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Sample records for biotypes

  1. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P; Van Dyck, E; Peeters, M; Hale, J; Totten, P A; Holmes, K K

    1984-10-01

    A simple and reproducible scheme for identifying biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis has been developed, based on reactions for lipase, hippurate hydrolysis, and beta-galactosidase. Among a total of 359 strains tested, eight biotypes were observed, the most common ones being types 1 (beta-galactosidase positive, lipase positive, hippurate positive), 2 (beta-galactosidase negative, lipase positive, hippurate positive), and 5 (beta-galactosidase negative, lipase negative, hippurate positive). The distribution in biotypes was similar among isolates from Antwerp, Seattle, and Nairobi. There were no differences in biotypes between strains isolated from patients with and without bacterial vaginosis (nonspecific vaginitis). Up to 14% of women with bacterial vaginosis harbored at least two different biotypes of G. vaginalis in the vagina. G. vaginalis strains isolated before and after treatment for bacterial vaginosis belonged to identical biotypes when the time interval between two specimens was less than 1 week. Similarly, G. vaginalis isolates from the vaginas of women with bacterial vaginosis and from the urethras of their male sex partners belonged to identical biotypes when strains were isolated within the same 24-h period from both partners (P less than 0.005).

  2. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Piot, P; Van Dyck, E; Peeters, M; Hale, J.; Totten, P A; Holmes, K K

    1984-01-01

    A simple and reproducible scheme for identifying biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis has been developed, based on reactions for lipase, hippurate hydrolysis, and beta-galactosidase. Among a total of 359 strains tested, eight biotypes were observed, the most common ones being types 1 (beta-galactosidase positive, lipase positive, hippurate positive), 2 (beta-galactosidase negative, lipase positive, hippurate positive), and 5 (beta-galactosidase negative, lipase negative, hippurate positive). The...

  3. A modified scheme for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, R; Vazquez, J A; Berron, S; Fenoll, A; Saez-Neito, J A

    1986-06-01

    A scheme is proposed for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis, based on detection of hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and lipase, and fermentation of arabinose, galactose and xylose. Seventeen biotypes were found among 197 strains from asymptomatic women and patients with bacterial vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis). The distribution of biotypes was similar in both populations but some biotypes were found more frequently in patients. The proposed scheme is compared with those previously described.

  4. Soft tissue biotype affects implant success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angie; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-06-01

    The influence of tissue biotype in natural dentition is already well demonstrated in the literature, with numerous articles showing that thicker tissue is a preferred biotype for optimal surgical and prosthetic outcomes. In this same line of thought, current studies are directed to explore whether mucosal thickness would have similar implications around dental implants. The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of soft tissue biotype in relation to success of implant therapy. The influence of tissue biotype was divided into 3 main categories: its relationship with periimplant mucosa and the underlying bone, immediate implant placement, and restorative outcomes. Soft tissue biotype is an important parameter to consider in achieving esthetic implant restoration, improving immediate implant success, and preventing future mucosal recession.

  5. [Gardnerella vaginalis biotypes: modification of a proposed system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Avilés, A G; Inzunza-Montiel, A E; Ortíz-Zaragoza, M C; Morales-Espinosa, M R; Ponce-Rosas, E R

    1995-01-01

    A modified scheme is proposed for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis based on detection of hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and lipase, and fermentation of arabinose, galactose and xylose. Thirty three biotypes were found among 140 strains from women with and without bacterial vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis). The distribution of biotypes were found to be significantly different, being more predominant the biotypes 1A; 5G; 7A; 7D and 7G in women with vaginosis and the biotypes 5G and 6H in women without vaginosis. These data suggest that some biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis are associated with bacterial vaginosis.

  6. Cholera outbreaks in the classical biotype era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A K; Cash, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In the Indian subcontinent description of a disease resembling cholera has been mentioned in Sushruta Samita, estimated to have been written between ~400 and 500 BC. It is however not clear whether the disease known today as cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae O1 is the evolutionary progression of the ancient disease. The modern history of cholera began in 1817 when an explosive epidemic broke out in the Ganges River Delta region of Bengal. This was the first of the seven recorded cholera pandemics cholera pandemics that affected nearly the entire world and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The bacterium responsible for this human disease was first recognised during the fifth pandemic and was named V. cholerae which was grouped as O1, and was further differentiated into Classical and El Tor biotypes. It is now known that the fifth and the sixth pandemics were caused by the V. cholerae O1 of the Classical biotype Classical biotype and the seventh by the El Tor biotype El Tor biotype . The El Tor biotype of V. cholerae, which originated in Indonesia Indonesia and shortly thereafter began to spread in the early 1960s. Within the span of 50 years the El Tor biotype had invaded nearly the entire world, completely displacing the Classical biotype from all the countries except Bangladesh. What prompted the earlier pandemics to begin is not clearly understood, nor do we know how and why they ended. The success of the seventh pandemic clone over the pre-existing sixth pandemic strain remains largely an unsolved mystery. Why classical biotype eventually disappeared from the world remains to be explained. For nearly three decades (1963-1991) during the Seventh cholera pandemic seventh pandemic, cholera in Bangladesh has recorded a unique history of co-existence of Classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae O1 as epidemic and endemic strain. This long co-existence has provided us with great opportunity to improve our understanding of the disease itself

  7. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pedraza Avilés, A; Ortíz-Zaragoza, M C; Inzunza-Montiel, A E; Ponce-Rosas, E R

    1996-01-01

    A modified scheme is proposed for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from urinary tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic women based on detection of hippurate hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and lipase, and fermentation of arabinose, galactose and xylose. Thirty biotypes were found among 73 strains. The distribution of biotypes was similar in both populations but the biotypes 1H, 5G and 7G were found more frequently in women without symptoms of urinary tract infection.

  8. Immersion vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri O1, biotype 2 confers cross protection against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Neumann, Lukas; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    organs (head kidney, spleen, liver, brain, muscle, heart, intestine, skin and gill). Seven days post infection 40% of mock-vaccinated fish were still heavy infected, which corresponds well with overall mortality in this group (35%). In general pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was higher in the mock-vaccinated......A new biotype 2 of Y. ruckeri O1, which lacks motility has proven highly virulent for rainbow trout, and is causing disease in cultured trout even in fish vaccinated with commercial ERM biotype 1 vaccines. Not much is known about immunity against biotype 2, and therefore have we produced a Y....... ruckeri O1 biotype 2 immersion vaccine and tested the protection against both Y. ruckeri biotype 1 and 2 infections. Seven months post vaccination, both vaccinated and mock-vaccinated groups of rainbow trout were bath challenged with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 1 or 2. Challenge with biotype 2...

  9. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  10. Longitudinal study of the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briselden, A M; Hillier, S L

    1990-12-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant vaginal microorganism in women with bacterial vaginosis. However, this organism is also frequently isolated from women without signs or symptoms of vaginitis. Earlier studies have not revealed whether certain biotypes of G. vaginalis are more often associated with bacterial vaginosis or are more common in women who acquire bacterial vaginosis. We used a typing scheme based on tests for beta-galactosidase, hippurate hydrolysis, and lipase, using oleate as a substrate. Of 261 strains tested, the distribution of biotypes observed was as follows: 1, 13%; 2, 9%; 3, 5%; 4, 7%; 5, 41%; 6, 15%; and 8, 10%. Biotype 7 was not observed. The distributions of biotypes from women with and without bacterial vaginosis were found to be significantly different, with the lipase-positive biotypes (biotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4) being more predominant in women with vaginosis (41 versus 23%, P = 0.003). Of 40 women with normal vaginal flora at the index visit who remained normal at follow-up, 23 (57%) acquired a new biotype of G. vaginalis. By comparison, 90% of the 30 women who developed bacterial vaginosis acquired a new biotype of G. vaginalis (P = 0.003). Women with bacterial vaginosis at the index visit who were not treated were no more likely than normal women to have a shift in G. vaginalis biotype. However, 86% of the 30 women with bacterial vaginosis who were treated with an antibiotic at the index visit acquired a different biotype (P = 0.04 compared with the value for untreated women) regardless of treatment success. A trend toward the acquisition of a new biotype was observed among women who had contact with a new sexual partner (81 versus 65%, P = 0.15). These data demonstrate that the lipase-positive isolates of G. vaginalis are associated with bacterial vaginosis. Women who acquire bacterial vaginosis are more likely to have a shift in biotype than women who had normal flora at he follow-up, suggesting that the G. vaginalis isolates

  11. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayalaxmi, J; Bhat, G K; Kotigadde, S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%). We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  12. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis

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    J Udayalaxmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%, followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9% and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%. We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  13. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi, J.; Bhat, G. K.; S Kotigadde

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes ...

  14. Pneumonia due to Haemophilus influenzae (H. aegyptius) biotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraro, R V; McCleskey, F K; Mitchell, J L

    1977-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (H. aegyptius) biotype 3 was isolated from eye, nasopharyngeal, and sputum cultures of a 23-month-old male and from sputum and transtracheal aspirate cultures of his 39-year-old mother, both with diffuse bronchopneumonia.

  15. Distribution of Streptococcus mutans biotypes in five human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, H J; Shklair, I L; Mickel, G J; Wirthlin, M R

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of S mutans biotypes in five geographically separated human populations was investigated. Samples of dental plaque were obtained from recruits at the US Naval Training Center in Orlando, Fl (N=49) in San Diego, Calif (N=25), and in Great Lakes, Ill (N=194), and from a sample of Hawaiian school children (N=55) and Saudi Arabian Navy personnel (N-217). Cultural and biochemical methods were used for the isolation and identification of the five different biotypes of S mutans which correlate with Bratthall's serotypes a through e. Geographic differences in S mutans biotype distribution were most apparent when the Saudi Arabian sample was compared to the other four groups. Single and multiple biotypes were observed in each group. Multiple biotypes occurred most frequently in the Saudi Arabians. Biotypes a and b were rarely observed; c was the most common in each of the populations; and d and e were more prevalent in the Saudi Arabians than in the other groups. Because of the multifactorial nature of dental caries, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of population differences in caries experience that seem to be associated with differences in S mutans-type distribution.

  16. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear.Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts-hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash-were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants.Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant.

  17. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  18. Biotyping of Bacillus cereus from the street vended Foods in Srinagar area of Kashmir

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    Yasir Hafeez

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to describe the biotyping of Bacillus cereus isolated from different street vended mutton tikka and chutney samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 street vended food samples comprising of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples were tested. Results: The biotype 3 and biotype 4 showed the highest occurrence with, 29.63% and 25.93% isolates falling in these biotypes, respectively. The percentage occurrence of the biotypes 1, 6, 2, 5, and 7 was 14.81%, 11.11%, 7.40%, 7.40% and 3.84%, respectively. The most common found biotypes in Mutton tikka were biotypes 3(29.63%, 4(25.93%, 1(14.81% and 6(11.11%. The Bacillus cereus strains isolated from chutney samples could be divided into 7 of the 9 possible biotypes. The biotypes 6 and 7 showed the highest occurrence with 38.46% and 30.76% falling in these biotypes, respectively. The biotype 5 and 2 were prevalent to the extent of 23.07%, 7.69%, respectively. The biotypes 3, 4 and 1 were absent. The mean bacterial count of 60 mutton tikka and 40 chutney samples was 4.6817 and 5.6575 log cfu/g. 10 Conclusion: The field isolates and the standard strains of Bacillus cereus had similar cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The biotypes recovered from the Mutton tikka samples were biotypes 3, 4, 1 and 6 and in chutneys the biotypes recovered were 6, 7, 5 and 2. The strains of Bacillus cereus were highly resistant to penicillin G (92.59%. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 590-593

  19. Identification of three major Bemisia tabaci biotypes in China based on morphological and DNA polymorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoli Qiu; Yanping Chen; Li Liu; Weilu Peng; Xiaoxi Li; Yuzhou Du; Shunxiang Ren

    2009-01-01

    The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a complex species, and many of its biotypes are important agricultural pests. The B and Q biotypes are invasive and coexist with the native Cv biotype on vegetable and ornamental crops in China. In this study, these three bio-types were identified based on their morphological characteristics, RAPD-PCR analysis, and DNA sequences of the COl gene. The ante-rior and posterior wax fringes of the B, Q, and Cv biotypes significantly differed from each other. Based on this morphological characteristic, the three biotypes can easily be distinguished in greenhouses and fields. Genomic DNA RAPD-PCR band patterns also revealed differences between these biotypes using the H16 primer. The B biotype has three bright DNA bands between 250 and 600 bp, the Q biotype only has one bright band at ~300 bp, while the Cv biotype has no band between 250 and 500 bp. Both the Cv and Q biotypes have two bright bands at ~750 and 1000 bp while the B biotype has only one band at ~1000 bp. Based on the COI gene, the genetic identity between B and Cv, B and Q, and Q and CV was 85.8%, 94.7%, and 86.0%, respectively. The MP tree indicated that the phylogenetic relationship between the B and Q biotypes is much closer than that between the B and Cv or the Q and Cv biotypes. The uses of the morphological, RAPD-PCR, and DNA sequencing methods in biotype identification of B. tabaci are discussed.

  20. Biotypic diversity in greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae): microsatellite-based regional divergence and host-adapted differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Perumal, Azhaguvel; Burd, John D; Rudd, Jackie C

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen isolates of the cereal aphid pest greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were collected from wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; or noncultivated grass hosts in five locations from Colorado and Wyoming. Parthenogenetic colonies were established. Biotypic profiles of the 19 isolates were determined based on their abilities to damage a set of host plant differentials, and 13 new biotypes were identified. Genetic diversity among the 19 isolates and five previously designated greenbug biotypes (E, G, H, I, and K) was examined with 31 cross-species transferable microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers. Neighbor-joining clustering analysis of marker data revealed host-adapted genetic divergence as well as regional differentiation of greenbug populations. Host associated biotypic variation seems to be more obvious in "agricultural biotypes," whereas isolates collected from noncultivated grasses tend to show more geographic divergence. It seems that the biotype sharing the most similar biotypic profiles and the same geographic region with current prevailing one may have the greatest potential to become the new prevailing biotype. Close monitoring of greenbug population dynamics especially biotypic variation on both crop plants and noncultivated grasses in small grain production areas may be a useful strategy for detecting potentially new prevailing virulent biotypes of the greenbug.

