BPD, and the results of our study suggest that modifying the diagnostic criteria for BPD may be necessary.

  17. Obstructive lung disease in children with mild to severe BPD. (United States)

    Broström, Eva Berggren; Thunqvist, Per; Adenfelt, Gunilla; Borling, Elisabeth; Katz-Salamon, Miriam


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of respiratory insufficiency in children born very premature. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the severity of BPD on pulmonary morbidity at school age, as measured by conventional spirometry and impulse oscillometry. We also studied the association between changes in lung function and structural changes in the lungs of children with BPD via High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Finally we studied the prevalence of atopy associated with BPD. We studied 60 very low birth weight (VLBW) children, 28 with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who did not develop BPD ("preterm non-BPD") and 32 with RDS who developed BPD. The severity of BPD was graded as mild, moderate or severe. Follow-up at age 6-8 years consisted of spirometry, oscillometry, thoracic HRCT, allergy skin-prick test, blood samples and a questionnaire. All children with BPD showed some evidence of impaired lung function (more negative reactance, FEV1BPD (19/26) showed abnormalities on HRCT. There was no evidence that atopy was associated with BPD. Children with mild BPD exhibited similar impairments in respiratory mechanics and lung structure to those diagnosed with moderate BPD. The widespread involvement of the peripheral airways suggests that all children diagnosed with BPD are potentially at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease later in life. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does nasal CPAP reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)? (United States)

    Patel, Ds; Greenough, A


    Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or early surfactant therapy with early extubation onto nCPAP rather than continued mechanical ventilation has been adopted by many centres, particularly in Scandinavia, as part of the treatment of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. It has been suggested that bronchopulmonary dysplasia is less of a problem in centres adopting such a policy. Results from randomized trials suggest prophylactic or early nCPAP may reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but further studies are required to determine the relative contributions of an early lung recruitment policy, early surfactant administration and nCPAP in reducing BPD. In addition, the optimum method of generating and delivering CPAP needs to be determined. The efficacy of nCPAP in improving long-term respiratory outcomes needs to be compared with the newer ventilator techniques with the optimum and timing of delivery of surfactant administration.

  19. Diagnostic value of the Dutch version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD (MSI-BPD). (United States)

    André, Julia Alisha; Verschuere, Bruno; Lobbestael, Jill


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) often goes unrecognized, and therefore a short but accurate screening tool is desired. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the 10-item McLean Screening Instrument for BPD (MSI-BPD) in 159 well-diagnosed female participants. The MSI-BPD showed excellent internal consistency (α = .90). When compared to BPD diagnoses based on a structured clinical interview (SCID-II), the MSI-BPD showed substantial congruent validity (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.96). The cutoff point proposed by the developers of the MSI-BPD (7 or more) showed high specificity (.96) and good sensitivity (.71). The optimal cutoff point in the present study (5 or more) showed somewhat lower specificity (.86), but importantly better sensitivity (.94). Taken together, the Dutch version of the MSI-BPD demonstrated good psychometric properties for a screening tool.

  20. Hypermentalizing, attachment, and epistemic trust in adolescent BPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Fonagy, Peter


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been shown to be a valid and reliable diagnosis in adolescents and associated with a decrease in both general and social functioning. With evidence linking BPD in adolescents to poor prognosis, it is important to develop a better understanding of factors...... and mechanisms contributing to the development of BPD. This could potentially enhance our knowledge and facilitate the design of novel treatment programs and interventions for this group. In this paper, we outline a theoretical model of BPD in adolescents linking the original mentalization-based theory of BPD......, with recent extensions of the theory that focuses on hypermentalizing and epistemic trust. We then provide clinical case vignettes to illustrate this extended theoretical model of BPD. Furthermore, we suggest a treatment approach to BPD in adolescents that focuses on the reduction of hypermentalizing...

  1. The validity of the MSI-BPD among inpatient adolescents. (United States)

    Noblin, J Leigh; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla


    Although the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD) has shown validity in adult samples, only one study has explored its validity in adolescents and, to our knowledge, the measure has not been validated with inpatient adolescents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the reliability, and convergent and criterion validity, of the MSI-BPD in an effort to establish the clinical utility of the MSI-PBD as a screening measure for BPD in inpatient adolescents. A total of 121 adolescents from an acute care inpatient unit were recruited for the study. Convergent validity was examined with established measures of BPD in adolescents, including the use of receiver operating characteristics analyses to establish a clinical cutoff score for the MSI-BPD in predicting a diagnosis of BPD. Criterion validity was examined by using this clinical cutoff to investigate group differences in suicidal ideation and Axis I symptoms, known correlates of BPD. Findings demonstrated support for validity of the MSI-BPD when used among inpatient adolescents, and established a clinical cutoff of 5.5. Taken together, this study demonstrates adequate validity for the MSI-BPD, and suggests it is a valuable screening measure for BPD in adolescent inpatients. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Prevalence and severity of childhood adversity in adolescents with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents, and adults with BPD. (United States)

    Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne; Zanarini, Mary C


    Existing research has demonstrated that both adolescents and adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report higher rates of childhood adversity than their same-age peers; no studies have examined if adolescents and adults with BPD differ based on the extent of these experiences. In the present study, we compared the prevalence rates and severity of multiple forms of abuse and neglect in adolescents and adults with BPD and in psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Participants included 104 adolescent (aged 13-17 years) inpatients with BPD, 60 age-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents, and 290 adult inpatients with BPD. All participants completed an interview that assessed the presence and severity of multiple forms of childhood abuse and neglect. A significantly higher percentage of adolescents with BPD reported 5 of 12 pathological childhood experiences and described more severe abusive experiences than their psychiatrically healthy peers. In comparison with adolescents with BPD, a significantly higher percentage of adults with BPD reported nearly all forms of childhood adversity and rated these experiences as more severe. Taken together, these results suggest that adults with BPD report more severe profiles of abuse and neglect than adolescents with the disorder, even though adolescents with BPD differ from healthy peers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The potential of non-invasive ventilation to decrease BPD. (United States)

    Bhandari, Vineet


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in infancy, has serious long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental consequences right up to adulthood, and is associated with significant healthcare costs. BPD is a multifactorial disease, with genetic and environmental factors interacting to culminate in the characteristic clinical and pathological phenotype. Among the environmental factors, invasive endotracheal tube ventilation is considered a critical contributing factor to the pathogenesis of BPD. Since BPD currently has no specific preventive or effective therapy, considerable interest has focused on the use of non-invasive ventilation as a means to potentially decrease the incidence of BPD. This article reviews the progress made in the last 5 years in the use of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (NCPAP) and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) as it pertains to impacting on BPD rates. Research efforts are summarized, and some guidelines are suggested for clinical use of these techniques in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Searching for better animal models of BPD: a perspective. (United States)

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Morty, Rory E


    There have been many efforts to develop good animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to better understand the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying development of BPD as well as to test potential strategies for its prevention and treatment. This Perspectives summarizes the features of common animal models of BPD and the strengths and limitations of such models. Potential optimal approaches to development of animal models are indicated, with the underlying concepts that require emphasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Prevalence rates of childhood protective factors in adolescents with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adults with BPD. (United States)

    Borkum, Dana B; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne; Zanarini, Mary C


    Existing literature on the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has primarily focused on pathological childhood experiences, while little to no research has been conducted on protective factors that may serve to ameliorate these symptoms. The current study attempts to fill this gap in the literature by comparing the rates of childhood protective factors among adolescents with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adults with BPD. One hundred and four subjects were adolescent inpatients between the ages of 13 and 17 who met Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition criteria for BPD. Sixty were age-matched psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects. Two hundred and ninety subjects were adult inpatients between the ages of 18 and 35 who met Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and Revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Edition criteria for BPD. All three groups were interviewed by using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, a semi-structured interview that assesses pathological and protective childhood experiences. Psychiatrically healthy adolescents reported significantly higher rates of 4 out of 18 protective factors than adolescents with BPD. Adolescents with BPD reported significantly higher rates of 5 of these 18 protective factors than adults with BPD. Adults with BPD were significantly more likely to endorse having a steady after school or weekend work record than adolescents with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents meeting criteria for BPD report lower rates of some protective factors than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. They also suggest that they have higher rates of some protective factors than adults with BPD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD. (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne


    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Radial dependence of HF wave field strength in the BPD column. [Beam Plasma Discharge (United States)

    Jost, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.; Bernstein, W.; Kellogg, P. J.


    The results of a recent set of RF frequency measurements of the beam plasma discharge (BPD) performed in order to determine a quantitative value for the field strength in the plasma frequency region of the spectrum are presented. The parallel and perpendicular components of the plasma wave electric fields inside the BPD column have comparable field strengths, on the order of 10 volts/m. The radial dependence of the field strength is very strong, decreasing by as much as 40 dB within one meter from the beam center, with the illumination or discharge column approximately one meter in diameter. The field strength inside the column increases as a function of distance along the beam at least for several meters from the gun aperture. The frequency and amplitude of the plasma wave increases with beam current. A particularly rapid increase in these parameters occurs as the beam current approaches the critical current.

  8. Hypermentalizing, attachment, and epistemic trust in adolescent BPD: Clinical illustrations. (United States)

    Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Fonagy, Peter; Kongerslev, Mickey


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been shown to be a valid and reliable diagnosis in adolescents and associated with a decrease in both general and social functioning. With evidence linking BPD in adolescents to poor prognosis, it is important to develop a better understanding of factors and mechanisms contributing to the development of BPD. This could potentially enhance our knowledge and facilitate the design of novel treatment programs and interventions for this group. In this paper, we outline a theoretical model of BPD in adolescents linking the original mentalization-based theory of BPD, with recent extensions of the theory that focuses on hypermentalizing and epistemic trust. We then provide clinical case vignettes to illustrate this extended theoretical model of BPD. Furthermore, we suggest a treatment approach to BPD in adolescents that focuses on the reduction of hypermentalizing and epistemic mistrust. We conclude with an integration of theory and practice in the final section of the paper and make recommendations for future work in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Preterm birth, respiratory failure and BPD: which neonatal management? (United States)

    Castoldi, Francesca; Lista, Gianluca; Scopesi, Fabio; Somaschini, Marco; Cuttano, Armando; Grappone, Lidia; Maffei, Gianfranco


    Preterm birth is a significant problem in the world regarding perinatal mortality and morbidity in the long term, especially bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Premature delivery is often associated to failure in transition to create an early functional residual capacity (FRC), since many preterm babies need frequently respiratory support. The first and most effective preventive measure to reduce the incidence of BPD is represented by the attempt to avoid preterm birth. Whenever this fails, the prevention of every known risk factors for BPD should start in the delivery room and should be maintained in the NICU through the use of tailored management of high-risk infants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Top Management Team Characteristics on BPD Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Elly Tulung


    Full Text Available Based on ”upper echelons theory”, this paper investigates the relation between top management team composition and BPD performance. For top management team characteristics, we employ age, level of education, background of education, gender, and functional background, while for measured the BPD performance we employ return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE, capital adequacy ratio (CAR, net interest margin (NIM, loan to deposit ratio (LDR, non-performing loan (NPL and operation expenses to operation income (BOPO. The results show that all characteristics have positive significant influences on BPD performance.

  11. Biomarkers, Early Diagnosis, and Clinical Predictors of BPD (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam


    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) continues to be an important source of morbidity and mortality in premature neonates. The phenotype of BPD is extremely variable, and diagnosis is a clinical operational definition. A number of clinical and laboratory biomarkers have been proposed for the early identification of infants at higher risk of this disease, to characterize disease activity and severity and for determination of prognosis. Clinical prediction models for BPD have been developed using birth weight, gestational age, indicators of respiratory illness severity, and other clinical variables. Other biomarkers of BPD include those based on imaging of the lungs, lung function measures, and measurements of various analytes in different body fluids (blood, tracheal aspirates, exhaled breath condensates, urine, etc). Novel systems biology ‘omic’ based approaches including but not limited to genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and microbiomics are required for evaluating the multiple interacting cellular and molecular networks that control lung development and injury in BPD. Here we present a critical evaluation of the biomarker approaches studied in the diagnosis of BPD and highlight the future avenues for research in this field. PMID:26593076

  12. Assessment of Gestational Age in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SFH) with ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter (BPD) and femur length (FL) in assessing gestational age in the third trimester of pregnancy. Subjects and Methods:Women carrying singleton uncomplicated pregnancies in the third ...

  13. Association of parasuicidal behaviour to early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in patients with BPD: The Oulu BPD study. (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Vuorenmaa, Elina; Lindeman, Sari; Tuulari, Jyrki; Hakko, Helinä


    The present study aimed to examine which early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and schema modes emerged in parasuicidal and non-parasuicidal patients with BPD participating in the Oulu BPD study. The patients' EMSs were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire, and schema modes using the Young Atkinson Mode Inventory. Sixty patients with BPD responded to both the schema and schema mode questionnaires; of these, 46 (76.7%) fulfilled the criteria for parasuicidality. In BPD patients with parasuicidality, the EMSs of emotional deprivation, abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse and social isolation were the most prevalent, and the schema modes of vulnerable child, angry child, detached protector and compliant surrender were prominent. In patients without parasuicidality, the schema modes of healthy adult and happy child were the most prevalent. Significant correlations were observed between the schema modes of detached protector, vulnerable child, punitive parent and angry child and almost every EMS in BPD patients with parasuicidality. Our preliminary findings suggest that associations between certain EMSs and schema modes to parasuicidality in BPD patients may provide valuable information when planning and implementing their treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Maternal serum placental growth hormone, but not human placental lactogen or insulin growth factor-1, is positively associated with fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N G; Juul, A; Christiansen, M


    To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy.......To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy....

  15. Mental health literacy and borderline personality disorder (BPD): what do the public "make" of those with BPD? (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Lee, Vanessa; Kolzeev, Vladimir


    This study was part of a programmatic series into mental health literacy, specifically lay people's knowledge of causes, manifestations and cures of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The aim was to determine to what extent non-experts understood BDP and to what extent they held erroneous beliefs about specific aspects of the causes and cures for the disorder A convenience sample of 102 participants completed a vignette-identification task that required them to answer open-ended questions about hypothetical people with four psychological problems, one of which was BPD and a 50-item questionnaire divided into three sections about BDP. Analysis of the vignette identification task revealed very low rates of recognition for BPD, with participants significantly more likely to identify depression, schizophrenia or psychopathy. Participants' generally favoured psychological and sociological treatments, as well as rating early trauma and stress as possible causes of the symptoms of the person described in the BDP vignette. There were logical relationships between perceptions of cause and cure. The results suggest that participants hold certain coherent beliefs (psychological, sociological, biological or theological) regarding aetiology and treatments of BPD. Further, the findings suggest the need for greater awareness and educational programmes to inform the general public accurately regarding BPD and to improve mental health literacy.

  16. Parameter determination for BPD mediated vascularPDT. (United States)

    Kim, Michele M; Liu, Baochang; Miller, Joann; Busch, Theresa M; Zhu, Timothy C


    The cell killing mechanism of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is known to be predominantly apoptotic or vascular, depending on the drug-light interval (DLI). With a 3 hour DLI, necrosis develops secondary to tumor cell damage, while with a 15 minute DLI, necrosis results from treatment-created vascular damage. The purpose of this study is to examine if the different mechanisms of cell death will affect the photochemical parameters for the macroscopic singlet oxygen model. Using the RIF model of murine fibrosarcoma, we determined the four photochemical parameters (ξ, σ, β, γ) and the threshold singlet oxygen dose for BPD-mediated PDT through evaluation of the extent of tumor necrosis as a function of PDT fluence rate and total fluence. Mice were treated with a linear source at fluence rates from 12-150 mW/cm and total fluences from 24-135 J/cm. BPD was administered at 1mg/kg with a 15 minute DLI, followed by light delivery at 690nm. Tumors were excised at 24 hours after PDT and necrosis was analyzed via H&E staining. The in-vivo BPD drug concentration is determined to be in the range of 0.05-0.30 μM. The determination of these parameters specific for BPD and the 15 minute DLI provides necessary data for predicting treatment outcome in clinical BPD-mediated PDT. Photochemical parameters will be compared between 1mg/kg DLI 3 hours and 1mg/kg DLI 15 minutes.

  17. Metabolic intestinal bypass surgery for type 2 diabetes in patients with a BMI BPD, BPD-DS, or RYGB. (United States)

    Frenken, Michael; Cho, Eun-Young


    Metabolic surgery for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with low body mass index (BMI) is a novel concept. Early studies show the surgery to be safe and effective but are inconclusive regarding the most effective procedure. Metabolic intestinal bypass surgery was performed in n = 16 patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI BPD-DS), biliopancreatic diversion according to Scopinaro (BPD), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were performed in 7, 5, and 4 diabetic patients, respectively. Mean preoperative duration of medical antidiabetic therapy was 16 years (range 4-40). Thirteen patients used insulin on average for 6 years (range 1-12), the mean insulin requirement was 92 IU per day (range 30-140). The analysis was accomplished retrospectively from data prospectively collected in our data base. At discharge from hospital, only 3 of the 13 patients who used insulin preoperatively required small amounts of insulin (mean 21 IU per day, range 15-30) to keep fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels below 200 mg/dl. After 1 year, none of the patients used insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. The HbA1c level decreased for the total patient population from 8.6% (range 5.8-12.1) preoperatively to 6.0% (range 4.3-7.8), 5.7% (range 4.1-7.6), and 5.6% (range 4.1-7.8) after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The HbA1c levels at 1 year were significantly lower after BPD-DS and BPD than after RYGB (5.2%, range 4.1-6.4 versus 6.7%, range 5.8-7.8, p BPD-DS or BPD than after RYGB. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Avaliação Ultra-Sonográfica do Crescimento Fetal com uso do Diâmetro Transverso do Cerebelo Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Growth with the use of the Transverse Cerebellar Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nery


    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia do diâmetro transverso do cerebelo (DTC, por meio da ultra-sonografia, na evolução do crescimento fetal e relacioná-lo com a idade gestacional, diâmetro biparietal (DBP, circunferência cefálica (CC, circunferência abdominal (CA e comprimento do fêmur (CF. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo prospectivo e longitudinal com 254 gestantes consideradas de baixo risco, com idade gestacional de 20 a 40 semanas. Somente 55 gestantes foram incluídas no estudo, segurados os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Todos os exames, ou seja, as 217 avaliações ultra-sonográficas foram realizadas pelo autor (LN, sendo no mínimo três e no máximo seis exames para cada gestante, com intervalo de uma a cinco semanas. Foram estabelecidos padrões de normalidade entre os percentis 10 e 90 para cada idade gestacional, com confirmação após o parto. Resultados: o diâmetro transverso do cerebelo apresentou uma boa correlação com a idade gestacional, tanto como variável dependente (R² = 0,90, como variável independente (R² = 0,92. Uma correlação significativa na avaliação do crescimento fetal foi encontrada entre o DTC e os vários parâmetros fetais: DBP e CC (R² = 0,92, CF (R² = 0,90 e CA (R² = 0,89. Conclusões: o diâmetro transverso do cerebelo é um parâmetro que deve ser utilizado no acompanhamento do desenvolvimento e do crescimento fetal devido a sua curva de crescimento de padrão ascendente. Qualquer alteração para mais ou menos na curva de crescimento pode ser útil na detecção dos desvios do crescimento fetal.Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness of the transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD, by ultrasonography, in the evolution of the fetal growth, and to relate it to gestational age, biparietal diameter (BPD, head circumference (HC, abdominal circumference (AC and femur length (FL. Method: a prospective and longitudinal study was performed on 254 pregnant women considered of low risk, with a

  19. Treatment of visuospatial neglect with biparietal tDCS and cognitive training: a single-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharine eBrem


    Full Text Available Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing treatment methods show limited efficacy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory technique, which can be used to increase or decrease brain excitability. Its combination with conventional neglect therapy may enhance treatment efficacy.A 72-year-old male with a subacute ischaemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery suffering from visuospatial neglect, hemianopia, and hemiparesis was treated with biparietal tDCS and cognitive neglect therapy in a double-blind, sham-controlled single-case study. Four weeks of daily treatment sessions (5 days per week, 30 min were started 26 days post-stroke. During week 1 and 4 the patient received conventional neglect therapy, during week 2, conventional neglect therapy was combined once with sham and once with real biparietal tDCS. Week 3 consisted of daily sessions of real biparietal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min combined with neglect therapy. Outcome measures were assessed before, immediately after, as well as 1 week and 3 months after the end of treatment. They included subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP: covert attention (main outcome, alertness, visual field; the Neglect-Test (NET: line bisection, cancellation, copying; and activities of daily living (ADL. After real stimulation, covert attention allocation towards left-sided invalid stimuli was significantly improved, and line bisection and copying improved qualitatively as compared to sham stimulation. ADL were only improved at the 3-month follow-up. This single-case study demonstrates for the first time that combined application of tDCS and cognitive training may enhance training-induced improvements in measures of visuospatial neglect and is applicable in a clinical context.

  20. Verbal elaboration of distinct affect categories and BPD symptoms. (United States)

    Lecours, Serge; Bouchard, Marc-André


    The present study explores the relationship between the mentalization of distinct affect categories and the severity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Mentalization is assessed by both the level of verbal elaboration (VE) achieved by discrete affects (explicit mentalization) and the proportion of these individual affects in verbal expression (implicit mentalization). Sixty-four outpatients completed a series of questionnaires and took part in an interview designed to produce eight relationship episodes that involved four basic emotions: sadness, joy, anger, and fear (two of each). Affect mentalization was assessed with the Grille de l'Élaboration Verbale de l'Affect (GEVA), an observer-rated measure of levels of elaboration of verbalized affect, and the measure of affect content (MAC), which identifies the content of the verbalized affect (e.g., anger). Diagnostic criteria were obtained with the BPD scale of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) questionnaire. Alexithymia was assessed with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The severity of BPD symptoms was related to lower levels of VE of sadness. It was also associated with a higher frequency of hostility directed against others. The level of VE of sadness and the proportion of hostility showed incremental predictive value of borderline symptomatology over demographic information, the presence of a depressive disorder and alexithymia. These findings point to an association between the severity of BPD symptoms and a difficulty mentalizing specific affective domains largely recognized as being central to borderline pathology, namely sadness and hostility. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Demokrasi Desa : Analisis Hubungan Kekuasaan BPD Dan Pemerintah Desa Di Sikapat, Banyumas (Village Democracy: Analysis of the Relationship Between the Power of BPD and Village Government in Sikapat,


    Suswanto, Bambang; K., Solahuddin; Firdaus, Syah


    Hadirnya Badan Perwakilan Desa ( BPD), sebagai lembaga baru di desa, menimbulkan Perubahan pada hubungan kekuasaan dalam Pemerintahan Desa. Situasi dan kondisi politik di tingkat daerah serta nasional dan hubungan badan legislatif daneksekutif di tingkat nasional dan daerah berpengaruh hingga tingkat pedesaan Hal inilah yang mendorong peneliti untuk melakukan penelitian tentang hubungan k ekuasaan BPD dan Pemerintah Desa.T ujuan penelitian ini adalah menggambarkan hubungan kekuasaan BPD da...

  2. Mentalization-based treatment in groups for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or subthreshold BPD versus treatment as usual (M-GAB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Emma; Bo, Sune; Gondan, Matthias


    mentalization-based treatment in groups is an efficacious treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD compared to treatment as usual. The trial is a four-center, two-armed, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. One hundred twelve patients aged 14 to 17 referred...... to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics in Region Zealand are randomized to 1 year of either mentalization-based treatment in groups or treatment as usual. Patients will be included if they meet at least four DSM-5 criteria for BPD. The primary outcome is self-reported borderline features at discharge...... variables. Follow-up assessment will take place at 3 and 12 months after end of treatment. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a group-based mentalization-based treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD. If the results confirm our hypothesis...

  3. Antioxidant response genes sequence variants and BPD susceptibility in VLBW infants. (United States)

    Sampath, Venkatesh; Garland, Jeffery S; Helbling, Daniel; Dimmock, David; Mulrooney, Neil P; Simpson, Pippa M; Murray, Jeffrey C; Dagle, John M


    Lung injury resulting from oxidative stress contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (NFE2L2) regulates cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress by inducing enzymes containing antioxidant response elements (ARE). We hypothesized that ARE genetic variants will modulate susceptibility or severity of BPD in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Blood samples obtained from VLBW infants were used for genotyping variants in the SOD2, NFE2L2, GCLC, GSTP1, HMOX1, and NQO1 genes. SNPs were genotyped utilizing TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems (ABI), Grand Island, NY), and data were analyzed using the ABI HT7900. Genetic dominance and recessive models were tested to determine associations between SNPs and BPD. In our cohort (n = 659), 284 infants had BPD; 135 of whom developed severe BPD. Presence of the hypomorphic NQO1 SNP (rs1800566) in a homozygous state was associated with increased BPD, while presence of the NFE2L2 SNP (rs6721961) was associated with decreased severe BPD in the entire cohort and in Caucasian infants. In regression models that adjusted for epidemiological confounders, the NQO1 and the NFE2L2 SNPs were associated with BPD and severe BPD, respectively. Genetic variants in NFE2L2-ARE axis may contribute to the variance in liability to BPD observed in preterm infants. These results require confirmation in independent cohorts.

  4. Executive functioning among patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their relatives. (United States)

    Gvirts, Hila Z; Harari, Hagai; Braw, Yoram; Shefet, Daphna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Levkovitz, Yechiel


    Studies focusing on executive functioning in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have shown divergent results. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the potential role of deficits in executive functions as markers of familial vulnerability to BPD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in both patients BPD and their unaffected first-degree relatives (parents). We examined executive functions in four groups: patients with BPD (n=27), age-matched healthy controls (n=29), healthy unaffected parents of patients in the BPD group (n=20) and their respective age-matched controls (n=22). We administered tests that tapped three domains of executive functions: cognitive planning, sustained attention, and spatial working memory. All tests form part of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) battery. BPD patients displayed deficient executive functioning as compared to healthy controls in the domains of cognitive planning, sustained attention and working memory. Both BPD patients and their parents showed reduced latency to initiate the first move on the planning task [CANTAB's Tower of London]. All other measurements of executive functions did not differ significantly between parents of BPD patients and their respective healthy controls. Results should be replicated with a larger sample size. BPD patients demonstrate a generalized profile of executive dysfunction. In the group comprising their parents, however, we found a lack of evidence for executive dysfunctions. Hence, executive dysfunctions do not appear to be markers of familial vulnerability for BPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-Oxidant Response Genes sequence variants and BPD susceptibility in VLBW infants (United States)

    Sampath, Venkatesh; Garland, Jeffery S.; Helbling, Daniel; Dimmock, David; Mulrooney, Neil P.; Simpson, Pippa M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Dagle, John M.


    Background Lung injury resulting from oxidative stress contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (NFE2L2) regulates cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress by inducing enzymes containing anti-oxidant response elements (ARE). We hypothesized that ARE genetic variants will modulate susceptibility or severity of BPD in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Blood samples obtained from VLBW infants were used for genotyping variants in the SOD2, NFE2L2, GCLC, GSTP1, HMOX1 and NQO1 genes. SNPs were genotyped utilizing TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems (ABI), Grand Island, NY), and data was analyzed using the ABI HT7900. Genetic dominance and recessive models were tested to determine associations between SNPs and BPD. Results In our cohort (n=659), 284 infants had BPD; 135 of whom developed severe BPD. Presence of the hypomorphic NQO1 SNP (rs1800566) in a homozygous state was associated with increased BPD while presence of the NFE2L2 SNP (rs6721961) was associated with decreased severe BPD in the entire cohort and in Caucasian infants. In regression models that adjusted for epidemiological confounders, the NQO1 and the NFE2L2 SNPs were associated with BPD and severe BPD, respectively. Conclusions Genetic variants in NFE2L2-ARE axis may contribute to the variance in liability to BPD observed in preterm infants. These results require confirmation in independent cohorts. PMID:25518008

  6. Low postnatal serum IGF-I levels are associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (United States)

    Löfqvist, Chatarina; Hellgren, Gunnel; Niklasson, Aimon; Engström, Eva; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid


    To characterize postnatal changes in serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) in relation to development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very preterm infants. Longitudinal study of 108 infants with mean (SD) gestational age (GA) 27.2 (2.2) weeks. Weekly serum samples of IGF-I were analysed from birth until postmenstrual age (PMA) 36 weeks. Multivariate models were developed to identify independent predictors of BPD. Postnatal mean IGF-I levels at postnatal day (PND) 3-21 were lower in infants with BPD compared with infants with no BPD (16 vs. 26 μg/L, p BPD compared with infants with no BPD (0.28 vs. 0.97, p = 0.002) and mean IGF-I during PMA 30-33 weeks was lower in infants with BPD as compared with infants without BPD (22 vs. 29 μg/L, p BPD (r(2) = 0.634, p BPD. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Use of fetal biometry in the assessment of gestational age in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The nomogram for the femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) for the different weeks of gestation (from 13th to the 40th week) were established. Correlation coefficients between gestational age and the various fetal parameters were also reported. Growth charts using both FL and BPD were plotted.

  8. The role of hyperoxia in the pathogenesis of experimental BPD. (United States)

    Buczynski, Bradley W; Maduekwe, Echezona T; O'Reilly, Michael A


    Supplemental oxygen is often used as a life-saving therapy in the treatment of preterm infants. However, its protracted use can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and more recently, has been associated with adversely affecting the general health of children and adolescents who were born preterm. Efforts to understand how exposure to excess oxygen can disrupt lung development have historically focused on the interplay between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense mechanisms. However, there has been a growing appreciation for how changes in gene-environment interactions occurring during critically important periods of organ development can profoundly affect human health and disease later in life. Here, we review the concept that oxygen is an environmental stressor that may play an important role at birth to control normal lung development via its interactions with genes and cells. Understanding how changes in the oxygen environment have the potential to alter the developmental programing of the lung, such that it now proceeds along a different developmental trajectory, could lead to novel therapies in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases, such as BPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying the Manipulative Mating Methods Associated With Psychopathic Traits and BPD Features. (United States)

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Thomson, Nicholas D; Kwok, Angela H


    Psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are associated with coercion and manipulation within relationships. The authors investigated whether BPD traits were uniquely associated with manipulation for emotional closeness whereas psychopathy was used for the purpose of attaining physical closeness. A community sample (N = 164) reported on mating behaviors, psychopathic traits, and BPD traits. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to predict mating behaviors that would account for the overlap between psychopathy and BPD. Total psychopathic traits were associated with lower levels of relationship exclusivity, greater use of partner poaching, and perpetration of sexual coercion. Specifically, callousness and egocentricity were related to lower relationship exclusivity. BPD traits were associated with the use of mate retention strategies, mate poaching, and victimization in sexual coercion. These findings indicate that manipulative mating behaviors encompass tools to achieve sex and intimacy. Those with BPD traits use these tools for emotional closeness, whereas those with psychopathic traits use them to obtain physical closeness and gratification.

  10. Current trends in BPD research as indicative of a broader sea-change in psychiatric nosology. (United States)

    Sharp, Carla


    The aim of the Special Section that this paper contributes to is to review current trends in borderline personality disorder (BPD) research. Three major trends were identified. First, there has been a marked increase in studies that attempt to locate BPD in the dimensional latent structure of psychopathology. Second, identifying the endophenotypic markers associated with BPD has become a focus of interest. Here, we focus on one endophenotype in the form of impaired self-other processing. Third, there has been an explosion of research into the developmental aspects of BPD specifically focused on uncovering complex Biology × Environment interactions in the development of BPD. This paper discusses how these trends (Dimensions, Biology, and Development) are challenging the nature and form of BPD as we know it, and may be indicative of a broader sea-change in psychiatric nosology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Influence of Top Management Team Characteristics on BPD Performance (P.155-166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Elly Tulung


    Full Text Available Based on ”upper echelons theory”, this paper investigates the relation between top management team composition and BPD performance. For top management team characteristics, we employ age, level of education, background of education, gender, and functional background, while for measured the BPD performance we employ return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE, capital adequacy ratio (CAR, net interest margin (NIM, loan to deposit ratio (LDR, non-performing loan (NPL and operation expenses to operation income (BOPO. The results show that all characteristics have positive significant influences on BPD performance.Keywords: Top Management Team,BPD Performance, Upper Echelons Theory 

  12. A systematic review of the neurobiological underpinnings of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Marwaha, Steven; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P


    Contemporary theories for the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) take a lifespan approach asserting that inborn biological predisposition is potentiated across development by environmental risk factors. In this review, we present and critically evaluate evidence on the neurobiology of BPD in childhood and adolescence, compare this evidence to the adult literature, and contextualise within a neurodevelopmental framework. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies examining the neurobiological (i.e. genetic, structural neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological) correlates of BPD symptoms in children and adolescents aged 19 years or under. We identified, quality assessed, and narratively summarised 34 studies published between 1980 and June 2016. Similar to findings in adult populations, twin studies indicated moderate to high levels of heritability of BPD, and there was some evidence for gene-environment interactions. Also consistent with adult reports is that some adolescents with BPD demonstrated structural (grey and white matter) alterations in frontolimbic regions and neuropsychological abnormalities (i.e. reduced executive function and disturbances in social cognition). These findings suggest that neurobiological abnormalities observed in adult BPD may not solely be the consequence of chronic morbidity or prolonged medication use. They also provide tentative support for neurodevelopmental theories of BPD by demonstrating that neurobiological markers may be observed from childhood onwards and interact with environmental factors to increase risk of BPD in young populations. Prospective studies with a range of repeated measures are now required to elucidate the temporal unfurling of neurobiological features and further delineate the complex pathways to BPD.

  13. A preliminary study of the relation between trauma symptoms and emerging BPD in adolescent inpatients. (United States)

    Venta, Amanda; Kenkel-Mikelonis, Robyn; Sharp, Carla


    The relation between trauma and borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been studied in great detail with adults, but few studies have examined this link in adolescents. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about how different aspects of trauma relate to BPD and whether trauma symptoms reflect actual trauma history in adolescents diagnosed with BPD. Using a sample of 147 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, the authors examined the concurrent link between trauma symptoms, trauma history, and BPD. Findings suggest that adolescents with BPD are more likely than their non-BPD counterparts to have a history of sexual trauma and to report sexual concerns. However, the link between BPD and sexual concerns is not completely explained by increased sexual trauma history in the BPD group, indicating that there is some relation between BPD and sexual concerns independent of trauma history. These findings are discussed within an attachment framework. The preliminary nature of this study is noted and used as the basis for encouraging future research in the area.

  14. The role of affective instability and impulsivity in predicting future BPD features. (United States)

    Tragesser, Sarah L; Solhan, Marika; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca; Trull, Timothy J


    Models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest that extreme levels of affective instability/emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, or the combination of these two traits account for the symptoms characteristic of BPD. The present study utilized longitudinal data to evaluate the ability of Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991) subscale scores to predict BPD features two years later as a test of these models of BPD. Participants were 156 male and 194 female young adults who completed the PAI-BOR at age 18 and again two years later. Three models were compared: (a) Wave 1 affective instability scores predicting Wave 2 BPD features (AI model); (b) Wave 1 self-harm/impulsivity scores predicting Wave 2 BPD features (IMP model); and (c) both Wave 1 affective instability and self-harm/impulsivity scores predicting Wave 2 BPD features (AI-IMP model), all controlling for stabilities and within-time covariances. Results indicated that the AI model provided the best fit to the data, and improved model fit over a baseline stabilities model and the other models tested. These results are consistent with Linehan's theory (1993) that emotional dysregulation drives the other BPD symptoms.

  15. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for BPD-mediated photodynamic therapy (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases; however, quantities such as light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, and PDT dose do not fully account for all of the dynamic interactions between the key components involved. In particular, fluence rate (Φ) effects are not accounted for, which has a large effect on the oxygen consumption rate. In this preclinical study, reacted singlet oxygen [1O2]rx was investigated as a dosimetric quantity for PDT outcome. The ability of [1O2]rx to predict the long-term local tumor control rate (LCR) for BPD-mediated PDT was examined. Mice bearing radioactivelyinduced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (250, 300, and 350 J/cm2) and in-air ϕ (75, 100, and150 mW/cm2) with a BPD dose of 1 mg/kg and a drug-light interval of 3 hours. Treatment was delivered with a collimated laser beam of 1 cm diameter at 690 nm. Explicit dosimetry of initial tissue oxygen concentration, tissue optical properties, and BPD concentration was used to calculate [1O2]rx. Φ was calculated for the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulations and measured tissue optical properties. Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were done for an endpoint of tumor volume <= 100 mm3 using four dose metrics: light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and [1O2]rx. PDT dose was defined as the product of the timeintegral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. Preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx better correlates with LCR and is an effective dosimetric quantity that can predict treatment outcome.

  16. Using a sibling design to compare childhood adversities in female patients with BPD and their sisters. (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer; Correa, José A


    Abuse and neglect are well-established risk correlates of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The goal of this study was to examine whether BPD probands can be differentiated from their sisters with respect to a range of developmental adversity and maltreatment indicators, including retrospective self-reports of past experiences of childhood abuse and neglect, dysfunctional parent-child relationships and peer victimization and dysfunctional peer relationships. A total of 53 patients with BPD were compared to 53 sisters who were currently free of psychopathology on measures assessing childhood adversities. Both probands and sisters reported similar prevalence of intrafamilial abuse, although BPD patients reported more severe physical and emotional abuse. BPD patients reported higher prevalence of physical abuse by peers. These findings generally support the principle of multifinality, in which similar histories of adversities can be associated with a variety of outcomes, ranging from psychopathology to resilience.

  17. Airway Microbial Community Turnover Differs by BPD Severity in Ventilated Preterm Infants. (United States)

    Wagner, Brandie D; Sontag, Marci K; Harris, J Kirk; Miller, Joshua I; Morrow, Lindsey; Robertson, Charles E; Stephens, Mark; Poindexter, Brenda B; Abman, Steven H; Mourani, Peter M


    Preterm birth exposes the developing lung to an environment with direct exposure to bacteria, often facilitated by endotracheal intubation. Despite evidence linking bacterial infections to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), systematic studies of airway microbiota are limited. The objective was to identify specific patterns of the early respiratory tract microbiome from tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated preterm infants that are associated with the development and severity of BPD. Infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks, and birth weight 500-1250g were prospectively enrolled. Mechanically ventilated infants had tracheal aspirate samples collected at enrollment, 7, 14, and 21 days of age. BPD was determined by modified NIH criteria with oxygen reduction tests; infants without BPD were excluded due to low numbers. Aspirates were processed for bacterial identification by 16S rRNA sequencing, and bacterial load by qPCR. Cross-sectional analysis was performed using 7 day samples and longitudinal analysis was performed from subjects with at least 2 aspirates. Microbiome analysis was performed on tracheal aspirates from 152 infants (51, 49, and 52 with mild, moderate, and severe BPD, respectively). Seventy-nine of the infants were included in the cross-sectional analysis and 94 in the longitudinal. Shannon Diversity, bacterial load, and relative abundance of individual taxa were not strongly associated with BPD status. Longitudinal analysis revealed that preterm infants who eventually developed severe BPD exhibited greater bacterial community turnover with age, acquired less Staphylococcus in the first days after birth, and had higher initial relative abundance of Ureaplasma. In conclusion, longitudinal changes in the airway microbial communities of mechanically ventilated preterm infants may be associated with BPD severity, whereas cross-sectional analysis of airway ecology at 7 days of age did not reveal an association with BPD severity

  18. New BPD predicts lung function at school age: Follow-up study and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Ronkainen, Eveliina; Dunder, Teija; Peltoniemi, Outi; Kaukola, Tuula; Marttila, Riitta; Hallman, Mikko


    New treatment practices have improved survival of preterm infants and decreased airway pathology in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our aim was to investigate whether preterm birth, BPD, and the severity of BPD predict lung function in school children that are born in surfactant era. We studied pulmonary function of 88 school-aged children born very preterm (gestational age BPD was defined as oxygen dependence for ≥ 28 days and it was severity-graded by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (mild, none; moderate, FiO2 = 0.22-0.29; severe, FiO2 ≥ 0.30). Preterm children had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ) 86.4 ± 11.8 versus 94.9 ± 10.1 (mean % predicted ± SD; P BPD group differed in both FEV1 (P = 0.037) and DLCO (P = 0.018) from those without BPD. For meta-analysis, search identified 210 articles. Together with present results, six articles met the inclusion criteria. FEV1 of no BPD, all BPD, and moderate to severe BPD groups differed from that in term controls by -7.4, -10.5, and -17.8%, respectively. According to meta-analysis and follow-up study, the adverse effects of prematurity on pulmonary function are still detectable in school-age. BPD was associated with reductions in both diffusion capacity and spirometry. New interventions are required to document a further decrease in the life-long consequences of prematurity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Dysregulation of the executive system and theory of mind: clinical interest of a neuroscientific conception of BPD]. (United States)

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Lemelin, Sophie; Dubé, Claude; Giguère, Jean-François


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychopathology. Through recent developments, neuroscience is able to contribute to better understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of BPD manifestations. This article aims to demonstrate that BPD is in part due to executive and frontal dysregulation of the mechanisms responsible for the optimal functioning of inferences specific to theory of mind. To do so, four types of observations will be examined: parallels between frontal personality and BPD, the presence of frontal cognitive deficits in BPD, the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect on brain development and finally, the results of brain imagery in BPD. This article follows in the path of a growing interest in the integration of the neuroscientific perspective of BPD to current conceptualisations in psychopathology. The final aim is to try to offer an understanding of BPD manifestations that avoids the traditional splitting between mind and brain-psychology and biology-and to show the numerous associations between clinical psychology and neurobiology.

  20. The cost of borderline personality disorder: societal cost of illness in BPD-patients. (United States)

    van Asselt, A D I; Dirksen, C D; Arntz, A; Severens, J L


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent, chronic condition. Because of its very problematic nature BPD is expected to be associated with substantial societal costs, although this has never been comprehensively assessed. Estimate the societal cost of BPD in the Netherlands. We used a prevalence-based bottom-up approach with a sample of 88 BPD patients who enrolled in a multicenter clinical trial comparing two kinds of outpatient psychotherapy. Costs were assessed by means of a structured interview, covering all healthcare costs, medication, informal care, productivity losses, and out-of-pocket expenses. Only BPD-related costs were included. All costs were expressed in Euros for the year 2000. A bootstrap procedure was performed to determine statistical uncertainty. All patients had been diagnosed with BPD using DSM-IV criteria. Mean age was 30.5 years and 92% was female. Based on a prevalence of 1.1% and an adult population of 11,990,942, we derived that there were 131,900 BPD patients in the Netherlands. Total bootstrapped yearly cost of illness was 2,222,763,789 euros (1,372,412,403-3,260,248,300 euros), only 22% was healthcare-related. Costs per patient were 16,852 euros. Although healthcare costs of non-institutionalized Borderline patients might not be disproportionate, total societal costs are substantial.

  1. Evaluation of treatment with hydrocortisone on oxidant/antioxidant system in preterm infants with BPD. (United States)

    Sandal, G; Mutlu, B; Uras, N; Erdeve, O; Oguz, S S; Dilmen, U


    Evidence that oxidative stress plays a role in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). There is a close relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, it is aimed to investigate influences of hydrocortisone used in the treatment of BPD on anti-oxidant system in preterm infants with BPD. The study enrolled 33 infants with severe BPD who were undergone inpatient treatment in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our Hospital and received therapy with hydrocortisone. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) levels of infants enrolled to the study before and one week after the hydrocortisone therapy were studies and oxidative stress index levels were calculated. Pre- and post-treatment TOS, TAC and OSI index levels were statistically compared. In preterm infants with BPD, who were enrolled into the study, TOS and OSI index were found high, whereas TAC values were low. Following the treatment with hydrocortisone, statistically significant decrease in TOS and OSI index and statistically significant elevation in TAC levels were found in comparison with pre-treatment levels. The treatment with hydrocortisone, which is used for BPD, improves anti-oxidant system and reduces oxidative stress in infants with BPD. There is need for further studies in order to clarify the physio-pathogenesis.

  2. Pregnancies, Abortions and Births in Women with and without Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Feske, Ulrike; Larkby, Cynthia; Angiolieri, Teresa; Gold, Melanie A.


    Background The purpose of this study was to examine history of pregnancies among women with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD), to determine whether BPD symptoms are associated with teenage pregnancies, unplanned pregnancies, (elective and spontaneous) abortions, and live births. Methods Three hundred seventy-nine women completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses (SCID-I), Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for Axis II diagnoses (SIDP-IV) and a reproductive health interview. African-American (AA) women were oversampled, because little is known about BPD in AA women and they are at greater risk of teenage pregnancy, unplanned pregnancies and spontaneous abortions. Results BPD symptom severity was associated with a teenage pregnancy, even after controlling for race and socioeconomic status. Symptom severity was also associated with unplanned pregnancies and live births, but only in women without a history of substance use disorder. BPD symptom severity was not associated with abortion. Conclusions Women with BPD become pregnant and have children, often during the period when BPD symptoms emerge and intensify. They are at increased risk of teenage pregnancies and unintended pregnancies, compared to women with Axis I disorders. Treatment planning for this population should include attention to their reproductive health and better integration of physical and mental health services. PMID:22749198

  3. 76 FR 12397 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD... (United States)


    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD))--Match Number 1038 AGENCY: Social Security... 1795. The relevant BPD SORs are Treasury/ BPD.002, United States Savings Type Securities, and Treasury... containing SSNs extracted from the Supplemental Security Record database. Exchanges for this computer...

  4. A second kind of Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD): Rocket and laboratory results (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Monson, S. J.