  1. 牙龈生物型%Gingival biotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林璐

    2015-01-01

    Gingival biotype is used to describe the features of the marginal periodontium and tooth form, and it is one predicting indicator for dental implant and periodontal treatment. It was presumed that the gingival biotype in individuals may be different. Different types of gingival biotype respond to chronic stimulations differently. Current-ly, gingival biotype is clinically classified as thin or thick according to the thickness at a point 2 mm apicaly to gingival margin examined by means of transgingival probing, probe transparency, CBCT and so on. So far, the classification and characteristics of ginvival biotype are still controversial. This paper reviews the definition, classification, character-istics, measurement methods and clinical application of various gingival biotypes.%牙龈生物型泛指牙周围组织及牙体组织的形态特征,是种植、牙周等美学治疗术后成功率的预测参考因素之一. 个体间的牙龈生物型是存在差异的,并且不同的牙龈生物型对外界刺激的反应不同.目前临床上多根据龈缘下2 mm处的牙龈厚度将牙龈生物型分为厚型和薄型,其检测手段主要有直接测量法、牙周探诊法、CBCT扫描法等. 由于牙龈生物型受地域、种族、遗传、牙根位置的影响较大,目前为止,关于牙龈生物型的分型、特征等仍存在争议,尚未达成共识. 本文就牙龈生物型的定义、临床分型和特征、测量方法、临床应用等作一综述.

  2. Distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in North America after the Q invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Cindy L; Bethke, James A; Byrne, Frank J; Chamberlin, Joseph R; Dennehy, Timothy J; Dickey, Aaron M; Gilrein, Dan; Hall, Paula M; Ludwig, Scott; Oetting, Ronald D; Osborne, Lance S; Schmale, Lin; Shatters, Robert G

    2012-06-01

    After the 2004 discovery of the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) Q biotype in the United States, there was a vital need to determine the geographical and host distribution as well as its interaction with the resident B biotype because of its innate ability to rapidly develop high-level insecticide resistance that persists in the absence of exposure. As part of a coordinated country-wide effort, an extensive survey of B. tabaci biotypes was conducted in North America, with the cooperation of growers, industry, local, state, and federal agencies, to monitor the introduction and distribution of the Q biotype. The biotype status of submitted B. tabaci samples was determined either by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I small subunit gene fragment and characterization of two biotype discriminating nuclear microsatellite markers or esterase zymogram analysis. Two hundred and eighty collections were sampled from the United States, Bermuda, Canada, and Mexico during January 2005 through December 2011. Host plants were split between ornamental plant and culinary herb (67%) and vegetable and field crop (33%) commodities. The New World biotype was detected on field-grown tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Mexico (two) and in commercial greenhouses in Texas (three) and represented 100% of these five collections. To our knowledge, the latter identification represents the first report of the New World biotype in the United States since its rapid displacement in the late 1980s after the introduction of biotype B. Seventy-one percent of all collections contained at least one biotype B individual, and 53% of all collections contained only biotype B whiteflies. Biotype Q was detected in 23 states in the United States, Canada (British Columbia and Ontario territories), Bermuda, and Mexico. Forty-five percent of all collections were found to contain biotype Q in samples from ornamentals, herbs and a single

  3. Differential content of glyphosate and its metabolites in Digitaria insularis biotypes

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    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in controlled conditions to analyze the role of metabolism of glyphosate in Digitaria insularis (sourgrass biotypes with differential response to the herbicide. Contents of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, glyoxylate, and sarcosine was detected in leaf tissues by using reversed-polarity capillarity electrophoresis. Glyphosate content in the A biotype increased from 19.7 up to 65.5 µg g fresh weight-1, whereas decreasing from 19.9 down to 5.0 µg g fresh weight-1 in the B biotype, from 48 up to 168 hours after treatment. At 168 hours after treatment, percentage of the sum of AMPA, glyoxylate, and sarcosine was > 56% in the B biotype, whereas a small percentage of metabolites (< 10% was found in the A biotype. Thus, the faster herbicide degradation in the B biotype is evidence that a differential metabolism of glyphosate can be conferring its lesser susceptibility to the herbicide.

  4. Oleate lipase activity in Gardnerella vaginalis and reconsideration of existing biotype schemes

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    Moncla Bernard J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative gram positive organism that requires subculture every 1–2 days to maintain viability. It has been linked with bacterial vaginosis (BV, a syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for preterm delivery, pelvic inflammatory disease and HIV acquisition. About 10% of the G. vaginalis isolates have been reported to produce sialidase, but there have not been any studies relating sialidase production and biotype. Sialidase activity is dramatically increased in the vaginal fluid of women with BV and bacterial sialidases have been shown to increase the infectivity of HIV in vitro. There are 8 different biotypes of G. vaginalis. Biotypes 1–4 produce lipase and were reported to be associated with BV and the association of these biotypes with BV is under dispute. Other studies have demonstrated that G. vaginalis biotype 1 can stimulate HIV-1 production. Because of the discrepancies in the literature we compared the methods used to biotype G. vaginalis and investigated the relationship of biotype and sialidase production. Results A new medium for maintenance of Gardnerella vaginalis which allows survival for longer than one week is described. Some isolates only grew well under anaerobic conditions. Sialidase producing isolates were observed in 5 of the 6 biotypes tested. Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-oleate to determine lipase activity, instead of egg yolk agar, resulted in erroneous biotypes and does not provide reliable results. Conclusion Previous studies associating G. vaginalis biotype with bacterial vaginosis were methodologically flawed, suggesting there is not an association of G. vaginalis biotypes and bacterial vaginosis. Sialidase activity was observed in 5 of the 8 biotypes.

  5. Longitudinal study of the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Briselden, A M; Hillier, S L

    1990-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant vaginal microorganism in women with bacterial vaginosis. However, this organism is also frequently isolated from women without signs or symptoms of vaginitis. Earlier studies have not revealed whether certain biotypes of G. vaginalis are more often associated with bacterial vaginosis or are more common in women who acquire bacterial vaginosis. We used a typing scheme based on tests for beta-galactosidase, hippurate hydrolysis, and lipase, using oleate ...

  6. Characterization of dental anatomy and gingival biotype in Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey A; Kim, Alexis C; Prusa, Louis A; Kao, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Gingival and dental characteristics are risk factors for periodontal problems. With short or fused roots, a decreased periodontium results in some attachment loss, compromising periodontal stability. Similarly, with an increased incidence of thin gingival biotype, inflammatory and traumatic insults may result in gingival recession. Anecdotally, Asian dentitions have been described as having short roots with "thin gingiva". This cross-sectional study will utilize clinical data and radiographic interpretation to ascertain whether this clinical impression is valid.

  7. Supracrestal gingival tissue: assessing relation with periodontal biotypes in a healthy periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ritika; Narula, Satish C; Sharma, Rajinder K; Tewari, Shikha

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the variability in supracrestal gingival tissue (SGT) dimensions in a healthy periodontium. SGT dimensions were evaluated for differences across various locations, tooth types, and periodontal biotypes. All measurements were made with a vernier caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm. A total of 1,932 sites in 366 teeth were statistically analyzed. Median overall SGT was recorded as 3.50 mm with a range from 1.80 to 6.20 mm. The thick-flat biotype exhibited greater median SGT than the thinscalloped biotype. When planning crown lengthening surgery, periodontal biotype may have a significant role in determining SGT dimensions.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Population Genetic Structure in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Biotypes B and Q Based on ISSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Dong; WAN Fang-hao; XU Bao-yun; WU Qing-jun; ZHANG You-jun

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes B and Q are two invasive biotypes in the species complex. The comparison of the population genetic structure of the two biotypes is of significance to show their invasive mechanism and to their control. The intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR) marker was used to analyze the 16 B-biotype populations and 4 Q-biotype populations worldwide with a Trialeurodes vaporariorum population in Shanxi Province, China, and a B. tabaci non-B/Q-biotype population in Zhejiang Province, China, was used as control populations. The analysis of genetic diversity showed that the diversity indexes of biotype Q including Nei's gene diversity index, Shannon informative index, and the percentage of polymorphic loci were higher than those of biotype B. The high genetic diversity of biotype Q might provide the genetic basis for the excellent ecological adaptation. Cluster analysis suggested that the ISSR could not be used in the phylogenetic analysis though it could easily distinguish the biotypes of B. tabaci. The difference of the population genetic structure between the biotype B and the biotype Q exists based on the ISSR marker. Meanwhile, the results suggested that the molecular marker has its limitation in the phylogenetic analysis among the biotypes of B. tabaci.

  9. Morpho-physiological characterization of glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes of US Midsouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth chamber and greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare selected biological and physiological parameters of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) horseweed biotypes from Mississippi with a broader goal of fitness characterization in these biotypes. Vegetative growth parameters ...

  10. Is colonoscopy necessary in cases of infection by Streptococcus bovis biotype II?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corredoira, J.C.; Alonso, M.P.; Garcia-Pais, M.J.; Rabunal, R.; Garcia-Garrote, F.; Lopez-Roses, L.; Lancho, A.; Coira, A.; Pita, J.; Velasco, D.; Lopez-Alvarez, M.J.; Tjalsma, H.; Varela, J.

    2014-01-01

    The association of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) with Streptococcus bovis biotype I (SBI) infection is well recognized. However, this is not the case for Streptococcus bovis biotype II (SBII). We conducted this study in order to analyze the relationship between SBII and CRN. We analyzed all cases of ba

  11. Screening for detection of wild oat biotypes resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel González-Torralva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avena is one of the world’s most important genera resistant to herbicides. Suspected resistant biotype and susceptible biotype of Avena fatua were tested by screening to confirm the resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl from Mexico. Suspected-resistant population was collected in wheat fields after the herbicide failed to control wild oat and the susceptible one was collected from a field with no herbicide application. Petri dish experiments were performed using different fenoxaprop-P-ethyl concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 40 mM. Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with ten replicates. Plumule length in both biotypes decreased as fenoxaprop-P-ethyl concentration increased. However, there was a different response between the R and S biotypes. The EC50 for the resistant biotype was 3.3 mM while for the susceptible biotype was 9.3 mM, showing that the resistant biotype tolerated herbicide concentration approximately three times higher than the susceptible biotype. The results confirm the presence of Avena fatua resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in Mexico.

  12. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 isolates from mainland Europe and the UK likely represent different clonal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wheeler, Richard W.; Davies, Robert L.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2009-01-01

    different pulsotypes, suggesting that they represented different clones that may have emerged separately. Danish biotype 2 isolates recovered since 1995 were indistinguishable by PFGE from the dominant biotype 1 clone responsible for the majority of outbreaks in Denmark and the rest of mainland Europe...

  13. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  14. Genome Sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" Biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shoor Vir; Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Shree Narayan; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Brajesh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Nitu; Kumar, Shailesh; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    We report the 4.79-Mb genome sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain S5, isolated from a terminally sick Jamunapari goat at the CIRG (Central Institute for Research on Goats) farm in India. This draft genome will help in studying novelties of this biotype, which is widely distributed in animals and human beings in India.

  15. Independent Emergence of Yersinia ruckeri Biotype 2 in the United States and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Timothy J.; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Biotype 2 (BT2) variants of the bacterium Yersinia ruckeri are an increasing disease problem in U.S. and European aquaculture and have been characterized as serovar 1 isolates that lack both peritrichous flagella and secreted phospholipase activity. The emergence of this biotype has been associat...

  16. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site.

  17. Differentiation of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes by detection of β-glucosidase activity: comparison of two chromogenic culture media and Vitek2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhukorpi, Jari; Päivänurmi, Marjut

    2014-01-01

    Aesculin hydrolysis (ESC) is one of the key reactions in differentiating pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 from the less-pathogenic biotype 1A. Because the ESC reaction is caused by β-glucosidase (βGLU) activity of the bacteria, we studied whether two commonly used methods (BBL CHROMagar Orientation and Vitek2 Gram-negative identification card) could be used in assessing βGLU activity of 74 Yersinia strains. Both methods were sensitive (100 % and 97 %) and specific (100 % and 100 %) in differentiating βGLU-positive YE BT1A from βGLU-negative Y. enterocolitica biotypes. For a subset of strains (n = 69), a new selective CHROMagar Yersinia showed excellent agreement with the strains' βGLU activity. Thus all the methods evaluated in this study may be used to differentiate between YE BT1A and other Y. enterocolitica biotypes.

  18. Compatible results obtained from biotyping and serotyping in Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimont, P A; Grimont, F; Le Minor, S; Davis, B; Pigache, F

    1979-10-01

    The correspondence between complete serotype and biotype (P.A.D. Grimont and F. Grimont, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:73-83, 1978) of 474 Serratia marcescens strains was studied. Of 127 serotypes, 70 were represented by two or more strains of the same serotype belonged to one biotype. However, for 91% of serotypes, strains of the same serotype belonged to one biogroup--i.e., a group of closely related biotypes. Biogroups are A1 (A1a, A1b); A2/6 (A2a, A2b, A6a, A6b); A3 (A3a, A3b, A3c, A3d); A4 (A4a, A4b); A5/8 (A5, A8a, A8b, A8c); and TCT (TCT, TT). Only two serotypes were composed of a mixture of pigmented and nonpigmented biogroups. Pigmented biogroups (A1 and A2/6) were otherwise differentiated from nonpigmented biogroups (A3, A4, A5/8, and TCT) by serotyping. Some biogroups preferentially occurred in some O serogroups: A4 in 01; A2/6 in O6, O8, and O14; and A3 in O9, O12, and O15. Three H serogroups were found to be biochemically homogeneous: H1, H7, and H20 were respectively and uniquely composed of biogroups A4, TCT, and A3. A square matrix of O versus H serogroups, with the corresponding biogroup for each O X H combination, was used for comparisons between O groups and between H groups. Identical patterns of biogroups were shown by serogroups O6, O8, and O14. Taxonomical, ecological, and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.