    It is shown that there are two types of beam plasma discharge observed in rocket shots. The second BPD transition (BPD2) is characterized by a very broad featureless emission extending from much less than the cyclotron frequency to several times the plasma frequency. The characteristic spectra observed close to the beam plasma discharge region are deformed by the intervening plasma when observations are made at a distance from the injection field line and lead to spectra which must be interpreted with care. In one case, the Bernstein mode at 2 fce seems to be a remnant of the broad, featureless spectrum of BPD2.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Endri


    Full Text Available This article analyzed the function of the regional development banks (BPD as anintermediary institution using loan to deposit ratio (LDR and SBI to deposit ratio (SDR andfinance efficiency performance with data envelopment analysis (DEA approach. The data wasduring 2006-2007 covering 26 BPD in Indonesia. The result of study indicated that the regionaldevelopment banks did not play its optimal role as the intermediary institution and efficiencyperformance did not achieve the level of maximum (100%. For getting the optimal functionof banking intermediary and promoting better efficiencies, BPD needed to design some thegrand strategies that could be implemented in the future. They were: the limitation of BPDfunds placing in SBI notes, the cooperation inter BPD, focusing on certain market segmentation,diversification of funds source, and creating local credit guaranteeing institutions

  6. [Risk factors, frequency and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) diagnosed according to the new disease definition in preterm neonates]. (United States)

    Woynarowska, Martyna; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of prematurity. The new definition of BPD was introduced in 2001. It combined two existing BPD definitions - oxygen dependency at 28 days of life and at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. New definition divided BPD into three forms: mild, moderate and severe. Despite significant progress in neonatal intensive care and increasing survival of extremely immature infants the incidence of BPD is not decreasing. The etiopathology of new disease is still discussed. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and severity of BPD in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates (BPD definition. We retrospectively analyzed the case records of 244 neonates boys - 112; girls - 132) at gestational age weeks 23-28 (26.4+/-1.4) treated at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw between 1999 and 2004. Of these 166 (68%) infants were evaluable at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age and had BPD evaluation according to the new definition. The following variables were analyzed according to BPD status: sex distribution, gestational age, body weight at birth severity, of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intrauterine or late infections, congenital or late pneumonia, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) grade III or IV. BPD was present in 126 (76%) neonates including: severe BPD in 23 (18%), moderate 19 (15%) and mild BPD in 84 (67%) of children. Neonates with BPD had lower gestational age (26.4+/-1.3 vs 27.4+/-0.9 week, pBPD. The rates of late onset sepsis, late pneumonia and PDA were statistically higher in children with BPD than in those without BPD (respectively 70 vs 33%, 72 vs 35% and 51 vs 20% pBPD had higher rate of late infections (pBPD in VLBV neonates is high (76%) but in the majority of cases the disease is mild (67%); 2. Severe BPD was more common in neonates with late onset sepsis and IVH grade III or IV; 3. The BPD risk factors are: low gestational age, low birth weight, as well as late

  7. Urinary metabolomics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): preliminary data at birth suggest it is a congenital disease. (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Pintus, Maria Cristina; Lussu, Milena; Atzori, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Stronati, Mauro; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Rocha, Gustavo; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Lacerenza, Serafina; Puddu, Silvia; Giuffrè, Mario; Serraino, Francesca; Mussap, Michele; Corsello, Giovanni


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease is one of the principal causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Early identification of infants at the greater risk of developing BPD may allow a targeted approach for reducing disease severity and complications. The trigger cause of the disease comprehends the impairment of the alveolar development and the increased angiogenesis. Nevertheless, the molecular pathways characterizing the disease are still unclear. Therefore, the use of the metabolomics technique, due to the capability of identifying instantaneous metabolic perturbation, might help to recognize metabolic patterns associated with the condition. The purpose of this study is to compare urinary metabolomics at birth in 36 newborns with a gestational age below 29 weeks and birth weight BPD. Urine samples were collected within 24-36 h of life and immediately frozen at -80 °C. The (1)H-NMR spectra were analyzed using a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model coupled with orthogonal Signal Correction. Using this approach it was possible with urine at birth to discriminate newborns that will be later have a diagnosis of BPD with a high statistics power. In particular, we found five important discriminant metabolites in urine in BPD newborns: lactate, taurine, TMAO, myoinositol (which increased) and gluconate (which decreased). These preliminary results seem to be promising for the identification of predictor's biomarkers characterizing the BPD condition. These data may suggest that BPD is probably the result of an abnormal development (respiratory bud, vascular tree, hypodysplasia of pneumocytes) and could be considered a congenital disease (genetics plus intrauterine epigenetics). Early identification of infants at the greater risk of developing BPD may allow a targeted approach for reducing disease severity and complications.

  8. Faktor Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kepuasan Nasabah pada Pelayanan Customer Service BPD Kaltim Cabang Utama Samarinda


    Makahanap, Agus Shella


    The purpose of this research is to discover the influence of service quality and which variable that has major influence towards customer satisfaction of BPD Kaltim's customer service. The principle theory of this research is marketing management.Based on teoritic, hypothesis of this research that service quality variabels don't influence significantly toward customer satisfaction of BPD Kaltim's customer service.Multiple regression analysis is used F test and t test at probability = 0,05. Re...

  9. Changes in schemas of patients with severe borderline personality disorder: the Oulu BPD study. (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Kärki, Anna; Saariaho, Tom; Lindeman, Sari; Hakko, Helinä


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a relatively common and severe psychiatric disorder that can impair quality of life in many ways. The aim of this study was to determine whether a combined treatment model for BPD patients, utilising major principles from schema-focused therapy (SFT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), could be more effective in relieving early maladaptive schemas of BPD patients, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). This study is a part of the Oulu BPD study conducted at mental health care services run by Oulu city social and health care services. The study is a multisite, randomized controlled trial conducted over a one year period, involving two groups of patients with severe BPD: (1) Community Treatment By Experts (CTBE) patients (n = 18) receiving the combined treatment model, and 2) TAU patients (n = 27). The patients' schemas were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-L3a) before and after one year of treatment. The results reveal that CTBE patients who attended the combined treatment model showed a statistically significant reduction in eight out of 18 early maladaptive schemas, while patients receiving treatment as usual did not demonstrate any significant changes in schemas. The cognitive therapeutic treatment model can be applied for clinical use in public mental health settings using existing professionals, and appears to produce positive changes in patients with BPD. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parameter determination for singlet oxygen modeling of BPD-mediated PDT (United States)

    McMillan, Dayton D.; Chen, Daniel; Kim, Michele M.; Liang, Xing; Zhu, Timothy C.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers a cancer treatment modality capable of providing minimally invasive localized tumor necrosis. To accurately predict PDT treatment outcome based on pre-treatment patient specific parameters, an explicit dosimetry model is used to calculate apparent reacted 1O2 concentration ([1O2]rx) at varied radial distances from the activating light source inserted into tumor tissue and apparent singlet oxygen threshold concentration for necrosis ([1O2]rx, sd) for type-II PDT photosensitizers. Inputs into the model include a number of photosensitizer independent parameters as well as photosensitizer specific photochemical parameters ξ σ, and β. To determine the specific photochemical parameters of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid A (BPD), mice were treated with BPDPDT with varied light source strengths and treatment times. All photosensitizer independent inputs were assessed pre-treatment and average necrotic radius in treated tissue was determined post-treatment. Using the explicit dosimetry model, BPD specific ξ σ, and β photochemical parameters were determined which estimated necrotic radii similar to those observed in initial BPD-PDT treated mice using an optimization algorithm that minimizes the difference between the model and that of the measurements. Photochemical parameters for BPD are compared with those of other known photosensitizers, such as Photofrin. The determination of these BPD specific photochemical parameters provides necessary data for predictive treatment outcome in clinical BPD-PDT using the explicit dosimetry model.

  11. Types of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients admitted for suicide-related behavior. (United States)

    Rebok, Federico; Teti, Germán L; Fantini, Adrián P; Cárdenas-Delgado, Christian; Rojas, Sasha M; Derito, María N C; Daray, Federico M


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is determined by the presence of any five of nine diagnostic criteria, leading patients with heterogeneous clinical features to be diagnosed under the same label without an individualized clinical and therapeutic approach. In response to this problem, Oldham proposed five types of BPD: affective, impulsive, aggressive, dependent and empty. The present study categorized a sample of BPD patients hospitalized due to suicide-related behavior according to Oldham's BPD proposed subtypes, and evaluated their clinical and demographic characteristics. Data were obtained from a sample of 93 female patients admitted to the « Dr. Braulio A. Moyano » Neuropsychiatric Hospital following suicide-related behavior. A total of 87 patients were classified as affective (26%), impulsive (37%), aggressive (4%), dependent (29%), and empty (5%). Patients classified as dependent were significantly older at the time of first suicide-related behavior (p = 0.0008) and reported significantly less events of previous suicide-related behaviors (p = 0.03), while patients classified as impulsive reported significantly higher rates of drug use (p = 0.02). Dependent, impulsive and affective BPD types were observed most frequently in our sample. Findings are discussed specific to demographic and clinical implications of BPD patients reporting concurrent suicidal behavior.

  12. Suitability of obstetric ultrasonographic parameters in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: A prospective study aimed at assessing the suitability of Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Femoral Length (FL), Transverse abdominal Diameter (TAD) and Composite value by ultrasonography, in determining foetal or gestational age derived by last menstrual period (LMP) in our environment was undertaken.

  13. On the evaluation of routine ultrasound screening in the third trimester for detection of light for gestational age (LGA) infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen; Kern Hansen, P; Lenstrup, C


    Based upon 2194 consecutive pregnancies with known gestational age, formulas for weight deviation predicted in the 32nd and 37th gestational week were estimated by multiple linear regression on the measurements of the abdominal diameter (AD) and the biparietal diameter (BPD) of the first 64...

  14. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in the cord blood of premature infants developing BPD. (United States)

    Fukunaga, Shinnosuke; Ichiyama, Takashi; Maeba, Shinji; Okuda, Masayuki; Nakata, Masahiko; Sugino, Norihiro; Furukawa, Susumu


    We investigated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) levels in the cord blood of 29 premature infants who were BPD), respectively, and 6 did not. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels in the cord blood were determined by ELISA. MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios in the cord blood of infants who developed severe or moderate BPD (n = 9) were significantly higher than those who developed mild BPD or did not develop BPD (n = 20; P = 0.015). Multivariate linear regressions demonstrated that MMP-9 levels and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios in the cord blood of the premature infants correlated with the oxygen supplementation period (r = 0.58, P = 0.003 and r = 0.41, P = 0.030, respectively). The MMP-9 levels and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios correlated with the severity of maternal chorioamnionitis (both trend P = 0.006). The MMP-9 levels and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios in the cord blood may be related to the pathogenesis and severity of BPD and maternal chorioamnionitis.

  15. An investigation of differential item functioning across gender of BPD criteria. (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Michonski, Jared; Steinberg, Lynne; Fowler, J Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher; Oldham, John M


    Gender differences in prevalence rates of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) may reflect true differences between groups or may reflect some form of gender bias in diagnostic criteria. The detection of differential item functioning (DIF) using item response theory methods provides a powerful method of evaluating whether gender differences in prevalence rates of BPD reflect true mean differences or criterion bias. The aim of the current study was to evaluate gender-based DIF in DSM BPD criteria. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1994) was administered to 747 adult inpatients. Results indicated DIF for 2 BPD criteria (impulsivity and uncontrolled anger), such that it was easier for these items to be endorsed for men compared with women at the same level of latent trait. At the level of the test, men were expected to be rated slightly higher than women on the SCID-II at the same level of latent BPD liability. Implications of these results for research and clinical assessment are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of BPD using the baboon and sheep models. (United States)

    Albertine, Kurt H


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is among the most common chronic lung diseases in infants in the US. Improved survival of preterm infants who developed BPD is becoming increasingly important because of the high risk for persistent pulmonary morbidities such as poor respiratory gas exchange, pulmonary hypertension, and excess airway expiratory resistance later in life. This review focuses on unique insights provided by the two large-animal, physiological models of neonatal chronic lung disease: preterm baboons and preterm lambs. The models' are valuable because they contribute to better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenic mechanisms. An epigenetic hypothesis is proposed as a pathogenic mechanism for BPD and its persistent pulmonary morbidities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impulsivity and Aggression in Female BPD and ADHD Patients: Association with ACC Glutamate and GABA Concentrations. (United States)

    Ende, Gabriele; Cackowski, Sylvia; Van Eijk, Julia; Sack, Markus; Demirakca, Traute; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Sobanski, Esther; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Schmahl, Christian


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by high impulsivity and difficulties in controlling anger and aggression. In BPD, comorbid ADHD may further increase impulsivity. For both disorders, altered MR spectroscopy levels of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA as well as some correlations with impulsivity were previously reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA in relation to impulsivity and aggression as expressed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in groups of female patients with BPD and ADHD, respectively. Associations of glutamate and GABA levels with further BPD (symptom severity) and ADHD aspects (hyperactivity and inattention) were exploratively evaluated. 1H MR spectra were acquired at 3T to determine glutamate to total creatine ratios (Glu/tCr) and GABA levels from the ACC in a BPD group (n=26), an ADHD group (n=22), and a healthy control (HC) group (n=30); all participants were females. Both patient groups showed higher scores on self-reported impulsivity, anger, and aggression compared with HCs. ACC GABA levels were significantly lower in ADHD than HC. Although measures of impulsivity were positively related to glutamate and negatively to GABA, for aggression only a negative correlation with GABA could be demonstrated. These data provide human in vivo evidence for the role of ACC Glu/tCr and GABA in impulsivity and aggression. If distinct associations of Glu/tCr and GABA for BPD and ADHD can be confirmed in future studies, this might yield implications for more specific pharmacological treatments.

  18. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara


    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The clinical global impression scale for borderline personality disorder patients (CGI-BPD): a scale sensible to detect changes. (United States)

    Perez, V; Barrachina, J; Soler, J; Pascual, J C; Campins, M J; Puigdemont, D; Alvarez, E


    The CGI-BPD scale is an adaptation of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale designed to assess severity and post-intervention changes in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). It contains 10 items that score the nine relevant psychopathological domains of BPD, plus an additional global score. The CGI-BPD has two formats, the CGI-BPD-S, to evaluate the present severity, and the CGIBPD- I to evaluate improvement. To establish the psychometric properties of the CGI-BPD, the test was administered to 78 BPD patients, 11 men and 67 women, within the framework of a 4-month therapeutic intervention. The modified scale showed good validity and reliability (alpha 0.85 and 0.89; CCI: 0.86 and 0.78), adequate sensitivity to change, and a two-factor structure accounting for 67.4 % of total variance. While remaining simple to administer, the CGI-BPD may correct the excessive generalisation contained in its original version and is a useful tool to evaluate severity and change in BPD patients.

  20. Aktualisasi Peran Badan Permusyawaratan Desa (BPD) di Kecamatan Wonomulyo Kabupaten Polewali Mandar Provinsi Sulawesi Barat (Studi Kasus di Desa Sumberjo)


    Sujipro, Ari; Kadir, Andi Gau; Yunus, Rabina


    : This paper aims to outline the actualization of the role of village consultative body (BPD) in the village of Sum-Berjo Wonomulyo Polewali Mandar districts and factors - factors that affect the actualization of the role of village consultative body (BPD). The results showed that the ime-alisasi role in the village Sumberjo BPD is BPD duties and powers which set village regulations along the village chief, the community and share their aspirations with good.This is evidenced by the ability a...

  1. [Application of inhaled nitric oxide in extreme preterm neonates with with BPD]. (United States)

    Radulova, P; Slancheva, B


    Prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) from birth in preterm neonates with BPD improves endogenous surfactant function as well as lung growth, angiogenesis, and alveologenesis. As a result there is a reduction in the frequency of the "new" form of BPD in neonates under 28 weeks of gestation and birth weight under 1000 gr. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide is a new method of prevention of chronic lung disease. According to a large number of randomized trials iNO in premature neonates reduces pulmonary morbidity and leads to a reduction of the mortality in this population of patients. This new therapy does not have serious side effects.

  2. Mentalization-based treatment in groups for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or subthreshold BPD versus treatment as usual (M-GAB): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Beck, Emma; Bo, Sune; Gondan, Matthias; Poulsen, Stig; Pedersen, Liselotte; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik


    Evidence-based outpatient psychotherapeutic programs are first-line treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Early and effective treatment of BPD is crucial to the prevention of its individual, psychosocial, and economic consequences. However, in spite of recent advantages in diagnosing adolescent BPD, there is a lack of cost-effective evidence-based treatment programs for adolescents. Mentalization-based treatment is an evidence-based program for BPD, originally developed for adults. We will investigate whether a specifically designed mentalization-based treatment in groups is an efficacious treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD compared to treatment as usual. The trial is a four-center, two-armed, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. One hundred twelve patients aged 14 to 17 referred to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics in Region Zealand are randomized to 1 year of either mentalization-based treatment in groups or treatment as usual. Patients will be included if they meet at least four DSM-5 criteria for BPD. The primary outcome is self-reported borderline features at discharge. Secondary outcomes will include self-harm, depression, BPD criteria, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and social functioning, together with parental reports on borderline features, externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Measures of attachment and mentalization will be included as mediational variables. Follow-up assessment will take place at 3 and 12 months after end of treatment. This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a group-based mentalization-based treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD. If the results confirm our hypothesis, this trial will add to the treatment options of cost-effective treatment of adolescent BPD. NCT02068326 , February 19, 2014.

  3. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  4. First empirical evaluation of outcomes for mentalization-based group therapy for adolescents with BPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Beck, Emma


    Adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a devastating disorder, and it is essential to identify and treat the disorder in its early course. A total of 34 female Danish adolescents between 15 and 18 years old participated in 1 year of structured mentalization-based group therapy. Twent...... with borderline traits. (PsycINFO Database RecordCopyright (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)....

  5. Recovery in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD: a qualitative study of service users' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Katsakou

    Full Text Available Symptom improvement in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD is more common than previously hypothesised. However, it remains unclear whether it reflects service users' personal goals of recovery. The present study aimed to explore what service users with BPD view as recovery.48 service users were recruited from secondary mental health services and their views on their personal goals and the meaning of recovery were explored in in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis.Service users believed that recovery involved developing self-acceptance and self-confidence, gaining control over emotions, improving relationships, employment, and making progress in symptoms like suicidality and self-harming. They felt that psychotherapies for BPD often had an extreme focus on specific areas, like self-harming or relationships, and that some of their goals were neglected. Although full recovery was seen as a distant goal, interviewees felt that they could learn how to deal with their problems in more effective ways and make meaningful progress in their lives.Specialist therapies for BPD explicitly address some of the recovery goals that are important to service users, whereas other goals are only indirectly or poorly addressed. Professionals might need to work with service users towards devising comprehensive individualised case formulations, including all treatment targets that are important to service users, their priorities, and long-term plans on how their targets might be met and which services might be involved.

  6. Recovery in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): a qualitative study of service users' perspectives. (United States)

    Katsakou, Christina; Marougka, Stamatina; Barnicot, Kirsten; Savill, Mark; White, Hayley; Lockwood, Kate; Priebe, Stefan


    Symptom improvement in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is more common than previously hypothesised. However, it remains unclear whether it reflects service users' personal goals of recovery. The present study aimed to explore what service users with BPD view as recovery. 48 service users were recruited from secondary mental health services and their views on their personal goals and the meaning of recovery were explored in in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis. Service users believed that recovery involved developing self-acceptance and self-confidence, gaining control over emotions, improving relationships, employment, and making progress in symptoms like suicidality and self-harming. They felt that psychotherapies for BPD often had an extreme focus on specific areas, like self-harming or relationships, and that some of their goals were neglected. Although full recovery was seen as a distant goal, interviewees felt that they could learn how to deal with their problems in more effective ways and make meaningful progress in their lives. Specialist therapies for BPD explicitly address some of the recovery goals that are important to service users, whereas other goals are only indirectly or poorly addressed. Professionals might need to work with service users towards devising comprehensive individualised case formulations, including all treatment targets that are important to service users, their priorities, and long-term plans on how their targets might be met and which services might be involved.

  7. Extending research on parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD: commentary on Stepp et al. (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J


    Comments on an article Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder: Identifying parenting behaviors as potential targets for intervention by Stepp, Whalen, Pilkonis, Hipwell, and Levine (see record 2011-05873-001). With this review, Stepp and colleagues have advanced our understanding of parenting and child development within the context of maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD). It is commendable that these authors have initiated the first theoretical description of how a diagnosis of BPD may affect the quality of parenting. At the same time, this article highlights the disheartening lack of research in this area. Given the paucity of prior theoretical and empirical work exploring parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD, advances in this area could be buttressed by current conceptualizations of parenting and empirical evidence from related parenting research. In this commentary, we highlight two main concerns and provide suggestions for moving the research in this area forward. First, we raise questions about how some of the identified parenting deficits thought to be specific to mothers with BPD will be operationalized in future basic research. Second, we suggest that the use of a behavioral approach to examining parenting in this population will facilitate both basic research and future intervention work.

  8. Hydrogen-rich water ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in newborn rats. (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Ito, Mikako; Oshima, Takahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Ohno, Kinji


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by developmental arrest of the alveolar tissue. Oxidative stress is causally associated with development of BPD. The effects of hydrogen have been reported in a wide range of disease models and human diseases especially caused by oxidative stress. We made a rat model of BPD by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the amniotic fluid at E16.5. The mother started drinking hydrogen-rich water from E9.5 and also while feeding milk. Hydrogen normalized LPS-induced abnormal enlargement of alveoli at P7 and P14. LPS increased staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHdG of the lungs, and hydrogen attenuated the staining. At P1, LPS treatment decreased expressions of genes for FGFR4, VEGFR2, and HO-1 in the lungs, and hydrogen increased expressions of these genes. In contrast, LPS treatment and hydrogen treatment had no essential effect on the expression of SOD1. Inflammatory marker proteins of TNFα and IL-6 were increased by LPS treatment, and hydrogen suppressed them. Treatment of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells with 10% hydrogen gas for 24 hr decreased production of reactive oxygen species in both LPS-treated and untreated cells. Lack of any known adverse effects of hydrogen makes hydrogen a promising therapeutic modality for BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:928-935. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Respiratory outcomes of children with BPD and gastrostomy tubes during the first 2 years of life. (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela D; Collaco, Joseph M


    Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often undergo gastrostomy tube (GT) placement and/or Nissen fundoplication (Nissen) to improve weight gain and to attenuate chronic respiratory symptoms related to feeding difficulties. After initial hospitalization little is known how these children do with regard to respiratory symptoms when compared to children with BPD who did not receive GTs. This study was done to determine if differences in respiratory outcomes were associated with the presence of a GT or Nissen/GT in children with BPD during the first 2 years of life. Children (n = 398) were recruited from the Johns Hopkins BPD Outpatient Clinic. Medical charts were reviewed and acute care usage and respiratory symptoms were assessed by caregiver questionnaires. Ninety-two children with BPD had GTs, with the majority placed by 6 months of age. Of children with GTs, 64.7% also had Nissen fundoplication. Children with Nissen/GTs were more likely to have birth weights <10th percentile and to be discharged on supplemental oxygen. After initial hospitalization, children with GTs and Nissen/GTs weaned off supplemental oxygen at significantly older ages than children without GTs. Children with Nissen/GTs also had more hospitalizations than children without GTs. Caregivers of children with GTs and Nissen/GTs reported similar respiratory symptoms as caregivers of children without GTs. Weaning off supplemental oxygen occurred later in children with GTs and Nissen/GTs compared to children without GTs. Although children with Nissen/GTs had more re-hospitalizations, there were no differences in reported respiratory symptoms between any of the groups by caregiver questionnaire. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maxillary length in 11- to 26-week-old normal fetuses studied by 3D ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N V; Darvann, T A; Sundberg, K


    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to investigate normal prenatal maxillary length using 3D ultrasound and to correlate this with previously reported results for the mandible and the biparietal diameter (BPD). METHODS: Seventy-two 3D ultrasound volumes from normal pregnancies in 52 volu...

  11. Systemic Hydrocortisone To Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in preterm infants (the SToP-BPD study): statistical analysis plan. (United States)

    Onland, Wes; Merkus, Maruschka P; Nuytemans, Debbie H; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C; Holman, Rebecca; van Kaam, Anton H


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of preterm birth with short-term and long-term adverse consequences. Although the glucocorticoid dexamethasone has been proven to be beneficial for the prevention of BPD, there are concerns about an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Hydrocortisone has been suggested as an alternative therapy. The aim of the Systemic Hydrocortisone To Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in preterm infants (SToP-BPD) trial is to assess the efficacy and safety of postnatal hydrocortisone administration for the reduction of death or BPD in ventilator-dependent preterm infants. The SToP-BPD study is a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled hydrocortisone trial in preterm infants at risk for BPD. After parental informed consent is obtained, ventilator-dependent infants are randomly allocated to hydrocortisone or placebo treatment during a 22-day period. The primary outcome measure is the composite outcome of death or BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Secondary outcomes are short-term effects on pulmonary condition and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae assessed at 2 years corrected age. Complications of treatment, other serious adverse events and suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions are reported as safety outcomes. This pre-specified statistical analysis plan was written and submitted without knowledge of the unblinded data. Netherlands Trial Register, NTR2768 . Registered on 17 February 2011. EudraCT, 2010-023777-19. Registered on 2 November 2010.

  12. Amygdala and dlPFC abnormalities, with aberrant connectivity and habituation in response to emotional stimuli in females with BPD. (United States)

    Dudas, Robert B; Mole, Tom B; Morris, Laurel S; Denman, Chess; Hill, Emma; Szalma, Bence; Evans, Davy; Dunn, Barnaby; Fletcher, Paul; Voon, Valerie


    Little is known about the frontolimbic abnormalities thought to underlie borderline personality disorder (BPD). We endeavoured to study regional responses, as well as their connectivity and habituation during emotion processing. 14 BPD patients and 14 normal female controls (NC) controlled for menstrual phase underwent emotion-induction during an fMRI task using standardised images in a block design. We then performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to investigate functional connectivity. BPD patients reported more disgust in questionnaires compared to controls. Relative to NC, they showed reduced left amygdala and increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation to all emotions collapsed versus neutral. Habituation of ventral striatal activity to repeated emotional stimuli was observed in controls but not in BPD. Finally, in the context of disgust (but not other emotions) versus neutral, BPD patients displayed enhanced left amygdala coupling with the dlPFC and ventral striatum. Strict inclusion criteria reduced the sample size. In summary, BPD showed abnormal patterns of activation, habituation and connectivity in regions linked to emotion regulation. Amygdala deactivation may be mediated by abnormal top-down regulatory control from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Aberrant emotion processing may play a unique role in the pathophysiology of BPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Responding to the treatment challenge of patients with severe BPD: results of three pilot studies of inpatient schema therapy. (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Lieb, Klaus; Arntz, Arnoud; Shaw, Ida A; Farrell, Joan


    Schema Therapy (ST), a psychotherapy model integrating cognitive, experiential and behavioural interventions, was initially developed and evaluated as an outpatient treatment for patients with severe and chronic disorders, among them Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Two randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of ST for BPD, delivered in an individual or group format, in the outpatient setting. However, the most severely impaired BPD patients are referred to inpatient treatment due to suicidality and severe self-harm. Specialized inpatient treatment programs are limited, with little evaluative research. The pilot studies are designed to be first steps in naturalistic clinical settings to evaluate the effects of an intensive inpatient ST treatment program. This report presents the results of three independent uncontrolled pilot studies with a total of 92 BPD patients. The programs combine individual and group modalities and are consistent theoretically with the ST model for BPD patients. RESULTS show that inpatient ST can significantly reduce symptoms of severe BPD and global severity of psychopathology with effect sizes ranging from Cohen's d = 2.84 to Cohen's d = .43. Differences in the effect sizes across the three pilot studies could be explained by length of treatment, number of group psychotherapists and their training. Although there are limitations to the presented pilot studies such as differences in the samples, treatment settings, variations in the treatment itself and the use of different measures, which may have influenced outcome, they are a starting point for describing and evaluating inpatient treatment for BPD in naturalistic settings.

  14. Antioxidant defenses in the preterm lung: role for hypoxia-inducible factors in BPD?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, Tiina M.; White, Carl W.


    Pulmonary antioxidants and their therapeutic implications have been extensively studied during past decades. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the key findings of these studies as well as to elaborate on some novel approaches with respect to potential preventive treatments for neonatal chronic lung disease bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Such new ideas include, for example, modification of transcription factors governing the hypoxic response pathways, important in angiogenesis, cell survival, and glycolytic responses. The fundamental strategy behind that approach is that fetal lung normally develops under hypoxic conditions and that this hypoxic, growth-favoring environment is interrupted by a premature birth. Importantly, during fetal lung development, alveolar development appears to be dependent on vascular development. Therefore, enhancement of signaling factors that occur during hypoxic fetal life ('continued fetal life ex utero'), including angiogenic responses, could potentially lead to improved lung growth and thereby alleviate the alveolar and vascular hypoplasia characteristic of BPD

  15. The aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD): contemporary theories and putative mechanisms. (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine


    This article presents an overview of current knowledge regarding the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). It begins with a brief synopsis of early research and theory, and discusses how changing conceptualisations of BPD have impacted on our aetiological knowledge. Contemporary theories are described and presented within a developmental psychopathology framework. Deficient co-regulation and social communication in infancy are purported to underpin emotional dysregulation and social cognition deficits across development. These mechanisms are further potentiated by maladaptive social experiences in a series of positive feedback loops. Prospective research provides preliminary evidence for the reciprocal (or mediating) effects of maladaptive experiences and childhood dysregulation. Moving forward, cohort studies may incorporate neurobiological assessments to examine the biological systems underpinning phenotypic (e.g., impulsivity, disturbed relatedness) covariation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical measurements of a large-scale laboratory Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD) (United States)

    Bernstein, W.; Mantjoukis, G.; Leinbach, F. H.; Hallinan, T.


    Optical emission measurements provided information on the spatial distribution of energetic (primary and suprathermal) electrons producing the emissions; power dissipation during beam transit of the system; and modifications of the primary beam velocity distribution. The measurements were carried out for BPD's produced in a very large vacuum chamber using a 391.4 nm scanning photometer and total light (red sensitive) TV systems. Results for conditions Eb 500 to 2000 V, injection pitch angle 0 to 75 deg, and neutral density are presented. The typical power loss in ionization in transit of the 20 m pathlength during BPD is from 3 to 10% of the input power, an order of magnitude greater than attributable to collisional ionization alone. Differences between rocket observations and the laboratory results are noted.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of psychometric properties of the Finnish Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index: Oulu-BPD-Study. (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Lindeman, Sari; Arntz, Arnoud; Hakko, Helinä


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe disorder decreasing the functional ability of the patient and places an extensive burden on the healthcare system. There is a need for a reliable and valid instrument with which unstable recent BPD symptoms can be assessed in a short-term perspective, and which is applicable for clinical evaluations and treatment-outcome research. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index IV (BPDSI-IV) interview in a sample of Finnish BPD patients. Our study is a part of the randomized, monocentre Oulu-BPD trial, which compares the effectiveness of treatment by experts with treatment as usual. Patients (n = 71) were enrolled in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The BPDSI-IV was used to assess recent manifestations of BPD. The internal consistency of the BPDSI-IV in the Finnish patient sample was analysed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and mean item-total correlation. Discriminant validity was examined by comparing the Finnish BPD patient sample with the Dutch BPD patient and non-patient samples. The Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.58 to 0.79 being highest in Dissociation and lowest in Relationships. A total of five subscales out of nine exceeded the acceptable limit (≥ 0.70). With respect to mean item-total correlation, seven out of nine subscales had an acceptable correlation ≥ 0.30. The BPDSI-IV interview was applied for the first time in a Finnish sample of BPD patients. It appears to be a useful instrument for measuring and following the severity and the change of symptoms of patients with BPD.

  18. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Diameter and Cross Sectional Area with Gestational Age and Foetal Anthropometric Parameters. (United States)

    Begum, K; Ahmed, M U; Rahman, M M; Hossain, M M; Begum, M; Sarkar, S K; Reza, M T; Hoshneara, M; Beg, A; Sultana, F; Begum, F; Akter, F A


    The objective of the study was to find out correlation between umbilical cord diameter, cross sectional area with gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. This cross sectional study was conducted among healthy women between the 24(th) and 40(th) completed weeks of a normal pregnancy in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the study period, from July 2009 to June 2011. A total of 230 consecutive normal pregnancy patients were included in the study. The diameter & cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord were measured on a plane adjacent to the junction of the umbilical cord and the fetal abdomen, in cross-section, with maximum magnification of the image. The cord was manually circled, and it's cross sectional areas was automatically calculated by the ultrasonograph. The mean±SD age was 24.3±4.7 years with range from 19 to 36 years. The mean gestational age was 32.1±4.5 weeks and more than a half (56.4%) of the pregnant women were nulliparas. A positive significant (pumbilical cord diameter with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.548); head circumference (r=0.411); abdominal circumference (r=0.444); femur length (r=0.366) and gestational age gestation age (r=0.643). Similarly, a significant (pumbilical cord diameter than cross sectional area with foetal anthropometric parameters.

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Feeding in Infants with BPD on Nasal CPAP. (United States)

    Hanin, Melissa; Nuthakki, Sushma; Malkar, Manish B; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R


    Safety and efficacy of oral feeding was examined in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). We hypothesized that repetitive oral feeding enhances aero-digestive outcomes and reduces resource utilization. Data from infants with BPD (37-42 weeks post menstrual age) that were orally fed while on NCPAP (n = 26) were compared with those that were exclusively gavage fed on NCPAP (n = 27). Subject assignment was random and physician practice based. Specifically, we compared the differences in aero-digestive milestones, resource utilization, and safety metrics. Demographic characteristics such as gender distribution, gestational age, and birth weight, clinical characteristics such as frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus needing surgical ligation were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Characteristics of respiratory support and airway milestones were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). However, infants in NCPAP-oral fed group had earlier acquisition of full oral feeding milestone by 17 days (median) versus infants who were not orally fed during NCPAP (p  0.05). There were no tracheostomies in either group. There was no incidence of clinically significant aspiration pneumonia in infants during the period of the oral feeding while on NCPAP. Controlled introduction of oral feedings in infants with BPD during NCPAP is safe and may accelerate the acquisition of oral feeding milestones.

  20. Processes of recovery through routine or specialist treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD): a qualitative study. (United States)

    Katsakou, Christina; Pistrang, Nancy; Barnicot, Kirsten; White, Hayley; Priebe, Stefan


    Recovery processes in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are poorly understood. This study explored how recovery in BPD occurs through routine or specialist treatment, as perceived by service users (SUs) and therapists. SUs were recruited from two specialist BPD services, three community mental health teams, and one psychological therapies service. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 SUs and 15 therapists. The "framework" approach was used to analyse the data. The findings were organized into two domains of themes. The first domain described three parallel processes that constituted SUs' recovery journey: fighting ambivalence and committing to taking action; moving from shame to self-acceptance and compassion; and moving from distrust and defensiveness to opening up to others. The second domain described four therapeutic challenges that needed to be addressed to support this journey: balancing self-exploration and finding solutions; balancing structure and flexibility; confronting interpersonal difficulties and practicing new ways of relating; and balancing support and independence. Therapies facilitating the identified processes may promote recovery. The recovery processes and therapeutic challenges identified in this study could provide a framework to guide future research.

  1. Utility of large-animal models of BPD: chronically ventilated preterm lambs. (United States)

    Albertine, Kurt H


    This paper is focused on unique insights provided by the preterm lamb physiological model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Connections are also made to insights provided by the former preterm baboon model of BPD, as well as to rodent models of lung injury to the immature, postnatal lung. The preterm lamb and baboon models recapitulate the clinical setting of preterm birth and respiratory failure that require prolonged ventilation support for days or weeks with oxygen-rich gas. An advantage of the preterm lamb model is the large size of preterm lambs, which facilitates physiological studies for days or weeks during the evolution of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). To this advantage is linked an integrated array of morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses that are identifying the role of individual genes in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. Results indicate that the mode of ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation vs. less invasive high-frequency nasal ventilation, is related to outcomes. Our approach also includes pharmacological interventions that test causality of specific molecular players, such as vitamin A supplementation in the pathogenesis of neonatal CLD. The new insights that are being gained from our preterm lamb model may have important translational implications about the pathogenesis and treatment of BPD in preterm human infants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Responding to the treatment challenge of patients with severe BPD: results of three pilot studies of inpatient schema therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, N.; Lieb, K.; Arntz, A.; Shaw, I.A.; Farrell, J.


    Background: Schema Therapy (ST), a psychotherapy model integrating cognitive, experiential and behavioural interventions, was initially developed and evaluated as an outpatient treatment for patients with severe and chronic disorders, among them Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Two randomized

  3. Screening of psychiatric outpatients for borderline personality disorder with the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). (United States)

    Melartin, Tarja; Häkkinen, Miikka; Koivisto, Maaria; Suominen, Kirsi; Isometsä, Erkki T


    Detecting patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is important, and feasible screening instruments are needed. To investigate our Finnish translation of the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD) as a screen for BPD among psychiatric outpatients, its psychometric and screening properties, and feasibility in improving the recognition of BPD. We screened 302 consecutive psychiatric outpatients at the Department of Psychiatry at the Helsinki University Central Hospital in Finland for BPD using the Finnish MSI-BPD. Of the patients, 69 (23%) were assigned to a random sample that was stratified according to the number of screens returned to the outpatient clinics, and further stratified into the three strata, high scores deliberately enriched, according to the MSI-BPD scores. Finally, a stratified random sample of 45 patients was interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) by the interviewers blind to the patients' MSI-BPD scores. One third (29%) of 302 screened patients had a positive MSI-BPD. The internal consistency of the MSI-BPD was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77). Of the 45 patients interviewed with the SCID-II, 11 (24%) were found to have BPD, five (46%) of whom a previously clinical diagnosis. In a ROC analysis, the optimal cut-off score was 7. The translated MSI-BPD was found to be a feasible screen for BPD in Finnish psychiatric outpatient care. Further studies investigating the clinical utility of MSI-BPD in larger clinical samples are warranted.

  4. The Impact of Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS) Over 9 Years. (United States)

    Strain, Gladys W; Torghabeh, Mehyar H; Gagner, Michel; Ebel, Faith; Dakin, Gregory F; Abelson, Jonathan S; Connolly, Daniel; Pomp, Alfons


    There is limited information on the multiple long-term effects of the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS). Patients who consented to a BPD/DS from 1999 to 2010 were evaluated for weight change, complications, comorbidity resolution, body composition, quality of life, and depressive symptoms during visits at 1, 3,5, 7, and 9 years. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and pair-wise comparisons were calculated for each of the five follow-up cohorts vs. the baseline cohort. Between 1999 and 2010, 284 patients received a BPD/DS; 275 patients (69.8 % women) age 42.7 years, BMI 53.4 kg/m 2 qualified for baseline analysis. Two hundred seventy-five patients were available in year 1; 275 patients in year 3; 273 patients in year 5; 259 patients in year 7; and 228 patients in year 9. Gender distribution was not different. BMI was 30.1 at 1 year and 32.0 at 9 years. Body fat was reduced to 26 % after 2 years. Complications requiring surgery were significant. Nutritional problems developed in 29.8 % of patients over the course of observation. The baseline Beck Depression Index (BDI) was 13.9 and 7.2 in year 1. Year 1 through 9 remained unchanged. There were significant positive changes in quality of life between baseline and year 1 for most domains. These positive changes were maintained for the follow-up cohorts. After surgery the resolution of comorbidities continued for the 9 years. Weight loss during the first year was well maintained, resolving comorbidities and improving quality of life. Rates of surgical complications resemble other bariatric procedures. Long-term nutrient deficiencies are of concern.

  5. Quercetin attenuates the hyperoxic lung injury in neonatal mice: Implications for Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (United States)

    Maturu, Paramahamsa; Wei-Liang, Yanhong; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Couroucli, Xanthi I


    Quercetin (QU) is one of the most common flavonoids that are present in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and beverages. This compound possesses potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants with pulmonary insufficiency. However, hyperoxia is one of the major risk factors for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is also termed chronic lung disease in premature infants. Currently, no preventive approaches have been reported against BPD. The treatment of BPD is notably limited to oxygen administration, ventilatory support, and steroids. Since QU has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in various disease models, we hypothesized that the postnatal QU treatment of newborn mice will protect against hyperoxic lung injury by the upregulation of the phase I (CYP1A/B) and/or phase II, NADPH quinone reductase enzymes. Newborn C57BL/6J mice within 24 h of birth with the nursing dams were exposed to either 21% O 2 (air) and/or 85% O 2 (hyperoxia) for 7 days. The mice were treated, intraperitoneally (i.p.) once every other day with quercetin, at a concentration of 20 mg/kg, or saline alone from postnatal day (PND) 2-6. The mice were sacrificed on day 7, and lung and liver tissues were collected. The expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1 proteins and mRNA as well as the levels of MDA-protein adducts were analyzed in lung and liver tissues. The findings indicated that QU attenuated hyperoxia-mediated lung injury by reducing inflammation and improving alveolarization with decreased number of neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. The attenuation of this lung injury correlated with the upregulation of CYP1A1/CYP1B1/NQO1 mRNA, proteins and the down regulation of NF-kB levels and MDA-protein adducts in lung and liver tissues. The present study demonstrated the potential therapeutic value of quercetin in the prevention and/or treatment of

  6. In vivo outcome study of BPD-mediated PDT using a macroscopic singlet oxygen model (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Zhu, Timothy C.


    Macroscopic modeling of the apparent reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx) for use with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed and studied for benzoporphryin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), a common photosensitizer. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]rx, sh) have been investigated and determined using the RIF model of murine fibrosarcomas and interstitial treatment delivery. These parameters are examined and verified further by monitoring tumor growth post-PDT. BPD was administered at 1 mg/kg, and mice were treated 3 hours later with fluence rates ranging between 75 - 150 mW/cm2 and total fluences of 100 - 350 J/cm2. Treatment was delivered superficially using a collimated beam. Changes in tumor volume were tracked following treatment. The tumor growth rate was fitted for each treatment condition group and compared using dose metrics including total light dose, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen. Initial data showing the correlation between outcomes and various dose metrics indicate that reacted singlet oxygen serves as a good dosimetric quantity for predicting PDT outcome.

  7. Common ground in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)-review of recent findings. (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje D; Philipsen, Alexandra


    Considerable overlap in diagnostic criteria and shared psychopathologic symptoms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) have stimulated research activities in this field. Longitudinal studies have shown that BPD is frequently diagnosed in adult patients who had been diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. The question of whether ADHD and BPD randomly co-occur as comorbidities, have similar origins or share common pathological mechanisms remains unresolved. Some authors suggest that ADHD contributes to the development of BPD via various mechanisms, and therefore consider it a risk factor for later BPD development. In this article the evidence for the co-occurrence of these disorders will be reviewed as well as studies on their common genetic and environmental influences. Temperamental and developmental issues will be reviewed, and shared features such as impulsivity and emotion dysregulation discussed. From a therapeutic perspective, few studies have investigated psychotherapeutic treatment of the comorbid condition, though the issue is highly important to the management of patients suffering from both disorders. Some thought is given to how therapeutic methods and approaches can be modified to benefit patients, and to their possible succession.

  8. The Independent Contributions of Emotion Dysregulation and Hypermentalization to the "Double Dissociation" of Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Female Adolescent Inpatients With BPD. (United States)

    Kalpakci, Allison; Vanwoerden, Salome; Elhai, Jon D; Sharp, Carla


    Harari, Shamay-Tsoory, Ravid, and Levkovitz (2010) demonstrated a "double dissociation" in empathy in borderline personality disorder (BPD), such that BPD patients had higher affective than cognitive empathy, whereas controls exhibited the opposite pattern. Two processes that may relate to this dissociation are emotion dysregulation (ER) and hypermentalization. However, these interrelated processes have not been studied concomitantly, and the dissociation of empathy types has not been examined in adolescents with BPD. This study examined the relations between ER, hypermentalization, and cognitive and affective empathy in 252 adolescent inpatients with and without BPD. Participants completed a computerized task of hypermentalization and measures of ER and empathy. Findings only partially replicated Harari et al.'s findings, with differential performance in cognitive and affective empathy demonstrated across groups. Multivariate analyses revealed that in both groups, ER related to increased affective empathy. Hypermentalizing related to decreased cognitive empathy in BPD patients, whereas hypermentalizing did not relate to either empathy type in non-BPD patients.

  9. Acylation stimulating protein reduction precedes insulin sensitization after BPD-DS bariatric surgery in severely obese women. (United States)

    Munkonda, M N; Martin, J; Poirier, P; Carrington, A; Biron, S; Lebel, S; Cianflone, K


    The mechanisms involved in early resolution of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) surgery are still unknown. We evaluated early effects of BPD-DS on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), an adipokine involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. 32 non-diabetic and 22 diabetic severely obese women (BMI40 kg m(-2)) were evaluated for body composition and plasma parameters before, 24 h, 5 days, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Within the early postoperative period (24 h), ASP decreased 25 and 30% in non-diabetic and diabetic women, respectively (PBPD-DS surgery.

  10. First empirical evaluation of outcomes for mentalization-based group therapy for adolescents with BPD. (United States)

    Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Beck, Emma; Pedersen, Jesper; Gondan, Matthias; Simonsen, Erik


    Adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a devastating disorder, and it is essential to identify and treat the disorder in its early course. A total of 34 female Danish adolescents between 15 and 18 years old participated in 1 year of structured mentalization-based group therapy. Twenty-five adolescents completed the study, of which the majority (23) displayed improvement regarding borderline symptoms, depression, self-harm, peer-attachment, parent-attachment, mentalizing, and general psychopathology. Enhanced trust in peers and parents in combination with improved mentalizing capacity was associated with greater decline in borderline symptoms, thereby pointing to a candidate mechanism responsible for the efficacy of the treatment. The current study provides a promising rationale for the further development and evaluation of group-format mentalization-based treatment for adolescents with borderline traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The BPD trio? Interaction of dysregulated PDGF, VEGF, and TGF signaling in neonatal chronic lung disease. (United States)

    Oak, Prajakta; Hilgendorff, Anne


    The development of neonatal chronic lung disease (nCLD), i.e., bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, significantly determines long-term outcome in this patient population. Risk factors include mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity impacting on the immature lung resulting in impaired alveolarization and vascularization. Disease development is characterized by inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and apoptosis, closely intertwined with the dysregulation of growth factor signaling. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of altered signaling in central pathways like transforming growth factor (TGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) driving these above indicated processes, i.e., inflammation, matrix remodeling, and vascular development. We emphasize the shared and distinct role of these pathways as well as their interconnection in disease initiation and progression, generating important knowledge for the development of future treatment strategies.

  12. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury


    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  13. Exploring the newborn head diameters in relation to current obstetric forceps' dimensions: A systematic review. (United States)

    T Ismail, Abdul-Qader; Yates, Derick; Chester, Jonathan; Ismail, Khaled M K


    The aim of this study was to systematically search the literature for studies that reported term neonate head size and shape, in an attempt to determine the most appropriate dimensions for the obstetric forceps. We searched the Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase and Ebscohost CINAHL databases from inception to February 2016. We predefined inclusion criteria to identify studies in which head width and length of asymptomatic, term neonates were measured soon after birth using direct, non-photographic methods A bespoke quality assessment score was used to evaluate the identified studies. Seven studies were identified which measured head width (biparietal diameter) in 551 neonates; giving a mean value of 94.0mm (range 90.7mm-95.5mm). We identified one study which measured head length (mentovertical diameter) in 38 neonates; which gave a mean value of 134.5mm (range 129mm-139mm). This data, in conjunction with measurements of Neville Barnes' and Wrigley's forceps from our previous study, indicates current obstetric forceps' blades are too long, and close together. Potentially, this could be contributing to neonatal and maternal injuries associated with operational vaginal deliveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced mortality and increased BPD with histological chorioamnionitis and leukocytosis in very-low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Paul, D A; Zook, K; Mackley, A; Locke, R G


    To investigate the association between leukocytosis, mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW) born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis. A retrospective cohort study from a single level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. The study sample included infants born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis (n=252). Total white blood cells (WBCs) after birth were measured. Leukocytosis was defined as a total WBC count >30 000 per mm(3) in the first 2 days of life. Outcomes investigated included BPD and death. Both unadjusted and multivariable analyses were carried out. After controlling for potential confounding variables, infants who developed a leukocytosis after birth had increased odds of BPD (4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.0 to 10.3), but decreased odds of death (0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.90). In our population of VLBW infants born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis, leukocytosis after birth is associated with a decrease in mortality but an increase in BPD.

  15. 76 FR 12398 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD... (United States)


    ... Representatives, and the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The.../BPD.008, Retail Treasury Securities Access Application, last published on June 10, 2005 at 70 FR 33942... The number of records matched each year is determined in part by the number of people who file for...

  16. De Nederlandstalige versie van de McLean Screening Instrument for borderline personality disorder (MSI-BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Tibboel, H.


    Objective Borderline personality disorder is a severe and disabling condition, with suicide rates up to 10%. A simple and valid screening instrument for borderline symptomatology would be of great use. Method We translated the McLean Screening Instrument for borderline personality disorder (MSI-BPD)

  17. CPAP of 4 cm H(2)O Has no short-term benefit at term in infants with BPD. (United States)

    Sandberg, Kenneth L; Hjalmarson, Ola


    Lung development and function is compromised at term in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by reduced functional residual capacity (FRC) and impaired gas-mixing efficiency in distal airways. To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves FRC, ventilation, distal airway function, and gas exchange in spontaneously breathing infants with BPD. Twenty-one infants with BPD (median birth weight 0.72 kg (range 0.50-1.27) and median gestational age 26 weeks (range 23-28)) were studied before and after CPAP of 4 cm H(2)O was applied by a facemask system. A multiple-breath nitrogen washout method was used to assess FRC, ventilation, and gas-mixing efficiency. Moment analysis and lung clearance index was calculated from the nitrogen-decay curve for assessment of gas-mixing efficiency. Transcutaneous (Tc) PO(2)/PCO(2) was monitored during stable infant conditions before each washout test. When CPAP was raised from 0 to 4 cm H(2)O, FRC increased significantly together with a significant increase in moment ratios (M(1)/M(0) and M(2)/M(0)). Tc PO(2) decreased significantly and the breathing pattern changed, with significantly reduced respiratory rate, minute ventilation, and alveolar ventilation. There was also an increase in tidal volume and dead space. CPAP of 4 cm H(2)O applied with a facemask at term to infants with BPD did not improve ventilation, gas-mixing efficiency in distal airways, or oxygenation despite an increase in FRC. We speculate that instead of promoting recruitment of unventilated lung volumes, increasing the end-expiratory pressure in infants with BPD may lead to an overexpansion of already ventilated parts of the lung, causing further compromise of lung function. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Explicit macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling for benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD)-mediated photodynamic therapy. (United States)

    Kim, Michele M; Penjweini, Rozhin; Liang, Xing; Zhu, Timothy C


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective non-ionizing treatment modality that is currently being used for various malignant and non-malignant diseases. In type II PDT with photosensitizers such as benzoporphyrin monoacid ring A (BPD), cell death is based on the creation of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). With a previously proposed empirical five-parameter macroscopic model, the threshold dose of singlet oxygen ([ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh ]) to cause tissue necrosis in tumors treated with PDT was determined along with a range of the magnitude of the relevant photochemical parameters: the photochemical oxygen consumption rate per light fluence rate and photosensitizer concentration (ξ), the probability ratio of 1 O 2 to react with ground state photosensitizer compared to a cellular target (σ), the ratio of the monomolecular decay rate of the triplet state photosensitizer (β), the low photosensitizer concentration correction factor (δ), and the macroscopic maximum oxygen supply rate (g). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated interstitially with a linear light source at 690nm with total energy released per unit length of 22.5-135J/cm and source power per unit length of 12-150mW/cm to induce different radii of necrosis. A fitting algorithm was developed to determine the photochemical parameters by minimizing the error function involving the range between the calculated reacted singlet oxygen ([ 1 O 2 ] rx ) at necrosis radius and the [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh . [ 1 O 2 ] rx was calculated based on explicit dosimetry of the light fluence distribution, the tissue optical properties, and the BPD concentration. The initial ground state oxygen concentration ([ 3 O 2 ] 0 ) was set to be 40μM in this study. The photochemical parameters were found to be ξ=(55±40)×10 -3 cm 2 mW -1 s -1 , σ=(1.8±3)×10 -5 μM -1 , and g=1.7±0.7μMs -1 . We have taken the literature values for δ=33μM, and β=11.9μM. [ 1 O 2 ] rx has shown promise to be a more effective

  19. The DIAMET campaign (United States)

    Vaughan, G.


    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  20. Differences in mean fibre diameter and fibre diameter variance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sampled at five different body locations (Figure 1) at an age of 15 months. Samples were analysed by the Wool Testing. Bureaux, using an Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser which measured 4000 individual fibres in each sample. Apart from the mean, the variance of fibre diameter within samples was available. The statistical ...

  1. A photobleaching-based PDT dose metric predicts PDT efficacy over certain BPD concentration ranges in a three-dimensional model of ovarian cancer (United States)

    Anbil, S.; Rizvi, I.; Celli, J. P.; Alagic, N.; Hasan, T.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry is an active area of study that is motivated by the need to reliably predict treatment outcomes. Implicit dosimetric parameters, such as photosensitizer (PS) photobleaching, may indicate PDT efficacy and could establish a framework to provide patient-customized PDT. Here, tumor destruction and benzoporphryin-derivative (BPD) photobleaching are characterized by systematically varying BPD-light combinations to achieve fixed PDT doses (M * J * cm-2) in a three-dimensional (3D) model of micrometastatic ovarian cancer (OvCa). It is observed that the BPD-light parameters used to construct a given PDT dose significantly impact nodule viability and BPD photobleaching. As a result, PDT dose, when measured by the product of BPD concentration and fluence, does not reliably predict overall efficacy. A PDT dose metric that incorporates a term for BPD photobleaching more robustly predicts PDT efficacy at low concentrations of BPD. These results suggest that PDT dose metrics that are informed by implicit approaches to dosimetry could improve the reliability of PDT-based regimens and provide opportunities for patient-specific treatment planning.

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) diagnosis with the self-report Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire–4+(PDQ-4+): confirmation of the 3-factor structure. (United States)

    Calvo, Natalia; Andión, Oscar; Gancedo, Beatriz; Ferrer, Marc; Barral, Carmen; Di Genova, Andrea; Torrubia, Rafael; Casas, Miguel


    The clinical heterogeneity and elevated comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) have suggested the possible existence of several factors or subtypes of this construct. Studies published to date mainly show that this diagnosis could be represented either as a 1-dimensional model or 3-factor model. However, most of the studies have analyzed the factorial structure of the BPD DSM-IV criteria only using semi-structured interviews. This study has aimed to analyze the factorial structure of BPD DSM-IV criteria used in the self-report PDQ-4+. A total of 159 psychiatric outpatients with suspicion of BPD diagnosis were evaluated. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) was performed for BPD criteria in PDQ-4+ and two previously defined structures were examined and compared: a 1-dimensional model and a 3-factor model. Both models showed good fit indexes. However, the results of the CFA showed better goodness of fit indexes (χ(2)/gl; CFI; RMSEA; TLI; AIC and GFI) for the 3-factor model. BPD is a construct that can be used to describe three factors of criteria that represent different features of this disorder. The three factors, which could be called Disturbed Relatedness, Affective Instability and Behavioral Dyscontrol, can also be explained by the combination of different diagnostic criteria. The existence of these factors could indicate the presence of different subgroups of BPD patients with different clinical patterns.

  3. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading (United States)

    Murray, Clifton


    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  4. Fetal biacromial diameter as a new ultrasound measure for prediction of macrosomia in term pregnancy: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Youssef, Alaa Eldin A; Amin, Ahmed F; Khalaf, Mohamed; Khalaf, Marwa S; Ali, Mohammed K; Abbas, Ahmed M


    The current study aims to evaluate a simple method for sonographic measurement of the fetal biacromial diameter for prediction of fetal macrosomia in term pregnancy. The current study was a single center prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary University Hospital from January 2015 to May 2017. We included all consecutive term (37-42 weeks) pregnant women presented to the labor ward for delivery. Ultrasound parameters were measured as biparietal diameter, head circumference, transverse thoracic diameter, mid arm diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, estimated fetal weight and amniotic fluid index. The proposed ultrasound formula "Youssef's formula" to measure the fetal biacromial diameter is: [Transverse thoracic diameter + 2 × midarm diameter]. The accuracy of proposed formula was compared to the actual biacromial diameter of the newborn after delivery. The primary outcome of the study was accuracy of sonographic measurement of fetal biacromial diameter in prediction of fetal macrosomia in terms of sensitivity and specificity Results: The study included 600 participants; 49 (8.2%) of them delivered a macrosomic neonates and 551 (91.8%) delivered average weight neonates. There was no statistical significant difference between the proposed fetal biacromial diameter measured by ultrasound and the actual neonatal biacromial diameter measured after birth (p = 0.192). The area under the curve (AUC) for prediction of macrosomia at birth based on the fetal biacromial diameter and the abdominal circumference was 0.987 and 0.989, respectively on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Using the biacromial diameter cutoff of 15.4 cm has a PPV for prediction of macrosomia (88.4%) and 96.4% sensitivity with overall accuracy of 97%. Similarly, with the abdominal circumference (AC) cutoff of 35.5 cm, the PPV for prediction of macrosomia (87.7%) and 96.4% sensitivity with overall accuracy of 96.83%. No statistical significant

  5. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen


    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  6. BPD Following Preterm Birth: A Model for Chronic Lung Disease and a Substrate for ARDS in Childhood. (United States)

    Bhandari, Anita; Carroll, Christopher; Bhandari, Vineet


    It has been suggested that pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) may be a different entity, vis-à-vis adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), based on its epidemiology and outcomes. A more pediatric-specific definition of PARDS to include the subgroup of patients with underlying lung (and heart) disease has been proposed. Epidemiological data suggest that up to 13% of the children with ARDS have a history of prematurity and/or underlying chronic lung disease. However, the specific contribution of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in infants, to the development of PARDS is not known. BPD leads to damaged lungs with long-term consequences secondary to disordered growth and immune function. These damaged lungs could potentially act as a substrate, which given the appropriate noxious stimuli, can predispose a child to PARDS. Interestingly, similar biomarkers [KL-6, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, sICAM-1, angiopoietin-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -9] of pulmonary injury have been associated both with BPD and ARDS. Recognition of a unique pattern of clinical symptomatology and/or outcomes of PARDS, if present, could potentially be useful for investigating targeted therapeutic interventions.

  7. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD. (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Lanius, Ruth; Schmahl, Christian


    A "4-D model" was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion) that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC) or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with (n=126) versus without (n=132) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  8. Alterations of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity with real-time fMRI neurofeedback in BPD patients. (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Zaehringer, Jenny; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Bohus, Martin; Ende, Gabriele; Schmahl, Christian


    With the use of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (NF), amygdala activitiy can be visualized in real time. In this study, continuous amygdala NF was provided to patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with the instruction to down-regulate. During four sessions of NF training, patients viewed aversive pictures and received feedback from a thermometer display, which showed the amygdala blood oxygenation level-dependent signal. Conditions of regulation and viewing without regulation were presented. Each session started with a resting-state scan and was followed by a transfer run without NF. Amygdala regulation, task-related and resting-state functional brain connectivity were analyzed. Self-ratings of dissociation and difficulty in emotion regulation were collected. BPD patients down-regulated right amygdala activation but there were no improvements over time. Task-related amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity was altered across the four sessions, with an increased connectivity when regulating vs viewing pictures. Resting-state amygdala-lateral prefrontal cortex connectivity was altered and dissociation, as well as scores for 'lack of emotional awareness', decreased with training. Results demonstrated that amygdala NF may improve healthy brain connectivity, as well as emotion regulation. A randomized-controlled trial is needed to investigate whether amygdala NF is instrumental for improving neural regulation and emotion regulation in BPD patients. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  9. Systemic Hydrocortisone To Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in preterm infants (the SToP-BPD study); a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onland, Wes; Offringa, Martin; Cools, Filip; De Jaegere, Anne P.; Rademaker, Karin; Blom, Henry; Cavatorta, Eric; Dijk, Peter H.; van Heijst, Arno F.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kroon, Andre A.; Mohns, Thilo; van Straaten, Henrica L.; te Pas, Arjan B.; Theyskens, Claire; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Beer de, A.


    Background: Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, there are concerns that dexamethasone may

  10. Diameter 2 properties and convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrahamsen, T. A.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Nygaard, O.; Talponen, J.; Troyanski, S.


    Roč. 232, č. 3 (2016), s. 227-242 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : diameter 2 property * midpoint locally uniformly rotund * Daugavet property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2016 mathematica /all/232/3/91534/diameter-2-properties-and-convexity

  11. Accounting for the Association Between BPD Features and Chronic Pain Complaints in a Pain Patient Sample: The Role of Emotion Dysregulation Factors. (United States)

    Reynolds, Caleb J; Carpenter, Ryan W; Tragesser, Sarah L


    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) features consistently show strong relations with chronic pain, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. BPD is characterized by dysregulated emotion. Given previously observed relationships between emotion dysregulation and pain, we hypothesized that components of this dysregulation-elevated and labile negative affect and emotion sensitivity-would account for the relationship between BPD features and various pain complaints in a chronic pain patient sample. Specifically, we hypothesized that negative affect would indirectly predict pain through higher emotion sensitivity to pain, operationalized as pain anxiety sensitivity. To test these hypotheses, we administered a series of self-report measures to 147 patients at a chronic pain treatment facility. As expected, BPD features predicted pain severity (β = .19, p = .029), activity interference from pain (β = .22, p = .015), and affective interference from pain (β = .41, p BPD features and pain severity and interference were accounted for by serial indirect pathways through affective lability then pain anxiety and, to a lesser extent, through trait anxiety then pain anxiety. This is the first study to demonstrate roles for affective lability and pain anxiety sensitivity in the association between BPD features and chronic pain complaints in a chronic pain sample. We discuss implications for the relationship between dysregulated emotion and pain as well as for psychologically-focused treatment interventions for pain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Fetal cerebral biometry: normal parenchymal findings and ventricular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garel, C.


    Assessing fetal cerebral biometry is one means of ascertaining that the development of the fetal central nervous system is normal. Norms have been established on large cohorts of fetuses by sonographic and neurofetopathological studies. Biometric standards have been established in MR in much smaller cohorts. The purpose of this paper is to analyse methods of measuring a few parameters in MR [biparietal diameter (BPD), fronto-occipital diameter (FOD), length of the corpus callosum (LCC), atrial diameter, transverse cerebellar diameter, height, anteroposterior diameter and surface of the vermis] and to compare US and MR in the assessment of fetal cerebral biometry. (orig.)

  13. Diameters of classes of smooth functions (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. N.


    We describe the weak asymptotic behaviour of diameters of n-th order of the unit ball of W_p^l H^\\omega (I^d) in L_q(I^d), where I=(0,1), in dependence on n. Namely we consider the Kolmogorov diameter, the Gel'fand diameter, the linear diameter, the Aleksandrov diameter and the entropy diameter.

  14. Laparoscopic conversion of failed silastic ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) and vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) into biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). (United States)

    Abu-Gazala, Samir; Sadot, Eran; Maler, Ilanit; Golomb, Inbal; Carmeli, Idan; Keidar, Andrei


    The Silastic ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG), a newer modification of Mason's vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), was the restrictive procedure of choice for many bariatric surgeons before the advent of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. However, a high rate of reoperations for failure and severe complications was reported in long-term studies. Around 50% of the patients underwent conversion to other bariatric procedures. The aim of this study is to report our experience in laparoscopic conversion of failed VBG and SRVG to biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). The setting of the study was at the University hospital. Between March 2010 and July 2013, 12 patients underwent laparoscopic conversion of VBG and SRVG to BPD. Using a prospectively collected database, we analyzed their data and outcomes. Eighty-six percent of the conversions were successfully completed laparoscopically. The mean operative time was 220 min. There was no mortality. Perioperative complications occurred in four patients (33%). One (9%) late complication, an adhesional small bowel obstruction, was encountered later than 30 days postoperatively. The follow-up rate was 100%, but only three patients reached 3 years at the time of this writing. At a mean follow-up of 19 (3-40) months, the mean body mass index (BMI) decreased from 45.3 to 27.8 kg/m2. Percent excess weight loss (EWL) was 65.7, and 86.3% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Laparoscopic conversion of failed VBG to BPD is feasible and effective in further reducing weight in morbidly obese patients. Weight loss continues beyond the first postoperative year. However, the complication rate is much higher than in the primary procedure.

  15. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik


    with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean.......3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration...

  16. Association between early postnatal weight loss and death or BPD in small and appropriate for gestational age extremely low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Wadhawan, R; Oh, W; Perritt, R; Laptook, A R; Poole, K; Wright, L L; Fanaroff, A A; Duara, S; Stoll, B J; Goldberg, R


    To examine the association between weight loss during the first 10 days of life and the incidence of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) extremely low-birth-weight infants. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of ELBW (birth weight BPD, within each birth weight/gestation category (SGA or AGA). BPD and death were also analyzed separately in relation to EPWL. Logistic regression analysis was done to evaluate the risk of death or BPD in SGA and AGA groups, controlling for maternal and neonatal demographic and clinical factors found to be significant by univariate analysis. SGA ELBW infants had a lower prevalence of EPWL as compared with AGA ELBW infants (81.2 vs 93.7%, respectively, PBPD rate was lower in the group of infants with EPWL compared with infants without EPWL (53.4 vs 74.3%, respectively, PBPD (47.2 vs 64%, PBPD (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.60). In SGA infants, on univariate analysis, a similar association between EPWL and outcomes was seen as shown in AGA infants: death or BPD (55.9 vs 75.2%, PBPD rate (48.3 vs 62.1%, P=0.002) and rate death (19 vs 40.8%, PBPD (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.41-0.89) among SGA infants. SGA infants experienced less EPWL when compared with their AGA counterparts. EPWL was associated with a lower risk of death or BPD in both ELBW AGA and SGA infants. These data suggest that clinicians who consider the association between EPWL and risk of death or BPD should do so independent of gestation/birth weight status.

  17. Comparing Effectiveness of Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder in Communal Mental Health Care: The Oulu BPD Study. (United States)

    Leppänen, V; Hakko, H; Sintonen, H; Lindeman, S


    The implementation of effective psychotherapies in community mental health care is challenging. This study aimed to create a well-structured and easily applicable treatment model for patients with severe borderline personality disorder (BPD). We integrated a schema therapy based psycho-educational group into an available individual therapy. Two groups were formed: (1) community treatment by experts (CTBE) patients (n = 24) receiving new treatment and (2) treatment as usual (TAU) patients (n = 47). Changes in symptoms were measured by Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV interview and quality of life by the 15D health-related quality of life questionnaire. After 1 year the CTBE patients showed a significant reduction in a wider range of BPD symptoms and better quality of life than TAU patients. The results of this study are encouraging. A well-structured treatment model was successfully implemented into community mental health care with improved patient adherence to treatment and superior treatment outcomes compared to TAU patients.

  18. Foetal biometry in polyhydramnios: Does femur length fall behind? (United States)

    Ipek, Ali; Idilman, Ilkay S; Kurt, Aydın; Cay, Nurdan; Unal, Ozlem; Erdogan, Beyza Doganay; Keskin, Huseyin Levent; Arslan, Halil


    We aimed to identify the growth patterns in polyhydramnios, and therefore evaluated 108 singleton pregnancies complicated with polyhydramnios according to the changes in biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) percentiles. The pregnancy outcomes according to the growth features were analysed. In the study population, BPD and AC percentiles exhibited a significant increase (p = 0.023 and 0.05, respectively), although FL percentiles showed a significant decrease (p = 0.006) according to the changes in third trimester relative to second trimester. In the overgrown group (n = 52), the FL/BPD ratio was lower (p polyhydramnios. However, we observed a shorter FL and a lower FL/BPD ratio without associated skeletal dysplasia in overgrown foetuses.

  19. Systemic hydrocortisone to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants (the SToP-BPD study; a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onland Wes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. However, there are concerns that dexamethasone may increase the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Hydrocortisone has been suggested as an alternative therapy. So far no randomized controlled trial has investigated its efficacy when administered after the first week of life to ventilated preterm infants. Methods/Design The SToP-BPD trial is a randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study including 400 very low birth weight infants (gestational age Discussion This trial will determine the efficacy and safety of postnatal hydrocortisone administration at a moderately early postnatal onset compared to placebo for the reduction of the combined outcome mortality and BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in ventilator dependent preterm infants. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2768

  20. Predictive Accuracy of Transcerebellar Diameter in Comparison with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC) values across the gestational age range studied. Correlation and predictive values of TCD compared to those of other biometric parameters. Results: The range of values for TCD was 11.9 ...

  1. Early effects of gastric banding (LGB) and of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on insulin sensitivity and on glucose and insulin response after OGTT. (United States)

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Gniuli, Donatella; Mingrone, Geltrude


    Bariatric surgery improves glucose metabolism. To assess the direct role of surgery (i.e., independently of significant weight loss) on insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance (IR) and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)), on glucose and insulin response (area under the curve (AUC) blood glucose (BG) and AUC insulin (Ins)) to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and on glucose tolerance, 11 subjects underwent OGTT (75 g, p.o.) before and 5 days after laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB; no change of initial body mass index (BMI), 46.7 +/- 2.21 kg/m(2)), and ten subjects underwent OGTT before and 7 days after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD; BMI decreased from 54.5 +/- 3.75 to 52.1 +/- 4.03 kg/m(2)). As controls, we considered OGTT performed twice over a 30-45-day period in two groups of subjects [BMI 43.0 +/- 0.41 (n = 13, matched with LGB subjects for BMI) and 48.2 +/- 0.49 kg/m(2) (n = 14, matched with BPD subjects for BMI), respectively] with stable weight (+/-1.5 kg); a further control group was made of 11 subjects with a spontaneous weight loss similar to BPD subjects (BMI from 55.5 +/- 1.27 to 52.2 +/- 1.35 kg/m(2)). Fasting BG and OGIS improved in BPD subjects and in subjects with spontaneous weight loss, not in LGB subjects or in weight-stable controls; HOMA-IR, AUC BG, and AUC Ins only decreased in BPD subjects. Glucose tolerance was not affected in a different way in the various groups of subjects. These data indicate an early effect of BPD different from LGB on insulin sensitivity and on glucose and on insulin response to OGTT, mostly independent of weight loss.

  2. Nutrient Status 9 Years After Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS): an Observational Study. (United States)

    Strain, Gladys Witt; Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Gagner, Michel; Ebel, Faith; Dakin, Gregory F; Connolly, Daniel; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Pomp, Alfons


    Since biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) produces hypoabsorption, evaluation of long-term nutrient changes is appropriate. Measurements of micronutrients, trace elements, PTH, iron studies, and protein were completed for consented patients at baseline prior to surgery and at yearly intervals. The patients were advised and supplements were adjusted by blood studies with compliance checks. Independent t tests and ANOVAs compared changes between cross-sectional cohorts based on follow-up time from surgery. A p value of 0.05 was considered significant. Between 1999 and 2010, 284 patients had BPD/DS. At baseline, nutrient analysis was available for only 190 patients (70% women), age 42.7 ± 10.0 years, BMI 53.0 ± 11.9 kg/m 2 ; at year 1, 189 were available; at year 3, 193; at year 5, 132; at year 7, 98; and at year 9, 68. Gender distribution was not significantly different between cohorts. Baseline vitamin D was low and PTH high. All of the patients took some supplements. Fat-soluble vitamins remained low. Protein deficiency appeared at year 3 and increased to 30% at year 9. Baseline zinc was normal, but at year 5, 45% were low. Over time, hematocrit was low for 40% and hemoglobin for 46%. Iron deficiency continued through year 9, more marked in males. Calcium deficiency increased from year 3 and remained steady. Half of the patients had abnormal PTH at baseline, and the percentage increased over time. Twenty percent had abnormal baseline magnesium values. Magnesium fluctuated during observation. Major deficits in nutrient status occurred and persisted after surgery although supplementation was prescribed. Interventions are mandated to avoid nutrient deficiency.

  3. Understanding the Heterogeneity of BPD Symptoms through Latent Class Analysis: Initial Results and Clinical Correlates among Inner-City Substance Users (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Levy, Roy; Gratz, Kim L.; Lejuez, C. W.


    The current study investigated the heterogeneity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a sample of 382 inner-city, predominantly African American male substance users through the use of latent class analysis. A 4-class model was statistically preferred, with 1 class interpreted to be a baseline class, 1 class interpreted to be a…

  4. Systemic Hydrocortisone To Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in preterm infants (the SToP-BPD study); a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial. (United States)

    Onland, Wes; Offringa, Martin; Cools, Filip; De Jaegere, Anne P; Rademaker, Karin; Blom, Henry; Cavatorta, Eric; Debeer, Anne; Dijk, Peter H; van Heijst, Arno F; Kramer, Boris W; Kroon, Andre A; Mohns, Thilo; van Straaten, Henrica L; te Pas, Arjan B; Theyskens, Claire; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; van Kaam, Anton H


    Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, there are concerns that dexamethasone may increase the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Hydrocortisone has been suggested as an alternative therapy. So far no randomized controlled trial has investigated its efficacy when administered after the first week of life to ventilated preterm infants. The SToP-BPD trial is a randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study including 400 very low birth weight infants (gestational age BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Secondary outcomes are short term effects on the pulmonary condition, adverse effects during hospitalization, and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae assessed at 2 years corrected gestational age. Analysis will be on an intention to treat basis. This trial will determine the efficacy and safety of postnatal hydrocortisone administration at a moderately early postnatal onset compared to placebo for the reduction of the combined outcome mortality and BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in ventilator dependent preterm infants.

  5. Is contact with adult mental health services helpful for individuals with a diagnosable BPD? A study of service users views in the UK. (United States)

    Morris, Charlotte; Smith, Ian; Alwin, Nic


    Previous research in the UK has suggested that individuals with a diagnosable borderline personality disorder (BPD) have often found contact with adult mental health services unhelpful. In 2003, UK government guidance outlined how services might address this issue. Since this guidance, there has been little research that seeks to understand services users' experiences of services and provide information about how services might improve. To explore the experiences of individuals with a diagnosis of BPD in accessing adult mental health services and to better understand which aspects of contact with services can be helpful or unhelpful. Nine service users with a diagnosable BPD were recruited through voluntary sector services in England. Semi-structured interviews were used and interview data was analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Three themes were generated including "The diagnostic process influences how service users feel about BPD", "Non-caring care" and "It's all about the relationship". The participants' accounts identify a number of practical points which services could implement to improve the experiences of service users.

  6. ′An avant-garde indirect bonding technique for lingual orthodontics using the first complete digital "tad" (torque angulation device, & "BPD" (bracket positioning device′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Hegde


    This article covers an Indirect Bonding Technique using the Torque Angulation Device (TAD and the Bracket Positioning Device (BPD which ensure great accuracy while minimizing the poten- tial for error as compared to most methods available to the orthodontist today. This technique has been developed by taking into account the advantages and pitfalls of indirect bonding.

  7. Reference charts and equations of fetal biometry for normal singleton pregnant women in Shaanxi, China. (United States)

    Jiang, X; Zhang, Y H; Li, Y; Ma, X; Zhu, Y S H; Shang, L


    To construct reference charts and equations of fetal biometry for singleton pregnant women in Shaanxi, China. This was a cross-sectional study involving 6,832 singleton pregnant women. One set of fetal ultrasonographic measurement data between the 16th to 41st gestational weeks (GW) was randomly selected from each pregnant woman, and biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL) were recorded. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of BPD, AC, and FL were fitted by polynomial. Centile = Mean + Z(alpha) x SD was used to calculate centiles. Differences in the 50th centile of BPD, AC, and FL between Hong Kong, Korean, Italian and Shaanxi fetuses were compared. Mean of BPD, AC, and FL were well-fitted by quadratic polynomial, SD of BPD, AC and FL were fitted by linear regression. Equations for estimating mean and SD for BPD, AC, and FL from GW were obtained. Centiles for BPD,AC, and FL were calculated. From the 21st GW, the differences in BPD,AC, and FL between Hong Kong, Korean, Italian, and Shaanxi fetuses became larger. Fetal biometry reference charts and equations for estimating fetal size and GW could be used in obstetrics practice and research in Shaanxi, China.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 1, 2000 ... Request for reprints to: Dr. P S Igbigbi, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Private Bag 360 Chichiri, Blantyre 3 Malawi. SEX DETERMINATION .... Figure 2. Bar chart showing the ranges of head diameters of male and female femurs. (RVD-Right vertical diameter; LVD-Left vertical diameter; RTD -.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2850 - Diameter. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.2850 Section 51.2850 Agriculture... Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a straight line running from the stem to the root. ...

  10. 7 CFR 51.3211 - Diameter. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.3211 Section 51.3211 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3211 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the onion at right angles to a line running from the stem to the root. Metric...

  11. Runx3 is a key modulator during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of alveolar type II cells in animal models of BPD. (United States)

    Yang, Haiping; Fu, Jianhua; Yao, Li; Hou, Ana; Xue, Xindong


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major challenge for premature infants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar type II (AT2) epithelial cells influences the normal alveolar development process. In this study, we wished to examine whether Runx3 is an important factor for BPD by regulating EMT in AT2 cells. In vivo, animal models of BPD were established by placing newborn rats in hyperoxia tanks. Lung tissue and isolated AT2 cells were collected on different days following exposure to oxygen. The pathological changes in lung tissue, alveolar development and Runx3 expression were then investigated. In vitro, RLE-6TN cells were divided into 5 groups as follows: the cont-rol, Runx3, siRunx3, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and Runx3 + TGF-β1 groups, and the biomarkers of EMT were investigated. In the newborn rat model of BPD, Runx3 protein and mRNA levels in both lung tissue and BPD-derived AT2 cells were significantly lower than those in the control group. The correlation between Runx3 protein expression and pulmonary development indicators was analyzed; Runx3 expression positively correlated with the radial alveolar count (RAC) and the percentage of smooth muscle actin-positive secondary septa, but negatively correlated with alveolar wall thickness. EMT was observed in the RLE-6TN cells in which the Runx3 gene was knocked down and follwoing TGF-β1‑induced EMT stimulation; however, TGF-β1 failed to induce EMT in the RLE-6TN cells overexpressing Runx3. On the whole, our data indicte that low Runx3 levels may promote EMT, while high Runx3 levels inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT. Therefore, we predict that low levels of Runx3 in BPD lung tissue may promote EMT in AT2 cells, thus affecting alveolar development.

  12. On the evaluation of routine ultrasound screening in the third trimester for detection of light for gestational age (LGA) infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen; Kern Hansen, P; Lenstrup, C


    % of the pregnancies. The usefulness of the screening was evaluated on the remaining 36%. An attempt to diagnose light for gestational age (LGA) infants resulted in either a low sensitivity or a low predictive value of a positive test. The late third trimester screening was more sensitive than the early, indicating......Based upon 2194 consecutive pregnancies with known gestational age, formulas for weight deviation predicted in the 32nd and 37th gestational week were estimated by multiple linear regression on the measurements of the abdominal diameter (AD) and the biparietal diameter (BPD) of the first 64...

  13. The ontogeny of human pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and its aberrant expression may contribute to the pathobiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (United States)

    Castro, E C; Parks, W T; Galambos, C


    The mammalian lung possesses the highest level of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) amongst all the organs. ACE is known to generate angiotensin (AT)-II from AT-I and to regulate serum bradykinin level, thereby controlling blood pressure. Recent data, however, indicate a role for ACE derived AT-II in angiogenesis, pulmonary hypertension, and neonatal lung disease. The ontogeny of ACE in humans has not been investigated. We studied pulmonary ACE expression during human lung development and in human bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Human fetal autopsy lung tissue representing all three trimesters (12, 13, 16, 18, 24, 34, 39, and 40 weeks of gestational age (WGA)), as well as from 1 to 10 years of age with no significant lung pathology were used. In addition lung sections of patients with BPD (n = 5) were selected. The slides were immunostained using an anti-ACE monoclonal antibody. The temporal and spatial pattern of ACE expression was contrasted to that of the pan-endothelial marker CD31. Staining intensity was graded. Mildly diffuse and strong microvascular endothelial immunreactivity for ACE was seen in the human fetus as early as 12 WGA. ACE expression peaked at mid gestation and remained high throughout gestation and postnatally. In BPD lungs ACE endothelial staining was largely absent, and when focal staining was observed the intensity was weak. We established that ACE expression is present in the human fetal lung as early as 12 WGA, remains active pre- and postnatally, and ACE expression was downregulated in BPD lungs. We speculate that ACE may be involved in the process of lung development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Parent-adolescent concordance on the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) and the Childhood Interview for Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD). (United States)

    Wall, K; Sharp, C; Ahmed, Y; Goodman, M; Zanarini, M C


    While the degree of concordance between parent and adolescent self-report of internalizing and externalizing pathology is well studied, virtually nothing is known about concordance in borderline pathology and the implication of parent-adolescent discrepancies for outcomes. The present study aimed to (1) examine discrepancies between parents and adolescents on two interview-based measures of borderline personality disorder (BPD)-the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R 22 ) and the Childhood Interview for Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD 23 ); and (2) investigate the implications of discrepancies for clinical outcomes. Diagnostic concordance on the DIB-R and CI-BPD showed rates of 82% and 94% respectively, with lower concordance demonstrated for dimensionally scored variables. Standardized difference scores between adolescent and parent reports on both borderline measures were significantly correlated with few interview-based axis I diagnoses as reported by parents, but not adolescents themselves. Implications regarding the use of each measure for the assessment and diagnosis of borderline personality disorder are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Bpd Energetic Particle Detector as Part of the Solar X-Ray Photometer ChemiX for the "interhelioprobe" Interplanetary Mission (United States)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Zajtsevsky, I. L.; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.; Kowaliński, M.; Podgórski, P.


    The Background Particle Detector (BPD) is an important block of the Polish-Ukrainian X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX under development for the “Interhelioprobe” interplanetary mission. The BPD primary objective is to detect incoming charged particle fluxes, measure particle energy spectra and safeguard the instrument in case of emergency. The present work describes the BPD laboratory prototype and current results of adjustment and measurements of its important characteristics, in particular the analog signal processing unit and the source of secondary power supply unit. Laboratory benches designed for controlling the parameters of analog module and for characterization of small-sized organic and inorganic scintillation detectors of high energy charged particles are presented. The functional block diagram of the experimental model of digital signal processing line and information data streaming line designed using ProASIC3E M1A3PE1500 FPGA are introduced and explained. The results of respective digital modules’ tests performed by using experimental ModelISim Microsemi ME 10.2c program simulator are also presented.

  16. Exome sequencing and pathway analysis for identification of genetic variability relevant for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm newborns: A pilot study. (United States)

    Carrera, Paola; Di Resta, Chiara; Volonteri, Chiara; Castiglioni, Emanuela; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Lazarevic, Dejan; Cittaro, Davide; Stupka, Elia; Ferrari, Maurizio; Somaschini, Marco


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in infancy, affecting preterm children with low birth weight. The disease has a multifactorial aetiology with a significant genetic component; until now published association studies have identified several candidate genes but only few of these data has been replicated. In this pilot study, we approached exome sequencing aimed at identifying non-common variants, which are expected to have a stronger phenotypic effect. We performed this study on 26 Italian severely affected BPD preterm unrelated newborns, homogeneously selected from a large prospective cohort. We used an Illumina HiSeq 2000 for sequencing. Data analysis was focussed on genes previously associated to BPD susceptibility and to new candidates in related pathways, highlighted by a prioritization analysis performed using ToppGene Suite. By exome sequencing, we identified 3369 novel variants, with a median of 400 variations per sample. The top candidate genes highlighted were NOS2, MMP1, CRP, LBP and the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. All of them have been confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Potential candidate genes have been discovered in this preliminary study; the pathogenic role of identified variants will need to be confirmed with functional and segregation studies and possibly with further methods, able to evaluate the collective influence of rare variants. Moreover, additional candidates will be tested and genetic analysis will be extended to all affected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On the relationship between retrospective childhood ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features: the mediating role of action-oriented personality traits. (United States)

    Carlotta, Davide; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea


    A number of studies have reported data suggestive of a significant association between ADHD and BPD, nevertheless, the nature of this relation has not been fully understood yet. In our study, we tried to evaluate if the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features could mediated by selected temperament/personality traits. Four hundred forty-seven in- and outpatients consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of the Scientific Institute H San Raffaele of Milan, Italy, were administered the Italian versions of the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0 (SCID-II), Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Our mediation analyses showed that the combination of impulsivity, aggression, novelty seeking, and juvenile conduct problems completely mediate the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and current BPD features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clarification of the Antagonistic Effect of the Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BPD1 against Pyricularia oryzae via In Situ MALDI-TOF IMS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Liao


    Full Text Available This study tried to clarify the antagonistic effect of the lipopeptides secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BPD1 (Ba-BPD1 against Pyricularia oryzae Cavara (PO. To determine the major antifungal lipopeptides effective against PO, single and dual cultures were carried out in solid-state media. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS was used to identify the most effective lipopeptide in situ. Meanwhile, the morphology of pathogen fungi treated with lipopeptides was observed via the SEM. Of the three lipopeptide families, surfactin, iturin, and fengycin, the last was identified as the most effective for inhibiting mycelium growth and conidial germination of PO. The conidia and hyphae of fengycin-treated PO were shown to become deformed and tumorous under exposure. This study provides insights into the antagonistic effect of Ba-BPD1 against fungal phytopathogens. Such insights are helpful in the development of reagents for biological control applications.

  19. Potent anti-inflammatory effect of a novel furan-2,5-dione derivative, BPD, mediated by dual suppression of COX-2 activity and LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression via NF-κB inactivation. (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Park, Seung-Jae; Ryu, Suran; Kang, Han Byul; Kim, Tae Woo; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Jae-Yeol; Cho, Young-Wuk; Lee, Kyung-Tae


    We previously reported that 3-(benzo[d]-1,3-dioxol-5-yl)-4-phenylfuran-2,5-dione (BPD) showed strong inhibitory effects on PGE(2) production. However, the exact mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of BPD is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the effects of BPD on inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages and animal models of inflammation. The expressions of COX-2, inducible NOS (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages, were determined by Western blot and/or qRT-PCR, respectively. NF-κB activation was investigated by EMSA, reporter gene assay and Western blotting. Anti-inflammatory effects of BPD were evaluated in vivo in carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats and LPS-induced septic shock in mice. BPD not only inhibited COX-2 activity but also reduced the expression of COX-2. In addition, BPD inhibited the expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β at the transcriptional level. BPD attenuated LPS-induced DNA-binding activity and the transcription activity of NF-κB; this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation level of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) and reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, BPD suppressed the formation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1)/TAK-binding protein1 (TAB1), which was accompanied by a parallel reduction of phosphorylation of TAK1 and IκB kinase (IKK). Pretreatment with BPD inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema and LPS-induced septic death. Taken together, our data indicate that BPD is involved in the dual inhibition of COX-2 activity and TAK1-NF-κB pathway, providing a molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of BPD. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Calculation of singlet oxygen dose using explicit and implicit dose metrics during benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA)-PDT in vitro and correlation with MLL cell survival. (United States)

    Weston, Mark A; Patterson, Michael S


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) oxygen consumption, clonogenic cell survival, fluorescence photobleaching and photoproduct formation were investigated during benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT of MAT-LyLu cells in vitro. Cells were incubated with BPD-MA concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 μg mL(-1) for 2 h and then treated with 405 nm light under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. Fluorescence spectra were acquired during treatment, and photobleaching and photoproduct generation were quantified using singular value decomposition of the spectra. Cell survival was measured at set times during the treatment using a colony-forming assay. The amount of oxygen consumed by PDT per photon absorbed decreased with BPD-MA intracellular concentration. Survival was correlated with the total amount of oxygen consumed by PDT per unit volume, which is assumed to be equivalent to the amount of singlet oxygen that reacted. A photobleaching-based singlet oxygen dose metric was also found to predict survival independent of intracellular BPD-MA concentration. The BPD-MA photoproduct was bleached during the treatment. Two singlet oxygen dose metrics based on photoproduct kinetics could not be correlated with cell survival over the full range of intracellular BPD-MA concentrations used. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Effective diameters and corresponding states of fluids (United States)

    Del Río, Fernando

    Effective hard-sphere diameters of fluids with purely repulsive interactions are derived from a generalized corresponding-states principle of Leland, Rowlinson and coworkers. Various alternative definitions are discussed and related. Virial expansions of the effective diameters and their corresponding volumes are obtained and compared with results of perturbation theory. Applications are made to inverse-power potentials, the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential and hard spherocylinders and dumbells.

  2. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  3. Intermittent hypoxia during recovery from neonatal hyperoxic lung injury causes long-term impairment of alveolar development: A new rat model of BPD. (United States)

    Mankouski, Anastasiya; Kantores, Crystal; Wong, Mathew J; Ivanovska, Julijana; Jain, Amish; Benner, Eric J; Mason, Stanley N; Tanswell, A Keith; Auten, Richard L; Jankov, Robert P


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung injury characterized by impaired alveologenesis that may persist into adulthood. Rat models of BPD using varying degrees of hyperoxia to produce injury either cause early mortality or spontaneously recover following removal of the inciting stimulus, thus limiting clinical relevance. We sought to refine an established rat model induced by exposure to 60% O 2 from birth by following hyperoxia with intermittent hypoxia (IH). Rats exposed from birth to air or 60% O 2 until day 14 were recovered in air with or without IH (FI O 2 = 0.10 for 10 min every 6 h) until day 28 Animals exposed to 60% O 2 and recovered in air had no evidence of abnormal lung morphology on day 28 or at 10-12 wk. In contrast, 60% O 2 -exposed animals recovered in IH had persistently increased mean chord length, more dysmorphic septal crests, and fewer peripheral arteries. Recovery in IH also increased pulmonary vascular resistance, Fulton index, and arterial wall thickness. IH-mediated abnormalities in lung structure (but not pulmonary hypertension) persisted when reexamined at 10-12 wk, accompanied by increased pulmonary vascular reactivity and decreased exercise tolerance. Increased mean chord length secondary to IH was prevented by treatment with a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst [5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin iron (III) chloride, 30 mg/kg/day, days 14-28], an effect accompanied by fewer inflammatory cells. We conclude that IH during recovery from hyperoxia-induced injury prevents recovery of alveologenesis and leads to changes in lung and pulmonary vascular function lasting into adulthood, thus more closely mimicking contemporary BPD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Bijective Diameters of Gene Tree Parsimony Costs. (United States)

    Gorecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver


    Synthesizing median trees from a collection of gene trees under the biologically motivated gene tree parsimony (GTP) costs has provided credible species tree estimates. GTP costs are defined for each of the classic evolutionary processes. These costs count the minimum number of events necessary to reconcile the gene tree with the species tree where the leaf-genes are mapped to the leaf-species through a function called labeling. To better understand the synthesis of median trees under these costs there is an increased interest in analyzing their diameters. The diameters of a GTP cost between a gene tree and a species tree are the maximum values of this cost of one or both topologies of the trees involved. We are concerned about the diameters of the GTP costs under bijective labelings. While these diameters are linear time computable for the gene duplication and deep coalescence costs, this has been unknown for the classic gene duplication and loss, and for the loss cost. For the first time, we show how to compute these diameters and proof that this can be achieved in linear time, and thus, completing the computational time analysis for all of the bijective diameters under the GTP costs.