  19. Glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase multiple herbicide resistance evolved in a Lolium rigidum biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Cairns, Andrew; Powles, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Glyphosate is the world's most widely used herbicide. A potential substitute for glyphosate in some use patterns is the herbicide paraquat. Following many years of successful use, neither glyphosate nor paraquat could control a biotype of the widespread annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), and here the world's first case of multiple resistance to glyphosate and paraquat is confirmed. Dose-response experiments established that the glyphosate rate causing 50% mortality (LD(50)) for the resistant (R) biotype is 14 times greater than for the susceptible (S) biotype. Similarly, the paraquat LD(50 )for the R biotype is 32 times greater than for the S biotype. Thus, based on the LD(50 )R/S ratio, this R biotype of L. rigidum is 14-fold resistant to glyphosate and 32-fold resistant to paraquat. This R biotype also has evolved resistance to the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in this biotype was determined as restricted paraquat translocation. Resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides was determined as due to an insensitive ACCase. Two mechanisms endowing glyphosate resistance were established: firstly, a point mutation in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, resulting in an amino acid substitution of proline to alanine at position 106; secondly, reduced glyphosate translocation was found in this R biotype, indicating a co-occurrence of two distinct glyphosate resistance mechanisms within the R population. In total, this R biotype displays at least four co-existing resistance mechanisms, endowing multiple resistance to glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase herbicides. This alarming case in the history of herbicide resistance evolution represents a serious challenge for the sustainable use of the precious agrochemical resources such as glyphosate and paraquat.

  20. Polymorphisms in salivary-gland transcripts of Russian wheat aphid biotypes 1 and 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Cui; C.Michael Smith; John Reese; Owain Edwards; Gerald Reeck

    2012-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA),Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera:Aphididae),is a major pest of small grains.As with plant-feeding aphids in general,the interaction between RWA and host plants is governed,on the insect side,by proteins and enzymes in saliva.In this work,we examined sequence variations in transcripts encoding proteins and enzymes of RWA salivary glands.We conducted reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction in RWA biotypes 1 and 2 using primers derived from pea aphid orthoiogs,and cloned regions of 17 putative salivary gland transcripts.For four of the transcripts,we observed no difference in sequences between the two biotypes.For the other 13 transcripts,for example,the transcripts encoding sucrase,trehalase and protein C002,large amount of variations,both within each biotype and between the two biotypes,were observed.Usually the two biotypes shared only one variant,which was typically the most common variant in both biotypes.Most of the transcripts had more non-synonymous than synonymous codon changes among their variants.Our results offer possible molecular markers for distinguishing the two biotypes and insights into their evolution.

  1. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  2. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain...

  3. Genomic DNA fingerprint analysis of biotype 1 Gardnerella vaginalis from patients with and without bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S R; Hillier, S L; Nath, K

    1996-01-01

    Of the 20 biotype 1 Gardnerella vaginalis isolates analyzed, 10 from patients with bacterial vaginosis and 10 from patients without bacterial vaginosis, none shared the same DNA fingerprint. However, a 1.18-kb HindIII fragment was common among 18 of the 20 biotype 1 isolates in a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with a 7.9-kb G. vaginalis DNA probe. PMID:8748302

  4. Comparison of outer membrane protein and biochemical profiles of Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae biotype III.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlone, G M; Sottnek, F O; Plikaytis, B. D.

    1985-01-01

    Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae biotype III are morphologically and biochemically similar; however, their outer membrane protein (Sarkosyl insoluble) profiles are distinct. Of 18 strains of H. aegyptius examined, 15 had a type 1 protein profile, and 3 had a type 2 profile, whereas the 5 strains of H. influenzae biotype III examined had three other protein profile types. All Haemophilus strains examined had 31- and 76-kilodalton (kDa) proteins and minor proteins with molecular...

  5. Clinical Considerations on the Root Coverage of Gingival Recessions in Thin or Thick Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sergio; Almeida, Renato Alves da Rocha; Dias, Alexandra Tavares; Rodrigues, Walmir Júnior; Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; Taba, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gingival biotype is a clinical term used to describe the thickness of the gingiva. It has been classified as being thick or thin and may be related to the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures. This study evaluated the impact of gingival biotype on the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures following subepithelial connective tissue graft plus coronally positioned flap. A total of 19 patients, 10 with thin and 9 with thick gingival biotype, were treated for localized Miller Class I or II gingival recessions. After 6 months, 14 patients achieved complete root coverage, 7 from each group. The overall mean pooled root coverage rate was 90.93%. The thin biotype cases yielded a reduced mean root coverage of 88.51% compared with 93.63% for patients who had the thick biotype classification. Although the thin gingival biotype may impair the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures, this limitation does not appear to have a strong influence on the success of the root coverage therapy when subepithelial connective tissue graft was associated with the coronal positioning of the flap.

  6. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Renata; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Sena de Gobbi, Débora Dirani; Raimundo, Daniele Cristine; Hofer, Ernesto; Matté, Maria Helena; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Tulio; Costa, Barbara Leticia Pereira; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%), and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%). Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.

  7. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A Strains Isolated from Swine Slaughterhouses and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paixão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%, and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%. Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.

  8. Vaccine Induced Specific Protection Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) Caused by Yersinia Ruckeri Serotype 1 Biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Sidharta; Raida, Martin K.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2011-01-01

    In European fish farms there is evidence of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) outbreaks in previously vaccinated farmed fish. It has been suggested that the occurrence of a Yersinia ruckeri variant (biotype 2) may explain this situation. Recent development of commercial vaccines has included both......) developed against ERM was investigated following intraperitoneal (IP) challenge with Yersinia ruckeri serotype1 biotype 2. Fish were immersion vaccinated for 30 s and challenged 2, 4 and 6 months post vaccination. The onset and severity of various pathological lesions along with their disappearance during...... biotype 1 and 2. In this study, the specificity of immune protection extended by three commercial vaccines viz; AQUAVAC ERM® Intervet Schering Plough (based on biotype 1 only), ERMOGEN VET® Novartis (based on biotype 1 only) and AQUAVAC RELERA® Intervet Schering Plough (based on both biotype 1and 2...

  9. Two non-target mechanisms are involved in glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Luque de Castro, María D; Mülleder, Norbert; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-11-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases for glyphosate resistance and susceptibility in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) populations collected from Córdoba, Huelva, Málaga, Jaén and Seville in southern Spain were investigated. Screening 25 populations treated with glyphosate (238gacidequivalentha(-1)) at the rosette stage (BBCH 14-15) revealed reductions in fresh weight (fw) of 9-99%. The resistant biotype (R C004) was 6.1 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype (S). Shikimate accumulation in both biotypes increased until 72h after treatment (HAT), and then continued to increase (to 61.2%) in the S biotype, but decreased by 40% in the R (C004) biotype. Differential glyphosate spray retention and foliar uptake of applied (14)C-glyphosate between the R (C004) and S biotype had no effect on resistance to this herbicide. Quantitative and qualitative tests showed greater (14)C-glyphosate mobility in the S biotype than in the R (C004) biotype. Glyphosate was metabolized faster in the R (C004) biotype than in the S biotype. The herbicide disappeared completely from the R (C004) biotype by conversion into glyoxylate, sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid within 96 HAT. On the other hand, 41.43nmolg(-1)fw of all glyphosate applied remained in the S biotype and glyoxylate was its only non-toxic metabolite. These results suggest that glyphosate resistance in horseweed is due to two different non-target mechanisms, namely: (a) impaired glyphosate translocation and (b) glyphosate metabolism to other compounds.

  10. Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci biotypes and insecticide resistance in Fujian province in China during 2005–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng-Luan; Zheng, Yu; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Desneux, Nicolas; He, Yu-Xian; Weng, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an important agricultural insect pest worldwide. The B and Q biotypes are the two most predominant and devastating biotypes prevalent across China. However, there are few studies regarding the occurrence of the Q biotype in Fujian Province, China, where high insecticide resistance has been reported in the B biotype. Differences in some biological characteristics between the B and Q biotypes, especially insecticide resistance, are considered to affect the outcome of their competition. Extensive surveys in Fujian revealed that the B biotype was predominant during 2005–2014, whereas the Q biotype was first detected in some locations in 2013 and widely detected throughout the province in 2014. Resistance to neonicotinoids (that have been used for more than 10 years) exhibited fluctuations in open fields, but showed a continual increasing trend in protected areas. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin exhibited a declining trend. Resistance to novel insecticides, such as nitenpyram, pymetrozine, sulfoxaflor, and cyantraniliprole, in 2014 was generally below a moderate level. A decline in insecticide resistance in the B biotype and the rapid buildup of protected crops under global temperature increase may have promoted the establishment of the Q biotype in Fujian. PMID:28112233

  11. Effects of host, temperature and relative humidity on competitive displacement of two invasive Bemisia tabaci biotypes [Q and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Chu; Yun-Li Tao; You-Jun Zhang; Fang-Hao Wan; Judith K Brown

    2012-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci shifted unexpectedly in China from a predominance of B biotype to Q biotype during 2005-2008.This observation stimulated an interest in investigating whether environmental factors,including host,temperature and relative humidity (RH) could possibly explain the observed shift in biotypes distribution.Results indicated that all three parameters examined influenced biotype survivability.The percentage of B biotype,when reared together on pepper plants with the Q biotype,decreased significantly from 66.7% in the founder population,to 13.6% and 3.7% in the first and second generations,respectively.When the B (founder at 66.7%) and Q (founder at 33.3%) biotypes were reared together on eggplant alone,or on pepper-plus-eggplant combination,the population size of the B biotype either remained constant,or increased somewhat in the first and second generations.On eggplant,the effects of RH and temperature on the competitiveness between the Q and B biotypes (3 pairs of Q and 6 pairs of B) were not significant.

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio Vulnificus Isolates Revealed Biotype 3 Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eKotton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59% and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 kbp to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C and environmental (E, all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3 and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and

  13. Importance of isolation and biotypization of Gardnerella vaginalis in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Hukić, Mirsada; Nurkić, Mahmud; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Imamović, Alma; Pasić, Selma

    2008-08-01

    The natural habitat of Gardnerella vaginalis is a vagina since it could be located among 69% of women who have no signs of vaginal infection and in the vagina of as many as 13.5% girls. G. vaginalis is almost certainly identified among women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as well as in the urethra of their sexual partner. The increase in prevalence and concentration of G. vaginalis among patients diagnosed with this syndrome confirms that G. vaginalis plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In our research, based on Amsel criteria for three or more clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, it was diagnosed in 20.5% of women with subjective problems of vaginal infection, and in 48.80% of women with subjective symptoms characteristic of this disease. G. vaginalis was isolated from vaginal secretion of women without clinical signs characteristic of bacterial vaginosis. In 2.58% of cases it was solitary, while in 1.28% it was found in combination with other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and, in 1.28% women combined with Candida albicans. The isolation of G. vaginalis was significantly increased (pbiotype of G. vaginalis, different from a source biotype or as a consequence of wrong treatment. Following Piot biotype scheme, biotypes 2., 3. and 7. G. vaginalis are significantly more often isolated from women who suffer from bacterial vaginosis. Biotype 7. G. vaginalis, isolated from the group of women without clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, accounted for 2.58% cases. Following Benit biotype scheme, biotypes IVa, IVc and IIc were identified in 12.90% cases, while biotypes IIIa, IIa, Ia, IVb, IIb were found in 6.45% cases. Lipase-positive isolates of G. vaginalis were significantly more frequently accompanied by the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis.

  14. Rickettsia influences thermotolerance in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina Brumin; Svetlana Kontsedalov; Murad Ghanim

    2011-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci harbors Portiera aleyrodidarum,an obligatory symbiotic bacterium,as well as several secondary symbionts,including Rickettsia,Hamiltonella,Wolbachia,Arsenophonus,Cardinium and Fritschea,the function of which is unknown.In Israel,Rickettsia is found in both the B and Q of B.tabaci biotypes,and while all other secondary symbionts are located in the bacteriomes,Rickettsia can occupy most of the body cavity of the insect.We tested whether Rickettsia influences the biology of B.tabaci and found that exposing a Rickettsia-containing population to increasing temperatures significantly increases its tolerance to heat shock that reached 40℃,compared to a Rickettsia-free population.This increase in tolerance to heat shock was not associated with specific induction of heat-shock protein gene expression; however,it was associated with eduction in Rickettsia numbers as was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses.To assess the causes for thermotolerance when ickettsia is reduced,we tested whether its presence is associated with the induction of genes required for thermotolerance.We found that under normal 25℃ rearing temperature,genes associated with response to stress such as cytoskeleton genes are induced in the Rickettsia-containing population.Thus,the presence of Rickettsia in B.tabaci under normal conditions induces the expression of genes required for thermotolerance that under high temperatures indirectly lead to this tolerance.

  15. Bionomics of brown planthopper biotype 2 from field and greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two biotype 2 populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens stal, were used in this experiment. One was purified by determining the weight of honeydew excreted on susceptible rice variety TN1 and resistant rice varieties Mudgo (bearing resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (bearing resistant gene bph2) by female adult in paddy field in Guangxi Province, south China, and the other was obtained from greenhouse and continuously reared on rice resistant variety Mudgo in IRRI, Philippines. One newly hatched nymph was introduced into the test tube containing two 60 day old rice plants and cultured at 26± 1℃ , L∶ D =12 h∶ 12 h. Sixty replications were set up for each tested rice variety. The number and instar of nymphes were recorded every day. The body weight and honeydew excreted by female adult emerged within 24 h and 72 h, the number of eggs laid, and newly hatched nymph on different resistant rice varieties were measured. The hatchability, net reproductive rate, female adult nutritional indices such as relative growth rate (RGR)and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) were calculated.

  16. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders.

  17. Suitability changes with host leaf age for Bemisia tabaci B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2012-10-01

    The suitability of tomato leaves of different ages for Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) was characterized by development time, stage-specific survival, sex ratio, longevity, and fecundity. Three categories of leaf ages were tested (young: expanding leaves <2 wk old; mature: fully expanded, 4-5-wk-old leaves; old: fully expanded, 6-7-wk-old leaves). There was no significant variation in the duration of development of the two species among the three classes of leaf ages, but total survival and ratio of females to males on mature and old leaves were higher than on young leaves. For egg hatch, the reverse tendency was found. Longevity of both species was higher on mature than on young leaves, and fecundity during the first 2 wk of adult life was higher on mature than on young or old leaves. The B. tabaci B biotype developed faster through the quiescent fourth nymphal instar, had higher ratio of females to males, survived longer, and produced more eggs (in the first 2 wk of adult life) than T. vaporariorum on leaves of the same age; although on young leaves, B. tabaci B biotype survivorship was lower than that of T. vaporariorum. The index of host suitability of B. tabaci B biotype was higher on mature and old leaves than on young leaves. In T. vaporariorum, no such differences were found among these three leaf ages. The results could provide some cues why B. tabaci B biotype is spreading so vigorously.