  5. Directed growth of diameter-tunable nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Birol; Talukdar, Ishan; Flanders, Bret N [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, 145 Physical Sciences II, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)


    This study characterizes a method for controlling the nanowire diameter in the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly technique, where alternating voltages applied to electrodes in simple salt solutions induce the crystallization of metallic wires. Dendritic solidification is identified as an important component of this technique. A characteristic of dendritic solidification is that the growth velocity and tip radius are anti-correlated. This relationship is exploited here to realize diameter-tunable nanowire growth. The experimental parameter that provides this control is {omega}, the frequency of the alternating voltage. Increasing {omega} effectively steepens the metal cation concentration gradient at the wire-solution interface, thereby increasing the growth velocity of the wire. For indium wires, increasing {omega} from 0.5 to 3.5 MHz increases their growth velocity from 11 to 78 {mu}m s{sup -1} and reduces their diameter from 770 to 114 nm. Gold wires exhibit diameter-tunability that ranges from 150 nm to 45 nm. Thus, it is possible to tune the wire diameter from the microscale down to the nanoscale. Moreover, this control is a consequence of non-stationary dendritic growth, which distinguishes this process from most previously studied examples of dendritic solidification.

  6. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The importance of calibrating models on height-diameter relationship can never be over emphasized in predicting mean ... parameters that variously important in forest growth modeling and many sustainable forest management options(e.g., Van ..... Natural forest Ecosystem, southwest Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry ...

  7. Liquid-vapor rectilinear diameter revisited (United States)

    Garrabos, Y.; Lecoutre, C.; Marre, S.; Beysens, D.; Hahn, I.


    In the modern theory of critical phenomena, the liquid-vapor density diameter in simple fluids is generally expected to deviate from a rectilinear law approaching the critical point. However, by performing precise scannerlike optical measurements of the position of the SF6 liquid-vapor meniscus, in an approach much closer to criticality in temperature and density than earlier measurements, no deviation from a rectilinear diameter can be detected. The observed meniscus position from far (10 K ) to extremely close (1 mK ) to the critical temperature is analyzed using recent theoretical models to predict the complete scaling consequences of a fluid asymmetry. The temperature dependence of the meniscus position appears consistent with the law of rectilinear diameter. The apparent absence of the critical hook in SF6 therefore seemingly rules out the need for the pressure scaling field contribution in the complete scaling theoretical framework in this SF6 analysis. More generally, this work suggests a way to clarify the experimental ambiguities in the simple fluids for the near-critical singularities in the density diameter.

  8. Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, N.; de Bruin, K.G.; Bartolo, D.; Josserand, C.; Bonn, D.


    The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid

  9. Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Klaessens, John H.G.M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Hopman, Jeroen C.W.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Thijssen, Johan M.; van Leeuwen, Ton


    A double-ring sensor was applied in photoacoustic tomographic imaging of artificial blood vessels as well as blood vessels in a rabbit ear. The peak-topeak time (τ pp) of the laser (1064 nm) induced pressure transient was used to estimate the axial vessel diameter. Comparison with the actual vessel

  10. Diameter preserving linear maps and isometries, II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study linear bijections of simplex spaces A ( S ) which preserve the diameter of the range, that is, the seminorm ϱ ( f ) = sup { | f ( x ) − f ( y ) | : x , y ∈ S } . Author Affiliations. Félix Cabello Sánchez1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas 06071- Badajoz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript ...

  11. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.


    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up

  12. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, J.R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Biphasic response of checkpoint control proteins in hyperoxia: exposure to lower levels of oxygen induces genome maintenance genes in experimental baboon BPD. (United States)

    Das, Kumuda C; Wasnick, John D


    Breathing high concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia) causes lung injury and is associated with lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborns. Hyperoxia (95-100 %O2) causes DNA damage and growth arrest of lung cells and consequently cells die by apoptosis or necrosis. Although supplemental oxygen therapy is clinically important, the level and duration of hyperoxic exposure that would allow lung cells to reenter the cell cycle remains unclear. We hypothesized that cells exposed to lower concentrations of hyperoxia will retain the capacity to enter cell cycle when recovered in room air. We employed varying concentrations of oxygen (21-95 %) to determine the response of lung cells to hyperoxia. Our results indicate that cells were growth arrested and failed to reenter the cell cycle when exposed to greater than 60 % oxygen. Cell cycle checkpoint proteins were increased in a biphasic manner, increasing until 70 % oxygen, but declined in greater than 90 % oxygen. Microarray analysis shows that there is significant decrease in the abundance of Cdks 6-8 and retinoblastoma protein (Rb), p107 and p130 in exposure to 90 % oxygen for 48 h. We further tested the effect of clinically relevant as needed oxygen [(pro-re-nata (prn)] in premature infant (125-days and 140-days) baboon model of BPD. The microarray results show that 6 or 14d PRN oxygen-exposed animals had induced expression of chromosomal maintenance genes (MCMs), genes related to anti-inflammation, proliferation, and differentiation.

  14. Aplikasi Dua Segitiga Sebangun pada Studi Venus Transit di Matahari Tanggal 8 Juni 2004 dari BPD LAPAN Watukosek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Widodo


    Full Text Available Transit planet Venus di cakram matahari (jari-jari = 696000 km merupakan peristiwa alam yang dapat dilihat secara berkala. Planet Venus merupakan planet kedua dalam sistem tata surya yang mempunyai orbit lebih dekat ke matahari (= 0,723 Astronomical Unit dibanding jarak bumi-matahari (= 149.600.000 km = 1 AU. Sehingga pada suatu waktu tertentu ada peluang berada tepat di depan Bumi, saat menghadap matahari atau dikenal dengan transit Venus. Proses pengamatan fenomena transit Venus di cakram matahari tersebut dapat diimplimentasikan sebagai aplikasi dua segitiga sebangun, Dimana jari-jari planet Venus (jari-jari = 6051,8 km dinyatakan sebagai tinggi benda dan jari-jari tinggi bayangan Venus sebesar 20880 km (= 3,65 mm pada cakram matahari. Dimana diameter matahari 1.392.000 km (= 240 mm pada lembar sket. Dengan pengukuran jarak tempuh Venus transit 72,4 mm (419 920 km di cakram matahari terhadap waktu kontak pertama bayangan Venus pada jam 05.28 UT (12.28 WIB di tepi timur hingga akhir transit pada 17.50 UT (14.50 WIB diperoleh kecepatan bayangan Venus sebesar 49,286 km/detik

  15. Fast and robust shape diameter function. (United States)

    Chen, Shuangmin; Liu, Taijun; Shu, Zhenyu; Xin, Shiqing; He, Ying; Tu, Changhe


    The shape diameter function (SDF) is a scalar function defined on a closed manifold surface, measuring the neighborhood diameter of the object at each point. Due to its pose oblivious property, SDF is widely used in shape analysis, segmentation and retrieval. However, computing SDF is computationally expensive since one has to place an inverted cone at each point and then average the penetration distances for a number of rays inside the cone. Furthermore, the shape diameters are highly sensitive to local geometric features as well as the normal vectors, hence diminishing their applications to real-world meshes which often contain rich geometric details and/or various types of defects, such as noise and gaps. In order to increase the robustness of SDF and promote it to a wide range of 3D models, we define SDF by offsetting the input object a little bit. This seemingly minor change brings three significant benefits: First, it allows us to compute SDF in a robust manner since the offset surface is able to give reliable normal vectors. Second, it runs many times faster since at each point we only need to compute the penetration distance along a single direction, rather than tens of directions. Third, our method does not require watertight surfaces as the input-it supports both point clouds and meshes with noise and gaps. Extensive experimental results show that the offset-surface based SDF is robust to noise and insensitive to geometric details, and it also runs about 10 times faster than the existing method. We also exhibit its usefulness using two typical applications including shape retrieval and shape segmentation, and observe a significant improvement over the existing SDF.

  16. 29 mm Diameter Target Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.

  17. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira


    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  18. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, Β-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu; Wang Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Yang Peiying; Moorthy, Bhagavatula


    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (> 95% O 2 ) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F 2 -isoprostane 8-iso-PGF 2α , whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: → Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. → Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. → Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates oxygen injury

  19. Clinical use of fetal measurements to determine the whelping day in German shepherd breed bitches. (United States)

    Cecchetto, Marta; Milani, Chiara; Vencato, Juri; Sontas, Hasan; Mollo, Antonio; Contiero, Barbara; Romagnoli, Stefano


    The aim of this work was to use a linear regression model previously developed in a pilot study to calculate days before parturition (DbP) using inner chorionic cavity (ICC), biparietal diameter (BPD), crown-rump length (CRL), body diameter (BD) and deep portion of telencephalic vesicle (DPTV) in German shepherd dogs (GSD) with known ovulation day and then to test that model in bitches with unknown ovulation day. In our current study, a model for GSD bitches published in a previous report, proved satisfactory for ICC [DbP=44.76-(4.34×ICC)] and BPD [DbP=38.65-(12.86×BPD)]. We therefore used their model, but developed a new one for CRL, BD and DPTV. For ICC and BPD, we tested accuracy for more than 35days before parturition (ICC) and more than 15days before parturition (BPD). Measurements were taken on at least two fetuses during each ultrasound recording (US) of 22 GSD bitches with known (n=16) and unknown (n=6) ovulation days. The accuracy of the above model was 77-100% for ICC and 83-96% for BPD with a precision of ±1 and ±2days, respectively. Accuracy increased significantly when US was performed more than 35days before parturition for ICC and more than 15days before parturition for BPD. BD and CRL were the most accurate parameters (R 2 =0.95 and 0.85). In bitches with unknown ovulation day, BD accuracy was 71.4-100% with a precision of ±1day and ±2days, respectively. CRL and DPTV were less accurate (±1day, 60%; ±2days, 80% accuracy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.


    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  1. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd


    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  2. Body diameters in 3 - 6 years old children from Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineshev Slavi


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze the body diameters in 3-6 year old children. The biacromial diameters were taken as well as the two chest diameters, the bicristal and bitrohanterial diameters in 316 children (157 boys and 159 girls 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age attending kindergarten in Plovdiv. The analysis shows that all diameters, with the exception of the bitrohanterial have higher values in boys. The absolute year's increment of the diameters is greater in girls. The growth velocity of the researched features is greatest at the age of 3-4 and 4-5, decreasing at different rates for the different features at the age of 5-6. The only exception is the sagittal chest diameter in both sexes and the bitrohanterial diameters in girls.

  3. Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. (United States)

    Burkhardt, T; Schmidt, M; Kurmanavicius, J; Zimmermann, R; Schäffer, L


    To evaluate the quality of anthropometric measures to improve the prediction of shoulder dystocia by combining different sonographic biometric parameters. This was a retrospective cohort study of 12,794 vaginal deliveries with complete sonographic biometry data obtained within 7 days before delivery. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves of various combinations of the biometric parameters, namely, biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference, abdominal diameter (AD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length were analyzed. The influences of independent risk factors were calculated and their combination used in a predictive model. The incidence of shoulder dystocia was 1.14%. Different combinations of sonographic parameters showed comparable ROC curves without advantage for a particular combination. The difference between AD and BPD (AD - BPD) (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.704) revealed a significant increase in risk (odds ratio (OR) 7.6 (95% CI 4.2-13.9), sensitivity 8.2%, specificity 98.8%) at a suggested cut-off ≥ 2.6 cm. However, the positive predictive value (PPV) was low (7.5%). The AC as a single parameter (AUC = 0.732) with a cut-off ≥ 35 cm performed worse (OR 4.6 (95% CI 3.3-6.5), PPV 2.6%). BPD/OFD (a surrogate for fetal cranial shape) was not significantly different between those with and those without shoulder dystocia. The combination of estimated fetal weight, maternal diabetes, gender and AD - BPD provided a reasonable estimate of the individual risk. Sonographic fetal anthropometric measures appear not to be a useful tool to screen for the risk of shoulder dystocia due to a low PPV. However, AD - BPD appears to be a relevant risk factor. While risk stratification including different known risk factors may aid in counseling, shoulder dystocia cannot effectively be predicted. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The midsagittal, transverse diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal and the anteroposterior diameter of the inferior vertebral notch were measured using an electronic digital caliper. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS 12.0 computer program. Results and discussion: In both sexes, the midsagittal diameter of the canal ...

  5. Aortic Root Diameter and Longitudinal Blood Pressure Tracking


    Ingelsson, Erik; Pencina, Michael J.; Levy, Daniel; Aragam, Jayashri; Mitchell, Gary F.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.


    Proximal aortic diameter, including aortic root (AoR) diameter, has been inversely related to pulse pressure (PP) in cross-sectional studies. So, investigators have hypothesized that a smaller AoR diameter may increase risk of developing hypertension. Prospective studies are lacking to test this hypothesis.

  6. The quantitative evaluation of intracranial pressure by optic nerve sheath diameter/eye diameter CT measurement. (United States)

    Bekerman, Inessa; Sigal, Tal; Kimiagar, Itzhak; Ben Ely, Anna; Vaiman, Michael


    The changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been used to assess changes of the intracranial pressure for 20 years. The aim of this research was to further quantify the technique of measuring the ONSD for this purpose. Retrospective study of computed tomographic (CT) data of 1766 adult patients with intracranial hypotension (n=134) or hypertension (n=1632) were analyzed. The eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD were obtained bilaterally, and the ONSD/ETD ratio was calculated. The ratio was used to calculate the normal ONSD for patients and to estimate the intracranial pressure of the patients before and after the onset of the pathology. Correlation analysis was performed with invasively measured intracranial pressure, the presence or absence of papilledema, sex, and age. In hypotension cases, the ONSD by CT was 3.4±0.7 mm (P=.03 against normative 4.4±0.8 mm). In cases with hypertension, the diameter was 6.9±1.3 (P=.02, with a cutoff value ˃5.5 mm). The ONSD/ETD ratio was 0.29±0.04 against 0.19±0.02 in healthy adults (P=.01). The ONSD and the ONSD/ETD ratio can indicate low intracranial pressure, but quantification is impossible at intracranial pressure less than 13 mm Hg. In elevated intracranial pressure, the ONSD and the ratio provide readings that correspond to readings in millimeters of mercury. The ONSD method, reinforced with additional calculations, may help to indicate a raised intracranial pressure, evaluate its severity quantitatively, and establish quantitative goals for treatment of intracranial hypertension, but the limitations of the method are to be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Gear Wheel-shaft Joint Characterized by Comparable Pitch Diameter and Mounting Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryś


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design procedure for a gear wheel-shaft direct frictional joint. The small difference between the operating pitch diameter of the gear and the mounting diameter of the frictional joint is the key feature of the connection. The contact surface of the frictional joint must be placed outside the bottom land of the gear, and the geometry of the joint is limited to the specific type of solutions.The strength analysis is based on the relation between the torque and statistical load intensity of the gear transmission. Several dimensionless parameters are introduced to simplify the calculations. Stress-strain verifying analysis with respect to combined loading, the condition of appropriate load-carrying capacity of the frictional joint and the fatigue strength of the shaft are applied to obtain the relations between the dimensions of the joint and other parameters. The final engineering solution may then be suggested. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example.The proposed procedure can be useful in design projects for small, high-powered modern reducers and new-generation geared motors, in particular when manufactured in various series of types.

  8. Atom-bond connectivity index and diameter of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin WU


    Full Text Available For further study of the numerous nice properties of topological indices in physical and chemical fields, it is worth considering the relation between a degree-based index and a distance-based index. With the fact that diameter is an invariant based on distance, the relations between atom-bond connectivity index, diameter in trees and unicyclic graphs are studied. Based on relative lemma, the relation between atom-bond connectivity index and diameter in tree and unicyclic graphs is investigated, then the sharp lower bounds of the difference of index and diameter are given.

  9. Investigation of the relations between screw diameter and pilot hole diameter with withdrawal resistance in LVL for establishing regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mossayeb dalvand


    Full Text Available In this study, variation in screw diameter and corresponding pilot hole, and relationship between these variables with withdrawal resistance for establishing multiple linear regression model was investigated. In this investigation 9-ply LVL was made of poplar (Populus deltoids. LVL was produced with polyvinyl acetate adhesive. Test specimens were prepared from LVL produced with dimensions of 7.5 * 7.5 cm. Dimension of pilot hole embedded in specimens at 4 levels (50, 60, 70 and 80 present of nominal screw diameter. The test Specimens were studied with nominal screw diameter 4.2, 5, 6 and 7mm were produced. Withdrawal resistance of screw was tested from surface and, edge and cross-sections. Results have shown that withdrawal resistance from edge (perpendicular to grain was more than withdrawal resistance from face and cross-section (parallel to grain. Also the results have shown that withdrawal resistance of different screw diameter decreased with increase of pilot hole diameter, but withdrawal resistance increased with increase of screw diameter itself. The highest withdrawal resistance was obtained from screw 7 mm in diameters and predrilled hole diameter 50% of screw diameter. The lowest withdrawal resistance was observed from screw 4.2 mm in diameter and predrilled hole diameter 80% of screw diameter. Finally multiple linear regression models ys= 3.055+.411X1-3.358X2, ye║=2.6361.694X1+.089X2 and ye┴= 2.334+.509X1-2.901X2 were obtained to predict of withdrawal resistance for face, cross-section and edge respectively.

  10. Isotachophoresis system having larger-diameter channels flowing into channels with reduced diameter and with selectable counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.


    An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.

  11. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  12. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 12, 2010 ... Using permanent sample plot data, selected tree height and diameter functions were evaluated for their predictive abilities for Populus tremula stands in Turkey. Two sets of models were evaluated. The first set included five models for estimating height as a function of individual tree diameter; the second set.

  13. Mean particle diameters : From statistical definition to physical understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, M.


    Mean particle diameters are important for the science of particulate systems. This thesis deals with a definition system for these mean diameters, called Moment-Ratio (M-R) definition system, and provides a general statistical and physical basis. Also, the current DIN/ISO definition system is

  14. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... Using stem analysis method, the biomass, growing process and diameter structure of 21-year shady and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully region. Results showed that there were distinct difference in the indexes, tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH).

  15. Mean Normal Portal Vein Diameter Using Sonography among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Mean portal vein diameter is considered as the best indicator for portal hypertension. However, the cutoff point differs from study to study (above 10-15 mm) despite the existence of normal mean portal vein diameter between 10-15 mm in different settings.This implies the existence of limited evidence on ...

  16. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using stem analysis method, the biomass, growing process and diameter structure of 21-year shady and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully region. Results showed that there were distinct difference in the indexes, tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and timber volume ...

  17. Relationships between stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trees show considerable variation and flexibility in their size of crowns, height and stem diameter at breast height (dbh). Dbh has been used as predictor variables in diameter and height growth equations. Relationships between dbh, tree height, crown length, crown height and crown ratio of Vitellaria paradoxa were ...

  18. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, by including stand level attributes, root mean square values were reduced by 21 cm. In the second set, the best results were obtained by the Schnute's function. In this function, dominant diameter and dominant height independent variables in addition to tree diameter were found significant at 0.01 significant ...

  19. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  20. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  1. Diameter of common bile duct: what are the predicting factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi


    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: This was a study to determine the correlation between the common bile duct (CBD diameter and demographic data, fasting, and the history of opium addiction.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 375 patients (>16 years old including 219 females and 156 males. They had no evident hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease and underwent abdominopelvic ultrasonography for measurement of their CBD diameter. Ultrasound (US was performed to measure CBD diameter at the porta hepatis (proximal part and behind the head of the pancreas (distal part. Correlation coefficients for the association between CBD diameter and predictive factors were calculated. t-test was applied to compare the means between the groups.
    RESULTS: The mean CBD diameter (1 standard deviation, in proximal and distal parts were 3.64 mm (±1.2 and 3.72 mm (±1.2, respectively. The CBD diameters (proximal and distal were significantly (P<0.05 correlated with age (r = 0.55 and 0.54, respectively, BMI (r = 0.25 and 0.27, respectively and portal vein diameter (r = 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. Distal diameter of CBD was significantly larger in opium addicts (5.66 ± 2.65 in comparison with non addicts (3.68 ± 1.17, P = 0.04.
    CONCLUSIONS: CBD diameter associates with age, BMI, portal vein diameter and opium addiction. CBD dilatation, if it can not be explained by age, opium usage or large BMI, should be evaluated further to rule out obstruction.
    KEY WORDS: Common bile duct, predicting factors, ultrasonography.

  2. Relation of Coronary Artery Diameters With Cardiorespiratory Fitness. (United States)

    Ho, John S; Cannaday, John J; FitzGerald, Shannon J; Leonard, David; Finley, Carrie E; Wade, Wendy A; Reinhardt, Dale B; Ellis, Joe R; Barlow, Carolyn E; Haskell, William L; Defina, Laura F; Gibbons, Larry W; Cooper, Kenneth H


    Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when adjusted for traditional risk factors. Mechanisms by which fitness reduces risk have been studied but remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that higher fitness is associated with larger coronary artery diameters independent of its effect on traditional risk factors. Two independent measurements of the proximal diameters of the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries were obtained from gated multidetector computed tomography scans in 500 men from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study (CCLS). Men with coronary artery calcium scores ≥10 were excluded. Fitness was measured with a maximal exercise treadmill test and reported by quintiles and as a function of METs. We then evaluated the relation between coronary artery diameters and fitness using mixed effect regression models. Higher fitness was associated with larger coronary artery diameters after adjustment for body surface area, smoking status, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, resting systolic blood pressure, and serum glucose. When examined continuously, each MET increase in fitness was associated with a mean 0.03 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the left main, a 0.04 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the left anterior descending, a 0.05 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the left circumflex, and a 0.07 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the right coronary artery (p = 0.002). This correlation between fitness and coronary artery diameters was most prominent for fitness levels above 10 METs. In conclusion, higher fitness is associated with larger coronary artery diameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of spacing on the survival, frequency of diameter classes and height/diameter ratio in Eucalyptus urophylla. [In Portuguese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandi, R.M.; Couto, L.; Neto, F. de P.


    Survival of hybrid (unspecified parentage) E. urophylla in Minas Gerais after 93 months ranged from 47.1% at a spacing of 2 x 2 m to 60.5% at 3 x 4 m. Close spacing gave the largest number of trees per unit area, but with smaller average diameter Height/diameter ratio was not influenced by spacing.

  4. An ecophysiological and developmental perspective on variation in vessel diameter. (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Spicer, Rachel; Schreiber, Stefan G; Plavcová, Lenka


    Variation in xylem vessel diameter is one of the most important parameters when evaluating plant water relations. This review provides a synthesis of the ecophysiological implications of variation in lumen diameter together with a summary of our current understanding of vessel development and its endogenous regulation. We analyzed inter-specific variation of the mean hydraulic vessel diameter (D v ) across biomes, intra-specific variation of D v under natural and controlled conditions, and intra-plant variation. We found that the D v measured in young branches tends to stay below 30 µm in regions experiencing winter frost, whereas it is highly variable in the tropical rainforest. Within a plant, the widest vessels are often found in the trunk and in large roots; smaller diameters have been reported for leaves and small lateral roots. D v varies in response to environmental factors and is not only a function of plant size. Despite the wealth of data on vessel diameter variation, the regulation of diameter is poorly understood. Polar auxin transport through the vascular cambium is a key regulator linking foliar and xylem development. Limited evidence suggests that auxin transport is also a determinant of vessel diameter. The role of auxin in cell expansion and in establishing longitudinal continuity during secondary growth deserve further study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes. (United States)

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W


    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  6. The Relationship amongst Intervertebral Disc Vertical Diameter, Lateral Foramen Diameter and Nerve Root Impingement in Lumbar Vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof MI


    Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.

  7. Calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale using occultation diameters (United States)

    Brown, R. H.; Morrison, D.; Telesco, C. M.; Brunk, W. E.


    The paper describes a new approach to the calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale, which relies on recent accurate occultation measurements of the diameters of 2 Pallas (Wasserman et al., 1979) and 3 Juno (Millis et al., 1981), and the Voyager diameter of J4 Callisto, as well as IR photometry of these objects obtained with the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility. It is shown that this calibration is internally consistent to better than 5%, and probably has an absolute accuracy of + or - 5%. It is noted that a revision of the TRIAD radiometric diameters downward is required to bring them into agreement with the new calibration.

  8. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... initial response and a higher ultimate capacity. The initial stiffness of the soil-structure interaction measured in the centrifuge tests, equivalent to initial stiffness of p-y curves, shows a dependency of depth and diameter. Control issues in relation to cyclic tests have resulted in tests...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles...

  9. Porosity Assessment for Different Diameters of Coir Lignocellulosic Fibers (United States)

    da Luz, Fernanda Santos; Paciornik, Sidnei; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; Tommasini, Flávio James; Candido, Verônica Scarpini


    The application of natural lignocellulosic fibers (LCFs) in engineering composites has increased interest in their properties and structural characteristics. In particular, the inherent porosity of an LCF markedly affects its density and the adhesion to polymer matrices. For the first time, both open and closed porosities of a natural LCF, for different diameter ranges, were assessed. Fibers extracted from the mesocarp of the coconut fruit were investigated by nondestructive methods of density measurements and x-ray microtomography (microCT). It was found that, for all diameter ranges, the closed porosity is significantly higher than the open porosity. The total porosity increases with diameter to around 60% for coir fibers with more than 503 μm in diameter. The amount and characteristics of these open and closed porosities were revealed by t test and Weibull statistics as well as by microCT.

  10. Synthesis of very small diameter silica nanofibers using sound waves. (United States)

    Datskos, Panos; Chen, Jihua; Sharma, Jaswinder


    Silica nanofibers of an average diameter ≈30 nm and length ≈100 μm have been synthesized using an unprecedented strategy: sound waves. A new phenomenon, spinning off the nanofibers at silica rod tips, is also observed.

  11. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    /10.4314/sokjvs.v13i3.4. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West. African dwarf does experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. OO Leigh. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, ...

  12. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential. (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa


    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This PDS data set represents a compilation of published diameters, optical albedos, near-infrared albedos, and beaming parameters for minor planets detected by...

  14. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit


    for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure......PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...

  15. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  16. Failure Diameter of PBX 9502: Simulations with the SURFplus model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    SURFplus is a reactive burn model for high explosives aimed at modelling shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. It utilizes the SURF model for the fast hot-spot reaction plus a slow reaction for the energy released by carbon clustering. A feature of the SURF model is that there is a partially decoupling between burn rate parameters and detonation wave properties. Previously, parameters for PBX 9502 that control shock ini- tiation had been calibrated to Pop plot data (distance-of-run to detonation as a function of shock pressure initiating the detonation). Here burn rate parameters for the high pres- sure regime are adjusted to t the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed just above the failure diameter. Simulated results are shown for an uncon ned rate stick when the 9502 diameter is slightly above and slightly below the failure diameter. Just above the failure diameter, in the rest frame of the detonation wave, the front is sonic at the PBX/air interface. As a consequence, the lead shock in the neighborhood of the interface is supported by the detonation pressure in the interior of the explosive rather than the reaction immediately behind the front. In the interior, the sonic point occurs near the end of the fast hot-spot reaction. Consequently, the slow carbon clustering reaction can not a ect the failure diameter. Below the failure diameter, the radial extent of the detonation front decreases starting from the PBX/air interface. That is, the failure starts at the PBX boundary and propagates inward to the axis of the rate stick.

  17. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Garnaes, J.


    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA.

  18. On the performance of small diameter gas cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, Marcos Roberto Teixeira


    Small diameter cyclones represent a potential alternative for the removal of small diameter particles from gaseous mixtures as well as the environmental control of their emission. In order to establish feasible configurations of a small diameter cyclone applied in the separation of solid particles dispersed in a gas and considering a large quantify of experimental data in literature, neural networks were used to estimate the equipment grade efficiency and pressure drop. In order to evaluate a performance of many small diameters configurations and analysis was carried of parametrical sensibility which determines the most important variables on separation efficiency determination. A set of experimental runs was carried out in a lab-scale mini-cyclone in order to obtain the separation efficiency and pressure drop for different configurations, and evaluate the feasibility of coupling a post-cyclone device to improve the equipment overall performance. The cyclones used presented diameters of 0.03 and 0.05 m and the remaining dimensions varied proportionally about those found in Stairmand high-efficiency cyclones. Experimental separation efficiencies up to 99% were obtained in this work. These results confirm the feasibility of the experimental set-up configuration proposed. (author)

  19. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes. (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J


    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid eSepehrband


    Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  1. Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.

  2. Axon diameter mapping in crossing fibers with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Dyrby, Tim B; Alexander, Daniel C


    tissue than measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging. Most existing techniques for axon diameter mapping assume a single axon orientation in the tissue model, which limits their application to only the most coherently oriented brain white matter, such as the corpus callosum, where the single......This paper proposes a technique for a previously unaddressed problem, namely, mapping axon diameter in crossing fiber regions, using diffusion MRI. Direct measurement of tissue microstructure of this kind using diffusion MRI offers a new class of biomarkers that give more specific information about...... orientation assumption is a reasonable one. However, fiber crossings and other complex configurations are widespread in the brain. In such areas, the existing techniques will fail to provide useful axon diameter indices for any of the individual fiber populations. We propose a novel crossing fiber tissue...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    The Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission continues to detect, track, and characterize minor planets. We present diameters and albedos calculated from observations taken during the second year since the spacecraft was reactivated in late 2013. These include 207 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and 8885 other asteroids. Of the NEAs, 84% NEAs did not have previously measured diameters and albedos by the NEOWISE mission. Comparison of sizes and albedos calculated from NEOWISE measurements with those measured by occultations, spacecraft, and radar-derived shapes shows accuracy consistent with previous NEOWISE publications. Diameters and albedos fall within ±∼20% and ±∼40%, 1-sigma, respectively, of those measured by these alternate techniques. NEOWISE continues to preferentially discover near-Earth objects which are large (>100 m), and have low albedos.

  4. Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.


    Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

  5. Bubble behaviour and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, O.; Shoukri, M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)


    Bubble behaviour and mean bubble diameter in subcooled upward flow boiling in a vertical annular channel were investigated under low pressure and mass flux conditions. A high speed video system was used to visualize the subcooled flow boiling phenomenon. The high speed photographic results indicated that, contrary to the common understanding, bubbles tend to detach from the heating surface upstream of the net vapour generation point. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the mean bubble diameter along the subcooled flow boiling region. Data on the axial area-averaged void fraction distributions were also obtained using a single beam gamma densitometer. Effects of the liquid subcooling, applied heat flux and mass flux on the mean bubble size were investigated. A correlation for the mean bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling, heat flux and mass flux was obtained.

  6. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'


    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.; Stevenson, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.

  9. Sex determination from femoral head diameters in black Malawians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the sex of black Malawians from femoral head diameters. Design: A retrospective study on patients investigated in three x-ray departments. Setting: Radiographs were collected from the archives of Queen Elizabeth Central, Chikwawa and Balaka hospitals. Subject: X-ray films of 496 pelves of adult ...

  10. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan


    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  11. Ultrasound Assessment of Normal Portal Vein Diameter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if the additional use of color and spectral Doppler improves the assessment of patients suspected of having portal hypertension, gray scale assessment of portal vein diameter is corner stone in the initial evaluation. Knowing the normal portal venous dimension in a specified population is so crucial. Methods: This is a ...

  12. Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner


    We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...

  13. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc


    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  14. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  15. Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Retinal Microvascular Diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Jensen (Richard); X. Sim (Xueling); G.D. Smith; X. Li (Xiaohui); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); J. Brody (Jennifer); M.F. Cotch (Mary Frances); B. McKnight (Barbara); R. Klein (Ronald); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); A. Kifley (Annette); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); X. Li (Xiang); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); U. Mutlu (Unal); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C. Liu (Chunyu); A. Kraja (Aldi); P. Mitchell (Paul); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin)


    textabstractBackground-There is increasing evidence that retinal microvascular diameters are associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions. The shared genetic effects of these associations are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the genetic

  16. Assessment of vessel diameters for MR brain angiography processed images (United States)

    Moraru, Luminita; Obreja, Cristian-Dragos; Moldovanu, Simona


    The motivation was to develop an assessment method to measure (in)visible differences between the original and the processed images in MR brain angiography as a method of evaluation of the status of the vessel segments (i.e. the existence of the occlusion or intracerebral vessels damaged as aneurysms). Generally, the image quality is limited, so we improve the performance of the evaluation through digital image processing. The goal is to determine the best processing method that allows an accurate assessment of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A total of 10 MR brain angiography images were processed by the following techniques: histogram equalization, Wiener filter, linear contrast adjustment, contrastlimited adaptive histogram equalization, bias correction and Marr-Hildreth filter. Each original image and their processed images were analyzed into the stacking procedure so that the same vessel and its corresponding diameter have been measured. Original and processed images were evaluated by measuring the vessel diameter (in pixels) on an established direction and for the precise anatomic location. The vessel diameter is calculated using the plugin ImageJ. Mean diameter measurements differ significantly across the same segment and for different processing techniques. The best results are provided by the Wiener filter and linear contrast adjustment methods and the worst by Marr-Hildreth filter.

  17. Uncertainty budget for optical coordinate measurements of circle diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    An uncertainty analysis for circle diameter measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) equipped with an optical probe is presented in this paper. A mathematical model for data evaluation and uncertainty assessment was formulated in accordance with Guide to the Expression of Uncertain...

  18. Determination of perimysial and fascicular diameters of triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, it was observed that all the muscles studied presented normal histomorphology of a typical skeletal muscle, it was discovered that the biceps brachii muscle from camel aged 7 years had higher and significant value for the perimysial diameter compared to that of cattle. Similarly, it was shown that there is an ...

  19. Retinal vessel diameters and risk of stroke: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, M. K.; de Jong, F. J.; Bos, M. J.; Vingerling, J. R.; Hofman, A.; Koudstaal, P. J.; de Jong, P. T. V. M.; Breteler, M. M. B.


    Retinal vessels may provide information on cerebral vascular pathology, because they share many features with cerebral vessels. A smaller ratio of the retinal arteriolar-to-venular diameters reportedly predicts the risk of stroke. It is unclear if this is due to arteriolar narrowing or venular

  20. Bipartite Diametrical Graphs of Diameter 4 and Extreme Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Al-Addasi


    in which this upper bound is attained, this graph can be viewed as a generalization of the Rhombic Dodecahedron. Then we show that for any ≥2, the graph (2,2 is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of diameter 4 and partite sets of cardinalities 2 and 2, and hence in particular, for =3, the graph (6,8 which is just the Rhombic Dodecahedron is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of such a diameter and cardinalities of partite sets. Thus we complete a characterization of -graphs of diameter 4 and cardinality of the smaller partite set not exceeding 6. We prove that the neighborhoods of vertices of the larger partite set of (2,2 form a matroid whose basis graph is the hypercube . We prove that any -graph of diameter 4 is bipartite self complementary, thus in particular (2,2. Finally, we study some additional properties of (2,2 concerning the order of its automorphism group, girth, domination number, and when being Eulerian.

  1. Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miombo woodlands cover large areas in Tanzania but very little reliable data on forest dynamics for the woodlands exist. The main objective of this study was to develop a model system describing such dynamics based on easily measurable tree variables. Individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and ...

  2. Sex differences in diameter of the coronary sinus ostium: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-four hearts of adult black Kenyans [43 male, 31 females; age range 20 – 70 years] obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were weighed. The coronary sinus ostium was identified and its transverse and supero-inferior diameters measured in millimeters.

  3. A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations (United States)

    Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J.; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew


    A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations.

  4. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman


    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  5. Height-Diameter Predictive Equations for Rubber ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the resulting models and curves agreed with silvicultural expectation of sigmoidal growth functions; and can provide dependable cum flexible options of predicting heights, given dbh for many plantation species in Nigeria. Keywords: height-diameter equations, allometric models, predictive equations, sigmoidal ...

  6. Experimental study on strain sensing by small-diameter FBG (United States)

    Liu, Rong-mei; Li, Qiufeng; Zhu, Lujia; Liang, Dakai


    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were attractive in various fields for structural health monitoring. Because of their accurate performance and real time response, embedded FBG sensors are promising for strain monitoring in composite materials. As an optical fiber sensor was embedded inside a composite, interface would form around the embedded optical fiber and the host polymer composite. In order to study the influence of the embedded optical fiber to the mechanical character, finite elemental analysis was applied to study the stress distribution inside the composite. Keeping the resin rich area the same size, laminates with optical fibers in different diameters, which were 250 and 125 micrometers, were analyzed. The simulation results represent that stress singularity would occur around the embedded optical fiber. The singularity value for the laminate with optical fiber at 250 micrometer was higher than that with optical fiber at 125 micrometer. Micro- cracks would arise at the stress singularity point. Therefore, the optical fiber in smaller diameter was preferred since the mechanical strength could be higher. Four points bending test was carried out on a steel beam with a small-diameter FBG on the bottom surface. Besides, a strain gauge was stuck on bottom to validate the monitoring results by FBG sensor. The tested results indicated that the strain monitoring results by the small-diameter FBG sensor almost identical with the theoretical ones and what recorded by strain gauge. The maximum testing error for the designed FBG is less than 2% compared with the theoretical one.

  7. Study of tube diameter effect on the burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, L.L.; Lantsman, F.P.; Dedneva, E.I.


    Effect of a tube diameter d on boundary steam content Xsub(b) is experimentally investigated during unwashed liquid wall film drying in the disperse-ring flow regime. For this purpose systematical experimental investigations of the burnout of the second kind in tubes with diameters of 4, 6 and 12 mm have been carried out as well as the other data relating to burnout in tubes with diameter from 4 to 40 mm are used. The investigations have been carried out at water and steam pressures of 4.9-13.7 MPa and mass velocities from 750 to 5000 kg/m 2 xs. It is elucidated that increase in the tube diameter results in reducing the ranges of pressures and mass velocities at which Xsub(b) is independent of heat flux. Quantity dependence Xsub(b)=f(d) has been obtained as well. The best agreement with data from different experiments is observed when taking into account the effect of d on Xsub(b) by means of the following relation: Xsub(b) is proportional to dsup(-0.25). In this case divergence, as a rule, does not exceed 10% [ru

  8. NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-301, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C.; Cutri, R. M. [California Institute of Technology, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bauer, J. M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Grav, T.; Sonnett, S., E-mail: [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E Fort Lowell Road #106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) reactivation mission has completed its third year of surveying the sky in the thermal infrared for near-Earth asteroids and comets. NEOWISE collects simultaneous observations at 3.4 and 4.6  μ m of solar system objects passing through its field of regard. These data allow for the determination of total thermal emission from bodies in the inner solar system, and thus the sizes of these objects. In this paper, we present thermal model fits of asteroid diameters for 170 NEOs and 6110 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected during the third year of the survey, as well as the associated optical geometric albedos. We compare our results with previous thermal model results from NEOWISE for overlapping sample sets, as well as diameters determined through other independent methods, and find that our diameter measurements for NEOs agree to within 26% (1 σ ) of previously measured values. Diameters for the MBAs are within 17% (1 σ ). This brings the total number of unique near-Earth objects characterized by the NEOWISE survey to 541, surpassing the number observed during the fully cryogenic mission in 2010.

  9. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees (United States)

    T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd


    Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...

  10. Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol


    The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...

  11. predictive accuracy of transcerebellar diameter in comparison with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2014 ... IOMETRIC PARAMETERS FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ESTIMATION AMONG PREGNANT NIGERIAN WOMEN. A. A. Adeyekun ... Objective: To compare the predictive accuracy of foetal trans-cerebellar diameter(TCD) with those of other ... due to increased curvature of the foetus, which affects reliability of ...

  12. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  13. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)


    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  14. Corrosion and deposit determination in large diameter pipes by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.


    Two steel reference pipes with outer diameters of 8 and 12 inches were machined to make artificial defects on each of them, such as inside and outside steps of different wall thicknesses, inside and outside flat bottomed holes (FBH) of different diameters and depths on steps, flat area (FA), and ground patch (GP). The artificial defect were made to simulate natural corrosion attack as regular corrosion and pitting. The two reference pipes were tested according to tangential radiography technique and double wall single image technique. Tangential radiography technique had been applied using Co-60 radio-isotope to determine the steps thicknesses, the FBH, the remaining wall thickness under the FA, the remaining wall thickness above the GP, and the minimum detectable thickness of the artificial cement deposit on the two reference pipes, with and without insulation. Double wall single image technique had also been applied on the two reference pipes with and without insulation using Ir-192 radio-isotope to measure the flat bottomed holes depths, GP depth, and FA depth by density measurement. The measurement results obtained from the radiographs confirm that, tangential radiography technique can be applied to detect and evaluate the inside and outside regular corrosion attack in the large diameter pipes. It can also be applied to detect and evaluate the outside FBH with depth equal or greater than 10%. Inside 10% FBH and inside 20% FBH can not be detected if their diameters are not larger than certain value related to diameter and wall thickness of the pipe under test. Increasing the film density up to 5 outside the pipe did not provide any detection improvement of 10% and 20% inside FBH. Tangential radiography technique can also be applied to detect and measure the deposit inside the pipes. Double wall technique can be applied as an alternative method of the tangential radiography technique to detect and to evaluate the shallow and small diameter, 10% and 20% inside FBH

  15. Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.


    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can (open-quotes F-canclose quotes); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can (open-quotes Z-canclose quotes); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle (open-quotes CO-4close quotes). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO 2 F 2 +H 2 O and UF 4 +oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U 3 O 8 , and H 2 O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k eff + 2σ < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant

  17. Fabrication of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Fibers with Controllable Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Cheng


    Full Text Available Cell-laden hydrogel fibers are widely used as the fundamental building blocks to fabricate more complex functional three-dimensional (3D structures that could mimic biological tissues. The control on the diameter of the hydrogel fibers is important so as to precisely construct structures in the above 3D bio-fabrication. In this paper, a pneumatic-actuated micro-extrusion system is developed to produce hydrogel fibers based on the crosslinking behavior of sodium alginate with calcium ions. Excellent uniformity has been obtained in the diameters of the fabricated hydrogel fibers as a proportional-integral-derivative (PID control algorithm is applied on the driving pressure control. More importantly, a linear relationship has been obtained between the diameter of hydrogel fiber and the driving pressure. With the help of the identified linear model, we can precisely control the diameter of the hydrogel fiber via the control of the driving pressure. The differences between the measured and designed diameters are within ±2.5%. Finally, the influence of the calcium ions on the viability of the encapsulated cells is also investigated by immersing the cell-laden hydrogel fibers into the CaCl2 bath for different periods of time. LIVE/DEAD assays show that there is little difference among the cell viabilities in each sample. Therefore, the calcium ions utilized in the fabrication process have no impact on the cells encapsulated in the hydrogel fiber. Experimental results also show that the cell viability is 83 ± 2% for each sample after 24 h of culturing.

  18. Measurement error in CT assessment of appendix diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Appendiceal diameter continues to be cited as an important criterion for diagnosis of appendicitis by computed tomography (CT). To assess sources of error and variability in appendiceal diameter measurements by CT. In this institutional review board-approved review of imaging and medical records, we reviewed CTs performed in children <18 years of age between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2010. Appendiceal diameter was measured in the axial and coronal planes by two reviewers (R1, R2). One year later, 10% of cases were remeasured. For patients who had multiple CTs, serial measurements were made to assess within patient variability. Measurement differences between planes, within and between reviewers, within patients and between CT and pathological measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients and paired t-tests. Six hundred thirty-one CTs performed in 519 patients (mean age: 10.9 ± 4.9 years, 50.8% female) were reviewed. Axial and coronal measurements were strongly correlated (r = 0.92-0.94, P < 0.0001) with coronal plane measurements significantly larger (P < 0.0001). Measurements were strongly correlated between reviewers (r = 0.89-0.9, P < 0.0001) but differed significantly in both planes (axial: +0.2 mm, P=0.003; coronal: +0.1 mm, P=0.007). Repeat measurements were significantly different for one reviewer only in the axial plane (0.3 mm difference, P<0.05). Within patients imaged multiple times, measured appendix diameters differed significantly in the axial plane for both reviewers (R1: 0.5 mm, P = 0.031; R2: 0.7 mm, P = 0.022). Multiple potential sources of measurement error raise concern about the use of rigid diameter cutoffs for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis by CT. (orig.)

  19. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  20. Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture. (United States)

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio


    In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Computational identification of genes modulating stem height-diameter allometry. (United States)

    Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Zhu, Sheng; Zhai, Yi; Xu, Meng; Huang, Minren; Wu, Rongling


    The developmental variation in stem height with respect to stem diameter is related to a broad range of ecological and evolutionary phenomena in trees, but the underlying genetic basis of this variation remains elusive. We implement a dynamic statistical model, functional mapping, to formulate a general procedure for the computational identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control stem height-diameter allometry during development. Functional mapping integrates the biological principles underlying trait formation and development into the association analysis of DNA genotype and endpoint phenotype, thus providing an incentive for understanding the mechanistic interplay between genes and development. Built on the basic tenet of functional mapping, we explore two core ecological scenarios of how stem height and stem diameter covary in response to environmental stimuli: (i) trees pioneer sunlit space by allocating more growth to stem height than diameter and (ii) trees maintain their competitive advantage through an inverse pattern. The model is equipped to characterize 'pioneering' QTLs (piQTLs) and 'maintaining' QTLs (miQTLs) which modulate these two ecological scenarios, respectively. In a practical application to a mapping population of full-sib hybrids derived from two Populus species, the model has well proven its versatility by identifying several piQTLs that promote height growth at a cost of diameter growth and several miQTLs that benefit radial growth at a cost of height growth. Judicious application of functional mapping may lead to improved strategies for studying the genetic control of the formation mechanisms underlying trade-offs among quantities of assimilates allocated to different growth parts. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust


    -pile interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...