  18. Comparative Morphology and Morphometry of Six Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-jing; TANG Qing-bo; BAI Run-e; LI Xiao-min; JIANG Jin-wei; ZHAI Qing; YAN Feng-ming

    2013-01-01

    Morphology and morphometry of six biotypes (B, Q, Cv, ZHJ-1, ZHJ-2 and ZHJ-3) of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from China on cotton plants were studied by using microscopes. Nymphal body sizes and characters were measured and observed, especially on the 4th instar (pupal case), including the vasiform orifice, operculum, lingula, length and thickness of anterior and posterior wax margins, width of thoracic tracheal combs. Adult characters of both sexes were investigated including the body size, compound eyes, antennal segments, vasiform orifice, hind tarsi and genitals. The results indicated that differences of some morphological characters or morphometrics were significant among the six biotypes of B. tabaci in China:(1) Pupal sizes of the exotic biotypes (B and Q) were significantly larger than the indigenous biotypes with the following order as B>Q>ZHJ-1>Cv>ZHJ-3>ZHJ-2;(2) for both male and female adults, sizes of all characters investigated in the invading biotypes (B and Q), especially B, were much larger than those of the indigenous ones.

  19. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences between dose responses for reciprocal F1 families suggested that genetic control of glyphosate resistance was governed by nuclear genome. Analysis of F1 backcross (BC1F1 families showed that 10 and 8 BC1F1 families out of 15 fitted monogenic inheritance at 2000 and 3000 g ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. These results indicate that inheritance of glyphosate resistance in this biotype is incompletely dominant, nuclear inherited, and might not be consistent with a single gene mechanism of inheritance. Relative 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS copy number varied from 22 to 63 across 10 individuals from resistant biotype. This suggested that variable EPSPS copy number in the parents might be influential in determining if inheritance of glyphosate resistance is monogenic or polygenic in this biotype.

  20. Physiology of Glyphosate-Resistant and Glyphosate-Susceptible Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes Collected from North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Whitaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate-resistant (GR biotypes of Palmer amaranth are now commonly found across the southern United States. Experiments were conducted to characterize physiological differences between a GR biotype and a glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotype from North Carolina. The GR biotype had an 18-fold level of resistance based upon rates necessary to reduce shoot fresh weight 50%. Shikimate accumulated in both biotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plants. Absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate were studied in both biotypes with and without an overspray with commercial glyphosate potassium salt (840 g ae ha−1 immediately prior to 14C-glyphosate application. Greater absorption was noted 6 h after treatment (HAT in GS compared with GR plants, but no differences were observed at 12 to 72 HAT. Oversprayed plants absorbed 33 and 61% more 14C by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively, than plants not oversprayed. 14C distribution (above treated leaf, below treated leaf, roots was similar in both biotypes. Together, these results suggest that resistance in this biotype is not due to an altered target enzyme or translocation but may be in part due to the rate of glyphosate absorption. These results also are consistent with resistance being due to increased gene copy number for the target enzyme.

  1. Genetic distinctions among the Mediterranean and Chinese populations of Bemisia tabaci Q biotype and their endosymbiont Wolbachia populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a cryptic species complex composed of more than 24 different biotypes around the world. The Q biotype of B. tabaci, which is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean Basin, is now a widespread and serious agricultural pest. In this study, the genet...

  2. Comparison of two commercial kits for identifying and biotyping Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M; Ahmet, Z; Houang, E

    1991-01-01

    The Minitek system and the more recently introduced Micro Scan HNID panels for the identification and biotyping of 98 V dependent Haemophilus isolates were compared. Identical results were obtained for 77 isolates. The discrepancy in the results of ornithine and urease was accounted for mainly by the mismatching of the identification by the two kits. When 13 isolates of H parainfluenzae with mismatched biotypes were re-examined, the results from Micro Scan correlated with 92% of those obtained by Christensen's urea broth and 100% by the ornithine test (Lab M); the corresponding figures for Minitek were 61% and 30%, respectively. Micro Scan was easy to handle on the bench and results were ready on the same day. These results suggest that further work is required to assess these two systems for the biotyping of H parainfluenzae.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BIOTYPE Moringa OF SAUDI ARABIA USING RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyan Robiansyah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa peregrina and M. oleifera are the only Moringa species found in Saudi Arabia. Both species are drought resistant and have very high nutritional and medicinal properties. Detection of genetic diversity is of great value for the improvement of nutritional and medicinal value of these plants. The aim of the present study was to characterize a new biotype Moringa observed in Al Bahah Region, Saudi Arabia. We used 11 RAPD and 15 ISSR primers to characterize and compare the new biotype with M. peregrina and M. oleifera. Level of polymorphism generated by each marker was calculated. We also calculate Nei and Li’s coefficient to measure the genetic distance between the studied species. Level of polymorphism generated by RAPD and ISSR was 46% and 57%, respectively. RAPD and ISSR primers revealed that the new biotype shared 55 amplicons (45.08% with both M. peregrina and M. oleifera, 28 amplicons with M. peregrina (22.95%, 21 amplicons (17.21% with M. oleifera, and displayed 18 unshared amplicons (14.75%. Based on RAPD data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.32, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.21 and 0.29, respectively. For ISSR data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.5, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.36 and 0.34, respectively. Based on these results we suggested that the new biotype is a hybrid crossbred between M. peregrina and M. oleifera.

  4. Impact of the safener Mefenpyr-diethyl on herbicide resistance evolution in Alopecurus myosuroides (Huds. biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenhauer, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of herbicide resistance is an important topic in plant protection and agricultural practice. Safeners are commonly used in herbicides to protect crops against herbicidal damage. Although no effect on the weed control is expected, it has been theorized that the rate of evolution of non-target site resistance (NTSR in weeds in cereals may be enhanced by use of herbicide products containing safeners. One of the most important safeners in cereals is mefenpyr-diethyl. Therefore, the possible influence of mefenpyr on herbicide resistance was studied in cooperative trials between Bayer CropScience (BCS, F-Höchst and FH Bingen. The trials tested in parallel different herbicide resistant black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides (Huds. biotypes under greenhouse conditions. The biotypes where chosen due to known NTSR against Atlantis WG® (4 highly resistant and 5 moderately resistant as well as two susceptible biotypes. The populations were treated with the following three herbicide/safener regimes in six concentrations adjusted according to the anticipated biotype resistance levels. (1 mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron + without safener formulation, (2 mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron + constant mefenpyr concentration (45g/ha, (3 mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron + varying mefenpyr concentrations (ratio 5:1:15. The treatments were applied in post-emergence based on mesosulfuron to iodosulfuron ratios in Atlantis WG® (5:1. The trials were assessed visually (% effect and by fresh weight. Dose-response curves were performed and ED50 values for each treatment and biotype were calculated. Results showed a varying effect of safeners which was in the most cases negligible. Depending on the biotypes mostly no impact on the safener was found for herbicide resistance. In conclusion, the trials from Bingen and F-Höchst gave evidence, that there is no significant and consistent influence of the safener mefenpyr on evolution of NTSR black-grass.

  5. Host plant effects on alkaline phosphatase activity in the whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci Biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Peng, Lu; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao; Harris, Marvin K

    2011-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) often coexist on greenhouse-grown vegetable crops in northern China. The recent spread of B. tabaci B-biotype has largely replaced T. vaporariorum, and B-biotype now overlaps with T. vaporariorum where common hosts occur in most invaded areas. The impact of the B-biotype on the agro eco system appears to be widespread, and involves the ability to compete with and perhaps replace other phytophages like T. vaporariorum. An emerging hypothesis is that the B-biotype is physiologically superior due at least in part to an improved ability to metabolically utilize the alkaline phosphatase pathway. To test this hypothesis, alkaline phosphatase activity was studied in the B-biotype and T. vaporariorum after feeding on a number of different hosts for a range of durations, with and without host switching. Alkaline phosphatase activity in T. vaporariorum was 1.45 to 2.53-fold higher than that of the B-biotype when fed on tomato for 4 and 24 h, or switched from tomato to cotton and cabbage for the same durations. However, alkaline phosphatase activity in the B-biotype was 1.40 to 3.35-fold higher than that of T. vaporariorum when the host switching time was ∼72 and ∼120 h on the same plant. Both short-term (4 h) and long-term (72 h) switching of plant hosts can significantly affect the alkaline phosphatase activity in the two species. After ∼120 h, feeding on tomato and cotton alkaline phosphatase activity in the B-biotype was significantly higher than that of T. vaporariorum. It was shown that alkaline phosphatase aids the species feeding on different plant species, and that the B-biotype is physiologically superior to T. vaporariorum in utilizing the enzyme compared to T. vaporariorum over longer periods of feeding.

  6. The ail gene is present in some Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Leila M; Hallanvuo, Saija; Haukka, Kaisa; Skurnik, Mikael; Siitonen, Anja

    2011-03-01

    One chromosomal virulence marker of Yersinia is the gene ail, which encodes Ail, an outer membrane protein that promotes attachment and invasion. A high correlation has been found between the ail gene and the virulence of Yersinia. Here, we report two Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains that are usually nonpathogenic and carry the ail gene. The ail gene sequences of biotype 1A strains displayed similarity to the bioserotype 1B/O:8 strain 8081. The finding suggests that ail-based detection methods for Y. enterocolitica alone are insufficient to detect real pathogenic strains.

  7. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from non-specific vaginitis patients in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, D V; Barve, S M; Deodhar, L P

    1989-11-01

    The incidence and prevalent biotypes of G. vaginalis in patients with non-specific vaginitis from Bombay, was studied. Of 300 patients screened, 105 were diagnosed to have nonspecific vaginitis (NSV). G. vaginalis was isolated from 71 per cent patients with NSV; 34.6 and 29.3 per cent G. vaginalis were belonging to biotypes 5 and 1 respectively. In 55 per cent patient, G. vaginalis was associated with anaerobes. None of the isolated strains of G. vaginalis was sensitive to 5 micrograms metronidazole disc whereas 93 per cent of the strains were sensitive to 50 micrograms metronidazole disc.

  8. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  9. Comparison of virulence of different Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes using an aerosol infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mariann Juul; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Nielsen, Ragnhild

    1996-01-01

    . The pigs were sacrificed 24 h after aerosol exposure and lung lesions were evaluated. In pigs exposed to aerosols of suspensions containing 10(4) CFU/ml of serotypes 2, 5b and 6, a number of 5-10 lesions of haemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia were induced, For the biotype 2 strain the dose creating similar...... lesions was 10(9) CFU/ml. Repeated experiments confirmed these results showing similar virulence of serotypes 2, 5b and 6 whereas the biotype 2 strain proved less virulent, The aerosol infection model allowed a comparison of the number of A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/liter air which were necessary to induce...

  10. Serious systemic infection caused by non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae biotype III in an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Pedersen, P B

    1991-01-01

    abuser. Cholangitis and acute alcoholic hepatitis were diagnosed simultaneously. The organism was grown from blood and from synovial fluid of the left knee, but several other joints were also affected. The close relationship between H. influenzae biotype III and H. aegyptius is mentioned in view......Haemophilus influenzae is the aetiological agent in less than 1% of septic arthritis cases in adults and most often serotype b is involved. We report here a case of severe systemic infection due to non-encapsulated H. influenzae biotype III in a 40-year-old man, previously healthy although alcohol...

  11. Biotype status and genetic polymorphism of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Greece: mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkarakou, A; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Gorman, K; Lagnel, J; Bedford, I D

    2007-02-01

    The genetic polymorphism and the biotype identity of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) have been studied in population samples taken from different localities within Greece from cultivated plants growing in greenhouses or in open environments and from non-cultivated plants. Two different approaches were used: sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and genotyping using microsatellite markers. Analyses of the mtCOI sequences revealed a high homogeneity between the Greek samples which clustered together with Q biotype samples that had been collected from other countries. When genetic polymorphism was examined using six microsatellite markers, the Greek samples, which were all characterized as Q biotype were significantly differentiated from each other and clustered into at least two distinct genetic populations. Moreover, based on the fixed differences revealed by the mtCOI comparison of known B. tabaci biotype sequences, two diagnostic tests for discriminating between Q and B and non-Q/non-B biotypes were developed. Implementation of these diagnostic tools allowed an absence of the B biotype and presence of the Q biotype in the Greek samples to be determined.

  12. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngenya, Watson; Malinga, Joyce; Tabu, Isaiah; Masinde, Emily

    2016-04-02

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA)-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide.

  13. Evaluation and reselection of wheat resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko) biotype 2 (RWA2) is virulent to most known RWA resistance genes and severely threatens wheat production in the hard winter wheat area of the US western Great Plains. We determined RWA2 reactions of 386 cultivars from China, 227 advanced breeding...

  14. Characteristics of periodontal biotype, its dimensions, associations and prevalence: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, J.; Thomas, R.Z.; Slot, D.E.; Weisgold, A.S.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objectives of this review were as follows: What are characteristics used to define various forms of periodontal biotypes? What are their anatomic dimensions in relation to the definition? In addition, what is the association between these various characteristics in relation to the periodonta

  15. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Ngenya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO, Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide.

  16. Comparison of outer membrane protein and biochemical profiles of Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae biotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, G M; Sottnek, F O; Plikaytis, B D

    1985-11-01

    Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae biotype III are morphologically and biochemically similar; however, their outer membrane protein (Sarkosyl insoluble) profiles are distinct. Of 18 strains of H. aegyptius examined, 15 had a type 1 protein profile, and 3 had a type 2 profile, whereas the 5 strains of H. influenzae biotype III examined had three other protein profile types. All Haemophilus strains examined had 31- and 76-kilodalton (kDa) proteins and minor proteins with molecular masses between 20 and 100 kDa. H. aegyptius, with a type 1 protein profile, had major outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 27, 35.5, and 41.5 kDa, and H. aegyptius, with a type 2 protein profile, had 26-, 29-, 39.5-, and 41-kDa proteins. The type strain of H. influenzae biotype III had three major outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 29, 38.5 and 40 kDa. Four other strains designated as H. influenzae biotype III had major outer membrane proteins between 27 and 41.5 kDa representing two additional protein profiles.

  17. Invasive mechanism and manasement stratesy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN FangHao; CUI XuHong; ZHANG LiPing; ZHANG Fan; ZHANG QingWen; LIU WanXue; LIANG Pei; LEI ZhongRen; ZHANG YongJun; ZHANG GuiFen; LIU ShuSheng; LUO Chen; CHU Dong; ZHANG YouJun; ZANG LianSheng; JIU Min; Lǖ ZhiChuang

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci bio-type B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The in-digenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating in-teractions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up wide-spread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vapo-rariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its suc-cessful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  18. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B:Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B,called a "superbug",is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide.In this report,the invasive mechanism and management of B.tabaci biotype B,based on our 5-year studies,are presented.Six B.tabaci biotypes,B,Q,ZHJ1,ZHJ2,ZHJ3 and FJ1,have been identified in China.Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country.Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant,geographical conditions,and/or insecticidal application.The activities of CarE(carboxylesterase) and GSTs(glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants,which might have increased its resistance to insecticides.The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants.Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes.The indigenous B.tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d.The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes.B.tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions.Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T.vaporariorum.Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants,which might enable it to better compete with T.vaporariorum.Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B.tabaci under field conditions.The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids.The present results provide useful information in explaining the mechanisms of genetic diversity

  19. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  20. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  1. Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from patients and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, R; Joutsen, S; Hofer, E; Säde, E; Björkroth, J; Ziegler, D; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2013-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are frequently isolated from the environment, foods, and animals, and also from humans with yersiniosis. There are controversial reports on the pathogenicity of biotype 1A strains. In this study, 811 fecal samples from asymptomatic humans from Switzerland were studied for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Nine (1.1%) of the 811 samples were positive for Y. enterocolitica 1A. These strains were compared with 12 Y. enterocolitica 1A strains from Swiss patients with diarrhea isolated in the same year. Almost all (20/21) Y. enterocolitica 1A strains carried the ystB gene, seven strains carried the hreP gene, and none carried the ail, ystA, myfA, yadA, or virF genes. Most (17/21) Y. enterocolitica 1A strains belonged to two major clusters, A and B, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Strains of cluster B were only isolated from humans with diarrhea; however, ystB and hreP genes were detected in strains from both clinical and non-clinical samples and from strains of clusters A and B. Using ribotyping, six restriction patterns among biotype 1A strains were obtained with HindIII enzyme. The most common ribotype (RT I) was found in strains isolated from humans with and without diarrhea. All biotype 1A strains had a unique NotI profile by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), showing a very high genetic diversity. In this study, Y. enterocolitica 1A strains from clinical and non-clinical samples could not be clearly differentiated from each other. More research is needed in order to prove that biotype 1A strains are a primary cause for human yersiniosis and not only a secondary finding.

  2. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Biotype Variability of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Tetsuo; Hataya, Tatsuji

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) was determined. The viral RNA genome of strain LDM (leaf distortion mosaic) comprised 10,153 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained one long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,269 amino acids (molecular weight 373,347). The polyprotein contained nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and some motifs conserved in other potyviral polyproteins with 44 to 50% identities, indicating that PLDMV is a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. Like the W biotype of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the non-papaya-infecting biotype of PLDMV (PLDMV-C) was found in plants of the family Cucurbitaceae. The coat protein (CP) sequence of PLDMV-C in naturally infected-Trichosanthes bracteata was compared with those of three strains of the P biotype (PLDMV-P), LDM and two additional strains M (mosaic) and YM (yellow mosaic), which are biologically different from each other. The CP sequences of three strains of PLDMV-P share high identities of 95 to 97%, while they share lower identities of 88 to 89% with that of PLDMV-C. Significant changes in hydrophobicity and a deletion of two amino acids at the N-terminal region of the CP of PLDMV-C were observed. The finding of two biotypes of PLDMV implies the possibility that the papaya-infecting biotype evolved from the cucurbitaceae-infecting potyvirus, as has been previously suggested for PRSV. In addition, a similar evolutionary event acquiring infectivity to papaya may arise frequently in viruses in the family Cucurbitaceae.

  3. Proteomic analysis of secreted saliva from Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurd.) biotypes that differ in virulence to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuraphis noxia, Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), biotypes are classified by their differential virulence to wheat varieties containing resistance genes. RWA salivary proteins, unlike those of most aphid species, cause foliar damage and physiological alterations in plants. A comparative proteomic analys...

  4. Epidemiological usefulness of changes in hemolytic activity of Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor during the seventh pandemic.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, T J; Blake, P A

    1981-01-01

    Hemolytic Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor strains were isolated in the United States in 1973 and 1978 after they had supposedly disappeared worldwide during the 1960s and 1970s. We decided to examine the change in prevalence of hemolytic El Tor strains since the beginning of the seventh pandemic and evaluate the usefulness of hemolytic activity as an epidemiological marker. A total of 48 isolates of V. cholerae biotype El Tor isolated in the Eastern Hemisphere between 1960 and 1979, along with...

  5. Biological traits and Life table parameters A and B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. on cotton and rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Samih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to construct life table of Bemisia tabaci (Gen. A and B (silverleaf whitefly B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring biotype (Hem.: Aleyrodidae on two host plants; cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. and rapeseed, (Brassica napus L.. Experiments were conducted in a growth chamber under 24 ± 2ºC, 55±3% RH and 16:8 (L:D h photoperiod on caged plants of cotton G. hirsutum L. (Varamin 76 variety and rapeseed B. napus L. (global variety. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T for B. tabaci A biotype was 0.1010 females per female per day, 18.4075 females per female and 30.079 day (d on cotton; 0.1286, 30.6760 and 26.77 d on rapeseed; and for B biotype (B. argentifolii those above respective parameters averaged 0.1033, 27.8426 and 32.74 d on cotton and 0.1750, 40.75 and 21.27 d on rapeseed. The total survival of A and B biotype from the egg to adult on cotton was 22.08 and 22.25, respectively. The results showed significant differences between the two biotype reared on either host plant for gross reproductive rate (GRR, net reproductive rate (R0 or NRR, intrinsic rates of increase (r m, finite rate of increase (λ, doubling time (DT and mean generation times (Tc. To obtain a better understanding of the biology of these biotypes, Stable age distribution (Cx and some other aspects of life history related to their hosts were also studied. Based upon the results, both biotypes showed a greater reproduction capacity on rapeseed than on cotton. Thus, rapeseed was more suitable host than cotton for two biotypes and this was an important factor in host plant selection for optimizing the control strategies of these major pests.

  6. Biotyping and genotyping (MLVA16 of Brucella abortus isolated from cattle in Brazil, 1977 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Minharro

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008 of B. abortus and (ii to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.

  7. Smooth and Rough Biotypes of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Can Be Genetically Distinguished at the Arcanolysin Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley S Ruther

    Full Text Available Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a Gram-positive, β-hemolytic emerging human pathogen that is classified into smooth or rough biotypes. This bacterial species is also a rare pathogen of animals. Smooth biotypes possess smooth colony edges, are moderate to strong in β-hemolysis, and predominately cause wound infections. In contrast, rough biotypes possess rough and irregular colony edges, have weak to no β-hemolytic activity, and predominately cause pharyngitis. Using horse erythrocytes we confirmed that smooth isolates are generally more hemolytic than rough isolates. A hemolysin from A. haemolyticum, arcanolysin (aln/ALN, was recently discovered and is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC family. PCR amplification of aln from all 36 smooth A. haemolyticum isolates yielded the expected 2.0 kb product. While 21 rough isolates yielded the 2.0 kb product, 16 isolates had a 3.2 kb product. The extra 1.2 kb segment was 99% identical to IS911 (insertion sequence from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the upstream region of aln revealed ~40 nucleotide polymorphisms among 73 clinical isolates from Finland, Denmark, Germany and United States (Nebraska. Remarkably, multi-sequence alignments of the aln upstream region demonstrated that ~90% of the isolates phylogenetically clustered as either smooths or roughs. Differential restriction enzyme analysis of the aln upstream region also demonstrated that the aln upstream region of most (~75% smooth isolates was cleaved with ClaI while this region in most (~86% rough isolates was cleaved with XcmI. We conclude that the aln upstream region can be used to genetically distinguish between smooth and rough biotypes of this important emerging pathogen.

  8. Isolation and biotyping of Brucella melitensis from aborted sheep and goat fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKCANGAZ, Esra; ŞEN, Ayşin; KAHYA, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    The possible role of Brucella spp. in 65 abortion cases, 55 from sheep and 10 from goats, occurring in the birth seasons of 2004 and 2005 in northwestern Turkey was investigated. Colony morphology, agglutination by acriflavin, H2S production, CO2 requirement, dye sensitivity in thionin, basic fuchsin, growth characteristics in streptomycin, lysis with Tbilisi phage, and agglutination with monospecific A- and M antisera were examined for identification and biotyping. The isolates from 21 of 55...

  9. Oleate lipase activity in Gardnerella vaginalis and reconsideration of existing biotype schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Moncla Bernard J; Pryke Kara M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative gram positive organism that requires subculture every 1–2 days to maintain viability. It has been linked with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for preterm delivery, pelvic inflammatory disease and HIV acquisition. About 10% of the G. vaginalis isolates have been reported to produce sialidase, but there have not been any studies relating sialidase production and biotype. Sialidase activi...

  10. Proteomic-based biotyping reveals hidden diversity within a microalgae culture collection: An example using Dunaliella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan; Nelson, Andrew; Brain, Chelsea M.; Lyne, Fern M.; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Day, John G.; Caldwell, Gary S.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and defendable taxonomic identification of microalgae strains is vital for culture collections, industry and academia; particularly when addressing issues of intellectual property. We demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) biotyping to deliver rapid and accurate strain separation, even in situations where standard molecular tools prove ineffective. Highly distinctive MALDI spectra were obtained for thirty two biotechnologically interesting Dunaliella strains plus strains of Arthrospira, Chlorella, Isochrysis, Tetraselmis and a range of culturable co-occurring bacteria. Spectra were directly compared with genomic DNA sequences (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). Within individual Dunaliella isolates MALDI discriminated between strains with identical ITS sequences, thereby emphasising and enhancing knowledge of the diversity within microalgae culture collections. Further, MALDI spectra did not vary with culture age or growth stage during the course of the experiment; therefore MALDI presents stable and accurate strain-specific signature spectra. Bacterial contamination did not affect MALDI’s discriminating power. Biotyping by MALDI-TOF-MS will prove effective in situations wherein precise strain identification is vital, for example in cases involving intellectual property disputes and in monitoring and safeguarding biosecurity. MALDI should be accepted as a biotyping tool to complement and enhance standard molecular taxonomy for microalgae.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes identifies candidate proteins for glyphosate resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Brown, Adrian P.; Chivasa, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes is an example of how unrelenting use of a single mode of action herbicide in agricultural weed control drives genetic adaptation in targeted species. While in other weeds glyphosate resistance arose from target site mutation or target gene amplification, the resistance mechanism in horseweed uses neither of these, being instead linked to reduced herbicide uptake and/or translocation. The molecular components underpinning horseweed glyphosate-resistance remain unknown. Here, we used an in vitro leaf disc system for comparative analysis of proteins extracted from control and glyphosate-treated tissues of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes. Analysis of shikimic acid accumulation, ABC-transporter gene expression, and cell death were used to select a suitable glyphosate concentration and sampling time for enriching proteins pivotal to glyphosate resistance. Protein gel analysis and mass spectrometry identified mainly chloroplast proteins differentially expressed between the biotypes before and after glyphosate treatment. Chloroplasts are the organelles in which the shikimate pathway, which is targeted by glyphosate, is located. Calvin cycle enzymes and proteins of unknown function were among the proteins identified. Our study provides candidate proteins that could be pivotal in engendering resistance and implicates chloroplasts as the primary sites driving glyphosate-resistance in horseweed. PMID:28198407

  12. Biotypes and ScM types of isolates of Streptococcus canis from diseased and healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P

    2017-04-08

    Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence.

  13. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J; McCarville, Michael T; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America.

  14. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  15. Utility of MtCOI polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in differentiating between Q and B whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hua Ma; Xian-Chun Li; Timothy J. Dennehy; Chao-Liang Lei; Mo Wang; Benjamin A. Degain; Robert L. Nichols

    2009-01-01

    The invasive, insecticide-resistant, Q whitefly biotype, has gradually spread to other countries including the US via human-mediated movement of plant materials. We assessed the utility of the VspI-based mtCOl (mitochondrion cytochrome oxidase I) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) tech-nique as a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable alternative for differentiating the Q from the dominant B biotype in Arizona. Using the standard mtCOI gene sequencing and mtCOI PCR-RFLP techniques, we biotyped eight whitefly strains of five individuals each collected from poinsettia and cotton at different locations in Arizona. Complete concordance was observed between the two methods, with three strains being identified as the Q biotype and five samples as the B biotype. We also scanned the mtCOI gene sequences for VspI polymorphisms in the B and Q biotype whiteflies currently available in the GenBank database. This global screening revealed the existence of three and four VspI polymorphic types for the Q and B biotypes, respectively. Nevertheless, all three VspI polymorphic Q biotype whiteflies shared a common and unique VspI site that can be used to differentiate Q biotype from the four VspI polymorphic B biotype whiteflies identified. These results demonstrate that the VspI-based mtCOI gene PCR-RFLP provides a reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating the Q and B biotype whiteflies in the US and elsewhere.

  16. The Fish Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 2: Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Virulence Factors Involved in Warm-Water Vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Carmen; Sanjuán, Eva; Fouz, Belén; Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Hor, Lien-I; Barrera, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is the etiological agent of warm-water vibriosis, a disease that affects eels and other teleosts, especially in fish farms. Biotype 2 is polyphyletic and probably emerged from aquatic bacteria by acquisition of a transferable virulence plasmid that encodes resistance to innate immunity of eels and other teleosts. Interestingly, biotype 2 comprises a zoonotic clonal complex designated as serovar E that has extended worldwide. One of the most interesting virulence factors produced by serovar E is RtxA13, a multifunctional protein that acts as a lethal factor for fish, an invasion factor for mice, and a survival factor outside the host. Two practically identical copies of rtxA13 are present in all biotype 2 strains regardless of the serovar, one in the virulence plasmid and the other in chromosome II. The plasmid also contains other genes involved in survival and growth in eel blood: vep07, a gene for an outer membrane (OM) lipoprotein involved in resistance to eel serum and vep20, a gene for an OM receptor specific for eel-transferrin and, probably, other related fish transferrins. All the three genes are highly conserved within biotype 2, which suggests that they are under a strong selective pressure. Interestingly, the three genes are related with transferable plasmids, which emphasizes the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of V. vulnificus in nutrient-enriched aquatic environments, such as fish farms.