  3. Estimation of fetal weight by ultrasonic examination. (United States)

    Wu, Mei; Shao, Guangrui; Zhang, Feixue; Ruan, Zhengmin; Xu, Ping; Ding, Hongyu


    This study was to evaluate the accuracy and clinical application of a new technique in the fetal weight estimation by ultrasound. The fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) were measured by ultrasound examination within one week before delivery. Two different fetal abdominal sectors were measured for the assessment of abdominal circumference (AC). The fetal weight of 516 singleton fetuses was estimated according to above measurements and their actual birth weight was recorded after delivery. There were no significant differences in the fetal AC or body weight evaluated before delivery and recorded after delivery. This new technique is more convenient and applicable for the evaluation of fetal AC as compared to standard method, and seems to be reliable and accurate for the assessment of fetal weight.

  4. Normal cardiac diameters in cine-MRI of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, K.; Schuster, A.; Mair, M.; Burger, R.; Toepker, M.


    Purpose: To measure the normal diameters of cardiac cavities in standard cardiac views using cine MRI. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six volunteers were examined (27 male, 29 female) on a 1.5 T MR unit with ECG-triggered single shot free precision (SSFP) cine MR sequences and parallel image acquisition. Standardized echocardiographic planes were used to depict the heart of all volunteers (short axis, 4-chamber view, left and right 2-chamber views). The different diameters of the cardiac cavities were measured using a fixed protocol. Results: For the estimation of ventricular dilatation, the important female/male cross diameters of the left ventricle are 45.2±3.4/51.6±4.6 mm diastolic and 30.5±3.5/33.8±3.6 mm systolic, and of the right ventricle 30.7±3.8/37.1±5.9 mm diastolic and 22.3±3.8/28.1±4.4 mm systolic. For the determination of a left ventricular hypertrophy, relevant septal wall thickness measured in the short axis of the left ventricle of female/male volunteers are 8.0±1.0/9.9±1.2 mm diastolic and 10.9±1.4/13.6±1.9 mm systolic. The measured normal values of male volunteers were generally higher than those of female volunteers. The thickness of the ventricular septum correlated well when measured in the short axis and 4-chamber view. When measured in the 4-chamber view, the longitudinal diameter of the ventricles had a higher value in diastole and a lower value in systole, compared to the 2-chamber views of the right and left cardiac cavities. The atrial longitudinal diameters were higher in the 4-chamber view compared to the 2-chamber views, without any difference in systole or diastole. Conclusion: Diameters of cardiac cavities are easily and quickly measured. Using the tables with the normal values published here, it is simple to estimate an abnormal size of the heart. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonic Fetal Cephalometry: Percentiles Curve (United States)

    Flamme, P.


    Measurements by ultrasound of the biparietal diameter of the fetal head during pregnancy are a reliable guide to fetal growth. As a ready means of comparison with the normal we constructed from 4,170 measurements in 1,394 cases a curve showing the percentiles distribution of biparietal diameters for each week of gestation. PMID:5070162

  6. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.


    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  7. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility study of gestational age estimation using three common foetal biometric parameters: Experienced versus inexperienced sonographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohagwu, C.C.; Onoduagu, H.I.; Eze, C.U.; Ochie, K.; Ohagwu, C.I.


    Aim: To assess reproducibility of estimating gestational age (GA) of foetus using femur length (FL), biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference (AC) within experienced and inexperienced sonographers and between the two. Patients and methods: Two sets of GA estimates each were obtained for FL, BPD and AC by the two observers in 20 normal singleton foetuses. The first estimates for the three biometric parameters were made by the experienced sonographer. Subsequently, the inexperienced sonographer, blind to the estimates of the first observer obtained his own estimates for the same biometric parameters. After a time interval of ten minutes the process was repeated for the second set of GA estimates. All the gestational age estimates were made following standard protocol. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson's and intraclass correlations, coefficient of variation and Bland–Altman plots. Statistical inferences were drawn at p < 0.05. Results: The Pearson's and intraclass correlations of between GA estimates within and between both observers from measurement of FL, BPD and AC were very high and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation for duplicate measurements for GA estimates within observers and between observers were quite negligible. Between observers, the first and second GA estimates from FL measurements showed the least variation. Estimates from BPD and AC measurements showed greater degree of variation between the observers. Conclusion: Reproducibility of GA estimation using FL, BPD and AC within experienced and inexperienced sonographers and between the two was excellent. Therefore, a fresh Nigerian radiography graduate with adequate exposure in obstetric ultrasound can correctly determine the gestational age of foetus in routine obstetric ultrasound without supervision

  8. The diameter and thermal inertia of 433 Eros (United States)

    Morrison, D.


    Radiometry of Eros at 10 and 20 micrometers demonstrates that the thermal conductivity of the upper centimeter of the surface is approximately as low as that of the moon, suggesting that the asteroid has a regolith of highly porous rocky material. When combined with photoelectric photometry, these infrared measurements yield an effective diameter of Eros at maximum light of 22 plus or minus 2 km and a geometric albedo of 0.18 plus or minus 0.03.

  9. Diameter of common bile duct: what are the predicting factors?


    Atoosa Adibi; Behrooz Givechian


    BACKGROUND: This was a study to determine the correlation between the common bile duct (CBD) diameter and demographic data, fasting, and the history of opium addiction.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 375 patients (>16 years old) including 219 females and 156 males. They had no evident hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease and underwent abdominopelvic ultrasonography for measurement of their CBD di...

  10. Conditioning a segmented stem profile model for two diameter measurements (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Joe P. Mcclure


    The stem profile model of Max and Burkhart (1976) is conditioned for dbh and a second upper stem measurement. This model was applied to a loblolly pine data set using diameter outside bark at 5.3m (i.e., height of 17.3 foot Girard form class) as the second upper stem measurement, and then compared to the original, unconditioned model. Variance of residuals was reduced...

  11. A versatile Czochralski crystal growth system with automatic diameter control (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Choi, J.


    A versatile Czochralski crystal pulling system with automatic diameter control for the growth of nonlinear optical oxide crystals is discussed. Pure and doped bulk single crystals of bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20) have been successfully grown using this system. The system consists of a regular Czochralski type pulling system with provision for continuous weighing of the growing crystal to provide feedback for power control.

  12. Cost of Czochralski wafers as a function of diameter (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.; Radics, C.; Kachare, A.


    The impact of diameter in the range of 10 to 15 cm on the cost of wafers sliced from Czochralski ingots was analyzed. Increasing silicon waste and decreasing ingot cost with increasing ingot size were estimated along with projected costs. Results indicate a small but continuous decrease in sheet cost with increasing ingot size in this size range. Sheet costs including silicon are projected to be $50 to $60/sq m (1980 $) depending upon technique used.

  13. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  14. Visual function and retinal vessel diameters during hyperthermia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Bram, Thue; Kappelgaard, Per


    .01), a 10.6-mmHg mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure (p vein...... laser ophthalmoscopy was used to measure retinal trunk vessel diameters. Assessment was made at baseline, during hyperthermia and after cooling. RESULTS: The induction of a mean increase in core body temperature of 1.02°C was associated with a 7.15-mmHg mean reduction in systolic blood pressure (p

  15. Hitungan Diameter Pipa pada Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum sederhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widiyanto


    Full Text Available Drinking water sector is one of the public services which is connected tightly to poverty decrease. A small community water supply is more suitable if it uses a simple system which does not need sophisticated planning and construction. Nevertheless, hydraulics calculation should be always conducted accurately because it will influence water supply performance. In this case, pipe hydraulics needs more overview because system reliability depends on pipe capacity. This study discusses two methods of pipe diameter calculation at a simple drinking water supply system. For planning assistance, Directorate General Cipta Karya-Public Work Ministry issued Technical Guideline Book for Simple Drinking Water Construction in 2007. One of its chapters discusses about a method to find pipe diameter based on several tables available, but it is not given an explanation about basic theory of the tables so there is a doubt for planners. For the reason, comparison between the use of the tables (Juknis Method and Darcy-Weisbach Formula to calculate pipe diameter will be discussed. Data from 5 villages in Kebumen Regency will be utilized to support analysis. The result of procedure for making comparison shows that there is no significant difference (less than 4% between the result of calculation by Darcy-Weisbach Formula and Juknis Method with accurate interpolation. Both of the methods can be applied with its advantages and disadvantages. It is suggested that Darcy-Weisbach Formula is always implemented to re-check toward pipe diameter which is available in the market and will be used in the system.

  16. A tape-controlled remote automatic diameter measurement machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, W.; Salmon, A.M.


    The machine is designed for the automatic measurement of fuel pins after irradiation in the fast reactors and is a modified version of a machine which has been in use for several years. These modifications consist of mechanical improvements and solid state control circuitry but the design criteria are unchanged. Irradiated fuel pins with diameters up to 0.875 in. are measured at fixed axial positions and angular intervals. Axial stepping of either 1 cm or 1 in. with a standard deviation of 5 x 10 -4 in. and angular rotation by multiples of 18 0 with a non-cumulative error of 1 0 can be selected. Data on axial position to 0.1 in. or 0.1 cm and fuel element diameter to 5 x 10 -5 in. are both punched and printed out for computer evaluation. The standard deviation of a single measurement on cylindrical specimens with an eccentricity of up to at least 0.1 in. should be no worse than 1 x 10 -4 in. No operator attention is required after the pin is positioned in the machine and 40 sets of 10 diameter readings at 36 0 intervals can be performed in an hour. Switches can be set between 1 and 99 to terminate an examination when power is switched off with the machine in its rest position. (author)

  17. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants inserted into allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Franco


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narrow diameter implants (NDI (i.e. diameter <3.75 mm are a potential solution for specific clinical situations, such as reduced interradicular bone, thin alveolar crest and replacement of teeth with small cervical diameter. NDI have been available in clinical practice since the 1990s, but only few studies have analyzed their clinical outcome and no study have investigated NDI inserted in fresh-frozen bone (FFB grafts. Thus, a retrospective study on a series of NDI placed in homologue FFB was designed to evaluate their clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period between December 2003 and December 2006, 36 patients (22 females and 14 males, mean age 53 years with FFB grafts were selected and 94 different NDI were inserted. The mean follow-up was 25 months. To evaluate the effect of several host-, surgery-, and implant-related factors, marginal bone loss (MBL was considered an indicator of success rate (SCR. The Kaplan Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Only 5 out of 94 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR 95.7% and no differences were detected among the studied variables. On the contrary, the Cox regression showed that the graft site (i.e. maxilla reduced MBL. CONCLUSIONS: NDI inserted in FFB have a high SVR and SCR similar to those reported in previous studies on regular and NDI inserted in non-grafted jaws. Homologue FFB is a valuable material in the insertion of NDI.

  18. Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D


    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  19. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States. (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D


    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales.

  20. Optical coating uniformity of 200mm (8") diameter precut wafers (United States)

    Burt, Travis C.; Fisher, Mark; Brown, Dean; Troiani, David


    Automated spectroscopic profiling (mapping) of a 200 mm diameter near infrared high reflector (centered at 1064 nm) are presented. Spatial resolution at 5 mm or less was achieved using a 5 mm × 1.5 mm monochromatic beam. Reflection changes of 1.0% across the wafer diameter were observed under s-polarized and p- polarized conditions. Redundancy was established for each chord by re-measuring the center of the wafer and reproducibility of approximately used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of a sample across a range of angles (θi) at near normal angles of incidence (AOI). A recent development by Agilent Technologies, the Cary 7000 Universal Measurement Spectrophotometer (UMS) combines both reflection and transmission measurements from the same patch of a sample's surface in a single automated platform for angles of incidence in the range 5°use of MPS on the Cary 7000 UMS with rotational (Φ) and vertical (z) sample positioning control. MPS(θi,Φ,z) provides for automated unattended multi-angle R/T analysis of at 200 mm diameter samples with the goal to provide better spectroscopic measurement feedback into large wafer manufacturing to ensure yields are maximized, product quality is better controlled and waste is reduced before further down-stream processing.

  1. Critical Diameter Study of Unconfined Australian Manufactured Composition B, Grades A and B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swinton, R


    .... To this end, the critical diameter, which is the minimum diameter which will sustain a stable detonation, and the limiting value of the velocity of detonation at infinite charge diameter D(infinity...

  2. Geometric interpretation of the ratio of overall diameter to rim crest diameter for lunar and terrestrial craters. (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Wickman, F. E.


    An empirical linear relationship has been established by Pike (1967) between the overall diameter and the rim crest diameter for rimmed, flat-floored as well as bowl-shaped, lunar and terrestrial craters formed by impact and explosion. A similar relationship for experimentally formed fluidization craters has been established by Siegal (1971). This relationship is examined in terms of the geometry of the crater and the slope angles of loose materials. The parameter varies from 1.40 to 1.65 and is found to be dependent on mean interior flat floor radius, exterior and interior rim slope angles, angle of aperture of the crater cone, and the volume fraction of crater void accounted for in the rim. The range of the observed parameter can be understood in terms of simple crater geometry by realistic values of the five parameters.

  3. Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors (United States)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  4. Corrosion and deposit evaluation in large diameter pipes using radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.


    The reliability and safety of industrial equipment in the factories and processing industries are substantially influenced by degradation processes such as corrosion, erosion, deposits and blocking of pipes. These might lead to low production, unpredictable and costly shutdowns due to repair and replacement and sometimes combined environmental pollution and risk of personnel injuries. Only periodic inspection for the integrity of pipes and equipment can reduce the risk in connection with other maintenance activities. The research explored two methods of radiographic inspection techniques, the double wall technique and the tangential radiographic technique using Ir-192 for evaluating deposits and corrosion attacks across the inner and outer walls of steel pipes with diameter greater than 150 mm with or without insulation. The application of both techniques was conducted depending on pipe diameter, wall thickness, radiation source (Ir-92) and film combination. The iridium source was positioned perpendicular with respect to the pipe axis projecting the double wall of the pipe on the plated radiographic film. With the tangential radiographic technique, the source was placed tangential to the pipe wall and because of its large diameter, the source was collimated to prevent backscatter and also to focus the beam at the target area of interest. All measurements were performed on special designed test pieces to simulate corrosion attack and deposits on industrial pipes. Pitting corrosion measurements based on Tangential Radiographic Technique were more sophisticated, and therefore magnification factor and correction were used to establish the estimated pit depth on the film. The insulating material used to conserve the thermodynamic properties of the transported media had relatively negligible attenuation coefficient compared to the concrete deposit. The two explored techniques were successful in evaluating corrosion attack and deposit on the walls of the pipe and the risk

  5. Radio source orientation and the angular diameter-redshift relation (United States)

    Onuora, L. I.


    The effect of a nonrandom source orientation on the angular diameter-redshift relation was considered for the 3CR sample of Laing et al., based on the 'unified' scheme of Barthel. For an inhomogeneous sample of objects displaying milliarcsecond scale structure, it was found that there was no evidence for a systematic variation for orientation angle with redshift. However, if it was assumed that quasars are closer to the line of sight than powerful extended radio galaxies, then the observed angular size-redshift relation could be interpreted in terms of source orientation, rather than linear size evolution.

  6. Digital image processing for diameter distribution evaluation of nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, J.; Camacho, S.; Balcazar-Garcia, M.; Peralta-Fabi, R.


    Fast reliable, and accurate evaluation of diameter distribution of nuclear tracks, etched on solid state nuclear detectors is necessary, to infer general information from the particular ions detected. To achieve this, it is primarily required to develop an on-line method, that is, a method fast enough so as the reading and information extraction processes became simultaneous. In order to accomplish this, adaptive matched filtering has been generalized to two dimensions; this lessens the noise content and the unwanted features present in the detector, and avoids distorting results significantly. (author)

  7. Patterns of fetal growth in a rural Indian cohort and comparison with a Western European population: data from the Pune maternal nutrition study. (United States)

    Kinare, Arun S; Chinchwadkar, Manoj C; Natekar, Asit S; Coyaji, Kurus J; Wills, Andrew K; Joglekar, Charudatta V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D


    The purpose of this study was to describe fetal size on sonography in a rural Indian population and compare it with those in European and urban Indian populations. Methods. Participants were from the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study of India. Fetal growth curves were constructed from serial ultrasound scans at approximately 18, 30, and 36 weeks' gestation in 653 singleton pregnancies. Measurements included femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and occipitofrontal diameter, from which head circumference (HC) was estimated. Measurements were compared with data from a large population-based study in France and a study of urban mothers in Vellore, south India. Fetal AC and BPD were smaller than the French reference at 18 weeks' gestation (-1.38 and -1.30 SD, respectively), whereas FL and HC were more comparable (-0.77 and -0.59 SD). The deficit remained similar at 36 weeks for AC (-0.97 SD), FL (-0.43 SD), and HC (-0.52 SD) and increased for BPD (-2.3 SD). Sonography at 18 weeks underestimated gestational age compared with the last menstrual period date by a median of -1.4 (interquartile range, -4.6, 1.8) days. The Pune fetuses were smaller, even at the first scan, than the urban Vellore sample. Fetal size was smaller in a rural Indian population than in European and urban Indian populations, even in mid pregnancy. The deficit varied for different fetal measurements; it was greatest for AC and BPD and least for FL and HC.

  8. Tunable engineered skin mechanics via coaxial electrospun fiber core diameter. (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani Nicole; Drexler, Jason William; Powell, Heather Megan


    Autologous engineered skin (ES) offers promise as a treatment for massive full thickness burns. Unfortunately, ES is orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin causing it to be difficult to apply surgically and subject to damage by mechanical shear in the early phases of engraftment. In addition, no manufacturing strategy has been developed to tune ES biomechanics to approximate the native biomechanics at different anatomic locations. To enhance and tune ES biomechanics, a coaxial (CoA) electrospun scaffold platform was developed from polycaprolactone (PCL, core) and gelatin (shell). The ability of the coaxial fiber core diameter to control both scaffold and tissue mechanics was investigated along with the ability of the gelatin shell to facilitate cell adhesion and skin development compared to pure gelatin, pure PCL, and a gelatin-PCL blended fiber scaffold. CoA ES exhibited increased cellular adhesion and metabolism versus PCL alone or gelatin-PCL blend and promoted the development of well stratified skin with a dense dermal layer and a differentiated epidermal layer. Biomechanics of the scaffold and ES scaled linearly with core diameter suggesting that this scaffold platform could be utilized to tailor ES mechanics for their intended grafting site and reduce graft damage in vitro and in vivo.

  9. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saad


    Full Text Available Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence.

  10. Carbon microtubes: tuning internal diameters and conical angles. (United States)

    Bhimarasetti, Gopinath; Cowley, John M; Sunkara, Mahendra K


    In this paper, we report a synthesis strategy for a new class of hollow, curved carbon morphologies, 'carbon microtubes' (CMTs), with absolute control over their conical angles and internal diameters. Our synthesis methodology employs nitrogen or oxygen dosing to change the wetting behaviour of gallium metal with the growing carbon walls to tune the conical angles. Increasing N(2) concentrations in the gas phase during growth increases the conical angles of CMTs from +25° to about -20°. A methodology using the timing of oxygen or nitrogen dosing during CMT growth is shown to tune the internal diameters anywhere from a few nanometres to a few microns. The walls of the carbon microtubes are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy and are found to consist of aligned graphite nanocrystals (2-5 nm in size). Furthermore, dark field images of CMTs showed that the graphite nanocrystals are aligned with their c-axes perpendicular to the wall surface and that the crystals themselves are oriented with respect to the wall surface depending upon the conical angle of the CMT.

  11. Muscle fiber diameter assessment in cleft lip using image processing. (United States)

    Khan, M F J; Little, J; Abelli, L; Mossey, P A; Autelitano, L; Nag, T C; Rubini, M


    To pilot investigation of muscle fiber diameter (MFD) on medial and lateral sides of the cleft in 18 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) using image processing. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from the medial and lateral sides of the cleft were analyzed for MFD using an image-processing program (ImageJ). For within-case comparison, a paired Student's t test was performed. For comparisons between classes, an unpaired t test was used. Image processing enabled rapid measurement of MFD with majority of fibers showing diameter between 6 and 11 μm. There was no significant difference in mean MFD between the medial and lateral sides, or between CL and CLP. However, we found a significant difference on the medial side (p = .032) between males and females. The image processing on FFPE tissues resulted in easy quantification of MFD with finding of a smaller MFD on the medial side in males suggesting possible differences in orbicularis oris (OO) muscle between the two sexes in CL that warrants replication using larger number of cases. Moreover, this finding can aid subclinical phenotyping and potentially in the restoration of the anatomy and function of the upper lip. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Webster, Thomas J [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917 (United States); Alpaslan, Ece, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  13. Unobtrusively tracking mammographers' eye gaze direction and pupil diameter (United States)

    Barrett, James R.; deParedes, Ellen S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III; Merickel, Michael B.; Hutchinson, Thomas E.


    We developed techniques to unobtrusively track direction and pupil diameter of radiologists reading a wide variety of films. This study concentrated on mammography since the use of mammograms is important for successful treatment of breast cancer, and we wished to determine how previous studies of eye gaze with lung films relate to the specialized field of mammography. Our objective was to identify eye gaze patterns in mammographic experts as they observe features, such as masses and microcalcification clusters: identification of these patterns could lead to improving the rate of early detection of breast cancer. Our near IR light system successfully tracked eye gaze direction and pupil diameter of mammographic experts evaluating films. The association of long eye gaze dwells with diagnostic accuracy varied with the type of object being viewed. In films with masses, false positive diagnoses were associated with long dwells: this is similar to published results of observing lung nodule diagnosis. In mammograms with microcalcifications, true positive diagnoses were associated with long dwells. The association of prolonged dwells with true positive diagnoses of microcalcifications is a new observation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawrot


    Full Text Available The article presents modern methods of hydraulic design of an innovative small diameter gravity sewerage system. In this system, domestic wastewater is preliminary treated in septic tanks equipped with outlet filters, thus the effluent features are similar to those of clear water. Innovative non-return valves at the outlets eliminate introduction of air to the system and thus the flows can be treated as one-phase ones. Computer codes EPANET 2 and SWMM 5.0 were applied and compared. Two flow schemes typical for the sewerage system were implemented in EPANET 2, and the third - in a slightly modified SWMM 5.0. Simulation results were validated on empirical data obtained on a laboratory physical model, consisting of four tanks of minimum volumes 600 dm3 each, connecting PE pipelines of diameters 25 mm and 36 mm and relevant sanitary fittings. Water inflows, typical for domestic wastewater outflows from single homesteads, were provided by a pump. Water flows were measured using water meters with pulse outputs, and water levels in tanks by pressure transducers. Hydraulic characteristics of filters and non-return valves were provided. Simulation results showed good agreement with the empirical data. Ranges of values of design parameters, needed for successful application of both codes, were established and discussed.

  15. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy (United States)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Alpaslan, Ece; Webster, Thomas J.


    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  16. Threshold Particle Diameters in Miniemulsion Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Tobita


    Full Text Available Various types of controlled/living radical polymerizations, or using the IUPAC recommended term, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP, conducted inside nano-sized reaction loci are considered in a unified manner, based on the polymerization rate expression, Rp = kp[M]K[Interm]/[Trap]. Unique miniemulsion polymerization kinetics of RDRP are elucidated on the basis of the following two factors: (1 A high single molecule concentration in a nano-sized particle; and (2 a significant statistical concentration variation among particles. The characteristic particle diameters below which the polymerization rate start to deviate significantly (1 from the corresponding bulk polymerization, and (2 from the estimate using the average concentrations, can be estimated by using simple equations. For stable-radical-mediated polymerization (SRMP and atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, an acceleration window is predicted for the particle diameter range, . For reversible-addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization (RAFT, degenerative-transfer radical polymerization (DTRP and also for the conventional nonliving radical polymerization, a significant rate increase occurs for . On the other hand, for  the polymerization rate is suppressed because of a large statistical variation of monomer concentration among particles.

  17. Development of well logging neutron tube with diameter 22 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Kunxiang; Xiang Wei; Mei Lin; Liang Chuan


    The structure design and performance of well logging neutron tube with diameter 22 mm are introduced. The ion source of neutron tube is penning ion source, the alnico is placed in the elicitation cathode which make the ion densely and concentration in elicitation hole. The single electrode is used in ion optics and the resistor is used in target electrode, which increase the stably performances of neutron tube. The discharge current is over 200 microampere when pressure is 10 -2 Pa in ion source and the neutron output is over l.5 × lO 8 neutron per second. The well logging neutron tube has good characteristics, such as small volume, enduring high temperature, high neutron yield etc. The development neutron tube can be used in well logging in oil field. (authors)

  18. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Onesto, A.T.; DeVita, V.


    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis

  19. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B


    for the radial and dorsalis pedis artery was 22 +/- 3 and 28 +/- 3% lower during handgrip than the relation during rest, respectively. After one-leg knee extension both arteries reached 30 +/- 4% lower values. This study demonstrated arterial constriction in the resting limbs within the first 30 s of static......In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... of another limb. Static exercise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were largest during one-leg knee extension. After exercise heart rate and mean arterial pressure returned to the resting level. No changes were recorded in arterial carbon dioxide tension, and the rate of perceived...

  20. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.


    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ˜14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  1. Design of a hot clamp for small diameter LMFBR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Hamel, D.


    In order to evaluate the feasibility of using a strap-type clamp on breeder reactor small diameter piping, a series of analyses were conducted to determine the thermal and mechanical stresses induced in the pipe by the clamp. The effect of using a thin layer of insulation of varying thickness between the pipe and clamp was also investigated. A thermal analysis of the pipe and clamp was conducted for each thermal transient rate. Various insulation values ranging from metal-to-metal condition to perfect insulation between the pipe and clamp were analyzed to determine the effect of insulating the pipe from the clamp. An axisymmetric finite element model was used to determine the axial thermal and stress patterns

  2. Evaluation of crown mesiodistal diameter of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravanmehr


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal diameter of permanent teeth and evaluating it's distribution in Iran. In current study, 850 plastery impressions or 16590 teeth were precisely measured by a digital coulis with 0.01 mm accuracy.The obtained measures of the permanent teeth are shown in table 1. Table (4 demonstrates the symmetry of left and right maxillary and mandibular teeth. Obtainedmeasurements in Table 1 were compared with Gran's measures (Table 2 which are shown in Table (3.Bolton analysis was done and results were found close to the BolType text or a website address or translate a document.ton measures. It was concluded that it is better to replace measurements of our society instead of Bolton's. Since we found minor difference with the measures of other researchers, especially for teeth anterior to first molar, using our measures in treatment plans would not bring about any problem.

  3. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.


    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)

  4. Modular Small Diameter Vascular Grafts with Bioactive Functionalities (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Link, Thorben; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.


    We report the fabrication of a novel type of artificial small diameter blood vessels, termed biomimetic tissue-engineered blood vessels (bTEBV), with a modular composition. They are composed of a hydrogel scaffold consisting of two negatively charged natural polymers, alginate and a modified chitosan, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC). Into this biologically inert scaffold two biofunctionally active biopolymers are embedded, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) and silica, as well as gelatin which exposes the cell recognition signal, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). These materials can be hardened by exposure to Ca2+ through formation of Ca2+ bridges between the polyanions, alginate, N,O-CMC, and polyP (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP). The bTEBV are formed by pressing the hydrogel through an extruder into a hardening solution, containing Ca2+. In this universal scaffold of the bTEBV biomaterial, polycations such as poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys) or a His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide (three RGD units) were incorporated, which promote the adhesion of endothelial cells to the vessel surface. The mechanical properties of the biopolymer material (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP-silica) revealed a hardness (elastic modulus) of 475 kPa even after a short incubation period in CaCl2 solution. The material of the artificial vascular grafts (bTEBVs with an outer size 6 mm and 1.8 mm, and an inner diameter 4 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively) turned out to be durable in 4-week pulsatile flow experiments at an alternating pressure between 25 and 100 mbar (18.7 and 75.0 mm Hg). The burst pressure of the larger (smaller) vessels was 850 mbar (145 mbar). Incorporation of polycationic poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys), and especially the His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide, markedly increased the adhesion of human, umbilical vein/vascular endothelial cells, EA.HY926 cells, to the surface of the hydrogel. No significant effect of the polyP samples on the clotting of human plasma is measured. We propose that the metabolically degradable

  5. Design of supporting devices for thin pipes of large diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsault, J.J.; Dornez, R.


    When an analysis is made in accordance with ASME Code Class 1 for piping by the stress indices method (NB 3650), the stresses induced locally in the piping by the supports are not taken into account. For piping whose thickness is small in relation to its diameter, which is subject to sudden temperature changes, to seismic shocks and which also operates at high temperature, it is no longer possible to ignore these effects. This is the case with piping of the sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors for which, after performance of mechanical analyses by the Zick method and thermo-mechanical analyses on the support collars of the classic type, with all the uncertainties involved in reckoning the real forces of contact, a design was finally decided upon which corresponds to the double imperative of permitting free radial expansion of the piping while withstanding considerable loads with a minimum of local deformations in the piping. The device adopted consists of a rigid collar connected to the piping by blades which are flexible radially in relation to the pipe and rigid tangentially. These blades are attached to very short ring lugs welded on to the piping. (orig./GL)

  6. Sieving experiments and pore diameter: it's not a simple relationship. (United States)

    Krauss, Daniel; Gillespie, Dirk


    The classic sieving experiment for estimating an ion channel's diameter with successively larger ions is re-examined. Using a very reduced model of a calcium channel, it is shown that sieving experiments measure a combination of three mechanisms: the cross-sectional area available to the sieving ions (the classic interpretation), the exclusion of the sieving ions from a pore crowded with amino acid side chains that protrude into the permeation pathway, and competitive selectivity of the sieving ions with other ions in the bath (even if those are present only at trace concentrations). The latter two can be called sieving-by-crowding because they stem from the excluded volume of the amino acids in the permeation pathway. The model shows that--to a first--order approximation-sieving experiments measure the available volume inside a selectivity filter, rather than the available cross-sectional area. The two are only the same if the narrow part of the pore does not have flexible amino acid side chains interacting directly with the permeant ions; this may be true of potassium channels, but not calcium, sodium, and other channels with "crowded" selectivity filters.

  7. Through pore diameter in the cell wall of Chara corallina. (United States)

    Berestovsky, G N; Ternovsky, V I; Kataev, A A


    Determination of pore size of the cell wall of Chara corallina has been made by using the polyethylene glycol (PEG) series as the hydrophilic probing molecules. In these experiments, the polydispersity of commercial preparation of PEGs was allowed for. The mass share (gamma(p)) of polyethylene glycol preparation fractions penetrating through the pores was determined using a cellular 'ghost', i.e. fragments of internodal cell walls filled with a 25% solution of non-penetrating PEG 6000 and tied up at the ends. In water, such a 'ghost' developed a hydrostatic pressure close to the cell turgor which persisted for several days. The determination of gamma(p), for polydisperse polyethylene glycols with different average molecular mass (M) was calculated from the degree of pressure restoration after water was replaced by a 5-10% polymer solution. Pressure was recorded using a dynamometer, which measures, in the quasi-isometric mode, the force necessary for the partial compression of the 'ghost' in its small fragment. By utilizing the data on the distribution of PEG 1000, 1450, 2000, and 3350 fractions over molecular mass (M), it was found that gamma(p), for these polyethylene glycols corresponded to the upper limit of ML=800-1100 D (hydrodynamic radius of molecules, r(h)=0.85-1.05 nm). Thus, the effective diameter of the pores in the cell wall of Chara did not exceed 2.1 nm.

  8. First phase of small diameter heater experiments in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.


    As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, we have undertaken small diameter heater experiments in the G-Tunnel Underground Facility on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments are to evaluate the thermal and hydrothermal behavior which might be encountered if heat producing nuclear waste were disposed of in welded and nonwelded tuffs. The two Phase I experiments discussed have focused on vertical borehole emplacements. In each experiment, temperatures were measured along the surface of the 10.2-cm-dia heater and the 12.7-cm-dia boreholes. For each experiment, measurements were compared with computer model representations. Maximum temperatures reached were: 196 0 C for the welded tuff after 21 days of operations at 800W and 173 0 C for the nonwelded tuff after 35 days of operations at 500W. Computed results indicate that the same heat transfer model (includes conduction and radiation only) can describe the behavior of both tuffs using empirical techniques to describe pore water vaporization. Hydrothermal measurements revealed heat-indiced water migration. Results indicated that small amounts of liquid water migrated into the welded tuff borehole early in the heating period. Once the rock-wall temperatures exceeded 94 0 C, in both tuffs, there was mass transport of water vapor as evidence indicated condensation cooler regions. Borehole pressures remained essentially ambient during the thermal periods

  9. Small-Diameter PTFE Portosystemic Shunts: Portocaval vs Mesocaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shields


    Full Text Available Fifty-seven patients with failed sclerotherapy received a mesocaval interposition shunt with an externally supported, ringed polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis of either 10 or 12 mm diameter. Thirty-one patients had Child-Pugh gradeA disease and 26 grade B; all had a liver volume of 1000– 2500 ml. Follow-up ranged from 16 months to 6 years 3 months. Three patients (5 per cent died in the postoperative period. There were two postoperative recurrences of variceal haemorrhage and one recurrent bleed in the second year after surgery. The cumulative shunt patency rate was 95 per cent and the incidence of encephalopathy 9 per cent; the latter was successfully managed by protein restriction and/or lactulose therapy. The actuarial survival rate for the whole group at 6 years was 78 per cent, for those with Child-Pugh grade A 88 per cent and for grade B 67 per cent. Small-lumen mesocaval interposition shunting achieves portal decompression, preserves hepatopetal flow, has a low incidence of shunt thrombosis, prevents recurrent variceal bleeding and is not associated with significant postoperative encephalopathy.

  10. Patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture SAR image formation algorithms (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.


    Synthetic aperture radar image formation algorithms typically use transform techniques that often require trading between image resolution, algorithm efficiency, and focused image scene size limits. This is due to assumptions for the data such as simplified (often straight-line) flight paths, simplified imaging geometry, and simplified models for phase functions. Many errors in such assumptions are typically untreatable due to their dependance on both data domain positions and image domain positions. The result is that large scenes often require inefficient multiple image formation iterations, followed by a mosaicking operation of the focused image patches. One class of image formation algorithms that perform favorably divides the spatial and frequency apertures into subapertures, and perhaps those subapertures into sub- subapertures, and so on, in a tiered subaperture fashion. This allows a gradual shift from data domain into image domain that allows correcting many types of errors that limit other image formation algorithms, even in a dynamic motion environment, thereby allowing large focused image patches without mosaicking. This paper presents and compared focused patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture image formation algorithms, for various numbers of tiers of subapertures. Examples are given that show orders-of-magnitude improvement in non- mosaicked focused image patch size over traditional polar format processing, and that patch size limits increase with the number of tiers of subapertures, although with diminishing returns.

  11. A 24mm diameter fibre positioner for spectroscopic surveys (United States)

    Hörler, Philipp; Kronig, Luzius; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed


    One of the big research topics in modern cosmology is the mystery of dark Energy. To unveil the secret, cosmologists want to measure precisely the evolution of large scale structures in the universe. One way of doing so is to measure the 3D location of a high number of galaxies. By measuring the redshift of a galaxy, it is possible to find its distance. In order to measure a high number of galaxies in a practical amount of time, we need to observe multiple objects in parallel. Instead of a spectrograph, thousands of optical fibres are placed in the focal plane of a telescope. They will transmit the light of many objects to a spectrograph. Each fibre has to be positioned to several μm precision in the focal plane of a telescope for each exposure. Each fibre is positioned by a 2-axis fibre positioner. In this paper such a fibre positioner with 24-mm diameter is presented. It is driven by two brushless DC motors in combination with a backlash free gearbox. The positioner has an optimal central fibre path and improved angular alignment. The fibre runs through the centre of the positioner and is only bent at the top to reach its target position. In this way, the flexion and torsion of the fibre are minimal. In addition to the high positioning accuracy, the design is optimized to allow a minimal tilt error of the fibre. This is demonstrated using a novel optical tilt measurement system.

  12. Continuous Measurement of Particle Hygroscopicity as a Function of Diameter (United States)

    Brock, C. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Thornhill, K. L.; Moore, R.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Wagner, N.; Langridge, J. M.; Richardson, M.; Lack, D. A.; Law, D. C.; Shingler, T.; Sorooshian, A.


    An ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer (UHSAS, Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO, USA) has been substantially modified to humidify the aerosol sample stream. The size distribution of deliquesced particles at humidities as high as 95% is measured. By combining a Mie model of instrument response with measurements of dry and wet size distributions, the hygroscopic growth factor as a function of particle diameter can be estimated. By operating a second, well-calibrated dry UHSAS simultaneously with the humidified UHSAS, the size-dependent particle hygroscopicity can be determined continuously, which is particularly useful for airborne sampling where rapid time response is required. The technique has been applied to laboratory particles of inorganic salts and of polystyrene latex, and to mixed sulfate/organic particles and dense forest fire smoke measured on an aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. Results will be compared with measurements of aerosol extinction at different RH values and of hygroscopic growth made with a differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). Initial evaluations of changes in hygroscopicity due to processing in convective clouds will be presented. Limitations of the technique, such as the effects of external mixtures and insoluble components, will be discussed.

  13. Magnetorheology of submicron diameter iron microwires dispersed in silicone oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R C; Karli, J O; Vavreck, A N; Zimmerman, D T; Ngatu, G T; Wereley, N M


    We investigate the magnetorheological (MR) properties of suspensions containing iron microwires with 260 nm diameter and two distinct length distributions of 5.4 ± 5.2 µm and 7.6 ± 5.1 µm suspended in silicone oil (0.45 Pa s). The rheological properties of these fluids were determined using a parallel plate rheometer equipped with a variable strength electromagnet. The shear stress was measured as a function of shear rate for increasing applied magnetic fields. These results were modeled using the Bingham-plastic constitutive model to determine the apparent yield stress and viscosity as a function of increasing volume fraction and length of microwires. At a saturated magnetic flux density, the yield stress using the 5.4 µm microwires was found to be 0.65, 2.23, and 4.76 kPa for the 2, 4, and 6 vol% suspensions, respectively. For the 7.6 µm wires, the yield stress increases to 8.2 kPa for the 6 vol% suspension. Compared with conventional MR fluids employing spherical particles, the degree of settling is markedly decreased in the microwire-based fluids. At 6 vol%, conventional fluids display appreciable settling whereas the microwire-based fluids display no discernable settling. Moreover, the rod-shaped microwires are shown to increase the yield stress of the fluids and enhance the MR performance

  14. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    The development of offshore wind turbines has been in rapid growth since the construction of the first offshore wind farm in 1991 at Vindeby, Denmark. Developing from 11 turbines at a water depth of 2-6 m each with a capacity of 450 kW to the latest farms with up to 175 turbines each with a capac......The development of offshore wind turbines has been in rapid growth since the construction of the first offshore wind farm in 1991 at Vindeby, Denmark. Developing from 11 turbines at a water depth of 2-6 m each with a capacity of 450 kW to the latest farms with up to 175 turbines each...... with a capacity of 3.6 MW and placed at water depths beyond 25 m. Different foundation solutions have over the years been applied for offshore turbines, but monopiles are currently the most applied foundation type and are typically with a pile diameter of 4-6 m and applied up to a water depth of 25 m....... The expected development of offshore wind farms is towards larger farms, larger turbines and larger water depths. Monopiles have been applied widely and it is of interest to investigate the possibilities to further optimize the design and in particular the modelling of the soil-structure interaction...

  15. Multi-diameter silicon nanowires: Fabrication, characterization, and modeling (United States)

    Alagoz, Arif Sinan

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field offering novel devices for broad range of applications. Quantum effects and surface to volume ratio of nanostructures are strongly size dependent, and redefine material properties at nanoscale. Silicon is one of the most promising materials for next generation nanostructured transistors, photonics devices, Li-ion batteries, photovoltaic solar cells, and thermoelectric energy generators. Since electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructures strongly depend on their shape, size, periodicity, and crystal structure; it is crucial to control these parameters in order to optimize device performance for targeted applications. This dissertation is intended to develop a low-cost, low-temperature, high-throughput, and large-area nanowire fabrication method that can produce well-ordered arrays of hierarchical single-crystal silicon nanowires at large scale by using nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. Nanowire morphology was characterized by using scanning electron microscope and optical properties of nanowire arrays were modeled with the help of finite-difference-time domain method. These novel multi-diameter silicon nanowire arrays have the potential applications in many fields including but not limited to next generation nanowire solar cells to field ionization gas sensors.

  16. Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees. (United States)

    Savidge, R A


    Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods.

  17. Sonographic measurement of fetal thymus size in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. (United States)

    Tangshewinsirikul, Chayada; Panburana, Panyu


    To establish sonographic reference ranges of the normal fetal thymus size between 17 and 38 weeks of gestational age (GA). The study was conducted between April 1 and December 31, 2013. Low-risk singleton pregnancies without obstetrical and medical complications at the GAs between 17 and 38 weeks were recruited for thymus measurement. The fetal thymus was identified on transabdominal sonography at the three-vessel view. Maximal transverse diameter, perimeter, and thymus/thoracic ratio were measured. The best-fit models in predicting thymic dimensions as a function of GA and biparietal diameter (BPD) were determined using regression analysis, and percentile charts for predicting thymic dimensions were constructed. A total of 296 singleton pregnancies were recruited in this study. Maximal transverse diameter, perimeter, and thymus/thoracic ratio increased throughout pregnancy. The regression equation for maximal transverse diameter of the thymus as a function of GA was as follows: Predicted mean thymus diameter (mm) = -25.904 + 2.476 × GA - 0.019 × GA 2 (r = 0.915; p thymus diameter (mm) = 1.428 + 0.044 × GA (r = 0.017; p < 0.001). Sonographic reference ranges of the normal fetal thymic dimensions between 17 and 38 weeks of GA have been established. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:150-159, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of CT-Determined Pulmonary Artery Diameter, Aortic Diameter, and Their Ratio in Healthy and Diverse Clinical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA, aortic diameter (Ao, and the mPA/Ao ratio, easily measured using chest computed tomography (CT, provide information that enables the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. Here, we used CT to determine the sex- and age-specific distribution of normal reference values for mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio in an adult Korean population.Data from non-contrast, ECG-gated, coronary-calcium-scoring CT images of 2,547 individuals who visited the Health Screening Center of the Severance Hospital were analyzed. Healthy individuals (n = 813 included those who do not have hypertension, diabetes, asthma, obstructive lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, obesity, and abnormal CT findings. Both mPA and Ao were measured at the level of bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery.The mean mPA and Ao were 25.9 mm and 30.0 mm in healthy participants, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. Medical conditions associated with a larger mPA were male, obesity, smoking history, hypertension, and diabetes. A larger mPA/Ao ratio was associated with female, the obese, non-smoker, normotensive, and normal serum level of lipids, while a smaller mPA/Ao ratio was associated with older age. In healthy individuals, the 90th percentile sex-specific mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio were, 31.3 mm (95% CI 29.9-32.2, 36.8 mm (95% CI 35.7-37.5, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.07 in males, and 29.6 mm (95% CI 29.1-30.2, 34.5 mm (95% CI 34.1-34.9, and 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.06 in females, respectively.In the Korean population, the mean mPA reference values in male and female were 26.5 mm and 25.8 mm, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. These values were influenced by a variety of underlying medical conditions.

  19. Bark thickness related to tree diameter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) (United States)

    H. Clay Smith


    Bark thickness for sugar maple trees in Vermont was found to be related to tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The relationship was positive-as the diameter increased, the bark thickness increased.

  20. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures, S.


    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Bloch-Wave Engineered Submicron Diameter Micropillars with Quality Factors Exceeding 10,000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofling, S.; Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels


    Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed.......Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed....

  2. Predicting past and future diameter growth for trees in the northeastern United States (United States)

    James A. Westfall


    Tree diameter growth models are widely used in forestry applications, often to predict tree size at a future point in time. Also, there are instances where projections of past diameters are needed. A relative diameter growth model was developed to allow prediction of both future and past growth rates. Coefficients were estimated for 15 species groups that cover most...

  3. Mixed-effects height–diameter models for ten conifers in the inland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the utility of mixed-effects height–diameter models when conducting forest inventories, mixedeffects height–diameter models are presented for several commercially and ecologically important conifers in the inland Northwest of the USA. After obtaining height–diameter measurements from a plot/stand of ...

  4. 78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... the antidumping duty order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to lead... Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA-919 (Second Review). By order...

  5. Periodic Annual Diameter Increment After Overstory Removal in Mixed Conifer Stands (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh; K. Leroy Dolph; John R. Anstead


    Diameter growth rates of understory trees were measured for periods both before and after overstory removal on six study areas in northern California. All the species responded with increased diameter growth after adjusting to their new environments. Linear regression equations that predict periodic annual increment of the diameters of the residual trees after...

  6. Basic maneuvers for an inspection robot for small diameter gas distribution mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano


    This video shows the design of a mechanical structure of a miniature pipe inspection robot (MPR) capable of moving trough very small pipes (up to 41 mm inner diameter) as well as a wide range of diameters (63 to 125 mm outer diameter). The requirement to negotiate bends, T-joints and steep

  7. Are foetal ultrasonographic and maternal blood progesterone measurements near parturition reliable predictors of the time of birth in the domestic cat? (United States)

    Keiser, R; Reichler, I M; Balogh, O


    In cats, accuracy of parturition day prediction by ultrasonographic measurement of foetal structures is decreasing towards the end of gestation. Foetal measurements during the last days of pregnancy are scarce. We determined foetal biparietal, abdominal and eye diameter (BPD, AD and ED, respectively) by ultrasonography as well as maternal blood progesterone (P4) within five days of delivery to predict parturition date and calculate accuracy of prediction. Foetal BPD at birth was compared with newborn kitten head diameter (HD). Kitten HD, crown-rump length (CRL) and body weight were compared by breed and gender. Ultrasonography measurements were carried out on the day of parturition in 14 queens, and on days 62-63 after the first mating and repeated 24-72 hr later in ten other cats. Accuracy of parturition day prediction using BPD and AD was determined based on the equations of Beccaglia et al. (2008) Veterinary Research Communications, 32(Suppl 1), S99 and Garcia Mitacek et al. (2015) Theriogenology, 84, 1131. Progesterone was measured at the time of presentation and repeated 24-72 hr later if parturition did not occur. Data were analysed with linear regression, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, one-way anova and Kruskal-Wallis test. There was a moderate relationship between BPD, days before birth (DBB) and litter size. AD and DBB had a low agreement, and ED was not associated with DBB. BPD at birth was significantly related to HD. The accuracy of parturition day prediction using BPD and AD was 27-53% and 17-35%, respectively. Kitten HD was associated with body weight, and both were inversely related to litter size. Newborn biometric measurements differed by breed but not by gender. Progesterone decreased towards parturition and reached 3.18 ± 1.68 ng/ml on the day of delivery. In conclusion, close to birth, the combination of foetal ultrasonography and maternal blood P4 rather than each as a sole predictor of parturition is recommended. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag

  8. Filmwise condensation on low integral-fin tubes of different diameter


    Van Petten, Thomas Louis


    Heat transfer measurements were made for filmwise condensation of R-113, steam and ethylene glycol on three sets of finned tubes which differed only in root diameter. The fin root diameters were 12.7 mm. 19.05 mm and 25.0 mm. A comparison of the enhancement ratios (based on constant vapor-side temperature drop) revealed that, within the range of diameter tested, the effect of root diameter was small. Results indicated that two or more trends may exist while increasing root diameter. With the ...

  9. Study of the equivalent diameter concept for heat transfer by forced convection in annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez T, D.


    This work describes a comparative analysis between experimental values of heat transfer coefficients in fully developed turbulent flow for a concentric annular channel, and those calculated with the empirical correlations obtained for tubes by Dittus-Boelter, Sieder and Tate, a modified Colburn equation, and that proposed by Gnielinski which applies the analogy between friction and heat transfer. The coefficients were calculated by means of two different equivalent diameters: 1) The hydraulic equivalent diameter; and 2) The heated equivalent diameter. It was concluded that the hydraulic equivalent diameter gives much better results than the heated equivalent diameter. (Author)

  10. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Feldpausch


    Full Text Available Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical countries. Utilising this database, our objectives were:

    1. to determine if H:D relationships differ by geographic region and forest type (wet to dry forests, including zones of tension where forest and savanna overlap.

    2. to ascertain if the H:D relationship is modulated by climate and/or forest structural characteristics (e.g. stand-level basal area, A.

    3. to develop H:D allometric equations and evaluate biases to reduce error in future local-to-global estimates of tropical forest biomass.

    Annual precipitation coefficient of variation (PV, dry season length (SD, and mean annual air temperature (TA emerged as key drivers of variation in H:D relationships at the pantropical and region scales. Vegetation structure also played a role with trees in forests of a high A being, on average, taller at any given D. After the effects of environment and forest structure are taken into account, two main regional groups can be identified. Forests in Asia, Africa and the Guyana Shield all have, on average, similar H:D relationships, but with trees in the forests of much of the Amazon Basin and tropical Australia typically being shorter at any given D than their counterparts elsewhere. The region-environment-structure model with the lowest Akaike's information criterion and lowest deviation estimated stand-level H across all plots to within amedian −2.7 to 0.9% of the true value. Some of the plot-to-plot variability in

  11. Ultrasonic fetal size measurements in Brisbane, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluter, P.J.; Pritchard, G.; Gill, M.A.


    The purpose of this paper was to construct population-specific charts of fetal biometry for 11-41 weeks gestation in relation to known gestational age from a large population of normal Australian pregnancies when examination is performed to a standard protocol by experienced operators. All consenting eligible women attending a large Brisbane clinic between January 1993 and April 2003 were recruited. Menstrual history was taken prior to examination. Measurements were performed to a standard protocol. Prospective assessment was made about the association between gestational age from the last menstrual period and biometry. Exclusion principles were applied. Statistical analyses were performed using polynomial regression models and thorough diagnostic checks were undertaken. Included within the study were separate scans for 20 555 pregnancies from 17 660 women. Equations, means and 95th reference intervals were derived and reported for the following sonographic measurements: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Population-specific regression equations for BPD, HC, AC and FL have been proposed for Australian pregnancies. Once validated by others, we believe they will warrant consideration for adoption by the Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  12. Sonographic Biometry of Fetal Interorbital Distance as a Predictor of Gestational Age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. (United States)

    Nwadike, U I; Agwu, K K; Eze, C U; Okpala, O C; Onu, A O


    The objective of this study was to develop a sonographic technique for the measurement of fetal interorbital distance (IOD) for gestational age (GA) determination and to establish a normogram of IOD for the local population. The fronto-transverse sonographic technique was established as a feasible and reproducible technique for IOD measurement. Two independent and experienced sonographers tested the technique and had a coefficient of variation of 17.64% and 19.72%, respectively, which is statistically insignificant. The established technique was used to measure the IOD of 320 fetuses from the 13 th week to 40 th week GA, while standard technique was used to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) of the fetuses. The data obtained were used to determine the regression equation GA = 6.24 + 4.89 IOD for the prediction of the gestational age. There was good correlation between IOD, BPD, HC and FL. The predicted normogram of IOD was compared with normogram of the Caucasian population. The result showed that there was no statistical difference between them (p < 0.05). Results from the study suggest that the fronto-transverse technique is a feasible and reproducible technique for IOD measurement and the established normogram of IOD can be a veritable statistic for GA prediction in our locality.

  13. Chinese fetal biometry: reference equations and comparison with charts from other populations. (United States)

    Zhang, Yixiu; Meng, Hua; Jiang, Yuxin; Xu, Zhonghui; Ouyang, Yunshu; Li, Shengli; Chen, Qian; Wu, Qingqing; Li, Rui; Ru, Tong; Cai, Aailu; Chen, Xinlin; Yang, Taizhu; Chen, Ping; Xie, Hongning; Lu, Hong; Dai, Qing; Dong, Fen; Yang, Meng; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Jia; Tian, Jiawei; Sun, Kun; Li, Hui


    This study aimed to construct new reference charts and equations for fetal biometry from Chinese fetuses at 15-40 weeks and to compare them with previous references. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of singleton pregnancies in patients with a confirmed gestational age who underwent ultrasound examinations between the 15th and 40th weeks of gestation. Each woman was selected only once for this study. Biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL) were recorded. For each measurement, separate regression models were fitted to estimate the mean and standard deviation at each menstrual age. Z-scores were calculated with our reference equations for comparison with other references. New charts and reference equations involving 7553 Chinese women were created for BPD, HC, AC, and FL. Reference equations were cubic models. Prediction intervals for the new reference charts were similar to those of previous references, but with some slight differences. The main difference in our fetal biometric measurements compared with those of Korea and Hong Kong was the FL. We report new Chinese reference charts and equations for fetal biometry. These reference charts and equations are available for clinical use in obstetric ultrasound studies for the Chinese population.

  14. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Chandan; Chander, D. Sathish; Ramkumar, J.; Dhamodaran, S.


    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: ► Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. ► Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. ► Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. ► Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. ► Gibbs–Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs–Thomson effect for the palladium catalyst.

  15. Assessment of a simple ultrasonographic method in estimating fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi A


    Full Text Available Estimating fetal weight in utero, for better management of pregnancy and appropriate timing of delivery especially in high-risk pregnancies is necessary. Our purpose to evaluate a simple method in estimating fetal weight in Iranian pregnant patients and also to compare was with a previous western study. This study was carried out in Arash hospital, Tehran university of medical sciences in 1996-99. In a descriptive-analytic study that was done prospectively on 464 pregnant patients, ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter (BPD, mean abdominal diameter (MAD, and femur length (FL performed close to delivery was conducted. Birth weight also was identified. Statistical analysis was done using multiple linear regression on the data and also student's T-test for comparison. Mean birth weight was 2320 gr. The outcome of linear regression analysis was the following model: Weight (gr=95.8×FL (cm+25×MAD (cm-15.6×BPD (cm-4632.1. The effect of all parameters were statistically significant (P<0.02. A fetal weight estimating table was also developed. T-test analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05 in some final ranks of table (Weight estimations>4000 gr in comparison with the Rose and Mc callum study. Our study showed that ultrasound using the sum of BPD, MAD and FL is a precise method in fetal weight estimation. Application of other biometric measurements may be needed for better elucidation especially in small and large for gestational age fetuses.

  16. Evaluation of maternal and neonatal complications in diabetic pregnants at the Vali-e-Asr Hospital during 1370-75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna S


    Full Text Available Estimating fetal weight in utero, for better management of pregnancy and appropriate timing of delivery especially in high-risk pregnancies is necessary. Our purpose to evaluate a simple method in estimating fetal weight in Iranian pregnant patients and also to compare was with a previous western study. This study was carried out in Arash hospital, Tehran university of medical sciences in 1996-99. In a descriptive-analytic study that was done prospectively on 464 pregnant patients, ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter (BPD, mean abdominal diameter (MAD, and femur length (FL performed close to delivery was conducted. Birth weight also was identified. Statistical analysis was done using multiple linear regression on the data and also student's T-test for comparison. Mean birth weight was 2320 gr. The outcome of linear regression analysis was the following model: Weight (gr=95.8×FL (cm+25×MAD (cm-15.6×BPD (cm-4632.1. The effect of all parameters were statistically significant (P<0.02. A fetal weight estimating table was also developed. T-test analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05 in some final ranks of table (Weight estimations>4000 gr in comparison with the Rose and Mc callum study. Our study showed that ultrasound using the sum of BPD, MAD and FL is a precise method in fetal weight estimation. Application of other biometric measurements may be needed for better elucidation especially in small and large for gestational age fetuses.

  17. Using quadratic mean diameter and relative spacing index to enhance height-diameter and crown ratio models fitted to longitudinal data (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Anup K. C.; James M. Guldin


    The inclusion of quadratic mean diameter (QMD) and relative spacing index (RSI) substantially improved the predictive capacity of height–diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and crown ratio models (CR), respectively. Data were obtained from 208 permanent plots established in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma during 1985–1987 and remeasured for the sixth time (2012–...

  18. Calibration of the Diameter Distribution Derived from the Area-based Approach with Individual Tree-based Diameter Estimates Using the Airborne Laser Scanning (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hou, Z.; Maltamo, M.; Tokola, T.


    Diameter distributions of trees are important indicators of current forest stand structure and future dynamics. A new method was proposed in the study to combine the diameter distributions derived from the area-based approach (ABA) and the diameter distribution derived from the individual tree detection (ITD) in order to obtain more accurate forest stand attributes. Since dominant trees can be reliably detected and measured by the Lidar data via the ITD, the focus of the study is to retrieve the suppressed trees (trees that were missed by the ITD) from the ABA. Replacement and histogram matching were respectively employed at the plot level to retrieve the suppressed trees. Cut point was detected from the ITD-derived diameter distribution for each sample plot to distinguish dominant trees from the suppressed trees. The results showed that calibrated diameter distributions were more accurate in terms of error index and the entire growing stock estimates. Compared with the best performer between the ABA and the ITD, calibrated diameter distributions decreased the relative RMSE of the estimated entire growing stock, saw log and pulpwood fractions by 2.81%, 3.05% and 7.73% points respectively. Calibration improved the estimation of pulpwood fraction significantly, resulting in a negligible bias of the estimated entire growing stock.

  19. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats. (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron


    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  20. Automatic calculation of tree diameter from stereoscopic image pairs using digital image processing. (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu


    Automatic operations play an important role in societies by saving time and improving efficiency. In this paper, we apply the digital image processing method to the field of lumbering to automatically calculate tree diameters in order to reduce culler work and enable a third party to verify tree diameters. To calculate the cross-sectional diameter of a tree, the image was first segmented by the marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm based on the hue saturation intensity (HSI) color model. Then, the tree diameter was obtained by measuring the area of every isolated region in the segmented image. Finally, the true diameter was calculated by multiplying the diameter computed in the image and the scale, which was derived from the baseline and disparity of correspondence points from stereoscopic image pairs captured by rectified configuration cameras.

  1. A Fractal Model for the Maximum Droplet Diameter in Gas-Liquid Mist Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Tan


    Full Text Available Distribution characteristics of liquid droplet size are described using the fractal theory for liquid droplet size distribution in gas-liquid mist flow. Thereby, the fractal expression of the maximum droplet diameter is derived. The fractal model for maximum droplet diameter is obtained based on the internal relationship between maximum droplet diameter and the droplet fractal dimension, which is obtained by analyzing the balance between total droplet surface energy and total gas turbulent kinetic energy. Fractal model predictions of maximum droplet diameter agree with the experimental data. Maximum droplet diameter and droplet fractal dimension are both found to be related to the superficial velocity of gas and liquid. Maximum droplet diameter decreases with an increase in gas superficial velocity but increases with an increase in liquid superficial velocity. Droplet fractal dimension increases with an increase in gas superficial velocity but decreases with an increase in liquid superficial velocity. These are all consistent with the physical facts.

  2. Diameter Tuning of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diffusion Plasma CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kato


    Full Text Available We have realized a diameter tuning of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs by adjusting process gas pressures with plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Detailed photoluminescence measurements reveal that the diameter distribution of SWNTs clearly shifts to a large-diameter region with an increase in the pressure during plasma CVD, which is also confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Based on the systematical investigation, it is found that the main diameter of SWNTs is determined by the pressure during the heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and the diameter distribution is narrowed by adjusting the pressure during the plasma generation. Our results could contribute to an application of SWNTs to high-performance thin-film transistors, which requires the diameter-controlled semiconductor-rich SWNTs.

  3. A method for determination of muscle fiber diameter using single fiber potential (SFP) analysis. (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa; Nandedkar, Sanjeev D; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena


    We have used computer simulation to study the relationship between the muscle fiber diameter and parameters: peak-to-peak amplitude and duration of the negative peak of the muscle fiber action potential. We found that the negative peak duration is useful in the determination of fiber diameter via the diameter dependence of conduction velocity. We have shown a direct link between the underlying physiology and the measurements characterizing single fiber potential. Using data from simulations, a graphical tool and an analytical method to estimate the muscle fiber diameter from the recorded action potential has been developed. The ability to quantify the fiber diameter can add significantly to the single fiber electromyography examination. It may help study of muscle fiber diameter variability and thus compliment the muscle biopsy studies.

  4. Positron annihilation characteristics in multi-wall carbon nanotubes with different average diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuyen, L A; Khiem, D D; Phuc, P T; Kajcsos, Zs; Lázár, K; Tap, T D


    Positron lifetime spectroscopy was used to study multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The measurements were performed in vacuum on the samples having different average diameters. The positron lifetime values depend on the nanotube diameter. The results also show an influence of the nanotube diameter on the positron annihilation intensity on the nanotube surface. The change in the annihilation probability is described and interpreted by the modified diffusion model introducing the positron escape rate from the nanotubes to their external surface.

  5. Use of Gumbel and Weibull functions to model extreme values of diameter distributions in forest stands


    Gorgoso-Varela, J. Javier; Rojo-Alboreca, Alberto


    International audience; & Context Families of the Gumbel (type I), Fréchet (type II) and Weibull (type III) distributions can be combined in the generalized extreme value (GEV) family of distributions. Maximum and minimum values of diameters in forest stands can be used in forest modelling, mainly to define parameters of the functions used in diameter class models as well as in some practical cases, such as modelling maximum diameters for sawing and processing purposes. & Aims The purpose of ...

  6. 40 CFR Table 25 to Subpart G of... - Effective Column Diameter (Fc) (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective Column Diameter (Fc) 25 Table..., Table 25 Table 25 to Subpart G of Part 63—Effective Column Diameter (Fc) Column type Fc (feet) 9-inch by 7-inch built-up columns 1.1 8-inch-diameter pipe columns 0.7 No construction details known 1.0 ...

  7. Investigation of the ramp testing behaviour of fuel pins with different diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Herren, M.; Wigger, B.


    The aim of these experiments was the investigation of the influence of different fuel pin diameter on the ramp testing behaviour. Fuel elements with diameter between 10,75 and 15,6 mm and different cladding thickness had been ramptested in the HBWR (Halden Boiling Water Reactor) after preirradiated in the same facility. Fuel pins with the smallest diameter of 10,75 mm failed. This was indicated by fission gas release measurement. Metallographic examination showed these failure were caused by hydride blisters. A systematic influence of fuel pin diameter and cladding thickness on the ramptesting behaviour was not observed. (orig.) [de

  8. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai


    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  9. Body hair scores and total hair diameters in healthy women in the Kirikkale Region of Turkey. (United States)

    Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin


    It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.

  10. Root diameter variations explained by anatomy and phylogeny of 50 tropical and temperate tree species. (United States)

    Gu, Jiacun; Xu, Yang; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan


    Root diameter, a critical indicator of root physiological function, varies greatly among tree species, but the underlying mechanism of this high variability is unclear. Here, we sampled 50 tree species across tropical and temperate zones in China, and measured root morphological and anatomical traits along the first five branch orders in each species. Our objectives were (i) to reveal the relationships between root diameter, cortical thickness and stele diameter among tree species in tropical and temperate forests, and (ii) to investigate the relationship of both root morphological and anatomical traits with divergence time during species radiation. The results showed that root diameter was strongly affected by cortical thickness but less by stele diameter in both tropical and temperate species. Changes in cortical thickness explained over 90% of variation in root diameter for the first order, and ∼74-87% for the second and third orders. Thicker roots displayed greater cortical thickness and more cortical cell layers than thinner roots. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that root diameter, cortical thickness and number of cortical cell layers significantly correlated with divergence time at the family level, showing similar variation trends in geological time. The results also suggested that trees tend to decrease their root cortical thickness rather than stele diameter during species radiation. The close linkage of variations in root morphology and anatomy to phylogeny as demonstrated by the data from the 50 tree species should provide some insights into the mechanism of root diameter variability among tree species.

  11. Estimation of the fustal diameter on the central knotty cylinder in oak basal logs, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Corvalán Vera


    Full Text Available In order to determine the diameter of the central knotted cylinder both alive and dead, a total of 60 trees belonging to the upper quartile of diametric classes in unmanaged renewal of N. obliqua from the Maule foothills were sampled. It is assumed that these are determined by the lowest living and dead branch present in tree height, respectively. We analyzed the relationships between the diameter of the central knotty cylinder, and the diameters at the lower end of logs 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 m above the stump, the normal diameter and the insertion height of the first branch. From the analysis it is deduced that: i the diameter of the live and dead central knotted cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter of the tree, ii that the diameter at the smaller end of the logs increases as it does and decreases as increases in height above the ground and iii that the fustal diameter on the dead central knotty cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter and the insertion height of the lowest dead branch of the tree, allowing to determine the zone of occlusion of the knots of the tree.

  12. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study. (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian


    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  13. Pengujian Tarik Dan Impak Pada Pengerjaan Pengelasan SMAW Dengan Mesin Genset Menggunakan Diameter Elektroda Yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zaenal Mawahib


    Full Text Available Pengaruh hasil sumber daya listrik yang dihasilkan dari mesin genset yaitu kemungkinan terjadinya lubang cacing dan retak, dan apabila arus yang terlalu rendah akan mengakibatkan kurangnya penembusan dan kemungkinan terak terperangkap tinggi, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan kekuatan dari sambungan lasan yang rendah. Pengujian pada sambungan pengelasan  yang berbeda diameter elektroda dengan menggunakan mesin genset, akan diperoleh kekuatan tarik dan kekuatan impak maksimum dari masing-masing material uji dan dapat diketahui pemilihan diameter elektroda yang paling baik digunakan untuk masing-masing pelat. Pengelasan menggunakan jenis sambungan butt joint (single V-groove dengan sudut 600, dengan diameter elektroda 3,2 mm dan 4 mm dengan tebal masing-masing material uji 8 mm dan 10 mm. Hasil pengujian didapatkan kuat tarik dari diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 443,747 N/mm2, diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 435,187 N/mm2, diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 447,23 N/mm2, dan diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 447,07 N/mm2. Hasil penelitian, modulus elastisitas dan tegangan luluh sama-sama memiliki kenaikan nilai, serta nilai pada regangan menurun. Sedangkan hasil pengujian impak didapatkan energi impak dari diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 90,67 Joule, diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 295,9 Joule, diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 44,91 Joule, dan diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 273,83 Joule.

  14. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu


    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  15. A Numerical Simulation of Base Shear Forces and Moments Exerted by Waves on Large Diameter Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-liang Cheng


    Full Text Available To solve the problem of the dynamic variation of wave force diameter of pile foundation for offshore wind turbines, wave force and moment of large diameter pile foundation can be calculated. In this paper, simulation technique is used to calculate the wave force and moment of different large diameter pile foundation, and the base shear force and moment of the interval 20-degree phase angle are obtained by the base line of the pile. Under the action of a certain load, the complete stress variation of the pile foundation is obtained. According to the basic principle of diffraction theory, the process curve of large diameter pile, and analysis of wave force, diffraction force changes in a certain period of time interval. The results show that the wave after the large diameter pile formed around the vortex, large diameter pile base shear, and moment dynamic change is nonlinear in a complete cycle, the diameter of the pile increases by 0.5 m, and the wave force increases by about 5%, the results show that it provides certain reference value for the offshore pile foundation pile with large diameter primary site. Some significant results for practical application are discussed.

  16. Influence of tube and particle diameter on heat transport in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borkink, J.G.H.; Borkink, J.G.H.; Westerterp, K.R.


    Influence of the tube and particle diameter and shape, as well as their ratio, on the radial heat transport in packed beds has been studied. Heat transport experiments were performed with four different packings in three wall-cooled tubes, which differed in inner diameter only. Experimental values

  17. Computing Diameter in the Streaming and Sliding-Window Models (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Kannan, Sampath; Zhang, Jian


    We investigate the diameter problem in the streaming and sliding-window models. We show that, for a stream of n points or a sliding window of size n, any exact algorithm for diameter requires Omega(n) bits of space...

  18. Automated Nanofiber Diameter Measurement in SEM Images Using a Robust Image Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Öznergiz


    Full Text Available Due to the high surface area, porosity, and rigidity, applications of nanofibers and nanosurfaces have developed in recent years. Nanofibers and nanosurfaces are typically produced by electrospinning method. In the production process, determination of average fiber diameter is crucial for quality assessment. Average fiber diameter is determined by manually measuring the diameters of randomly selected fibers on scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. However, as the number of the images increases, manual fiber diameter determination becomes a tedious and time consuming task as well as being sensitive to human errors. Therefore, an automated fiber diameter measurement system is desired. In the literature, this task is achieved by using image analysis algorithms. Typically, these methods first isolate each fiber in the image and measure the diameter of each isolated fiber. Fiber isolation is an error-prone process. In this study, automated calculation of nanofiber diameter is achieved without fiber isolation using image processing and analysis algorithms. Performance of the proposed method was tested on real data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by comparing automatically and manually measured nanofiber diameter values.

  19. Board-Foot and Diameter Growth of Yellow-Poplar After Thinning (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca


    Board-foot growth and yield of thinned yellow-poplar stands (Liriodendron tulipifera L.)is related to age, site index, residual basal area, and residual quadratic mean stand diameter after thinning. Diameter growth of individual trees is increased considerably by thinning. Equations describing growth and yield are based on data from 141 natura1 yellow-poplar stands in...

  20. The diameters of long positive streamers in atmospheric air under lightning impulse voltage (United States)

    Chen, She; Zeng, Rong; Zhuang, Chijie


    Results from experiments on long positive streamers in atmospheric air under lightning impulse voltage are presented. The length of the rod-plane gap is 57 cm. The peak voltages applied to the gap are +210-290 kV. The voltage and current are measured through a synchronized measurement system. The streamer diameters are obtained by the analysis of photographs taken by an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The four continuous photographs of single streamer discharge allow us to investigate the variation of the streamer diameters with time. For the hemispherical electrode 2 cm in diameter the diameters vary in the range 1.6-6.3 mm when the streamer length is 2-16 cm. The streamers are thicker when the electrode diameter is doubled from 2 to 4 cm. There is a downward trend in the streamer diameter with the propagation of the streamer heads. Their diameters for higher voltage decline at a lower rate. A modified analytical model is also employed to explain the observations. The streamer head potential and the maximum electric field are analysed for long streamers of tens of centimetres. The model can predict the value of the streamer diameter for different streamer head positions during its propagation. The experimental data and the calculated results are in good agreement.

  1. Patterns of variability in the diameter of lateral roots in the banana root system. (United States)

    Lecompte, François; Pagès, Loïc; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry


    The relative importance of root system structure, plant carbon status and soil environment in the determination of lateral root diameter remains unclear, and was investigated in this study. Banana (Musa acuminata) plants were grown at various moderate levels of soil compaction in two distinct experiments, in a field experiment (FE) and in a glasshouse experiment (GE). Radiant flux density was 5 times lower in GE. The distribution of root diameter was measured for several root branching orders. Root diameters ranged between 0.09 and 0.52 mm for secondary roots and between 0.06 and 0.27 mm for tertiary roots. A relationship was found between the diameter of the parent bearing root and the median diameter of its laterals, which appears to be valid for a wide range of species. Mean lateral root diameter increased with distance to the base of the root and decreased with branching density [number of lateral roots per unit length of bearing root (cm(-1))]. Typical symptoms of low light availability were observed in GE. In this case, lateral root diameter variability was reduced. Although primary root growth was affected by soil compaction, no effects on lateral root diameter were observed.

  2. Carotid flow velocity/diameter ratio is a predictor of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellinazzi, Vera R; Cipolli, José A; Pimenta, Marcio V


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of common carotid artery diameter, flow velocity and flow velocity/artery diameter ratio as predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in a sample of hypertensive patients. METHODS: A cohort of 403 hypertensive patien...

  3. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot


    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  4. Precise measurement of inner diameter of mono-capillary optic using X-ray imaging technique. (United States)

    Kwon, Soonmu; Lim, Jae Hong; Namba, Yoshiharu; Chon, Kwon Su


    Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope. High spatial resolution X-ray images of the mono-capillary optic were obtained by a synchrotron radiation beamline. The inner diameter of the mono-capillary optic was measured and analyzed by the pixel values of the X-ray image. Edge enhancement effect was quite useful in determining the inner diameter, and the accuracy of the diameter determination was less than 1.32 μm. Many images obtained by scanning the mono-capillary optic along the axial direction were combined, and the axial profile, consisting of diameters along the axial direction, was obtained from the combined image. The X-ray imaging method could provide an accurate measurement with slope error of±19 μrad. Applying X-ray imaging technique to determine the inner diameter of a mono-capillary optic can contribute to increasing fabrication accuracy of the mono-capillary optic through a feedback process between the fabrication and measurement of its diameter.

  5. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Koutstaal, B.P.


    Root length and diameter distribution are important characteristics to be considered when describing and comparing root systems. Root length and root-diameter distribution may be obtained in two ways: by microscopical measurements, which are laborious, or by computerised analysis, which is fast but

  6. Follow-up on Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Three Dimensional Ultrasound: Volume Versus Diameter. (United States)

    Ghulam, Q M; Bredahl, K K; Lönn, L; Rouet, L; Sillesen, H H; Eiberg, J P


    Rupture risk in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is assessed using AAA diameter; yet 10% of ruptures occur in a small aneurysm. This underlines the inadequacy of diameter as a standalone parameter. In this prospective follow-up study, ultrasound determined aneurysm diameter was compared with aneurysm volume determined by three dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) in a group of 179 AAAs. This was a prospective cohort study with repeated diameter and volume measurements by 3D-US. In total, 179 patients with small infrarenal AAAs (diameter 30-55 mm) were enrolled consecutively. At enrolment and at 12 month follow-up, maximum diameter, using dual plane technique, and three dimensional volume were measured. Based on a previous accuracy study, significant change in diameter and volume were defined as an increase exceeding the known range of variability (ROV) of each US technique; ±3.7 mm and ±8.8 mL, respectively. Post-hoc Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate time to conversion to treatment after the conclusion of the follow-up period between two groups. In total, 125 patients (70%) had an unchanged diameter during follow-up. In this group, 50 patients (40%) had an increasing aortic volume. Forty-five (83%) of the 54 patients with an increasing aortic diameter showed a corresponding volume increase. During a median follow-up of 367 days (364-380 days), a mean increase in diameter of 2.7 mm (±2.6 mm) and a mean increase in volume of 11.6 mL (±9.9 mL) were recorded. In post-hoc analysis, it was found that more AAAs with a stable diameter and a growing volume than AAAs with a stable diameter and volume were undergoing aortic repair during follow-up, based on the maximum diameter. In this cohort of small AAAs, 40% of patients with a stable diameter had an increasing volume at 12 month follow-up. From this perspective, 3D-US could have a future supplemental role in AAA surveillance programmes. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published

  7. Analysis of pressurized resistance vessel diameter changes with a low cost digital image processing device. (United States)

    Fischer, J G; Mewes, H; Hopp, H H; Schubert, R


    A low cost digital image processing device (frame grabber) together with a program running under MS_WINDOWS for automatic on-line analysis of diameter changes of in vitro pressurized blood vessels with an inner diameter of 80-400 microns is presented. The frame grabber is designed to receive light microscopic images either from a video camera or from a VCR and to present the digitized image on the computer monitor. The special software allows to manipulate the image, e.g. filtering, calibrating, storing of vessel images, and detects the outer and inner border of the two vessel walls with a new, simple algorithm. The inner diameter and the vessel wall thickness are calculated and the diameter is presented in a diameter versus time diagram on the monitor screen. Further, these data are stored in an ASCII-file for later import into calculation and presentation programs like MS-EXCEL.

  8. Observation of Ureteric Diameter in Negative Intravenous Urogram in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (United States)

    Wong, Siong Lung; Abdul Hamid, Hamzaini


    Background: This study observed the widest ureteric diameter in negative intravenous urogram (IVU) examinations using low osmolar contrast media. Methods: We reviewed a total of one hundred and eighty four ureters from 92 negative IVUs. Results: The results show a mean diameter for the abdominal ureter of 4.19 mm with an SD of 1.27 mm and a mean pelvic ureteric diameter of 4.45 mm with an SD of 1.37 mm. The upper limits for abdominal ureter and pelvic ureter based on a confidence interval of 95% were 4.37 mm and 4.64 mm, respectively. Conclusions: There was no significant difference between the right and left ureteric diameter in both female and male subjects. There was no significant correlation between ureteric diameters and the age of subjects, from the second to the eighth decades. PMID:22135531

  9. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša


    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  10. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill. (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin


    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  11. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Increase on Ascent to High Altitude: Correlation With Acute Mountain Sickness. (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas C; Lipman, Grant S; Constance, Benjamin B; Holck, Peter S; Preuss, James F; Williams, Sarah R


    Elevated optic nerve sheath diameter on sonography is known to correlate with increased intracranial pressure and is observed in acute mountain sickness. This study aimed to determine whether optic nerve sheath diameter changes on ascent to high altitude are associated with acute mountain sickness incidence. Eighty-six healthy adults enrolled at 1240 m (4100 ft), drove to 3545 m (11,700 ft) and then hiked to and slept at 3810 m (12,500 ft). Lake Louise Questionnaire scores and optic nerve sheath diameter measurements were taken before, the evening of, and the morning after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness was 55.8%, with a mean Lake Louise Questionnaire score ± SD of 3.81 ± 2.5. The mean maximum optic nerve sheath diameter increased on ascent from 5.58 ± 0.79 to 6.13 ± 0.73 mm, a difference of 0.91 ± 0.55 mm (P = .09). Optic nerve sheath diameter increased at high altitude regardless of acute mountain sickness diagnosis; however, compared to baseline values, we observed a significant increase in diameter only in those with a diagnosis of acute mountain sickness (0.57 ± 0.77 versus 0.21 ± 0.76 mm; P = .04). This change from baseline, or Δ optic nerve sheath diameter, was associated with twice the odds of developing acute mountain sickness (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.93). The mean optic nerve sheath diameter increased on ascent to high altitude compared to baseline values, but not to a statistically significant degree. The magnitude of the observed Δ optic nerve sheath diameter was positively associated with acute mountain sickness diagnosis. No such significant association was found between acute mountain sickness and diameter elevation above standard cutoff values, limiting the utility of sonography as a diagnostic tool. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Estimating root collar diameter growth for multi-stem western woodland tree species on remeasured forest inventory and analysis plots (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson; Maggie. Toone


    Tree diameter growth models are widely used in many forestry applications, often to predict tree size at a future point in time. Also, there are instances where projections of past diameters are needed. An individual tree model has been developed to estimate diameter growth of multi-stem woodland tree species where the diameter is measured at root collar. The model was...

  13. Fetal biometric parameters: Reference charts for a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Borges Peixoto


    Full Text Available Objective: To establish reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among 5656 non-selected risk singleton pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound exams were performed during routine visits of second and third trimesters. Biparietal diameter (BPD was measured at the level of the thalami and cavum septi pellucidi. Head circumference (HC was calculated by the following formula: HC = 1.62*(BPD + occipital frontal diameter, OFD. Abdominal circumference (AC was measured using the following formula: AC = (anteroposterior diameter + transverse abdominal diameter × 1.57. Femur diaphysis length (FDL was obtained in the longest axis of femur without including the distal femoral epiphysis. The estimated fetal weight (EFW was obtained by the Hadlock formula. Polynomial regressions were performed to obtain the best-fit model for each fetal biometric parameter as the function of gestational age (GA. Results: The mean, standard deviations (SD, minimum and maximum of BPD (cm, HC (cm, AC (cm, FDL (cm and EFW (g were 6.9 ± 1.9 (2.3 – 10.5, 24.51 ± 6.61 (9.1 – 36.4, 22.8 ± 7.3 (7.5 – 41.1, 4.9 ± 1.6 (1.2 – 8.1 and 1365 ± 1019 (103 – 4777, respectively. Second-degree polynomial regressions between the evaluated parameters and GA resulted in the following formulas: BPD = –4.044 + 0.540 × GA – 0.0049 × GA² (R² = 0.97; HC= –15.420 + 2.024 GA – 0.0199 × GA² (R² = 0.98; AC = –9.579 + 1.329 × GA – 0.0055 × GA² (R² = 0.97; FDL = –3.778 + 0.416 × GA – 0.0035 × GA² (R² = 0.98 and EFW = 916 – 123 × GA + 4.70 × GA² (R² = 0.96; respectively. Conclusion: Reference charts for the fetal biometric parameters in a non-selected risk population from Uberaba, Southeast of Brazil, were established.

  14. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men. (United States)

    Thijssen, D H J; Tinken, T M; Hopkins, N; Dawson, E A; Cable, N T; Green, D J


    Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is to examine post-cuff deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5 min forearm ischaemia every 2 weeks across 8-weeks of a handgrip exercise training regimen. Post-deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5-min of ischaemia were examined before, after and every 2-weeks across an 8-week handgrip training programme in healthy young men (n = 11) using echo-Doppler. The magnitude of dilation increased at week 2-4-6, but returned towards baseline values at week 8 (anova: P = 8.001). The time-to-peak diameter (42 ± 15s) demonstrated a significant prolongation at week 4 (77 ± 32s), but returned towards baseline values at weeks 6 and 8 (anova: P < 0.001). The rate of diameter increase did not differ across the intervention. Exercise training in healthy subjects is initially characterized by a larger dilation. Since the rate of dilation did not change, a longer time-to-peak dilation was necessary to achieve the increase in magnitude of dilation. As exercise training continues, the timing and magnitude of the peak diameter response returns to near baseline levels.

  15. Comparison of urethral diameters for calculating the urethral dose after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Kubota, Yasuaki; Maeda, Sunaho; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki


    No studies have yet evaluated the effects of a dosimetric analysis for different urethral volumes. We therefore evaluated the effects of a dosimetric analysis to determine the different urethral volumes. This study was based on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) combined findings in 30 patients who had undergone prostate brachytherapy. Postimplant CT/MRI scans were performed 30 days after the implant. The urethra was contoured based on its diameter (8, 6, 4, 2, and 0 mm). The total urethral volume-in cubic centimeters [UrV150/200 (cc)] and percent (UrV150%/200%), of the urethra receiving 150% or 200% of the prescribed dose-and the doses (UrD90/30/5) in Grays to 90%, 30%, and 5% of the urethral volume were measured based on the urethral diameters. The UrV150 (cc) and UrD30 were statistically different between the of 8-, 6-, 4-, 2-, and 0-mm diameters, whereas the UrD5 was statistically different only between the 8-, 6-, and 4-mm diameters. Especially for UrD5, there was an approximately 40-Gy difference between the mean values for the 8- and 0-mm diameters. We recommend that the urethra should be contoured as a 4- to 6-mm diameter circle or one side of a triangle of 5-7 mm. By standardizing the urethral diameter, the urethral dose will be less affected by the total urethral volume. (author)

  16. Effects of implant diameter and prosthesis retention system on the reliability of single crowns. (United States)

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Almeida, Erika O; Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Coelho, Paulo G


    The probability of survival of implant-supported prostheses may be affected by the interplay between different implant diameters supporting screwed or cemented crowns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of implant diameter and prosthesis retention system on the reliability and failure modes of single crowns. Internal-hexagon implants were divided into six groups (n = 21 each) according to implant diameter (3.3, 4.0, or 5.0 mm) and crown retention system (screwed or cemented). Abutments were torqued to the implants, and crowns were then fixed and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing in water. Use-level probability Weibull curves and reliability for missions of 50,000 cycles at 100, 150, and 200 N were calculated. Failure analysis was performed. Cemented systems presented higher reliability than screwed ones, except between 3.3-mm-diameter cemented and screwed systems at a load of 100 or 150 N. Failure modes were restricted to the abutment screw and varied with implant diameter only in the cement-retained groups. Higher reliability was observed for cement-retained crowns and implants of larger diameter compared to screw-retained and smaller diameter. Failure modes differed between groups.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwanjie Septian


    ABSTRAK Kanker kulit merupakan pertumbuhan sel kulit abnormal yang tidak dapat dikendalikan dan pada stadium lanjut dapat mengakibatkan kematian. Menemukan penyakit ini sedini mungkin merupakan salah satu cara untuk menghindari kecacatan maupun kemungkinan terburuk. Karena letaknya dipermukaan kulit, akan mudah bagi siapa saja untuk mengenali sendiri kanker kulit. Deteksi dini kanker kulit dalam bidang dermatologi, dapat dideteksi berdasarkan karakteristik Asymmetrical Shape, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolution (ABCDE. Dalam penelitian ini, deteksi dini difokuskan pada identifikasi diameter pada 30 citra nevus. Metode penelitian berupa pengolahan citra nevus dengan melakukan konversi citra menjadi citra HSI lalu diubah menjadi citra biner, selanjutnya dilakukan tahap segmentasi menggunakan filter median, proses rekonstruksi morfologi dan pada tahap akhir dilakukan deteksi tepi dengan menggunakan operator sobel. Proses deteksi tepi akan mempermudah menghitung nilai luas diameter nevus. Hasil penelitian deteksi dini kanker kulit terhadap 30 citra nevus, diperoleh hasil bahwa metode pengolahan citra yang diusulkan dapat mendeteksi diameter nevus dan berhasil mengidentifikasi citra tersebut sebagai 26 citra memiliki luas diameter nevus yang diidentifikasi sebagai tumor jinak dan 4 citra nevus yang memiliki diameter > 6 mm dan dinyatakan sebagai tumor melanoma. Kata Kunci: Nevus, Melanoma, Segmentasi, Deteksi Diameter

  18. The effect of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature on spray characteristics in diesel engine (United States)

    Rhaodah Andsaler, Adiba; Khalid, Amir; Sharifhatul Adila Abdullah, Nor; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam


    Mixture formation of the ignition process is a key element in the diesel combustion as it influences the combustion process and exhaust emission. Aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature to the formation of spray. This study investigated diesel formation spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) behaviour in the chamber are determined by means of transient simulation, Eulerian of two phases is used for implementation of mixing fuel and air. The detail behaviour of spray droplet diameter, spray penetration and spray breakup length was visualised using the ANSYS 16.1. This simulation was done in different nozzle diameter 0.12 mm and 0.2 mm performed at the ambient temperature 500 K and 700 K with different injection pressure 40 MPa, 70 MPa and 140 MPa. Results show that high pressure influence droplet diameter become smaller and the penetration length longer with the high injection pressure apply. Smaller nozzle diameter gives a shorter length of the breakup. It is necessary for nozzle diameter and ambient temperature condition to improve the formation of spray. High injection pressure is most effective in improvement of formation spray under higher ambient temperature and smaller nozzle diameter.

  19. The impact of baseline diameter on flow-mediated dilation differs in young and older humans. (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; van Bemmel, Marieke M; Bullens, Lauren M; Dawson, Ellen A; Hopkins, Nicola D; Tinken, Toni M; Black, Mark A; Hopman, Maria T E; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J


    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has become a commonly applied approach for the assessment of vascular function and health, but methods used to calculate FMD differ between studies. For example, the baseline diameter used as a benchmark is sometimes assessed before cuff inflation, whereas others use the diameter during cuff inflation. Therefore, we compared the brachial artery diameter before and during cuff inflation and calculated the resulting FMD in healthy children (n=45; 10+/-1 yr), adults (n=31; 28+/-6 yr), and older subjects (n=22; 58+/-5 yr). Brachial artery FMD was examined after 5 min of distal ischemia. Diameter was determined from either 30 s before cuff inflation or from the last 30 s during cuff inflation. Edge detection and wall tracking of high resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images was used to calculate conduit artery diameter. Brachial artery diameter during cuff inflation was significantly larger than before inflation in children (P=0.02) and adults (P<0.001) but not in older subjects (P=0.59). Accordingly, FMD values significantly differed in children (11.2+/-5.1% vs. 9.4+/-5.2%; P=0.02) and adults (7.3+/-3.2% vs. 4.6+/-3.3%; P<0.001) but not in older subjects (6.3+/-3.4% vs. 6.0+/-4.2%; P=0.77). When the diameter before cuff inflation was used, an age-dependent decline was evident in FMD, whereas FMD calculated using the diameter during inflation was associated with higher FMD values in older than younger adults. In summary, the inflation of the cuff significantly increases brachial artery diameter, which results in a lower FMD response. This effect was found to be age dependent, which emphasizes the importance of using appropriate methodology to calculate the FMD.

  20. Do Early Fetal Measurements and Nuchal Translucency Correlate With Term Birth Weight? (United States)

    Hackmon, Rinat; Librach, Clifford; Burwick, Richard; Rodrigues, Nicole; Farine, Dan; Berger, Howard


    Traditionally, physiological variation in fetal weight is believed to emerge during the latter half of pregnancy. Although recent evidence suggests that crown-rump length (CRL) and nuchal translucency (NT) measured at 11-14 weeks correlate with abnormal fetal growth, findings have been limited by dating accuracy in spontaneous gestations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether CRL or NT measurements correlated with term birth weight (BW) or BW ratio in a cohort of IVF pregnancies, in which the date of conception is precisely known. This retrospective cohort study included 227 term, singleton IVF pregnancies. Subjects were included if they had an early first-trimester ultrasound examination and subsequent nuchal translucency (NT) screening. The difference between the measured and the expected CRL and the biparietal diameter (BPD) and NT measurement were calculated and correlated with the actual term BW or BW ratio. The BW ratio was calculated using the actual BW and the expected BW for GA. The difference between measured and expected mid-first-trimester CRL, and the BPD at NT assessment, correlated with BW ratio at delivery (r Spearman  = 0.15, P = 0.023 and r Spearman  = 0.27, P < 0.001, respectively). Absolute NT measurements and NT percentiles (adjusted for CRL) correlated with BW ratio at delivery (r Spearman  = 0.18, r = 0.14, and P = 0.005 and 0.038, respectively). In this well-dated IVF population, we report a significant correlation between BW ratio and first-trimester CRL, BPD, and NT measurements. These findings support the hypothesis that physiological variation in BW can be reflected by variation in first-trimester fetal measurements. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diameter-dependent electronic transport properties of Au-catalyst/Ge-nanowire Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, S Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Francois [SNL; Swartzentruber, Brian S [SNL; Talin, A Alee [SNL


    We present electronic transport measurements in individual Au-catalyst/Ge-nanowire interfaces demonstrating the presence of a Schottky barrier. Surprisingly, the small-bias conductance density increases with decreasing diameter. Theoretical calculations suggest that this effect arises because electron-hole recombination in the depletion region is the dominant charge transport mechanism, with a diameter dependence of both the depletion width and the electron-hole recombination time. The recombination time is dominated by surface contributions and depends linearly on the nanowire diameter.

  2. Production of a large diameter ECR plasma with low electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mayuko; Hishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Kawai, Yoshinobu


    A large diameter plasma over 300 mm in diameter is produced by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges using a cylindrical vacuum chamber of 400 mm in inner diameter. It is found that the plasma uniformity is improved by adding the nitrogen gas to pure Ar plasma. The electron temperature is decreased by adding the nitrogen gas. It is considered that the electron energy is absorbed in the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules and the electron temperature decreases. Therefore, the adjunction of the nitrogen gas is considered to be effective for producing uniform and low electron temperature plasma

  3. Diameter-Controllable Magnetic Properties of Co Nanowire Arrays by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwen Yang


    Full Text Available The Co nanowires with different diameters were prepared by pulsed electrodeposition into anodic alumina membranes oxide templates. The micrographs and crystal structures of nanowires were studied by FE-SEM, TEM, and XRD. Due to their cylindrical shape, the nanowires exhibit perpendicular anisotropy. The coercivity and loop squareness (Mr/Ms of Co nanowires depend strongly on the diameter. Both coercivity and Mr/Ms decrease with increasing wire diameter. The behavior of the nanowires is explained briefly in terms of localized magnetization reversal.