  17. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of tomato does not affect the performance of the Q and ZHJ2 biotypes of the viral vector Bemisia tabaci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Li; Jian Liu; Shu-Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the etiology of begomovirus epidemics in regions under invasion we need to know how indigenous and invasive whitefly vectors respond to virus infection.We investigated both direct and indirect effects of infection with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV)on the performance of the invasive Q biotype and the indigenous Asian ZHJ2 biotype of whitefly Bemisia tabaci.The Q biotype performed better than the ZHJ2 biotype on either uninfected or virus-infected tomato plants.However,virus-infection of host plants did not,or only marginally affected,the performance of either biotype of whiteflies m terms of fecundity,longevity,survival,development and population increase.Likewise,association of the vectors with TYLCV did not affect fecundity and longevity of the Q or ZHJ2 biotypes on cotton,a non-host of TYLCV.These results indicate that the alien Q biotype whitefly,but not the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype,is likely to become the major vector of TYLCV in the field and facilitate virus epidemics.

  18. An Exploratory Study on Assessment of Gingival Biotype and Crown Dimensions as Predictors for Implant Esthetics Comparing Caucasian and Indian Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; van Brakel, Ralph; Mahesh, Kavita; de Putter, Cornelius; Cune, Marco S.

    2013-01-01

    Gingival biotype and crown dimensions may be important predictors for the esthetic outcome of surgical procedures. However, the visual distinction between "thick" and "thin" biotype may not be a suitable predictive parameter of surgical outcome. Intraoral photographs of 73 Indian and Dutch subjects

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 stimulatory activity by Gardnerella vaginalis: relationship to biotypes and other pathogenic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, J A; Hashemi, F B; Aroutcheva, A A; Heimler, I; Spear, G T; Shott, S; Faro, S

    2001-07-01

    Stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 expression by Gardnerella vaginalis is one possible cause for an increase in the amount of virus in the genital tract. The ability of G. vaginalis to induce HIV expression in chronically infected U1 cells was investigated, along with its possible relationship to biotype, genotype, and resistance to metronidazole and bacteriocin. Significant HIV stimulatory activity was found in 5 (50%) lysates of G. vaginalis. The ability to induce HIV expression in U1 cells was statistically associated with G. vaginalis biotype (P=.048) but not with genotype or resistance to metronidazole and bacteriocin. Further studies to explore the in vivo relevance of HIV activation by G. vaginalis in the female genital tract are warranted, since prevention strategies of bacterial vaginosis and colonization by certain biotypes of G. vaginalis may be valuable in reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.

  20. Association of plasmid typing to biotyping and antibiotyping in the characterization of outbreaks by Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak at an University Hospital, from April to September, in 1994, sixteen strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from patients and one strain from an enteral solution. We afterwards analyzed the outbreak by means of plasmid typing, antibiotic resistance typing and biotyping. Two main plasmid profiles were identified. Twelve strains belonged to biotype 2, and five to biotype 19. Susceptibility to amikacin and to carbenicillin allowed classification of the strains into two groups. The results show that association of those three typing methods allowed the differentiation of what was at first considered as a single outbreak into two apparently unrelated outbreaks.Durante um surto ocorrido de abril a setembro de 1994 em um Hospital Universitário, dezesseis cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii foram isoladas de pacientes e uma de solução enteral. Nós posteriormente analizamos as cepas isoladas durante o surto pelos seguintes métodos de tipagem : perfil de DNA plasmidial, perfil de antibiograma e biotipagem. Dois padrões de tipagem foram identificados pela análise do perfil plasmidial. Doze cepas foram caracterizadas como sendo do biotipo 2, e cinco do biotipo 19. O padrão de sensibilidade a amicacina e a carbenicilina possibilitou a classificação das cepas em dois grupos. Os resultados demonstraram que estes três métodos de tipagem associados possibilitaram a diferenciação do que primeiramente foi considerado como um único surto, em dois surtos aparentemente não relacionados.

  1. Resistance of soybean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S S; Bueno, A F; Boff, M I C; Bueno, R C O F; Hoffman-Campo, C B

    2011-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B has become a serious problem for soybean cultivation because it can significantly reduce soybean productivity. The use of soybean cultivars resistant to whitefly attack is an important strategy in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. This study evaluated the preference for oviposition and colonization by B. tabaci biotype B on different soybean genotypes. In the free-choice test, the genotypes studied were 'IAC 17' and 'IAC 19' as the standards for resistance and 'IAC Holambra Stwart' as the standard for susceptibility, as well as BABR01-0492, BABR01-0173, BABR01-1259, BABR01-1576, BABR99-4021HC, BABR99-4021HP, 'Barreiras', 'Conquista', 'Corisco', 'BRS Gralha', PI274454, PI227687, and PI171451. In the no-choice test, the four best genotypes selected in the free-choice test, in addition to the susceptible and resistant standards were evaluated. Our data indicated 'Barreiras' as the most resistant genotype against B. tabaci biotype B. 'BRS Gralha', which was the least attractive to whitefly adults in the free-choice test, did not show resistance to insect attack when they were confined in cages in the no-choice test. Despite the high number of eggs observed, BABR01-1576 and BABR99-4021HC showed a reduced number of nymphs, indicating antibiosis. The genotypes with a high level of resistance can be used as a tool against B. tabaci in IPM or as a source of resistance in plant-breeding programs.

  2. Potential adaptation of a Q biotype whitefly population from poinsettia to field crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangshun Hu; Timothy J. Dennehy; Xinzhi Ni; Huiyan Zhao; Robert L. Nichols; Xianchun Li

    2011-01-01

    The invasive Q biotype whitefly was first detected in the US on poinsettia in 2004 and is still not a pest outside of greenhouse environments in the US.To assess the potential for the establishment of the Q biotype on field crops,population cage experiments were conducted to compare the performance of a poinsettia-derived Q population named P'06 on poinsettia and six field crops (alfalfa,tomato,melon,cotton,cowpea and cabbage).P'06 adults reared on poinsettia as nymphs laid eggs on all six field crops.Significantly more eggs were laid on alfalfa,tomato,melon and cotton than on cabbage,cowpea and poinsettia.These eggs hatched and the nymphs developed to adults on the six field crops.Relative to poinsettia,whitefly survival was similar on cowpea,alfalfa,tomato and cabbage,but significantly higher on cotton and melon.Moreover,P'06 had significantly shorter development times from egg to adult on cotton,melon,cowpea,tomato and alfalfa than they did on poinsettia.However,the F 1 adults raised on the six field crops had significantly shorter lifespans and laid 11- to 18-fold fewer eggs than did the F1 adults raised on poinsettia.Taken together,while P'06 may have some potential to establish on field crops,the shorter lifespans and extremely low fecundities of the F1 adults raised on the six field crops suggests that P'06 is incapable of rapidly adapting to them.Poor adaptation to field crops may explain,at least partially,why the Q biotype has not established in the US field system.

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep - a high frequency of biotype 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Karin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Methods Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. Results The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4, Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3, Providencia rettgeri (n = 2, Serratia marcescens (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y

  4. Brucella melitensis biotype 1 outbreak in goats in northern KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, R; Nel, J R; Emslie, R; Bishop, G C

    1996-06-01

    Brucella melitensis biotype 1 was confirmed in indigenous, outbred goats in three northern districts of the KwaZulu-Natal province following the diagnosis of human Malta fever in the same area. Six foci of infection were found during an extensive serological survey involving 6266 goats carried out in most of the districts of the KwaZulu-Natal province. The prevalence in the positive herds varied between 17% and 100%. The diagnosis was confirmed by culturing milk samples from serologically positive animals. Infected goats were found in only three districts (Ubombo, Ingwavuma and Pongola) and all infected herds fell within a 50-km radius.

  5. Comparison of Vibrio cholerae O139 with V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Calia, K E; Murtagh, M.; Ferraro, M J; Calderwood, S B

    1994-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 is a recently identified non-O1 V. cholerae strain responsible for outbreaks of epidemic cholera in India, Bangladesh, and Thailand in the past 2 years. Other workers have demonstrated the presence of the cholera toxin genetic element in V. cholerae O139, unlike the situation for other non-O1 V. cholerae strains. We sought to compare further this strain with strains of V. cholerae O1, classical and El Tor biotypes, by classic microbiologic methods, Southern blot analysis ...

  6. Outer membrane protein profiling to distinguish between Haemophilus aegyptius and non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae biotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaves, N I; Anderson, E C; Toy, S J

    1994-12-01

    Outer membrane protein profiling was used to assist in determining the identity of an isolate of Haemophilus spp. that was presumptively identified as non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae biotype III. The possibility that this strain was in fact Haemophilus aegyptius was queried because of clinical information and the source of the isolate. Sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to establish the identity of the isolate as non-capsulate H. influenzae biotype III and no H. aegyptius. Generally, protein profiling compared very favourably with other standard tests for identifying H. aegyptius: the method was easily and rapidly performed and gave an unequivocal result.

  7. THE STUDY OF ENTEROTOXIGENICITY OF THE BIOTYPE 1A YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bogumilchik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А which are considered as nonpathogenic microorganisms were tested for production of the thermostable enterotoxin YST B (Yersinia Stable Toxin. This toxin is characterized by strong toxic action and it can bring on diarrhea in human and animals. The chromosome gene of thermostable enterotoxin ystB was detected by PCR in 87.1% out of 116 studied strains of different origin and territorial isolation. To determine toxin production in vitro the studied strains cultivated in various conditions: in 26°C and 37°С in usual culture medium and in 37°С in the medium corresponded to the content of intestine. In part of the studied strains the toxin production was revealed on the model of newborn mice in both temperature regimes of cultivation 26°С and 37°С. The study of toxin production in representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А showed their possible role as etiological agents of diarrhea.

  8. Identification and typing of free-living Acanthamoeba spp. by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chierico, Federica; Di Cave, David; Accardi, Cristel; Santoro, Maristella; Masotti, Andrea; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Berrilli, Federica; Urbani, Andrea; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-11-01

    Over the years, the potential pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba for humans and animals has gained increasing attention from the scientific community. More than 24 species belong to this genus, however only some of them are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis in humans. Due to technical difficulties in diagnosis, these infections are likely to be under-detected. The introduction of 18S rDNA amplification for the identification of Acanthamoeba has dramatically enhanced diagnosis performances, but the attestation of genotyping requires supplementary sequencing-based procedures. In this study, 15 Acanthamoeba strains were collected and grown on nutrient agar media. Each strain was genotyped by end-point PCR assay for the amplification of the 18S rDNA gene and the genotype was assigned by sequencing analysis through neighbor joining phylogenetic tree. In order to optimize standardization of the MALDI-TOF MS assay, we established the collection time point at the cystic phase. Two strains of each genotype were randomly chosen to customize the biotyper database. For all strains, 24 spectral measurements were acquired and submitted to identification and cluster analysis of spectra. The obtained results highlighted the correct identification of Acanthamoeba strains and the overlapping of spectra dendrogram clusters to the 18S genotype assignations. In conclusion, the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper revealed the capability to identify and genotype the Acanthamoeba strains, providing a new frontier in the diagnostic identification of amaebae and in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies.

  9. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  10. Implementing the Bruker MALDI Biotyper in the Public Health Laboratory for C. botulinum Neurotoxin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Perry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the gold standard method for active botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT detection is the mouse bioassay (MBA. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-developed mass spectrometry (MS-based assay that detects active BoNT was successfully validated and implemented in a public health laboratory in clinical matrices using the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry Biotyper. For the first time, a direct comparison with the MBA was performed to determine MS-based assay sensitivity using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Mice were injected with BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F at concentrations surrounding the established MS assay limit of detection (LOD and analyzed simultaneously. For BoNT/B, /E, and /F, MS assay sensitivity was equivalent or better than the MBA at 25, 0.3, and 8.8 mLD50, respectively. BoNT/A was detected by the MBA between 1.8 and 18 mLD50, somewhat more sensitive than the MS method of 18 mLD50. Studies were performed to compare assay performance in clinical specimens. For all tested specimens, the MS method rapidly detected BoNT activity and serotype in agreement with, or in the absence of, results from the MBA. We demonstrate that the MS assay can generate reliable, rapid results while eliminating the need for animal testing.

  11. Studies on the Host Biotypes and Its Cause of Cotton Aphid in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-dong; ZHAI Bao-ping; ZHANG Xiao-xi

    2002-01-01

    The fitness of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on different host plants was studied. The results showed that the cotton aphid population in Nanjing formed host preference bio-types on cucumber and cotton. The aphids from cotton and cucumber could not inter-transplant successfully between the two host plants. The apterous and alate offspring of stem mother from hibiscus could not survive, reproduce and form population normally when they were transplanted to cucumber and water melon, but they could form normally when transplanted to cotton and muskmelon. There was no significant difference between the stylet length of cotton aphids from cucumber and cotton, so the stylet length was not the cause of the host preference. When the aphids originated on hibiscus were transplanted to cotton, water melon and muskmelon, the stylet could reach host phloem to absorb host plant's nutrients, but it couldn't when transplanted to cucumber. Cotton aphid can feed on muskmelon without secretion of water-soluble saliva. It could be concluded that the two host biotypes of cotton aphid came from different winter host plants.

  12. Characterization of red rice in the province of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. I. Biotypes of straw-colored glumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials were made in The Research Local Station of Grains areas, Sur del Jíbaro from 2005 through 2011. 27 morpho-agronomic characters were evaluated regarding the main red rice biotypes of straw-colored glumes in the province of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, and in three commercial varieties of witness rice (IACuba-31, Perla de Cuba y Jucarito-104. It also was determined a broad diversity and variations in these features that permitted to differenciate the biotypes between them and with other rice cultivars. The purple pigmentation in some parts of the plants in the great majority of such biotype is an observable feature, seen easily, that make contrasts with the already researched, by which it helps a lot in identifying them. The great majority of the biotypes of straw-colored glumes featured an over-growned size in their sprouts, lengths and longer flag leaves, with also a prone feature to loose its grain, its nighty, broad seed and a particular resistance to Pyricularia grisea; but shorter and lighter but it also yields less per hectares. it has shown resistant to Tagosodes orizicolus, respecting the witness cultivars.