  4. Estimates of Radiation Dose Rates Near Large Diameter Sludge Containers in T Plant

    CERN Document Server

    Himes, D A


    Dose rates in T Plant canyon during the handling and storage of large diameter storage containers of K Basin sludge were estimated. A number of different geometries were considered from which most operational situations of interest can be constructed.

  5. Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between...... participants with male and female relatives with AAA. DESIGN: Observational population-based cross-sectional study. MATERIALS: 18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter. METHODS: Standardized ultrasound scan...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...

  6. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.


    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  7. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km...

  8. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tree Diameter Measurements, Jacaranda Plots, Manaus, Brazil: 1999-2001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements made of trees in a dense terra-firme tropical moist forest at the ZF-2 Experimental Station, 90...

  10. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tree Diameter Measurements, Jacaranda Plots, Manaus, Brazil: 1999-2001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements made of trees in a dense terra-firme tropical moist forest at the ZF-2 Experimental...

  11. The effect of growth rate, diameter and impurity concentration on structure in Czochralski silicon crystal growth (United States)

    Digges, T. G., Jr.; Shima, R.


    It is demonstrated that maximum growth rates of up to 80% of the theoretical limit can be attained in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals while maintaining single crystal structure. Attaining the other 20% increase is dependent on design changes in the grower, to reduce the temperature gradient in the liquid while increasing the gradient in the solid. The conclusions of Hopkins et al. (1977) on the effect of diameter on the breakdown of structure at fast growth rates are substantiated. Copper was utilized as the test impurity. At large diameters (greater than 7.5 cm), concentrations of greater than 1 ppm copper were attained in the solid (45,000 ppm in the liquid) without breakdown at maximum growth speeds. For smaller diameter crystals, the sensitivity of impurities is much more apparent. For solar cell applications, impurities will limit cell performance before they cause crystal breakdown for fast growth rates of large diameter crystals.

  12. Pupil Diameter Does Not Correlate with Fixation Duration - or Does It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt; Carl, Michael; Elming, Jakob


    A number of pupillometric studies have suggested that dynamic differences in pupil diameter correlate with dierent levels of cognitive intensity or excitement. Other studies have suggested a similar correlation between fixation duration and cognitive effort. Since both methodologies for hypothesi...

  13. Simulation on Effect of Preform Diameter in Injection Stretch Blow Molding (United States)

    Tan, Z. Q.; Rosli, Nurrina; Oktaviandri, Muchamad


    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the most common material of resin for manufacturing plastic bottle by injection stretch blow molding due to its excellent properties. As various issues of health and environmental hazards due to the PET use have risen, PET bottle manufacture may be improved by minimizing the wall thickness to reduce the PET use. One of the critical qualifications of the manufacturing process which lead to the wall thickness distribution is the initial preform diameter. In this project, we used the ANSYS Polyflow with aim to evaluate the wall thickness distribution of PET bottle for different diameter of initial preform. As a result, only 4 mm preform diameter presented wall thickness below than 1 mm. On the other hand, at least 6 mm preform diameter can permit the wall thickness 1.3 mm i.e. at the shoulder area.

  14. Diameter-Selective Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes via Polymers: A Competition between Adsorption and Bundling. (United States)

    Yang, Hongliu; Bezugly, Viktor; Kunstmann, Jens; Filoramo, Arianna; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio


    The mechanism of the selective dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by polyfluorene polymers is studied in this paper. Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations, it is demonstrated that diameter selectivity is the result of a competition between bundling of CNTs and adsorption of polymers on CNT surfaces. The preference for certain diameters corresponds to local minima of the binding energy difference between these two processes. Such minima in the diameter dependence occur due to abrupt changes in the CNT's coverage with polymers, and their calculated positions are in quantitative agreement with preferred diameters reported experimentally. The presented approach defines a theoretical framework for the further understanding and improvement of dispersion/extraction processes.

  15. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper


    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P ..., but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...

  16. Effect of diameter and surface roughness on ultrasonic properties of GaAs nanowires (United States)

    Dhawan, Punit Kumar; Wan, Meher; Verma, S. K.; Pandey, D. K.; Yadav, R. R.


    Second and third order elastic constants of GaAs Nanowires (NWs) are calculated using the many-body interaction potential model. The velocities of ultrasonic waves at different orientations of propagation with unique axis are evaluated using the second order elastic constants. The ultrasonic attenuation and thermal relaxation times of the single crystalline GaAs-NW are determined as a function of diameter and surface roughness by means of Mason theoretical approach using the thermal conductivity and higher order elastic constants. The diameter variation of ultrasonic attenuation and thermal relaxation exhibit second order polynomial function of diameter. It is also found that ultrasonic attenuation and thermal relaxation follow the exponential decay with the surface roughness for GaAs-NW due to reduction in thermal conductivity caused by dominance of surface asperities. Finally, the correlations among ultrasonic parameters, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, and diameter for GaAs-NWs are established leading towards potential applications.

  17. 77 FR 30260 - Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...

  18. Synthesis of uniform carbon at silica nanocables and luminescent silica nanotubes with well controlled inner diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Yu Shuhong; Ren Lei; Yang Yipeng; Zhang Wei


    Uniform carbon at silica nanocables and silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters can be synthesized in an easy way by a sacrificial templating method. This was performed using carbon nanofibres as hard templates that were synthesized previously by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters were synthesized from carbon at silica core-shell nanostructures by removal of the core carbon component. The inner diameters of the as-prepared silica nanotubes can be well controlled from several nanometres to hundreds of nanometres by adjusting the diameters of the carbon nanofibres. The silica nanotubes synthesized by this method display strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet at room temperature. Such uniform silica nanotubes might find potential applications in many fields such as encapsulation, catalysis, chemical/biological separation, and sensing

  19. Speedy fabrication of diameter-controlled Ag nanowires using glycerolunder microwave irradiation conditions (United States)

    Diameter-controlled Ag nanowires were rapidly fabricated (1 min) using inexpensive, abundant, and environmentally-friendly glycerol as both reductant and solvent under non-stirred microwave irradiation conditions; no Ag particles were formed using conventional heating methods. Th...

  20. Relationship between retinal vessel diameters and retinopathy in the Inter99 Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Munch, Inger Christine; Glümer, Charlotte


    was 6.3 µm (CI 95%: 1.0 to 11.6, p = 0.020) wider and CRVE was 7.9 µm (CI 95%: 0.7 to 15.2, p = 0.030) wider in those with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy, after adjusting for age, gender, HbA1c, blood pressure, smoking, serum total and HDL cholesterol. In all participants, CRAE...... of one or more retinal hemorrhages or one or more microaneurysms. Vessel diameters were expressed as central retinal artery equivalent diameter (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent diameter (CRVE). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among participants with diabetes, CRAE...... increased with presence of retinopathy (p = 0.005) and with smoking (p = 0.001), and CRAE decreased with hypertension (p vein equivalent diameter increased with presence of retinopathy (p = 0.022) and with smoking (p

  1. Is there a relationship between the diameter of the inferior vena cava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sectional study was performed included patients aged ≥ 18 years with an unstable haemodynamic and/or respiratory status who were referred to the ED for non-traumatic issues. IVC diameters were measured by ultrasound ...

  2. Change of pulmonary arterial and bronchial diameter during respiration : HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Kyu; Kwak, Byung Kook; Kim, Young Min; Jung, Gul Ho; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon; Song, Chi Ho


    To evaluate the changes and normal ranges of the artery-bronchus ratio(ABR) during respiration We analyzed HRCT of 10 healthy adults. The HRCT findings of ten healthy adults were analysed. CT scanning was performed with 1mm collimation at 3mm intervals during full inspiration and full expiration, with a range during inspiration from 2cm to 4cm above the carina and from 4cm above to 2cm below the right hemidiaphragm. The range during expiration was from 1cm to 3cm above the carina and from 4cm above to 2cm below the right hemidiaphragm. ABiR (defined as the diameter of pulmonary artery divided by the inner diameter of the bronchus), ABoR (defined as the diameter of pulmonary artery divided by the outer diameter of the bronchus) and BLR (defined as the inner diameter of the bronchus divided by the outer diameter of the bronchus) were measured on the display console. The mean inner diameter of the bronchi was 2.04±0.73mm during inspiration and 1.68±0.51mm during expiration, while the mean diameter of the arteries was 3.95±1.03mm during inspiration and 4.37±1.09mm during expiration. The diameters of the bronchi were thus seen to increase during inspiration, and the diameters of the pulmonary arteries, to decrease. The mean thickness of the bronchial wall was 1.07±0.19mm during inspiration and 1.06±0.24mm during expiration;thus, no change in thickness was seen during respiration (p<0.05). Mean ABiR was 2.01±0.60 (range 1.15-4.58) during inspiration and 2.59±0.74(range 1.16-4.9) during expiration, and in all cases the inner diameter of the bronchus was less than that of the accompanying pulmonary artery. Mean ABoR was 0.91±0.19 during inspiration and 1.09±0.22 during expiration. While for BLR, the corresponding fingures were 0.46±0.06, and 0.44±0.09. HRCT is a useful tool for evaluating changes in the pulmonary arteries and bronchi during respiration

  3. Development of a 1.0 mm inside diameter temperature-assisted focusing precolumn for use with 2.1 mm inside diameter columns. (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R; Horner, Anthony R; Weber, Stephen G


    On-column solute focusing is a simple and powerful method to decrease the influence of precolumn band spreading and increase the allowable volume injected increasing sensitivity. It relies on creating conditions so that the retention factor, k', is transiently increased during the injection process. Both solvent composition and temperature control can be used to effect solute focusing. In the case of temperature, the release of the transiently delayed solute band requires increasing the temperature rapidly and with a minimum of radial thermal gradients. Thus, the focus of attention in temperature-based efforts to carry out on-column focusing has been on capillary columns. As a result, the benefits of this simple and reliable approach, temperature-assisted solute focusing or TASF, are not available to those using larger diameter columns, in particular the highly successful 2.1mm inside diameter columns. Based on considerations of thermal entrance length at the volume flow rates used with 2.1mm inside diameter columns, TASF would not be effective with such columns. However, we determined that the thermal entrance length for a 1.0mm inside diameter precolumn is sufficiently short, about 2mm, that it could work as a precolumn before a 2.1mm inside diameter analytical column. Finite element calculations demonstrate that a 1.0×20mm precolumn packed with 5μm reversed phase particles is effective at a flow rate of 250μL/min, suitable for the 2.1mm inside diameter column. Eight 1-cm 2 Peltier devices are used to heat (and cool) the precolumn. The computed axial temperature profile shows that the center of the column heats more rapidly than the ends. Based on the changes in back pressure, the full temperature transient from 5°C (focus) to 80°C (release) takes about 10s. Experimental van Deemter curves indicate that the reduced velocity in the precolumn at 250μL/min flow rate is about 50. Nonetheless, about 1000 theoretical plates are generated. When operating as a

  4. Economic feasibility of products from inland west small-diameter timber. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelter, H.; Wang, R.; Ince, P.


    A large part of the forests located in the Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. West (inland West) is characterized by densely packed, small-diameter stands. The purpose of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of using small-diameter material from this resource to manufacture various wood products: oriented strandboard (OSB), stud lumber, random-length dimension lumber, machine-stress-rated random-length lumber, laminated veneer lumber (LVL), and market pulp.

  5. Measurement of the aortic diameter in the asymptomatic Korean population: Assessment with multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Lee, Whal; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Dae Jin; Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine normal reference values for aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults. Three hundred adults without signs or symptoms of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Aortic diameters were measured at nine predetermined levels on CT images. Aortic diameter measurements were adjusted for body surface area. Analysis of data was performed with regard to age, sex, weight, height and hypertension. Aortic diameters were 2.99 ± 0.57 cm at the ascending aorta, 2.54 ± 0.35 cm at the transverse aortic arch, 2.36 ± 0.35 cm at the proximal descending thoracic aorta (DTA), 2.23 ± 0.37 cm at the mid DTA, 2.17 ± 0.38 cm at the distal DTA, 2.16 ± 0.37 cm at the thoracoabdominal junction, 2.10, 00B1, 0.35 cm at the level of the celiac axis, 1.94, 00B1, 0.36 cm at the suprarenal aorta, 1.58 ± 0.24 cm at the aortic bifurcation. Men had slightly larger diameters than women (p < 0.05). All diameters increased with age and hypertension, with statistical significance (p < 0.01). And all aortic diameters increased with height (p < 0.05) except at the level of the aortic arch (p = 0.056), and increased with weight (p < 0.05) except at the level of the suprarenal aorta (p = 0.067). Male sex, higher weight and height, age and hypertension are associated with larger aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults.





    Lower position of cerebellar tonsils was frequently noticed in Western studies. In some of the studies, sagittal diameter of foramen magnum was found to be larger in cases of Chiari malformation. However, there are no Indian studies for comparison. Our study was proposed to determine the standard values for sagittal diameter of foramen magnum in various age groups and both sexes. This gives a guideline for further studies in pathological conditions like Craniovertebral Junctional ...

  7. A new method to optimize root order classification based on the diameter interval of fine root


    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoliang; Yu, Kunxia; Li, Peng; Xiao, Lie; Liu, Guobin


    Plant roots are a highly heterogeneous and hierarchical system. Although the root-order method is superior to the root diameter method for revealing differences in the morphology and physiology of fine roots, its complex partitioning limits its application. Whether root order can be determined by partitioning the main root based on its diameter remains uncertain. Four methods were employed for studying the morphological characteristics of seedling roots of two Pinus species in a natural and n...

  8. A quick method to determine root biomass distribution in diameter classes


    Blouin, Manuel; Barot, Sébastien; Roumet, C.


    Describing root biomass distribution in diameter classes is a fundamental way to understand the relation between a plant and its surrounding soil. Current methods used for its measurement are not well adapted to large root systems. A new quick method is proposed for the measurement of diameter distribution in large root systems. It is based on the one used in pedology to assess soil granulometry. Roots are dried, cut in a mixer and placed on a sieve column; biomass distribution according to r...

  9. Film behaviour of vertical gas-liquid flow in a large diameter pipe


    Zangana, Mohammed Haseeb Sedeeq


    Gas-liquid flow commonly occurs in oil and gas production and processing system. Large diameter vertical pipes can reduce pressure drops and so minimize operating costs. However, there is a need for research on two-phase flow in large diameter pipes to provide confidence to designers of equipments such as deep water risers. In this study a number of experimental campaigns were carried out to measure pressure drop, liquid film thickness and wall shear in 127mm vertical pipe. Total pressur...

  10. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection. (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S


    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enguer Beraldo Garcia


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To define and quantify the degree of change of the spinal canal diameter in patients with degenerative and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Methods: We studied CT scans of 54 patients. Of this total, 37 (29 women and 8 men had degenerative type and 17 (7 women and 10 men had spondylolytic type. Results: In the degenerative spondylolisthesis group, the average diameter of the spinal canal at the injured vertebra level was 17.35 mm and 17.64 mm for the upper vertebra level. The average diameter of the foramen at the level of the affected vertebra was 14.61 mm to left side and 15.00 mm to the right side. The average diameter of the foramen at the upper vertebra level was 16.82 mm to the left side and 16.51 mm to the right side. In the spondylolytic group, the average diameter of the spinal canal at the level of the affected vertebra was 23.25 mm and at the upper vertebra level was 18.66 mm. The average diameter of the foramen at the level of the affected vertebra was 11.98 mm to the left side and 12.34 mm to the right side. The average diameter of the foramen at the level of the upper vertebra was 16.97 mm to the left side and 15.58 mm to the right side. Conclusion: The diameter of the spinal canal in the sagittal plane showed no statistically significant increase in the spondylolytic spondylolisthesis group, in contrast to what is found in the degenerative spondylolisthesis group. It was also observed a reduction in vertebral foramina of the injured level in both groups.

  12. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz


    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  13. Spontaneous high frequency diameter oscillations of larger retinal arterioles are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Toke; Jeppesen, Peter; Kanters, Jørgen K.


    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by morphological changes in the retina secondary to disturbances in retinal blood flow. Vasomotion is a mechanism for regulating blood flow by spontaneous oscillations in the diameter of retinal resistance arterioles, and has been shown to be disturbed outside...... the eye in diabetic patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to characterize spontaneous oscillations in the diameter of retinal arterioles in normal persons and in persons with different severity of diabetic retinopathy....

  14. A combination of permanent magnet and magnetic coil for a large diameter ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin; Kubota, Yusuke; Miyahara, Akira.


    A large diameter ion source for fast neutral beam injection is designed under a magnetic field (we call ''Uramoto Field'') composed of a circular ferrite permanent magnet and a usual coreless magnetic coil. As the magnetic filed is reduced abruptly in a discharge anode, an ion source with a uniform ion current density over a large diameter is produced easily without a ''button'' of ORNL duoPIGatron type ion source (a floating electrode to diffuse an axial plasma flow radially). (author)

  15. Editorial Commentary: Size Does Matter-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Diameter Affects Biomechanical and Clinical Outcomes. (United States)

    Steiner, Mark


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft strength is related to graft diameter and how ACL grafts heal. All grafts appear to lose strength during healing. Clinical studies have documented that hamstring grafts less than 8 mm wide are more vulnerable to failure. Tripling the semitendinosus allows to increase the graft diameter and strength. A recent study documents a semitendinosus tripling technique with excellent clinical results. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...... masking of a vessel position and measurements of it's diameter from laser speckle images. This approach demonstrates high reliability and stability....

  17. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.


    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Aliomarov


    Full Text Available To handle the threaded holes in hard materials made of marine machinery, operating at high temperatures, heavy loads and in aggressive environments, the authors have developed the combined tool core drill -tap with a special cutting scheme, which has an asymmetric thread profile on the tap part. In order to control the average diameter of the thread of tap part of the combined tool was used the method three wires, which allows to make continuous measurement of the average diameter of the thread along the entire profile. Deviation from the average diameter from the sample is registered by inductive sensor and is recorded by the recorder. In the work are developed and presented control schemes of the average diameter of the threads with a symmetrical and asymmetrical profile. On the basis of these schemes are derived formulas for calculating the theoretical option to set the wires in the thread profile in the process of measuring the average diameter. Conducted complex research and the introduction of the combined instrument core drill-tap in the production of products of marine engineering, shipbuilding, ship repair power plants made of hard materials showed a high efficiency of the proposed technology for the processing of high-quality small-diameter threaded holes that meet modern requirements.

  19. Film boiling heat transfer from relatively large diameter downward-facing hemispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Suh, Kune Y.; Park, Goon Cherl; Lee, Un Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Jun [Purdue Univ., Indiana (United States)


    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Loop for Transient Analysis). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain Bi below 0.1. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of both the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the two test sections. The measured heat transfer coefficients for the test section with diameter 120 mm lie within the bounding values from the laminar film boiling analysis, while those for diameter 294 mm are found to be greater than the numerical results on account of the Helmholtz instability. There is little difference observed between the film boiling heat transfer coefficients measured from the two test sections. In addition, the higher thermal conductivity of copper results in the higher minimum heat flux in the tests. For the test section of diameter 120 mm, the Leidenfrost point is lower than that for the test section of diameter 294 mm. Destabilization of film boiling propagates radially inward for the 294 mm test section versus radially outward for the 120 mm test section.

  20. Pitfalls in Root Trait Calculations: How Ignoring Diameter Heterogeneity Can Lead to Overestimation of Functional Traits. (United States)

    Rose, Laura


    Specific root length (SRL) and root tissue density (RTD) are ecologically functional traits which are calculated from root length or volume and root dry weight. Both can be converted into each other using the root diameter assuming roots are cylindrical. The calculation of volume from length or length from volume is, however, problematic because samples of roots do usually not have a constant diameter. Ignorance of the diameter heterogeneity leads to an overestimation of length and an underestimation of volume if standard formulas are used. Here I show for two datasets that SRL and RTD are overestimated on average 67% for the two analyzed datasets, but up to 150%, if calculated from each other. I further highlight that the volume values for the total sample as provided by the commonly used software WinRHIZO TM should only be used for objects with constant diameter. I recommend to use volume values provided for each diameter class of a sample if WinRHIZO TM is used. If manual methods, like the line-intersect method, are used, roots should be separated into diameter classes before length measurements if the volume is calculated from length. Trait to trait conversions for whole samples are not recommended.

  1. A new method to optimize root order classification based on the diameter interval of fine root. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoliang; Yu, Kunxia; Li, Peng; Xiao, Lie; Liu, Guobin


    Plant roots are a highly heterogeneous and hierarchical system. Although the root-order method is superior to the root diameter method for revealing differences in the morphology and physiology of fine roots, its complex partitioning limits its application. Whether root order can be determined by partitioning the main root based on its diameter remains uncertain. Four methods were employed for studying the morphological characteristics of seedling roots of two Pinus species in a natural and nitrogen-enriched environment. The intrinsic relationships among categories of roots by root order and diameter were systematically compared to explore the possibility of using the latter to describe root morphology. The normal transformation method proved superior to the other three in that the diameter intervals corresponded most closely (at least 68.3%) to the morphological characteristics. The applied methods clearly distinguished the results from the natural and nitrogen-rich environments. Considering both root diameter and order simplified the classification of fine roots, and improved the estimation of root lifespan and the data integrity of field collection, but failed to partition all roots into uniform diameter intervals.

  2. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song


    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  3. Relationship between the tensile strengths and diameters of human umbilical cords. (United States)

    Fernando, D M G; Gamage, S M K; Ranmohottige, S; Weerakkody, I; Abeyruwan, H; Parakrama, H


    Mothers of alleged infanticides might claim that umbilical cord broke during precipitate delivery causing injuries detected on baby at autopsy. There is paucity of evidence regarding this possibility. The objective of the study was to determine relationship between tensile strength and diameter or weight per unit length of cord. Diameters and weights per unit length of fresh umbilical cords were determined. Tensile strengths were measured by Hounsfield Testing Machine. Relationship between tensile strength versus cord diameter and weight per unit length were analyzed. Of 122 cords, average tensile strength, diameter and weight per centimeter were 50.4 N, 7.73 mm and 6.87 g respectively. The tensile strengths were directly proportional to diameter. There was no association between tensile strength and weight per centimeter. Measurement of the diameter of cord is important during autopsy to predict tensile strength and thereby to presume whether cord could have broken by the weight of the baby. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphology of living cells cultured on nanowire arrays with varying nanowire densities and diameters. (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Persson, Henrik; Adolfsson, Karl; Oredsson, Stina; Prinz, Christelle N


    Vertical nanowire arrays are increasingly investigated for their applications in steering cell behavior. The geometry of the array is an important parameter, which influences the morphology and adhesion of cells. Here, we investigate the effects of array geometry on the morphology of MCF7 cancer cells and MCF10A normal-like epithelial cells. Different gallium phosphide nanowire array-geometries were produced by varying the nanowire density and diameter. Our results show that the cell size is smaller on nanowires compared to flat gallium phosphide. The cell area decreases with increasing the nanowire density on the substrate. We observed an effect of the nanowire diameter on MCF10A cells, with a decreased cell area on 40 nm diameter nanowires, compared to 60 and 80 nm diameter nanowires in high-density arrays. The focal adhesion morphology depends on the extent to which cells are contacting the substrate. For low nanowire densities and diameters, cells are lying on the substrate and we observed large focal adhesions at the cell edges. In contrast, for high nanowire densities and diameters, cells are lying on top of the nanowires and we observed point-like focal adhesions distributed over the whole cell. Our results constitute a step towards the ability to fine-tune cell behavior on nanowire arrays.

  5. Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pariaut, Romain; Gaschen Dvm, Lorrie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N


    To establish a computed tomography (CT)-angiography protocol and measure the diameters of major arteries in parrots. 13 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 16-slice CT scanning was used to measure the apparent diameter of the ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, and brachiocephalic trunk. Before scanning, all birds underwent ECG and echocardiographic assessment and were considered free of detectable cardiovascular diseases. Each bird was anesthetized, and a precontrast helical CT scan was performed. Peak aortic enhancement was established with a test bolus technique via dynamic axial CT scan over a predetermined single slice. An additional bolus of contrast medium was then injected, and a helical CT-angiography scan was performed immediately afterward. Arterial diameter measurements were obtained by 2 observers via various windows before and after injection, and intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed. Reference limits were determined for arterial diameter measurements before and after contrast medium administration in pulmonary, mediastinal, and manual angiography windows. Ratios of vertebral body diameter to keel length were also calculated. Intraobserver agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95); interobserver agreement was medium to high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.65). CT-angiography was safe and is of potential diagnostic value in parrots. We recommend performing the angiography immediately after IV injection of 3 mL of iohexol/kg. Arterial diameter measurements at the described locations were reliable.

  6. Transabdominal ultrasound measurement of rectal diameter is dependent on time to defecation in constipated children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Dalby, Kasper; Walsted, Anne-Mette


    AIM: To study whether diurnal variations and time in relation to defecation has to be taken into account when measurements of rectal diameter are used to determine faecal impaction in constipated children. METHODS: Repeated ultrasound measures of rectal diameter were performed in 28 children (14...... constipated/14 healthy, aged between 4 and 12 years) every third hour during 24 h. After defecation, three additional scans were performed at 1-h intervals. RESULTS: No diurnal variation in rectal diameter was found in the healthy group. In the constipated group, mean rectal diameter was significantly larger...... at 2 pm (P = 0.038) and 5 pm (P = 0.006). There were significant differences between rectal diameter in the healthy group and the constipated group at 2 pm (P = 0.016) and 5 pm (P = 0.027). When we omitted the rectal diameter of five constipated children who had their first bowel movement after 5 pm...

  7. A new method for measuring coronary artery diameters with CT spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tadashi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni


    Purpose: Coronary artery vascular edge recognition on computed tomography (CT) angiograms is influenced by window parameters. A noninvasive method for vascular edge recognition independent of window setting with use of multi-detector row CT was contrived and its feasibility and accuracy were estimated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods: Multi-detector row CT was performed to obtain 29 CT spatial profile curves by setting a line cursor across short-axis coronary angiograms processed by multi-planar reconstruction. IVUS was also performed to determine the reference coronary diameter. IVUS diameter was fitted horizontally between two points on the upward and downward slopes of the profile curves and Hounsfield number was measured at the fitted level to test seven candidate indexes for definition of intravascular coronary diameter. The best index from the curves should show the best agreement with IVUS diameter. Results: Of the seven candidates the agreement was the best (agreement: 16 ± 11%) when the two ratios of Hounsfield number at the level of IVUS diameter over that at the peak on the profile curves were used with water and with fat as the background tissue. These edge definitions were achieved by cutting the horizontal distance by the curves at the level defined by the ratio of 0.41 for water background and 0.57 for fat background. Conclusions: Vascular edge recognition of the coronary artery with CT spatial profile curves was feasible and the contrived method could define the coronary diameter with reasonable agreement

  8. Measurements of stem diameter: implications for individual- and stand-level errors. (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Larmour, John S; Roxburgh, Stephen H; England, Jacqueline R; Davies, Micah J; Luck, Hamish D


    Stem diameter is one of the most common measurements made to assess the growth of woody vegetation, and the commercial and environmental benefits that it provides (e.g. wood or biomass products, carbon sequestration, landscape remediation). Yet inconsistency in its measurement is a continuing source of error in estimates of stand-scale measures such as basal area, biomass, and volume. Here we assessed errors in stem diameter measurement through repeated measurements of individual trees and shrubs of varying size and form (i.e. single- and multi-stemmed) across a range of contrasting stands, from complex mixed-species plantings to commercial single-species plantations. We compared a standard diameter tape with a Stepped Diameter Gauge (SDG) for time efficiency and measurement error. Measurement errors in diameter were slightly (but significantly) influenced by size and form of the tree or shrub, and stem height at which the measurement was made. Compared to standard tape measurement, the mean systematic error with SDG measurement was only -0.17 cm, but varied between -0.10 and -0.52 cm. Similarly, random error was relatively large, with standard deviations (and percentage coefficients of variation) averaging only 0.36 cm (and 3.8%), but varying between 0.14 and 0.61 cm (and 1.9 and 7.1%). However, at the stand scale, sampling errors (i.e. how well individual trees or shrubs selected for measurement of diameter represented the true stand population in terms of the average and distribution of diameter) generally had at least a tenfold greater influence on random errors in basal area estimates than errors in diameter measurements. This supports the use of diameter measurement tools that have high efficiency, such as the SDG. Use of the SDG almost halved the time required for measurements compared to the diameter tape. Based on these findings, recommendations include the following: (i) use of a tape to maximise accuracy when developing allometric models, or when

  9. The importance of large-diameter trees to forest structural heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Lutz

    Full Text Available Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. However, their attendant contributions to forest heterogeneity are rarely addressed. We established the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot, a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all 30,973 woody stems ≥ 1 cm dbh, all 1,966 snags ≥ 10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥ 2 m(2. Basal area of the 26 woody species was 62.18 m(2/ha, of which 61.60 m(2/ha was trees and 0.58 m(2/ha was tall shrubs. Large-diameter trees (≥ 100 cm dbh comprised 1.5% of stems, 31.8% of basal area, and 17.6% of the heterogeneity of basal area, with basal area dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Small-diameter subpopulations of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata, as well as all tree species combined, exhibited significant aggregation relative to the null model of complete spatial randomness (CSR up to 9 m (P ≤ 0.001. Patterns of large-diameter trees were either not different from CSR (Tsuga heterophylla, or exhibited slight aggregation (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata. Significant spatial repulsion between large-diameter and small-diameter Tsuga heterophylla suggests that large-diameter Tsuga heterophylla function as organizers of tree demography over decadal timescales through competitive interactions. Comparison among two forest dynamics plots suggests that forest structural diversity responds to intermediate-scale environmental heterogeneity and disturbances, similar to hypotheses about patterns of species richness, and richness- ecosystem function. Large mapped plots with detailed within-plot environmental spatial covariates will be required to test these hypotheses.

  10. The importance of large-diameter trees to forest structural heterogeneity. (United States)

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; Bible, Kenneth J


    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. However, their attendant contributions to forest heterogeneity are rarely addressed. We established the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot, a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all 30,973 woody stems ≥ 1 cm dbh, all 1,966 snags ≥ 10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥ 2 m(2). Basal area of the 26 woody species was 62.18 m(2)/ha, of which 61.60 m(2)/ha was trees and 0.58 m(2)/ha was tall shrubs. Large-diameter trees (≥ 100 cm dbh) comprised 1.5% of stems, 31.8% of basal area, and 17.6% of the heterogeneity of basal area, with basal area dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Small-diameter subpopulations of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata, as well as all tree species combined, exhibited significant aggregation relative to the null model of complete spatial randomness (CSR) up to 9 m (P ≤ 0.001). Patterns of large-diameter trees were either not different from CSR (Tsuga heterophylla), or exhibited slight aggregation (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata). Significant spatial repulsion between large-diameter and small-diameter Tsuga heterophylla suggests that large-diameter Tsuga heterophylla function as organizers of tree demography over decadal timescales through competitive interactions. Comparison among two forest dynamics plots suggests that forest structural diversity responds to intermediate-scale environmental heterogeneity and disturbances, similar to hypotheses about patterns of species richness, and richness- ecosystem function. Large mapped plots with detailed within-plot environmental spatial covariates will be required to test these hypotheses.

  11. Valve mediated hemodynamics and their association with distal ascending aortic diameter in bicuspid aortic valve subjects. (United States)

    Raghav, Vrishank; Barker, Alex J; Mangiameli, Daniel; Mirabella, Lucia; Markl, Michael; Yoganathan, Ajit P


    Valve mediated hemodynamics have been postulated to contribute to pathology of the ascending aorta (AAo). The objective of this study is to assess the association of aortic valve morphology and hemodynamics with downstream AAo size in subjects with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI at 1.5 or 3 Tesla was used to evaluate the hemodynamics in the proximal AAo of 52 subjects: size-matched controls with tricuspid aortic valves (n = 24, mid ascending aorta [MAA] diameter = 38.0 ± 4.9 mm) and BAV patients with aortic dilatation (n = 14 right and left coronary leaflet fusion [RL]-BAV, MAA diameter = 38.1 ± 5.3 mm; n = 14 right and noncoronary leaflet fusion [RN]-BAV, MAA diameter = 36.5 ± 6.6 mm). A validated semi-automated technique was used to evaluate hemodynamic metrics (flow angle, flow displacement, and jet quadrant) and valve morphology (orifice circularity) for all subjects. Regression analysis of these metrics to AAo diameter was performed. RN-BAV subjects displayed a stronger correlation between hemodynamic metrics in the proximal AAo with diameter in the distal AAo compared with size-matched tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) controls and RL-BAV subjects. The distal AAo diameter was found to be strongly correlated to the upstream flow displacement (R 2 adjusted = 0.75) and flow angle (R 2 adjusted = 0.66) measured at the sino-tubular junction (STJ). Orifice circularity was also strongly correlated (R 2 adjusted = 0.53) to the distal AAo diameter in RN-BAV subjects. For TAV controls and RL-BAV subjects, correlations were weaker (R 2 adjusted valve morphology metrics. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:246-254. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter. (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher


    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Screw fixation diameter for fifth metatarsal jones fracture: a cadaveric study. (United States)

    Scott, Ryan T; Hyer, Christopher F; DeMill, Shyler L


    The fifth metatarsal Jones fracture is a well-documented injury occurring at the proximal diaphyseal-metaphyseal junction. Conservative versus surgical intervention has been discussed in published studies for the management of Jones fractures. Solid intramedullary fixation relies on accurate matching of the screw diameter to the intraosseous diameter. The purpose of the present cadaveric study was to determine the average intraosseous diameter of the proximal fifth metatarsal as it relates to screw size selection for Jones fracture stabilization. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver legs were used for examination. The fifth metatarsal was completely dissected. A transverse osteotomy was performed from laterally to medially along the midline of the metatarsal. A digital caliper was used to measure the diameter of the medullary canal of the fifth metatarsal. The measurement was taken at the narrowest portion of the medullary canal just distal to the proximal metaphysis. The mean dorsal to plantar diameter of the fifth metatarsal was 6.475 ± 1.54 (range 4 to 12) mm and the mean medial to lateral diameter was 4.6 ± 0.85 (range 3 to 6) mm. Intramedullary screw fixation has shown beneficial results in the treatment protocol of fifth metatarsal Jones fractures. Our study has demonstrated that a 4.5-mm cannulated screw is the narrowest diameter screw that can be used in the average fifth metatarsal and still obtain adequate intraosseous purchase. When selecting the appropriate screw, the surgeon must be comfortable selecting the largest screw that will achieve the maximal interface with the dense cortical bone in both the medial to lateral and dorsal to plantar plane. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefits of Two Turbine Rotor Diameters and Hub Heights in the Same Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stanley, Andrew P. J. [Brigham Young University; Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University


    Significant turbine-wake interactions greatly reduce power output in a wind farm. If different turbine hub heights and rotor diameters are included in the same wind farm, the wake interference in the farm will be reduced, resulting in a lower cost of energy (COE) than a farm with identical turbines. In this paper, we present a method to model wind farm COE in farms with hub heights and rotor diameters that vary across the wind farm. We also demonstrate how to optimize these wind farms to minimize COE. The results show that COE can be greatly reduced in wind farms with non-homogeneous turbines, especially when the turbines are spaced close together. For a unidirectional wind rose, including different turbine design in the wind farm has a similar decrease in COE to spreading the wind turbines farther apart. When the rotor diameter and hub height of the wind turbines in a farm are optimized uniformly, a COE decrease of 4% to 13% (depending on the grid spacing and wind shear exponent) is achieved compared to the baseline. When the rotor diameter and turbine heights are optimized non-uniformly, with two different diameters and heights throughout the farm, there is a COE decrease of 22% to 41% compared to the baseline. For a more spread wind rose with a dominant probability from the west, there is a COE decrease between 3% and 10% for uniformly optimized rotor diameter and height compared to the baseline. With two optimized rotor diameters and heights through the farm, a COE decrease of 3% to 19% is achieved. For a similar wind rose shifted such that the dominant wind direction is from the northwest, a COE decrease between 3% and 10% results from uniformly optimized wind turbines compared to the baseline. A COE decrease of 3% to 17% compared to the baseline occurs with two different turbines are optimized throughout the wind farm.

  15. Effect of tube diameter on the specific energy consumption of the ice making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangthieng, C.


    One of the favorite forms of ice for consuming is tube ice, which is produced by a refrigeration unit referred to as an ice making tower. In order to redesign the tower for the energy-efficiency purpose, the aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the effect of tube diameter on the ice thickness, the cooling load, and the specific energy consumption. The mathematical model of the ice formation within the tube is developed by assuming unsteady and one-dimensional heat conduction. The governing equations are composed of the wall and the ice regions with the convective boundary condition and isothermal solidification at the interface. The governing system is transformed into a dimensionless form and numerically solved by the finite difference method. The numerical results are validated by comparing the ice thickness obtained from the numerical prediction and that obtained from the field measurement, resulting in qualitative agreement. The variations of ice thickness, cooling load, and specific energy consumption with time for four different tube diameters are presented. The result shows the location of the minimum specific energy consumption as a function of time. By comparing between different tube diameters, the value of the minimum specific energy consumption of a small diameter tube is lower than that of a large diameter one. On the other hand, the behavior of the specific energy consumption of a large diameter tube indicates the existence of a low specific energy consumption period of time beyond the minimum point. Therefore, by choosing a proper tube diameter, the minimum value of the average specific energy consumption over the entire production cycle is obtained, leading to higher energy efficiency. - Research Highlights: → The result indicates the minimum specific energy consumption as a function of time. → A smaller diameter tube has a lower value of the minimum specific energy consumption, but a large one has an extended range of low specific

  16. Diameter limitation in growth of III-Sb-containing nanowire heterostructures. (United States)

    Ek, Martin; Borg, B Mattias; Johansson, Jonas; Dick, Kimberly A


    The nanowire geometry offers significant advantages for exploiting the potential of III-Sb materials. Strain due to lattice mismatch is efficiently accommodated, and carrier confinement effects can be utilized in tunneling and quantum devices for which the III-Sb materials are of particular interest. It has however proven difficult to grow thin (below a few tens of nanometers), epitaxial III-Sb nanowires, as commonly no growth is observed below some critical diameter. Here we explore the processes limiting the diameter of III-Sb nanowires in a model system, in order to develop procedures to control this effect. The InAs-GaSb heterostructure system was chosen due to its great potential for tunneling devices in future low-power electronics. We find that with increasing growth temperature or precursor partial pressures, the critical diameter for GaSb growth on InAs decreases. To explain this trend we propose a model where the Gibbs-Thomson effect limits the Sb supersaturation in the catalyst particle. This understanding enabled us to further reduce the nanowire diameter down to 32 nm for GaSb grown on 21 nm InAs stems. Finally, we show that growth conditions must be carefully optimized for these small diameters, since radial growth increases for increased precursor partial pressures beyond the critical values required for nucleation.

  17. Numerical Investigation of Liquid Carryover in T-Junction with Different Diameter Ratios (United States)

    Pao, William; Sam, Ban; Saieed, Ahmed; Tran, Cong Minh


    In offshore Malaysia, T-junction is installed at the production header as a compact separator to tap produced gas from reservoir as fuel gas for power generation. However, excessive liquid carryover in T-junction presents a serious operational issue because it trips the whole production platform. The primary objective of present study is to numerically investigate the liquid carryover due to formation of slug, subsequently its liquid carryover at different diameter ratio. The analyses were carried out on a model with 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and a vertically upward side arm using Volume of Fluid Method. Three different sides to main arm diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3 were investigated with different gas and liquid superficial velocities. The results showed that, while the general trend is true that smaller diameter ratio T-junction has lesser liquid take off capacity, it has a very high frequency of low liquid carryover threshold. In other words, under slug flow, smaller diameter ratio T-junction is constantly transporting liquid even though at a lesser volume in comparison to regular T-junction.

  18. An Experimental and Numerical Study on Embedded Rebar Diameter in Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Istiaque Hasan


    Full Text Available High frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR has been widely used to detect and locate rebars in concrete. In this paper, a method of estimating the diameter of steel rebars in concrete with GPR is investigated. The relationship between the maximum normalized positive GPR amplitude from embedded rebars and the rebar diameter was established. Concrete samples with rebars of different diameters were cast and the maximum normalized amplitudes were recorded using a 2.6 GHz GPR antenna. Numerical models using GPRMAX software were developed and verified with the experimental data. The numerical models were then used to investigate the effect of dielectric constant of concrete and concrete cover on the maximum normalized amplitude. The results showed that there is an approximate linear relationship between the rebar diameter and the maximum GPR normalized amplitude. The developed models can be conveniently used to estimate the embedded rebar diameters in existing concrete with GPR scanning; if the concrete is homogeneous, the cover depth is known and the concrete dielectric constant is also known. The models will be highly beneficial in forensic investigations of existing concrete structures with unknown rebar sizes and locations.

  19. Axial variation of basic density of Araucaria angustifolia wood in different diameter classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Trevisan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the wood characteristics is of fundamental importance for the correct use of this raw material and, among its properties, the basic density is a major, being reference in the quality of this material. This study aimed to evaluate the axial variation of basic density of the wood of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze in different diameter classes. For this, three trees were selected in six diameter classes, called class 1 (20-30cm, class 2 (30.1-40cm, class 3 (40.1-50cm, class 4 (50.1-60cm, class 5 (60.1-70cm and class 6 (70.1-80cm. From each individual sampled was withdrawn a disc at 0.1m (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the height of the first live branch and in the diameter at 1.30m from the ground (DBH, which were used for determining basic density. The weighted average basic density was equal to 0.422g cm-3 and, regardless of the diameter class analyzed, this property decreased in the axial direction. Diameter induced variation of basic density, but has not been verified a positive or negative systematic tendency in relation to the sampled interval.

  20. Modeling light scattering in the shadow region behind thin cylinders for diameter analysis (United States)

    Blohm, Werner


    In this paper, the scattered light intensities resulting in the shadow region at an observation plane behind monochromatically illuminated circular cylinders are modeled by sinusoidal sequences having a squared dependence on spatial position in the observation plane. Whereas two sinusoidal components appear to be sufficient for modeling the light distribution behind intransparent cylinders, at least three sinusoidal components are necessary for transparent cylinders. Based on this model, a novel evaluation algorithm for a very fast retrieval of the diameter of thin cylindrical products like metallic wires and transparent fibers is presented. This algorithm was tested in a cylinder diameter range typical for these products (d ≈ 70 … 150 μm; n ≈ 1.5). Numerical examples are given to illustrate its application by using both synthetic and experimental scattering data. Diameter accuracies below 0.05 μm could be achieved for intransparent cylinders in the tested diameter range. However, scattering effects due to morphological-dependent resonances (MDRs) are problematical in the diameter analysis of transparent products. In order to incorporate these effects into the model, further investigations are needed.

  1. Surfactant-nanotube interactions in water and nanotube separation by diameter: atomistic simulations (United States)

    Carvalho, E. J. F.; Dos Santos, M. C.


    A non-destructive sorting method to separate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by diameter was recently proposed. By this method, SWNTs are suspended in water by surfactant encapsulation and the separation is carried out by ultracentrifugation in a density gradient. SWNTs of different diameters are distributed according to their densities along the centrifuge tube. A mixture of two anionic surfactants, namely sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium cholate (SC), presented the best performance in discriminating nanotubes by diameter. Unexpectedly, small diameter nanotubes are found at the low density part of the centrifuge tube. We present molecular dynamics studies of the water-surfactant-SWNT system to investigate the role of surfactants in the sorting process. We found that surfactants can actually be attracted towards the interior of the nanotube cage, depending on the relationship between the surfactant radius of gyration and the nanotube diameter. The dynamics at room temperature showed that, as the amphiphile moves to the hollow cage, water molecules are dragged together, thereby promoting the nanotube filling. The resulting densities of filled SWNT are in agreement with measured densities.

  2. Inlet Diameter and Flow Volume Effects on Separation and Energy Efficiency of Hydrocyclones (United States)

    Erikli, Ş.; Olcay, A. B.


    This study investigates hydrocyclone performance of an oil injected screw compressor. Especially, the oil separation efficiency of a screw compressor plays a significant role for air quality and non-stop working hour of compressors has become an important issue when the efficiency in energy is considered. In this study, two separation efficiency parameters were selected to be hydrocyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top of the hydrocyclone. Nine different cases were studied in which cyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top were investigated in regards to separation and energy performance aspects and the effect of the parameters on the general performance appears to be causing powerful influence. Flow inside the hydrocyclone geometry was modelled by Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and hydro particles were tracked by Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Besides, particle break up was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model. The reversed vortex generation was observed at different planes. The upper limit of the inlet diameter of the cyclone yields the centrifugal force on particles to decrease while the flow becomes slower; and the larger diameter implies slower flow. On the contrary, the lower limit is increment in speed causes breakup problems that the particle diameters become smaller; consequently, it is harder to separate them from gas.

  3. Diameter distribution in a Brazilian tropical dry forest domain: predictions for the stand and species. (United States)

    Lima, Robson B DE; Bufalino, Lina; Alves, Francisco T; Silva, José A A DA; Ferreira, Rinaldo L C


    Currently, there is a lack of studies on the correct utilization of continuous distributions for dry tropical forests. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the diameter structure of a brazilian tropical dry forest and to select suitable continuous distributions by means of statistic tools for the stand and the main species. Two subsets were randomly selected from 40 plots. Diameter at base height was obtained. The following functions were tested: log-normal; gamma; Weibull 2P and Burr. The best fits were selected by Akaike's information validation criterion. Overall, the diameter distribution of the dry tropical forest was better described by negative exponential curves and positive skewness. The forest studied showed diameter distributions with decreasing probability for larger trees. This behavior was observed for both the main species and the stand. The generalization of the function fitted for the main species show that the development of individual models is needed. The Burr function showed good flexibility to describe the diameter structure of the stand and the behavior of Mimosa ophthalmocentra and Bauhinia cheilantha species. For Poincianella bracteosa, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodum urundeuva better fitting was obtained with the log-normal function.

  4. Tannins gravimetric yield condensed in Anadenanthera peregrina bark in different diameter classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Junqueira Sartori


    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the gravimetric yield of condensed tannins in the Anadenanthera peregrina bark in different diameter classes. Fifty-nine trees samples were collected of Anadenanthera peregrina, at 1.30m of the ground (diameter at breast height - DBH, distributed in seven diameter classes. The barks were dried and crushed in mill of hammer. Composite sample was made to prepare the extract. The extraction was done using water in the ratio 15:1 (v/w, added 3% sodium sulfite (w/w in water-bath at 70°C for 4 hours. The material was filtered using fine cloth strainer and concentrated on a heating plate at approximately 150 g. It was determined the extract mass and removed 10 g for obtaining solids content and 20g for the Stiasny's index. The average values of total solids content, Stiasny's index, condensed tannin content and the compound content non-tannin were 11.34%; 75.79%; 12.76% and 4.07%, respectively. The content of solids, Stiasny's index, compound content non-tannin show significant differences between diameter classes. For the condensed tannins production, the diameter class parameter there was no influence.

  5. Effect of Catalytic Layer Thickness on Diameter of Vertically Aligned Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Jung


    Full Text Available The effect of catalytic thin film thickness on the diameter control of individual carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Individual carbon nanotubes were grown on catalytic nanodot arrays, which were fabricated by e-beam lithography and e-beam evaporation. During e-beam evaporation of the nanodot pattern, more catalytic metal was deposited at the edge of the nanodots than the desired catalyst thickness. Because of this phenomenon, carbon atoms diffused faster near the center of the dots than at the edge of the dots. The carbon atoms, which were gathered at the interface between the catalytic nanodot and the diffusion barrier, accumulated near the center of the dot and lifted the catalyst off. From the experiments, an individual carbon nanotube with the same diameter as that of the catalytic nanodot was obtained from a 5 nm thick catalytic nanodot; however, an individual carbon nanotube with a smaller diameter (~40% reduction was obtained from a 50 nm thick nanodot. We found that the thicker the catalytic layer, the greater the reduction in diameter of the carbon nanotubes. The diameter-controlled carbon nanotubes could have applications in bio- and nanomaterial scanning and as a contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Atomic layer deposition as pore diameter adjustment tool for nanoporous aluminum oxide injection molding masks. (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Rasilainen, Tiina; Puukilainen, Esa; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A


    The wetting properties of polypropylene (PP) surfaces were modified by adjusting the dimensions of the surface nanostructure. The nanostructures were generated by injection molding with nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the mold insert. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of molybdenum nitride film was used to control the pore diameters of the AAO inserts. The original 50-nm pore diameter of AAO was adjusted by depositing films of thickness 5, 10, and 15 nm on AAO. Bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and ammonia were used as precursors in deposition. The resulting pore diameters in the nitride-coated AAO inserts were 40, 30, and 20 nm, respectively. Injection molding of PP was conducted with the coated inserts, as well as with the non-coated insert. Besides the pore diameter, the injection mold temperature was varied with temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 degrees C tested. Water contact angles of PP casts were measured and compared with theoretical contact angles calculated from Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories. The highest contact angle, 140 degrees , was observed for PP molded with the AAO mold insert with 30-nm pore diameter. The Cassie-Baxter theory showed better fit than the Wenzel theory to the experimental values. With the optimal AAO mask, the nanofeatures in the molded PP pieces were 100 nm high. In explanation of this finding, it is suggested that some sticking and stretching of the nanofeatures occurs during the molding. Increase in the mold temperature increased the contact angle.

  7. Effects of Coil Diameter in Thickness Measurement Using Pulsed Eddy Current Non-destructive Testing (United States)

    Nisa Azaman, Khairun; Sophian, Ali; Nafiah, Faris


    Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are used in industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or structure without causing any permanent damage. Among the techniques, pulsed eddy current (PEC) NDT is regarded as a new technique where a broadband pulse excitation is used, as opposed to single frequencies employed in conventional eddy current NDT. In this study, a 2D axisymmetric electromagnetic model of a PEC probe has been developed and it has been used to study the effects of the excitation coil diameter on the performance of PEC probes in sample thickness measurement. A PEC system has also been built to validate the model. Aluminium plates are used as the sample and they can be stacked up to replicate thickness from 1 mm to 10 mm. The results show that there is a very good correlation between the simulation and experimental results, with an average error of less than 10%. The results also suggest that the larger the diameter of the excitation coil, the deeper the penetration and therefore the larger the thickness measurement range. It has also been shown that although the larger diameters have deeper penetration, the smallest diameter has the highest sensitivity if normalization is not used. These conclusions indicate that coil diameter is an important parameter in a PEC probe design for thickness measurement applications.

  8. Effect of Orifice Diameter on Bubble Generation Process in Melt Gas Injection to Prepare Aluminum Foams (United States)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ningzhen; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Xiang


    The bubble generation process in conditioned A356 alloy melt through submerged spiry orifices with a wide diameter range (from 0.07 to 1.0 mm) is investigated in order to prepare aluminum foams with fine pores. The gas flow rate and chamber pressure relationship for each orifice is first determined when blowing gas in atmospheric environment. The effects of chamber pressure ( P c) and orifice diameter ( D o) on bubble size are then analyzed separately when blowing gas in melt. A three-dimensional fitting curve is obtained illustrating both the influences of orifice diameter and chamber pressure on bubble size based on the experimental data. It is found that the bubble size has a V-shaped relationship with orifice diameter and chamber pressure neighboring the optimized parameter ( D o = 0.25 mm, P c = 0.4 MPa). The bubble generation mechanism is proposed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. It is found that the bubbles will not be generated until a threshold pressure difference is reached. The threshold pressure difference is dependent on the orifice diameter, which determines the time span of pre-formation stage and bubble growth stage.

  9. Xylem Vessel Diameter Affects the Compartmentalization of the Vascular Pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Pouzoulet


    Full Text Available Fungal wilt diseases are a threat to global food safety. Previous studies in perennial crops showed that xylem vessel diameter affects disease susceptibility. We tested the hypothesis that xylem vessel diameter impacts occlusion processes and pathogen compartmentalization in Vitis vinifera L. We studied the interaction between four grape commercial cultivars with the vascular wilt pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. We used qPCR and wood necrotic lesion length to measure fungal colonization coupled with histological studies to assess differences in xylem morphology, pathogen compartmentalization, and fungal colonization strategy. We provided evidence that grape cultivar with wide xylem vessel diameter showed increased susceptibility to P. chlamydospora. The host response to pathogen included vessel occlusion with tyloses and gels, deposition of non-structural phenolic compounds and suberin in vessel walls and depletion of starch in parenchyma cells. Pathogen compartmentalization was less efficient in wide xylem vessels than in narrow diameter vessels. Large vessels displayed higher number of tyloses and gel pockets, which provided substrate for P. chlamydospora growth and routes to escape occluded vessels. We discuss in which capacity xylem vessel diameter is a key determinant of the compartmentalization process and in turn grape cultivar resistance to disease caused by P. chlamydospora.

  10. Novel technique to accurately measure femoral diameter using a Thomas splint. (United States)

    Liew, Ignatius; Qureshi, Mobeen; Joseph, Jibu; Bailey, Oliver


    During surgical management of femoral shaft fractures, difficulties arise when treating patients with narrow femoral diaphyseal canals, such as young patients and those with dysplastic femurs secondary to underlying pathology. Accurate pre-operative assessment of the femoral diaphyseal canal diameter would allow the surgeon to plan surgical technique and ensure appropriate equipment was available, such as narrow, unreamed or paediatric sized nails. When secured to the patient both longitudinal rods of the main Thomas Splint component lie parallel with the femoral shaft and horizontal to the radiographic x-ray plate. The diameter of these rods are 13mm (Adult and paediatric). Using the calibration tool, we calibrate the diameter of the Thomas Splint to 13mm, accurately measuring any further detail on that radiograph, such as the diaphyseal canal diameter. Accurate knowledge pre-operatively of radiographic measurements is highly valuable to the operating surgeon. This technique can accurately measure femoral canal diameter using the Thomas splint, negates the requirement for a calibration marker, is reproducible, easy to perform, and is indispensible when faced with a patient with a narrow femoral canal in a diaphyseal femoral fracture. (181 words). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The dermoscopic (7FFM) versus the clinical (ABCDE) diagnosis of small diameter melanoma. (United States)

    Benellii, C; Roscetti, E; Dal Pozzo, V


    The diagnosis of small diameter melanoma, that is early melanoma, is particularly difficult. For this reason we decided to evaluate the improvement given from our diagnostic dermoscopic method 7FFM to the clinical diagnosis, ABCDE rule, of small diameter melanoma. A retrospective study evaluating the clinical and the dermoscopic slides of 76 small diameter melanomas observed from January 1 1993 to December 31 1998, and of 524 small melanocytic nevi consecutively observed from September 1 1997 to September 30 1999, has been undertaken. The sensitivity and the specificity of the ABCDE rule and of our diagnostic dermoscopic method 7FFM in the diagnosis of small diameter melanoma have been calculated. The difference of diagnostic power between the two methods has been calculated with chi square test. The sensitivity and the specificity of the ABCDE rule in the diagnosis of small melanomas were 47.3% and 56%, while the sensitivity and the specificity of our method 7FFM were 68.8% and 86%. The difference of diagnostic power between the two methods was statistically significant: P<0.01 for both sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity of the two methods together was 81.5% while the specificity of the two methods together was 50.6%. Our results show that our diagnostic dermoscopic method 7FFM improves both sensitivity and specificity in the clinical diagnosis of small diameter melanomas. Anyway the clinical and the dermoscopic diagnosis are not mutually exclusive as the best sensitivity is obtained with the two methods together.

  12. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize


    Wu, Qian; Pag?s, Lo?c; Wu, Jie


    Background and Aims Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system?s overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the f...

  13. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize. (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Pagès, Loïc; Wu, Jie


    Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system's overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the field. A method combining both excavation and analysis was applied to extract and quantify root architectural traits of adult, field-grown maize plants. The relationships between root diameter and other root architectural characteristics are analysed for two maize cultivars. The basal diameter of the lateral roots (orders 1-3) was highly variable. Basal diameter was partly determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. Basal diameter defined a potential root length, but the lengths of most roots fell far short of this. This was explained partly by differences in the pattern of diameter change along roots. Diameter tended to decrease along most roots, with the steepness of the gradient of decrease depending on basal diameter. The longest roots were those that maintained (or sometimes increased) their diameters during elongation. The branching density (cm(-1)) of laterals was also determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. However, the location of this bearing segment along the mother root was also involved - intermediate positions were associated with higher densities of laterals. The method used here allows us to obtain very detailed records of the geometry and topology of a complex root system. Basal diameter and the pattern of diameter change along a root were associated with its final length. These relationships are especially useful in simulations of root elongation and branching in source-sink models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals

  14. Gelation of small diameter, thoria sol microspheres in non-flowing alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.A.; Salas, N.I.


    A study was made to determine the parameters affecting the mass transfer of water during gelation of 2 M thoria sols in nonflowing alcohol systems. The alcohols used were 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2EH) and mixtures of isoamyl alcohol (iAA) and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. The maximum gelled particle diameters were determined for 5- and 11-ft-long columns of alcohol. Mass transfer theory was used in the development of a computer program to predict the maximum diameters expected. With an increase in iAA concentration, the maximum gelled particle diameter increased. Cracking and deformation were noted, primarily in the larger spheres, at iAA concentrations greater than 30 vol percent. The predictions from correlations indicated the expected trends but were, in general, 10 to 20 percent low

  15. Effect of fiber blending ratios of cotton/polyester yarns on retained splice diameter (United States)

    Çelik, H. İ.; Kaynak, H. K.


    The most important performance parameters of splicing are obtaining adequate strength and appearance at the splice point for all processing requirements. The diameter of spliced portion effects not only appearance of the splice joints but also physical characteristics such as packing density, strength, specific volume of the yarn. In this study, the effect of cotton/polyester fiber blend ratios on spliced portion diameter at different slicing air pressures was investigated. For this aim, three yarn samples 100% cotton, 80-20% CO-PES and 50- 50% CO-PES were produced with 40/1 Ne. Each yarn samples was spliced at three different pressures; 4 bar, 5 bar and 6 bar. The diameters of spliced portion and retained yarns were measured by using ImageJ program and the results were analyzed statistically.

  16. Sensitivity Enhancement in Low Cutoff Wavelength Long-Period Fiber Gratings by Cladding Diameter Reduction. (United States)

    Del Villar, Ignacio; Partridge, Matthew; Rodriguez, Wenceslao Eduardo; Fuentes, Omar; Socorro, Abian Bentor; Diaz, Silvia; Corres, Jesus Maria; James, Stephen Wayne; Tatam, Ralph Peter


    The diameter of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) fabricated in optical fibers with a low cutoff wavelength was be reduced by hydrofluoric acid etching, enhancing the sensitivity to refractive index by more than a factor of 3, to 2611 nm/refractive index unit in the range from 1.333 to 1.4278. The grating period selected for the LPFGs allowed access to the dispersion turning point at wavelengths close to the visible range of the optical spectrum, where optical equipment is less expensive. As an example of an application, a pH sensor based on the deposition of a polymeric coating was analyzed in two situations: with an LPFG without diameter reduction and with an LPFG with diameter reduction. Again, a sensitivity increase of a factor of near 3 was obtained, demonstrating the ability of this method to enhance the sensitivity of thin-film-coated LPFG chemical sensors.

  17. Electroless reductions on carbon nanotubes: How critical is the diameter of a nanotube

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Yong


    Detailed experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to investigate the influence of the diameter of multi-walled carboxy-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CFCNTs) on their ability to reduce PdCl4 2- salt to Pd nanoparticles on their surface at room temperature. The obtained results (inductively-coupled plasmaspectrometry and cyclic voltammetry) show that the reduction ability of CFCNTs with 5 nm diameter (CFCNT5) is stronger than that of CFCNTs with 15 nm diameter (CFCNT15). Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations suggest that a more negative charge distribution exists on CFCNT5, which makes it a better electron donor to PdCl42-. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Replacement of a molar with two narrow-diameter dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Penmetsa


    Full Text Available Dental implants have demonstrated a high degree of success in the restorations of teeth in partially or completely edentulous patients. However, when the buccolingual width of the edentulous crest is insufficient for the placement of standard sized implants, the use of two or more smaller diameter implants should be considered to avoid the need for invasive reconstruction techniques such as grafting procedures. The present case report describes the replacement of a single mandibular first molar with two narrow-diameter implants, in a 41-year- old male patient. No postoperative complications were reported in the 3-year follow-up period. The placement of two narrow-diameter implants replacing a missing mandibular molar could eliminate the mesiodistal bending, double the support capacity in the buccolingual direction, and minimize stress on the implants.

  19. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.


    A program to monitor solar luminosity variations through diameter measurements has been operation at SCLERA since 1981. The solar diameter is currently measured at multiple angles from the equator. Measurements at these different angles have the advantage that, not only can the solar oblateness be accurately measured, but, also, systematic errors, introduced by atmospheric refraction, can be reduced to a minimum. The primary emphasis during the last year has been on data analysis and interpretation. An extension of theoretical work relevant to the relationship between the solar diameter and luminosity for long-period oscillations has been extended to include 160 min period oscillations, and several tests have been completed. An absolute calibration system for the telescope field has been constructed and is being tested. A review of this work is presented

  20. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A program to monitor solar luminosity variations through diameter measurements has been in operation at SCLERA since 1981. The solar diameter is measured at multiple angles from the equator. Measurements at these different angles have the advantage that not only can the solar oblateness be accurately measured, but also, a systematic errors introduced by atmospheric refraction can be reduced to a minimum. An improved theoretical treatment relevant to the relationship between the solar diameter and luminosity for long period oscilations has been successfully developed, and testing is currently underway. The construction of an absolute calibration system for the telescope field has been conducted and will soon be operational. A review of this work is presented

  1. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang


    isometric exercise in normal persons (diameter response: -0.70+/-0.48%) and in patients with no retinopathy (-1.15+/-0.44%), but dilated in patients with mild retinopathy (0.41+/-0.49%) and diabetic maculopathy (0.54+/-0.44%), p=0.01. Retinal thickness was normal in Group A (260+/-5.0 microm), Group B (257......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group...... A consisted of normal individuals and groups B-D consisted of type 2 diabetic patients matched for diabetes duration, age, and gender, and characterized by: Group B no retinopathy, Group C mild retinopathy, Group D maculopathy not requiring laser treatment. The diameter changes of a large retinal arteriole...

  2. Meniscal repair using large diameter horizontal sutures increases fixation strength: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Kocabey, Yavuz; Taşer, Omer; Hapa, Onur; Güçlü, Aycan; Bozdag, Ergun; Sünbüloglu, Emin; Doral, Mahmutnedim


    the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical characteristics of meniscal repair fixation using horizontal sutures and two different diameter sutures under submaximal cyclic and load to failure test conditions. a 2-cm long anteroposterior vertical longitudinal incision was created in two groups of bovine medial menisci. Lesions were repaired using either #2-0 (Group 1), or #2 (Group 2) Fiberwire suture. Following repair, the lesion was extended through the posterior and anterior meniscal horns so that no tissue secured the repair site. Specimens underwent submaximal cyclic (5-50 N at 1 Hz for 500 cycles) and load to failure testing (5 mm/min crosshead speed) in a servo hydraulic device. Specimen failure mode was verified by the primary investigator. An alpha level of P meniscal tissue. Larger diameter suture provided superior mechanical meniscal fixation. if horizontal suture would be used in meniscal repair, the most suitable larger diameter suture should be used.

  3. Diameter control and emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown using chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaatz, F.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Jackson, J.L


    We grow multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via thermal chemical vapor deposition from a sputtered 4-nm-thick nickel catalyst film on a tungsten-coated silicon substrate. CNTs grow from a mixture of nitrogen and acetylene gases at temperatures ranging from 630 to 790 deg. C, resulting in CNT outer diameters of 5-350 nm. CNT diameters increase exponentially with temperature. These results define regimes for template growth fabricated in catalytically active anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with controlled pinhole sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. We measure a threshold electron emission field of 3 V/{mu}m and a field enhancement factor {beta}=5230 on randomly oriented 10-nm diameter CNTs.

  4. Diameter control and emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown using chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatz, F.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Jackson, J.L.


    We grow multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via thermal chemical vapor deposition from a sputtered 4-nm-thick nickel catalyst film on a tungsten-coated silicon substrate. CNTs grow from a mixture of nitrogen and acetylene gases at temperatures ranging from 630 to 790 deg. C, resulting in CNT outer diameters of 5-350 nm. CNT diameters increase exponentially with temperature. These results define regimes for template growth fabricated in catalytically active anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with controlled pinhole sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. We measure a threshold electron emission field of 3 V/μm and a field enhancement factor β=5230 on randomly oriented 10-nm diameter CNTs

  5. Gamma ray scanning as troubleshooting tool for unusual and large diameter refinery vacuum columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, T.K.; Chawla, R.; Banik, S.; Chopra, S.J. [Engineers India Limited, New Delhi (India); Singh, G.; Pant, H.J.; Sreeramakrishnan, P.; Dhar, D.C.; Pushpangathan, P.N.; Sharma, V.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Isotope Division


    Gamma scanning of trayed and packed columns is widely used to obtain density profiles and identify on-line problems such as: damaged tray or packing, foaming, flooding, maldistribution, weeping and entrainment, etc. However, scanning of large diameter tray or packed columns requires expertise in handling high intensity gamma sources along with thorough understanding of distillation engineering. Engineers India Limited and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre undertook scanning of two such large diameter (8.4 m and 7.4 m) trayed and packed refinery vacuum distillation columns and successfully diagnosed the problems and suggested remedial actions. Radiography testing of small diameter columns can be used to confirm gamma scanning results. One such example for ammonia separator column is given 8 figs.

  6. Physical Modelling of Large Diameter Piles in Coarse-Grained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødbæk, K. T.; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Møller, M.


    design (e.g. [1] and [2]) is the effects of diameter on the initial part of the p-y curves. This part is especially important in connection with the serviceability limit state and fatigue. The effects of diameter on the p-y curves can be investigated by means of either numerical analyses or physical...... modelling (large- or small-scale). This paper investigates the effects of diameter on the initial part of the p-y curves by small-scale testing. A new and innovative test setup is presented. In order to minimize scale effects the tests are successfully carried out in a pressure tank enabling the possibility...... of increasing the effective stresses. The test setup is thoroughly described in the paper. Two non-slender aluminium pipe piles subjected to lateral loads have been tested in the laboratory. The piles are heavily instrumented with strain gauges in order to obtain p-y curves, displacement and bending moment...

  7. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.


    The objective of the project is to detect and monitor climatically significant solar variability by accurate monitoring of the associated variability in solar shape and diameter. The observing program for this project was initiated in 1981. Solar diameter measurements have been taken and data reduction programs for these measurements have been developed. Theoretical analysis of the expected change in the intensity from the solar atmosphere to a given mechanial driving has progressed to the extent that changes in the solar diameter can be related to the associated change in the solar luminosity. An absolute calibration system for the telescope has been constructed and is currently being tested. A proposal is made for the continuation of the work in each of these areas

  8. Centrifuge modelling of large diameter pile in sand subject to lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    and cyclic behaviour of large diameter rigid piles in dry sand by use of physical modelling. The physical modelling has been carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Danish Technical University (DTU.BYG), in the period from 2005 to 2009. The main centrifuge facilities, and especially...... the equipment for lateral load tests were at the start of the research in 2005 outdated and a major part of the work with the geotechnical centrifuge included renovation and upgrading of the facilities. The research with respect to testing of large diameter piles included:  Construction of equipment...... with embedment lengths of 6, 8 and 10 times the diameter. The tests have been carried out with a load eccentricity of 2.5 m to 6.5 m above the sand surface. The present report includes a description of the centrifuge facilities, applied test procedure and equipment along with presentation of the obtained results....

  9. High-performance radio frequency transistors based on diameter-separated semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yu; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Seo, Jung-Woo T.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Gui, Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)


    In this paper, we report the high-performance radio-frequency transistors based on the single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes with a refined average diameter of ∼1.6 nm. These diameter-separated carbon nanotube transistors show excellent transconductance of 55 μS/μm and desirable drain current saturation with an output resistance of ∼100 KΩ μm. An exceptional radio-frequency performance is also achieved with current gain and power gain cut-off frequencies of 23 GHz and 20 GHz (extrinsic) and 65 GHz and 35 GHz (intrinsic), respectively. These radio-frequency metrics are among the highest reported for the carbon nanotube thin-film transistors. This study provides demonstration of radio frequency transistors based on carbon nanotubes with tailored diameter distributions, which will guide the future application of carbon nanotubes in radio-frequency electronics.

  10. Gamma ray scanning as troubleshooting tool for unusual and large diameter refinery vacuum columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, T.K.; Chawla, R.; Banik, S.; Chopra, S.J.; Singh, G.; Pant, H.J.; Sreeramakrishnan, P.; Dhar, D.C.; Pushpangathan, P.N.; Sharma, V.K.


    Gamma scanning of trayed and packed columns is widely used to obtain density profiles and identify on-line problems such as: damaged tray or packing, foaming, flooding, maldistribution, weeping and entrainment, etc. However, scanning of large diameter tray or packed columns requires expertise in handling high intensity gamma sources along with thorough understanding of distillation engineering. Engineers India Limited and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre undertook scanning of two such large diameter (8.4 m and 7.4 m) trayed and packed refinery vacuum distillation columns and successfully diagnosed the problems and suggested remedial actions. Radiography testing of small diameter columns can be used to confirm gamma scanning results. One such example for ammonia separator column is given

  11. Spin configuration in isolated FeCoCu nanowires modulated in diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Bran, Cristina; Berganza, Eider; Mínguez-Bacho, Ignacio; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina; Magén, César


    Cylindrical Fe 28 Co 67 Cu 5 nanowires modulated in diameter between 22 and 35 nm are synthesized by electroplating into the nanopores of alumina membranes. High-sensitivity MFM imaging (with a detection noise of 1 μN m −1 ) reveals the presence of single-domain structures in remanence with strong contrast at the ends of the nanowires, as well as at the transition regions where the diameter is modulated. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that curling of the magnetization takes place at these transition sites, extending over 10–20 nm and giving rise to stray fields measurable with our MFM. An additional weaker contrast is imaged, which is interpreted to arise from inhomogeneities in the nanowire diameter. (paper)

  12. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  13. Puffing and inhalation behaviour in cigarette smoking: Implications for particle diameter and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, Colin; McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John, E-mail: [British American Tobacco, Group R and D Centre, Southampton, SO15 8TL (United Kingdom)


    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of diameter 150 - 250 nm CMD. Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, it was noted that particle deposition increased with increasing inhalation depth, and that smoke inhalation volumes were generally greater than normal tidal breathing volumes. A weak association was observed between particle diameter and puff flow, but no strong association between particle diameter and retention efficiency.

  14. Sensitivity Enhancement in Low Cutoff Wavelength Long-Period Fiber Gratings by Cladding Diameter Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Del Villar


    Full Text Available The diameter of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs fabricated in optical fibers with a low cutoff wavelength was be reduced by hydrofluoric acid etching, enhancing the sensitivity to refractive index by more than a factor of 3, to 2611 nm/refractive index unit in the range from 1.333 to 1.4278. The grating period selected for the LPFGs allowed access to the dispersion turning point at wavelengths close to the visible range of the optical spectrum, where optical equipment is less expensive. As an example of an application, a pH sensor based on the deposition of a polymeric coating was analyzed in two situations: with an LPFG without diameter reduction and with an LPFG with diameter reduction. Again, a sensitivity increase of a factor of near 3 was obtained, demonstrating the ability of this method to enhance the sensitivity of thin-film-coated LPFG chemical sensors.

  15. The influence of nozzle diameters on the interaction characteristic of combustion-gas jets and liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-chun Xue


    Full Text Available To investigate the controlling method of interior ballistic stability of bulk-loaded propellant guns, the combustion-gas generator and cylindrical stepped-wall chamber are designed aiming at the injection processes of combustion-gases in liquid. The expansion courses of Taylor cavities and the turbulent mixing characteristic of gas–liquid are recorded by means of high speed photographic system. Based on the experiment, three-dimensional unsteady model on the interaction of gas and liquid is established to simulate expansion characteristics of twin combustion-gas jets in liquid under different nozzle diameters. The distribution regularities of characteristic parameter in jet field are obtained and analyzed. The results show the pressure, velocity and temperature distributions under different nozzle diameters are basically the same at the initial time. As time goes on, these characteristic parameters under different nozzle diameters have large differences.

  16. Attempts to isolate a horizontal high diameter (300 mm nominal diameter) pipeline with an ice plug at minimum water flow and without water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbescu, B.; Gyongyosi, T.; Puiu, D.; Panaitescu, V. N.


    The ice plug isolation technique used for high diameter horizontal pipes is used for repair and maintenance activities on hydraulic installations that use liquid working agents. These techniques do not require shutting down the entire plant. The ice plug development inside the pipe requires using custom specialized equipment for each individual application. This paper briefly describes the experimental technological facilities used for conducting the experiments and highlights the important aspects in an experiment conducted on a horizontal NPS 12 testing section running demineralized water followed by the result analysis and conclusions. The paper is dedicated to specialists working in research and technological engineering. (authors)

  17. Changes in Spinal Canal Diameter and Vertebral Body Height with Age (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun


    Purpose All structures of the spine, including the spinal canal, change continuously with age. The purpose of this study was to determine how the spinal canal of the lumbar spine changes with age. The L4/5 is the most common site of spinal stenosis and has the largest flexion-extension motion, whereas the T5/6 has the least motion. Therefore, we measured the spinal canal diameter and vertebral body height at T5, T6, L4, and L5 with age. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of aged 40 to 77 years. We reviewed whole spine sagittal MRIs of 370 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (Group 2) and 166 herniated cervical disc (HCD) (Group 1). Each group was divided into four age groups, and demographic parameters (age, gender, height, weight, BMI), the mid-spinal canal diameter, and mid-vertebrae height at T5, T6, L4, L5 were compared. Within- and between-group comparisons were made to evaluate changes by age and correlations were carried out to evaluate the relationships between all parameters. Results Height, weight, and all radiologic parameters were significantly lower in Group 2 than Group 1. Group 1 did not show any differences, when based on age, but in Group 2, height, weight, and T6, L4, and L5 height were significantly decreased in patients in their 70's than patients in their 40's, except for spinal canal diameter. Age was associated with all parameters except spinal canal diameter. Conclusion Vertebral height decreased with age, but spinal canal diameter did not change in patients with either LSS or HCD. Mid-spinal canal diameter was not affected by aging. PMID:24142657

  18. Reduction of the Areolar Diameter After Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction for Gynecomastia. (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Hanci, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent


    One of the clinical aspects characterizing gynecomastia is the enlargement of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) due to hypertrophic breast glands, and the excessive fatty tissue underneath. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of the areolar diameter after ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) of the male breast. The horizontal diameters of the NACs of 30 men who underwent UAL were measured before surgery, 1 month after surgery and 6 months after surgery in a standard fashion. Those patients with surgical gland removals of any kind were not included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 27.9 years, and all of the patients had bilateral grade I, II, or III gynecomastia. The mean diameter of the NACs before surgery was 35.36 mm (range, 26-55 mm), and after surgery, the mean diameter of the NACs was initially reduced to 28.8 mm (range, 23-44 mm) and later to 28.57 mm (range, 23-42 mm). The mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 382 mL per breast, and the percentage of reduction was 17.3%. The reduction of areola diameter was statistically significant after first month. A significant positive correlation was identified between the liposuction volume and areolar diameter reduction. In cases of gynecomastia, the removal of the glandular and fatty tissue underneath the areola releases the expanding forces and pressure that enlarge it. In many cases of gynecomastia, UAL alone is effective in reducing the size of the NAC and allows the surgeon to avoid placing scars on the breast.

  19. Low-density lipoprotein particle diameter and mortality: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja B; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Silbernagel, Günther; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; Wieland, Heinrich; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Scharnagl, Hubert


    The aim of the study was to examine whether differences in average diameter of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were associated with total and cardiovascular mortality. We studied 1643 subjects referred to coronary angiography, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs. During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 398 patients died, of these 246 from cardiovascular causes. We calculated average particle diameters of LDL from the composition of LDL obtained by β-quantification. When LDL with intermediate average diameters (16.5-16.8 nm) were used as reference category, the hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors for death from any cause were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31-2.25) and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.63) in patients with large (>16.8 nm) or small LDL (<16.5 nm), respectively. Adjusted HRs for death from cardiovascular causes were 1.89 (95% CI: 1.32-2.70) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.06-2.12) in patients with large or small LDL, respectively. Patients with large LDL had higher concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein than patients with small or intermediate LDL. Equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation revealed characteristic and distinct profiles of LDL particles in persons with large (approximately even distribution of intermediate-density lipoproteins and LDL-1 through LDL-6) intermediate (peak concentration at LDL-4) or small (peak concentration at LDL-6) average LDL particle diameters. Calculated LDL particle diameters identify patients with different profiles of LDL subfractions. Both large and small LDL diameters are independently associated with increased risk mortality of all causes and, more so, due to cardiovascular causes compared with LDL of intermediate size. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email:

  20. PWR fuel pin diameter optimisation studies and economic analyses for uranium nitride fuel - 5048

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.M.; Grove, C.


    Alternative advanced fuels are currently being investigated by the nuclear industry. For example, research is underway into the possibility of replacing industry standard UO 2 fuel with Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) such as uranium nitride (UN). The higher density of UN compared with UO 2 results in a reduction in neutron moderation due to the lower hydrogen to heavy metal ratio (H/HM) for a given fuel assembly geometry in water. This suggests a different optimum UN fuel pin diameter in order to maximise lifetime average reactivity. If a smaller UN pellet/cladding diameter is adopted then the H/HM ratio is increased, leading to an increase in reactivity at lower burnup (followed by a reduction at higher burnup due to reduced Pu production). Preliminary studies have also indicated that a reduction of the UN pellet diameter with respect to standard UO 2 fuel could be beneficial to economic performance. This paper describes an approach used to determine the optimum fuel pin diameter for UN fuel in an AP1000 PWR using Studsvik CASMO4/SIMULATE3 neutronics codes. The objective is to maximise the fuel's lifetime average reactivity while staying within typical PWR nuclear design safety limits. The calculations demonstrate that the pin diameter should be decreased to optimise the fuel reactivity. However, if the pin diameter is decreased too much a highly undesirable positive moderator temperature coefficient can result. Economics calculations show that if UN fuel is used there is a potential economic benefit - in the region of 3 million dollar per 18-month reload if generic openly available cost data is used

  1. Effect of pedicle screw diameter on screw fixation efficacy in human osteoporotic thoracic vertebrae. (United States)

    Lai, Dar-Ming; Shih, Yu-Tang; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Chien, Andy; Wang, Jaw-Lin


    The selection of an ideal screw size plays a crucial role in the success of spinal instrumentation as larger diameter screws are thought to provide better fixation strength but increase the risk of pedicle failure during insertion. On the other hand, smaller diameter screws are with lesser risk of pedicle breakage but are thought to compromise the stability of the instrumentation. By investigating the relationship between screw diameter and the pullout strength of pedicle screws after fatigue loading, this study seeks to find quantitative biomechanical data for surgeons in determining the most ideal diameter size screws when performing surgical implementations on osteoporotic vertebrae. Twenty-seven osteoporotic (BMD ranged: 0.353-0.848 g/cm 2 ) thoracic vertebrae (T3-T8) were harvested from 5 human cadavers. Two sizes of poly-axial screws (5.0 mm × 35 and 4.35 mm × 35) were implanted into each pedicles of the vertebrae by an experienced surgeon. Specimens were randomly distributed into control group, fatigue group of 5000 and 10,000 cycles with peak-to-peak loadings of 10-100 N at 1 Hz. Each specimen was then axial pullout tested at a constant rate of 5 mm/min. The ultimate pullout strength (N) & stiffness (N/mm) were obtained for analysis. The results showed that although the larger diameter screws achieved superior pullout strength immediately after the implantation, both sizes of screws exhibited comparable pullout strengths post fatigue loading. This indicates that the smaller diameter screws may be considered for surgical techniques performed on osteoporotic vertebrae for reduced risk of pedicle breakage without sacrificing fixation strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak


    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... in dairy calves....

  3. Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, M A; Adams, J J; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hollingsworth, W G; Jarboe, J A; Matthews, M; Rubenchik, A M; Spaeth, M L


    Growth of laser initiated damage plays a major role in determining optics lifetime in high power laser systems. Previous measurements have established that the lateral diameter grows exponentially. Knowledge of the growth of the site in the propagation direction is also important, especially so when considering techniques designed to mitigate damage growth, where it is required to reach all the subsurface damage. In this work, we present data on both the diameter and the depth of a growing exit surface damage sites in fused silica. Measured growth rates with both 351 nm illumination and with combined 351 nm and 1054 nm illumination are discussed.

  4. A Robotic System for Inspection and Repair of Small Diameter Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Vorotnikov


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the construction and control system of miniature robotic system that is designed to move and make inspection inside small diameter pipelines. It gives an overview of ways to move a microsize robotic system inside the small diameter pipe. The proposed design consists of information module and three traction modules, including modules for fixing, linear moving and angular positioning. This paper describes the design and operation of a robotic system and its different modules. Also are shown the structure of the robot control system, the basic calculations of construct and some simulation results of the individual modules of the robot.

  5. Precise control of multiwall carbon nanotube diameters using thermal chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Provencio, P. P.


    We grow multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) films using thermal chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure using a mixture of acetylene and nitrogen from a 4-nm-thick Ni film catalyst. CNTs are characterized using electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. CNTs grown with this method are extremely uniform in diameter, both throughout the sample and within the lengths of individual tubes. Nanotube outer diameters, ranging from 5-350 nm, and the total deposition of carbon material, increase exponentially with growth temperature from 630 °C-790 °C.

  6. Single-mode 37-core fiber with a cladding diameter of 248 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Takenaga, K.; Aikawa, K.


    A heterogeneous single-mode 37-core fiber with a cladding diameter of 248 μm is designed and fabricated. The fiber provides the highest core count and low total-crosstalk less than −20 dB/1000 km in C+L band.......A heterogeneous single-mode 37-core fiber with a cladding diameter of 248 μm is designed and fabricated. The fiber provides the highest core count and low total-crosstalk less than −20 dB/1000 km in C+L band....

  7. Spectral tuning of the diameter-dependent-chirped Bragg gratings written in microfibers. (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Liu, Tong; Feng, Fu-Rong; Sun, Li-Peng; Liang, Hao; Ran, Yang; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-Ou


    Chirped fiber Bragg gratings can straightforwardly and efficiently be fabricated onto microfibers with a uniform phase mask. Due to the variation of the propagating constant, which depends on the fiber diameter, the broadband spectrum of the grating can be formed. Depending on the different responses to the ambient refractive index in different parts of the grating, the bandwidth of the grating can be tuned by changing the surrounding solution. In addition, by being partly immersed in a liquid, the diameter-chirped Bragg grating can act as a broadband Fabry-Perot interferometer, whose spectrum can be tuned by means of controlling the liquid level and ambient refractive index.

  8. Bloch-wave engineered submicron-diameter quantum-dot micropillars for cavity QED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Lermer, Matthias; Reitzenstein, Stephan


    The semiconductor micropillar is attractive for cavity QED experiments. For strong coupling, the figure of merit is proportional to Q/√V, and a design combining a high Q and a low mode volume V is thus desired. However, for the standard submicron diameter design, poor mode matching between the ca...... the cavity and the DBR Bloch mode limits the Q. We present a novel adiabatic design where Bloch-wave engineering is employed to improve the mode matching, allowing the demonstration of a record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 μeV and a Q of 13600 for a 850 nm diameter micropillar....

  9. Optic nerve sheath diameter: A novel way to monitor the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seelora Sahu


    Full Text Available Measurement and monitoring of intracranial pressure is pivotal in management of brain injured patients. As a rapid and easily done bed side measurement, ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter presents itself as a possible replacement of the conventional invasive methods of intracranial pressure management. In this review we go through the evolution of optic nerve sheath diameter measurement as a novel marker of predicting raised intracranial pressure, the modalities by which it can be measured as well as its correlation with the invasive methods of intracranial pressure monitoring.

  10. Optimization of the Critical Diameter and Average Path Length of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Du


    Full Text Available Optimizing average path length (APL by adding shortcut edges has been widely discussed in connection with social networks, but the relationship between network diameter and APL is generally ignored in the dynamic optimization of APL. In this paper, we analyze this relationship and transform the problem of optimizing APL into the problem of decreasing diameter to 2. We propose a mathematic model based on a memetic algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm can efficiently solve this problem as well as optimize APL.

  11. Sample size for estimating average trunk diameter and plant height in eucalyptus hybrids


    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Rafael Beltrame; Dilson Antônio Bisognin; Marília Lazarotto; Clovis Roberto Haselein; Darci Alberto Gatto; Gleison Augusto dos Santos


    ABSTRACT: In eucalyptus crops, it is important to determine the number of plants that need to be evaluated for a reliable inference of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the sample size needed to estimate average trunk diameter at breast height and plant height of inter-specific eucalyptus hybrids. In 6,694 plants of twelve inter-specific hybrids it was evaluated trunk diameter at breast height at three (DBH3) and seven years (DBH7) and tree height at seven years (H7) of age. The ...

  12. Control of Separation and Diameter of Ag Nanorods through Self-organized Seeds. (United States)

    Elliott, Paul R; Stagon, Stephen P; Huang, Hanchen


    This paper proposes a mechanism of controlling the diameter and separation of metallic nanorods from physical vapor deposition through self-organized seeds and experimentally demonstrates the feasibility using Ag as the prototype metal, In as the seed, and Si the substrate. Being non-wetting on Si substrates, deposited In atoms self-organize into islands. Subsequently deposited Ag atoms attach to In islands, rather than to Si substrates, due to preferential bonding and geometrical shadowing. The experimental results show that self-organized In seeds of 5 nm nominal thickness give rise to the best separation and the smallest diameter of Ag nanorods.

  13. Analysis of the radius and diameter protocols in terms of pricing telecommunication services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna M. Radonjić


    Full Text Available Accounting of telecommunication services is closely related to the functions of authentication and authorization. These functions are usually considered together and implemented within the same server using a common protocol. The most renowned protocols for authentication, authorization and accounting are the RADIUS and Diameter protocols.   AAA functions and related protocols   In this chapter, the accounting management architecture developed by IETF is presented. It includes the interaction between network elements, accounting servers and billing and charging servers. Accounting data can be used for management, planning and charging users as well as other (specific purposes. Authentication is the process of confirming a user's digital identity, usually through some type of identifiers and related data. Authorization determines whether a particular entity is authorized to perform an activity.   Basic Functions of the RADIUS Protocol   The RADIUS architecture is based on a client-server model. It uses UDP on the transport layer. Transactions between the client and the server are authenticated, which is achieved by using a common secret key that is never sent through the network. Given the limited resources available to network devices, RADIUS facilitates and centralizes charging end users, provides some protection against active attacks by unauthorized users and it has great support from different network equipment vendors. Although RADIUS is a widely accepted protocol for the mechanisms of authentication, authorization and accounting, it has certain shortcomings that may be caused by the protocol itself or by its poor implementation.   Architecture and Operation of the Diameter Protocol   Diameter is a scalable protocol designed by the IETF working group in order to eliminate shortcomings and functional limitations of the RADIUS protocol and eventually to replace it in the near future. Most of the basic Diameter mechanisms and its

  14. Effect of alphatocopherol on diameter of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney in diabetic mice. (United States)

    Rashid, Saadia


    To evaluate the effects of alphatocopherol supplement on proximal convoluted tubular diameter of kidney in diabetic mice. The randomised controlled trials was conducted partly at the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, and partly in Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Thirty adult female mice BALB/C were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group A served as the control group. Group B was made diabetic by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Group C received injection streptozotocin and was fed with alphatocopherol (vitamin E) supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histomorphological study. Diabetes caused significant changes in the diameter of proximal tubule of Experimental Group B (diabetic) compared to the controls in Group A, but these changes were prevented in alphatocopherol treated Group C. Tubular diameter in Group B was significantly reduced compared to theControl Group A (p 0.05). Significant difference in proximal tubular diameter of kidneys between diabetic and alphatocopherol treated diabetic mice confirm that vitamin E does extend a protective role in improving diabetic nephropathy.

  15. The control of stainless steel tubes and wires of small diameter by the Eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, A.; Gallet, G.


    Stainless steel tubes and wires with an outer diameter greater than 1 mm were studied by Eddy currents. The sensor characteristics and the detection of defects in function of frequency are presented together with the results obtained in the detection of dimensional and metallurgical defects [fr

  16. Circuit dependence of the diameter of pulsed positive streamers in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.P. Briels (Tanja); J. Kos; E.M. van Veldhuizen; U. M. Ebert (Ute)


    htmlabstractDiameter and branching structure of positive streamers in ambient air are investigated with a fast iCCD-camera. We use different pulsed power circuits and find that they generate different spatial streamer structures. The electrodes have a point-plane geometry and a distance of 40

  17. Tree height-diameter and yield functions for Gmelina arborea (roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Linear, logarithmic, polynomial, power and exponential height-diameter and stem volume models were fitted to the dataset. The predictor was tree Dbh (cm). The developed models were assessed using coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean ...

  18. A semi-empirical model for predicting crown diameter of cedrela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-empirical model relating age and breast height has been developed to predict individual tree crown diameter for Cedrela odorata (L) plantation in the moist evergreen forest zones of Ghana. The model was based on field records of 269 trees, and could determine the crown cover dynamics, forecast time of canopy ...

  19. Development of an inspection robot for small diameter gas distribution mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano; Pulles, Kees


    This paper discusses the design of a mechanical structure of a miniature pipe inspection robot capable of moving through very small pipes (down to 41 mm inner diameter). The requirement to negotiate bends, T-joints and steep inclinations pose another set of strict design constraints. The proposed

  20. Influence of core diameter and length of polymer optical fiber on Brillouin scattering properties (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Ishigure, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kentaro


    Brillouin scattering in perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (PFGI-POFs) is potentially useful in developing high-accuracy distributed temperature sensors with reduced strain sensitivity. In this study, we investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the influence of the fiber core diameter and length on the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) in PFGI-POFs. First, we show that smaller core diameter drastically enhances the Stokes power using PFGI-POFs with 62.5-μm and 120-μm core diameters, and discuss the Brillouin threshold power. Then, we demonstrate that the PFGI-POF length has little influence on the BGS when the length is longer than 50 m. We also predict that, at 1.55-μm wavelength, it is difficult to reduce the Brillouin threshold power of PFGI-POFs below that of long silica single-mode fibers even if their core diameter is sufficiently reduced to satisfy the single-mode condition. Finally, making use of the enhanced Stokes signal, we confirm the Brillouin linewidth narrowing effect.