  13. Evaluation of culture methods for rapid screening of swine faecal samples for Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 biotype 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Holmvig, C.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In two studies, seven different culture protocols were compared to test naturally contaminated faecal samples from pigs for isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype O; 3/biotype 4( n = 70 and n = 79). Four of the protocols were based on the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL protocols), while...

  14. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  15. Resistance to a new biotype of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Lactuca virosa accession IVT280

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Host plant resistance is an effective protection strategy to control aphids in many crops. However, the evolution of insensitive aphid biotypes necessitates the search for new resistance sources. Wild relatives of crop plants can be important sources for resistance genes to be introgressed into new

  16. Improved DNA barcoding method for Bemisia tabaci and related Aleyrodidae: development of universal and Bemisia tabaci biotype-specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I polymerase chain reaction primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatters, Robert G; Powell, Charles A; Boykin, Laura M; Liansheng, He; McKenzie, C L

    2009-04-01

    Whiteflies, heteropterans in the family Aleyrodidae, are globally distributed and severe agricultural pests. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence has been used extensively in whitefly phylogenetic comparisons and in biotype identification of the agriculturally important Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) whitefly. Because of the economic importance of several whitefly genera, and the invasive nature of the B and the Q biotypes of Bemisia tabaci, mtCOI sequence data are continually generated from sampled populations worldwide. Routine phylogenetic comparisons and biotype identification is done through amplification and sequencing of an approximately 800-bp mtCOI DNA fragment. Despite its routine use, published primers for amplification of this region are often inefficient for some B. tabaci biotypes and especially across whitefly species. Through new sequence generation and comparison to available whitefly mtCOI sequence data, a set of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification primers (Btab-Uni primers) were identified that are more efficient at amplifying approximately 748 bp of the approximately 800-bp fragment currently used. These universal primers amplify an mtCOI fragment from numerous B. tabaci biotypes and whitefly genera by using a single amplification profile. Furthermore, mtCOI PCR primers specific for the B, Q, and New World biotypes of B. tabaci were designed that allow rapid discrimination among these biotypes. These primers produce a 478-, 405-, and 303-bp mtCOI fragment for the B, New World, and Q biotypes, respectively. By combining these primers and using rapid PCR and electrophoretic techniques, biotype determination can be made within 3 h for up to 96 samples at a time.

  17. [Biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ilknur; Alpay Karaoğlu, Sengül; Ciftçi, Hasan; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Aydin, Faruk; Kiliç, Ali Osman; Ertürk, Murat

    2007-01-01

    As Gardnerella vaginalis is accepted as a member of normal vaginal flora, it is one of the dominant species which has been related to bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate, biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of G.vaginalis from the vaginal swab samples of 408 women who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Family Planning Center. Hippurate hydrolysis, lipase and beta-galactosidase tests were performed for biotyping the isolates, and agar dilution (for metronidazole) and disk diffusion (for clindamycin) tests were used for the detection of antibiotic resistance patterns. As a result, by Nugent's BV scoring protocol, 122 (29.9%), 20 (29.4%), 137 (33.6%), and 18 (4.4%) of the women were diagnosed as BV, intermediate form, normal vaginal flora (NVF) and mycotic vaginosis, respectively. The overall isolation rate of G.vaginalis was found as 23% (94/408). Of them, 56.4% (53/94) and 8.5% (8/94) were isolated from samples of BV cases and subjects with NVF, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (pbiotyping results showed that the most frequently detected types were biotype 1 (44%), 5 (20%) and 4 (18%). There was no statistically significant difference between the biotype distribution of BV patients and the subjects who have NVF (p=0.687). The results of antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 70% and 53% of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively. It was of interest that MIC values for metronidazole was > or =128 microg/ml in 57% of resistant strains. The data of this study has emphasized that the metronidazole resistance is very high in our population, and the large scale studies are needed to clarify the relationship between BV and G.vaginalis biotypes, which can be found in the normal vaginal flora.

  18. Interspecific interactions between Bemisia tabaci biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Li, Dong-Chao; Liu, Tong-Xian; Wan, Fang-Hao; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-02-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are invasive whitefly species that often co-occur on greenhouse-grown vegetables in northern China. Although B. tabaci biotype B has been present in China for a relatively short period of time, it has become dominant over T. vaporariorum. We studied the interspecific competitive interactions between the two species in single or mixed cultures at 24 ± 1 °C, 40 ± 5% RH, and L14:D10 h photoperiod. Female longevity on tomato was not significantly different between species, but B. tabaci reproduced 4.3 to 4.9 fold more progeny. The ratio of female to male progeny in both instances was greater for B. tabaci. When cultured on tomato, cotton, and tobacco, B. tabaci developed 0.8, 3.3, and 4.7 d earlier in single culture, and 1.8, 3.9, and 4.3 d earlier in mixed culture. B. tabaci displaced T. vaporariorum in four, five and six generations when the initial ratios of B. tabaci to T. vaporariorum were 15:15, 20:10, or 10:20 on tomato. Populations of B. tabaci were 2.3 fold higher than that of T. vaporariorum on tomato plants for seven consecutive generations in single culture. B. tabaci performed better in development, survival, fecundity, and female ratio. We conclude that B. tabaci could displace T. vaporariorum in as short as four generations in a controlled greenhouse environment when they start at equal proportions. Warmer greenhouse conditions and an increase in total greenhouse area could be contributing factors in the recent dominance of B. tabaci.

  19. Comparative protection of two different commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and biotype 2 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, S.; Raida, M. K.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2012-01-01

    Differentially extended specific protection by two commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 was studied following 30s immersion exposure. Rainbow trout were challenged intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 2 (≈106 to 107CFU/fish) at 4, 6 and 8...... months after vaccination with vaccines containing either biotype 1 (AquaVac® ERM) or both biotypes 1 and 2 (AquaVac® RELERA™). The specific pattern of vaccine-mediated protection was evaluated by relative percentage survival (RPS) analysis at 4 and 6 months post-vaccination and by obtaining gross...... pathological observations at 4 and 8 months respectively. We determined specific significant and superior protection in terms of increased survivability in AquaVac® RELERA™ vaccinated fish and observed correspondingly fewer pathological changes. The challenge trials indicated a longer protection for at least 6...

  20. Study on the Efficacy of Some Current Herbicides for Control of Resistant and Susceptible Canarygrass (Phalaris spp. Biotypes to Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two separate greenhouse experiments were conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, to study the efficacy of some herbicides to control of resistant and susceptible P. minor and P. paradoxa biotypes. In each experiment, resistant and susceptible biotypes were treated separately by 19 herbicide treatments. Treatments included 10 ACCase inhibitors, 6 Acetolactate Synthase (ALS inhibitors, prosulfocarb, flamprop-M-isopropyl, isoproturon plus diflufenican and a non-sprayed control. To evaluate the effects of treatments, different characteristics including percent damage based on EWRC scores at 15 and 30 days after spraying, percentage of survived plants after spraying relative to before spraying, and percentage of dry weight and wet weight of individual plants relative to control were studied. Results showed that the susceptible biotypes of P. minor were best controlled by clodinafop propargyl and pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha while pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha and cycloxydim were best options for control of the resistant biotype. Among ALS inhibitors, iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron could control susceptible and resistant biotypes of P. minor very effectively and semi-satisfactory, respectively. Iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron could remarkably reduce the wet weight of individual plants compared to control so that the plants were not damaging any more. Among other herbicides, isoproturon plus diflufenican could control the susceptible and resistant biotypes semi-satisfactory and very effectively, respectively. Keywords: Herbicide resistance, ACCase inhibitors, ALS inhibitors

  1. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Reveals the Role of Anabolic and Catabolic Processes in Glyphosate-Induced Amino Acid Accumulation in Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith; Nandula, Vijay; Duke, Stephen; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2016-09-21

    Biotic and abiotic stressors often result in the buildup of amino acid pools in plants, which serve as potential stress mitigators. However, the role of anabolic (de novo amino acid synthesis) versus catabolic (proteolytic) processes in contributing to free amino acid pools is less understood. Using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM), we measured the de novo amino acid synthesis in glyphosate susceptible (S-) and resistant (R-) Amaranthus palmeri biotypes. In the S-biotype, glyphosate treatment at 0.4 kg ae/ha resulted in an increase in total amino acids, a proportional increase in both (14)N and (15)N amino acids, and a decrease in soluble proteins. This indicates a potential increase in de novo amino acid synthesis, coupled with a lower protein synthesis and a higher protein catabolism following glyphosate treatment in the S-biotype. Furthermore, the ratio of glutamine/glutamic acid (Gln/Glu) in the glyphosate-treated S- and R-biotypes indicated that the initial assimilation of inorganic nitrogen to organic forms is less affected by glyphosate. However, amino acid biosynthesis downstream of glutamine is disproportionately disrupted in the glyphosate treated S-biotype. It is thus concluded that the herbicide-induced amino acid abundance in the S-biotype is contributed by both protein catabolism and de novo synthesis of amino acids such as glutamine and asparagine.

  2. Metabolic Profiling and Enzyme Analyses Indicate a Potential Role of Antioxidant Systems in Complementing Glyphosate Resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2015-10-21

    Metabolomics and biochemical assays were employed to identify physiological perturbations induced by a commercial formulation of glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. At 8 h after treatment (HAT), compared to the respective water-treated control, cellular metabolism of both biotypes were similarly perturbed by glyphosate, resulting in abundance of most metabolites including shikimic acid, amino acids, organic acids and sugars. However, by 80 HAT the metabolite pool of glyphosate-treated R-biotype was similar to that of the control S- and R-biotypes, indicating a potential physiological recovery. Furthermore, the glyphosate-treated R-biotype had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, higher ROS scavenging activity, and higher levels of potential antioxidant compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Thus, metabolomics, in conjunction with biochemical assays, indicate that glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations are not limited to the shikimate pathway, and the oxidant quenching efficiency could potentially complement the glyphosate resistance in this R-biotype.

  3. Biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Jatropha gossypiifolia, commercial (Manihot esculenta) and wild cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabalí, Arturo; Belloti, Anthony C; Montoya-Lerma, James

    2010-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests of cassava in Africa and several countries of Asia due to the damage caused by direct feeding, the excretion of honeydew, and its capacity as a vector of cassava mosaic geminivirus. There is a general consensus that B. tabaci is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable populations with different biotypes. In the Americas, the polyphagous biotype B does not appear to feed on cassava. Recent studies indicate that it is possible, however, for biotype B to gradually adapt to cassava using phylogenetically related hosts. Therefore, the possibility that some wild species of cassava constitute intermediate hosts in the adaptation process may lead to the establishment of biotype B on commercial varieties of Manihot esculenta. In here, we evaluated Jatropha gossypiifolia, two wild species of cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) and a commercial cassava variety (MCol 2063) as hosts of biotype B. The highest oviposition rate (2.7 eggs /two days) occurred on M. esculenta, although the development time (44 d) was the longest when compared to M. carthaginensis and J. gossypiifolia. About 60% of the population could reproduce on the wild cassava species vs. 55% on J. gossypiifolia and 27.5% on the commercial variety. Our data suggest that J. gossypiifolia is a suitable host and the wild species M. carthaginensis can constitute a potential intermediate host in the adaptation of biotype B to commercial varieties of cassava.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2 WATERBORNE CHALLENGE MODEL FOR FUTURE ERM VACCINE TESTING IN RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Aalbæk, Bent; Otani, Maki;

    from ERM outbreaks in Danish rainbow trout farms during 2011. Some of the isolates were obtained from vaccinated stocks, which subsequently developed ERM disease outbreaks. The Y.r. O1 isolates have been characterized and biotyped according to mobility and hydrolysis of Tween-80, and almost all......1 bt 2 has made it possible to develop a standardized bath challenge model which is needed in order to test and develop new experimental vaccines which are expected to induce immunity against Y.r. O1 bt 2.......Yersinia ruckeri (Y.r.) O1 biotype (bt) 2 causes outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in vaccinated, farmed rainbow trout around the world. Y.r. O1 bt 1 has been known since first described from the Hagerman Valley in Idaho in the 1950’s and outbreaks have now been controlled by vaccination...

  5. Effects of host plants on insecticide susceptibility and carboxylesterase activity in Bemisia tabaci biotype B and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Cui, Jian-Zhou; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2007-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), have become serious pests of cotton and vegetable crops in China since the early 1990s. In recent years, however, B. tabaci have broken out more frequently and widely than have T. vaporariorum. The B. tabaci biotype B has also developed higher resistance to several insecticides. Here, the effects of four different host plants on the insecticide susceptibility of B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum have been compared. The LC(50) values of imidacloprid, abamectin, deltamethrin and omethoate in T. vaporariorum reared on cucumber were significantly higher than those in B. tabaci (the LC(50) values in T. vaporariorum were respectively 3.13, 2.63, 2.78 and 6.67 times higher than those in B. tabaci). On the other hand, the B. tabaci population reared on cotton was more tolerant to all four insecticides tested than the T. vaporariorum population from the same host, especially to abamectin (up to 8.4-fold). The effects of the four host plants on the activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) in B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum were also compared. The results showed that, although the CarE activity of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum varied depending on the host plants, the B. tabaci population possessed significantly higher CarE activity than the T. vaporariorum population reared on the same host plant. This was especially so on cucumber and cotton, where the CarE activities of the B. tabaci population were over 1.6 times higher than those of T. varporariorum. The frequency profiles for this activity in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum populations reared on same host plant were apparently different.

  6. Development and reproduction of ‘B' biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on four ornamentals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILIN; SHUN-XIANGREN

    2005-01-01

    Effects of four commercial ornamentals on the development, survivorship and reproduction of the whitefly B biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were studied in the laboratory (temperature 26 ±1℃; relative humidity 75%-90%; L: D 14:10). The total survivorship from egg to adult on hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.), poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Will), cottonrose hibiscus (Hibiscus mutabilis L.) and variegated leafcroton (Codiaeum variegatum ‘Aucubaefolium') were 33.69%, 40.55%, 79.11%, and 29.39%,respectively. The developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 23.12 days on cottonrose hibiscus to 32.13 days on hibiscus. The average longevity of adult females ranged from 6.87 days on variegated leafcroton to 21.07 days on poinsettia. The average numbers of eggs laid per female were 9.20, 25.13, 54.45, and 26.79 on the above respective hosts. The intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) for B biotype B. tabaci on cottonrose hibiscus was the highest. Based on life table analyses of whitefly populations, cottonrose hibiscus was the most suitable host for B biotype B. tabaci in this study.

  7. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  8. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-(/sup 35/S)-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus.

  9. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid.

  10. EPSPS variability, gene expression, and enzymatic activity in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, E; Barroso, A A M; Vasconcelos, T S; López-Rubio, A; Albrecht, A J P; Victoria Filho, R; Carrer, H

    2016-08-12

    Weed resistance to herbicides is a natural phenomenon that exerts selection on individuals in a population. In Brazil, glyphosate resistance was recently detected in Digitaria insularis. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of weed resistance in this plant, including genetic variability, allelism, amino acid substitutions, gene expression, and enzymatic activity levels. Most of these have not previously been studied in this species. D. insularis DNA sequences were used to analyze genetic variability. cDNA from resistant and susceptible plants was used to identify mutations, alleles, and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) expression, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, EPSPS activity was measured. We found a decrease in genetic variability between populations related to glyphosate application. Substitutions from proline to threonine and tyrosine to cysteine led to a decrease in EPSPS affinity for the glyphosate. In addition, the EPSPS enzymatic activity was slightly higher in resistant plants, whereas EPSPS gene expression was almost identical in both biotypes, suggesting feedback regulation at different levels. To conclude, our results suggest new molecular mechanisms used by D. insularis to increase glyphosate resistance.

  11. Development of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius,1889 biotype B on Lycopersicon spp. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies are phytophagous insects, whose nymphs and adults suck the phloem sap, causing direct damage due to host plant weakness. In tomato (Lycopersicon spp. crops, they are important vectors of limiting fitoviruses. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Lycopersicon spp. genotypes on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B development under greenhouse conditions. The evaluated genotypes were LA462 (L. peruvianum, LA716 (L. pennellii, LA1584 (L. pimpinellifolium, LA1609 (L. peruvianum, LA1739 (L. hirsutum, P25 (L. esculentum, PI134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum and Santa Clara (L. esculentum. LA716 was non-preferred for oviposition by the whitefly, which suggests an antixenotic effect. LA1584 showed an antibiotic resistance because nymphal survival was reduced and nymphal developmental time was increased. Antixenotic resistance was observed in LA1739 and PI134417, based on a reduction of oviposition. PI134417 also reduced nymphal survival, which suggests an antibiotic effect, but LA1739 was suitable for insect development. LA1609 was highly preferred for oviposition, however it reduced insect survival. P25 and Santa Clara (L. esculentum were highly preferred for oviposition.

  12. Gene expression profiling in the thiamethoxam resistant and susceptible B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shao-Ii; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Li, Ru-mei; Jiao, Xiao-guo; Pan, Hui-peng; Liu, Bai-ming; Feng, Yun-tao; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xu-guo; Zhang, You-jun

    2012-01-01

    Thiamethoxam has been used as a major insecticide to control the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Due to its excessive use, a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam has developed worldwide over the past several years. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in B. tabaci, gene profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible strains were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library approach. A total of 72 and 52 upand down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belong to several functional categories based on their gene ontology annotation. Some categories such as cell communication, response to abiotic stimulus, lipid particle, and nuclear envelope were identified only in the forward library of thiamethoxam-resistant strains. In contrast, categories such as behavior, cell proliferation, nutrient reservoir activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and signal transducer activity were identified solely in the reverse library. To study the validity of the SSH method, 16 differentially expressed genes from both forward and reverse SSH libraries were selected randomly for further analyses using quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were fairly consistent with the SSH results; however, only 50% of the genes showed significantly different expression profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible whiteflies. Among these genes, a putative NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase was substantially over-expressed in the thiamethoxamresistant adults compared to their susceptible counterparts. The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females.

  13. Two novel ail-positive biotype 1A strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated in China with unequal adhesion and invasion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Shi, Guoxiang; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Kou, Zengqiang; Hu, Bin; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteric pathogen having six biotypes: 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Different bioserotypes have been associated with varying pathogenicity, and the strains of biotype 1A lack the virulence-associated pYV-bearing genes and were once considered to be avirulent. However, there is growing epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence to suggest some biotype 1A isolates are virulent and can cause gastrointestinal disease. Here, we describe two biotype 1A strains discovered from 3807 isolates that carry the ail (attachment and invasion locus) gene. The two strains showed unique PFGE patterns compared to all other isolates in the Chinese Y. enterocolitica isolate PFGE database. Strain SDWL-003 isolated from a sheep shared ail sequence identical to A1 pattern, and the foxA (ferrioxamine receptor) sequence was identical to the pathogenic F5 pattern, besides, the PFGE patterns of SDWL-003 was also cluster to pathogenic branch; however it does not attach to or invade Hep-2 cells. The ail sequence of strain 2006RAT isolated from a Microtus fortis showed several mutations compared to other published genomes, and therefore formed an entirely new pathogenic pattern. Though it clustered to non-pathogenic block with foxA sequence polymorphism analysis or PFGE assay, the strain 2006RAT showed adhesion properties. The data here bring new insights into the molecular genetics of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A, show some isolates of 1A biotype gaining potential pathogenicity using the function of the virulence gene - ail, and indicate the lateral gene transfer of ail virulence genes proceeded between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  14. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  15. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  16. Only the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci is present on vegetables in São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Kelly Cristina Gonçales [UNESP; Marubayashi,Julio Massaharu; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico [UNESP; Pavan,Marcelo Agenor; Krause-Sakate, Renate

    2011-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is one of the most important pests in cultivated areas of vegetables and ornamental crops around the world. Based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidize I (mtCOI) sequence, there is evidence that B. tabaci should be considered a cryptic species complex of 11 groups containing 24 species. Two of the groups, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean include biotypes B and Q, respectively. In this study we evaluated the mtCOI sequence of B. tabaci populations collected i...

  17. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation affects the level of the midbuccal mucosa (MBM). Ninety patients with a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. The level of the MBM was measured on photographs taken 1 year after crown placement. The factors analyzed only explained 22% of the level of the MBM. The more an implant was placed to the buccal, the more the MBM was positioned apically. A comparable phenomenon was observed in cases with a thick biotype and cases that underwent pre-implant bone augmentation. Platform switching did not affect the level of the MBM.

  18. Genotypic diversity and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered as non-pathogenic; however, some reports have identified some strains as the causal agents of infection. In South America, few studies molecularly characterized the strains of this biotype. This work typed 51 B1A strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources from Brazil and Chile by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) to elucidate their genotypic diversity, and verify the distribution of 11 virulence markers by PCR. The strains were divided into two groups, ERIC-A and ERIC-B, clustered independently of their clinical or non-clinical origin. No differences were observed in the frequencies of the virulence markers between clinical and non-clinical strains. However, the genes ystB, hreP and myfA occurred exclusively in the strains of the group ERIC-A. Some clinical and non-clinical strains were clustered in the same genetic group and presented the same number of virulence markers, which might suggest the role of the environment and food as a potential source of infection for humans and animals. The results corroborate with the hypothesis that B1A strains are divided into two main clusters that differ in the frequency of some virulence markers, a fact observed for the first time in South American strains.

  19. Genotyping of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains from clinical and nonclinical origins by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered mainly nonpathogenic. However, some studies considered strains of this biotype to be the causal agents of infections in humans and animals. In South America, there are no studies that have compared clinical and nonclinical strains of B1A typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and none that have compared the capability of different enzymes on typing these strains. This study typed 51 Y. enterocolitica B1A strains isolated in Brazil and Chile by PFGE, testing the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI. The resulting dendrograms discriminated the strains in 47, 40, and 49 pulsotypes generated by the cleavage with the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI, respectively. The majority of the strains were grouped independently of their clinical or nonclinical origins. The high discriminatory power of PFGE confirmed the heterogeneity of B1A strains but could not divide the strains studied into clusters that differed in the frequency of some virulence genes as observed in studies using other methodologies.

  20. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  1. Management Options and Factors Affecting Control of a Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Biotype Resistant to Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B. Harder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use of protox-inhibiting herbicides has resulted in a common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer biotype that survived lactofen applied up to 10 times the labeled rate. Field and greenhouse research evaluated control options for this biotype of common waterhemp. In the field, PRE applications of flumioxazin at 72 g ai ha−1, sulfentrazone at 240 g ai ha−1, and isoxaflutole at 70 g ai ha−1 controlled common waterhemp >90% up to 6 weeks after treatment. POST applications of fomesafen at 330 g ai ha−1, lactofen at 220 g ai ha−1, and acifluorfen at 420 g ai ha−1 resulted in <60% visual control of common waterhemp, but differences were detected among herbicides. In the greenhouse, glyphosate was the only herbicide that controlled protox resistant waterhemp. The majority of herbicide activity from POST flumioxazin, fomesafen, acifluorfen, and lactofen was from foliar placement, but control was less than 40% regardless of placement. Control of common waterhemp seeded at weekly intervals after herbicide treatment with flumioxazin, fomesafen, sulfentrazone, atrazine, and isoxaflutole exceeded 85% at 0 weeks after herbicide application (WAHA, while control with isoxaflutole was greater than 60% 6 WAHA. PRE and POST options for protox-resistant common waterhemp are available to manage herbicide resistance.

  2. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident.

  3. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoxia; Ma, Hongmei; Xie, Hongyan; Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Fan, Zhongxue; Rajashekar, Balaji; Arnaud, Philippe; Offmann, Bernard; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1) was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde). This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity. PMID:27167733

  4. [Effects of calcium fertilizer on the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Yu, Yong-Ming; Liu, Jian-Xin; Li, Ming-Jiang; Zhu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper studied the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima under the conditions of 26 +/- 1 degrees C and 60% - 80% relative humidity after applying calcium fertilizer, taking applying fresh water as the control. There existed significant differences in the developmental duration of B. tabaci between treatment applying calcium fertilizer and the control. After applying calcium fertilizer, the egg stage of B. tabaci shortened significantly, and the development from egg to adult took 20.18 days (for the control, it took 18.72 days). However, there were no significant differences in the survival rates of B. tabaci at different development stages between the two treatments. The feeding of B. tabaci on E. pulcherrima induced the plant leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed, i. e., the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (q(p)), light use efficiency (alpha), maximum photosynthesis rate (rETRmax), and tolerance to light (I(k)) decreased significantly, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) had a significant increase. After applying calcium fertilizer, the plant leaf photoinhibition parameter (beta), rETRmax, and I(k) had less difference with th e control. The nail polish blot observation on the lower epidermis structure of plant leaf showed that calcium fertilizer could effectively compensate the decrease in the photosynthesis of E. pulcherrima damaged by B-biotype B. tabaci.

  5. Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 serovar E gne but not galE is essential for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Esmeralda; Jiménez, Natalia; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M; Amaro, Carmen

    2008-04-01

    This work aimed to establish the role of gne (encoding UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase activity) and galE (encoding UDP-Gal-4-epimerase activity) in the biosynthesis of surface polysaccharides, as well as in the virulence for eels and humans of the zoonotic serovar of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, serovar E. DNA sequence data revealed that gne and galE are quite homologous within this species (> or =90% homology). Mutation in gne of strain CECT4999 increased the surface hydrophobicity, produced deep alterations in the outer membrane architecture, and resulted in noticeable increases in the sensitivity to microcidal peptides (MP), to eel and human sera, and to phagocytosis/opsonophagocytosis. Furthermore, significant attenuation of virulence for eels and mice was observed. By contrast, mutation in galE did not alter the cellular surface, did not increase the sensitivity to MP, serum, or phagocytosis, and did not affect the virulence for fish and mice. The change in the attenuated-virulence phenotype produced by a mutation in gne was correlated with the loss of the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while the capsule was maintained. Complementation of a gne-deficient mutant restored the LPS structure together with the whole virulence phenotype. In conclusion, gne, but not galE, is essential for LPS biosynthesis and virulence in the zoonotic serovar of V. vulnificus biotype 2.

  6. Bacteriocins in S. mutans strains isolated from children with and without dental caries: biotypes and sensitivity to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Fredy; Chaves, Margarita; Estupiñan, Mabel; Galindo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the production of bacteriocins in the Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from children with and without dental caries. With this purpose the dmft index was determined and non-stimulated saliva was collected from 53 3- to 5-year-old children. The samples were cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated anaerobically for two days at 37 degrees C. The isolates were biotyped using the Api-ZYM enzymatic system (bioMérieux; Marcy-lE'toile, France). Bacteriocin was detected using the double layer onto brain heart infusion agar technique and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the isolates were evaluated against penicillin, amoxycillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin using an agar dilution method. The dental caries experience in these children was 66% (35/53) and dmft index average was 3.2 (range 2-6). S. mutans was found in the saliva of 33 children (62%). In the 33 strains of S. mutans, 10 biotypes were found. Eight (24%) of the 33 strains evaluated produced bacteriocins, 6 of these strains came from patients with dental caries and the other two from patients without dental caries. All isolates were highly sensitive to the antibiotics tested.

  7. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  8. Dimensional Changes in Alveolar Ridge Following Extraction of Teeth in the Maxillary Premolar Area in Subjects with Thick and Thin Gingival Biotypes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafez, Reem S; Alhabashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef; Hijazi, Mohammed; Jarah, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated changes in residual ridge dimensions after tooth extraction among thin and thick gingival biotypes. Fifteen patients who required extraction of maxillary premolars were classified according to gingival biotypes (10 teeth in 9 participants were included in the thick group, and 6 teeth in 6 participants were included in the thin group). Minimally traumatic extractions were carried out using periotomes and rotational movement of teeth. At the time of extraction an osteometer was used to measure the thickness of the labial plate and the bony alveolar ridge at the extraction site by penetrating the tissues until bone was reached 5 mm, 7 mm, and 10 mm below the midpoint of the crest of the facial and palatal gingival margins. Standardized radiographs were taken immediately and after 3 months. The results of this study show minimal differences in dimensional changes following extraction of premolar teeth in thick and thin gingival biotypes. Significantly greater bone loss was detected in both gingival biotypes when the labial plate thickness was less than 1.5 mm, especially in alveolar ridge height.

  9. Improved DNA barcoding method for Bemisia tabaci and related Aleyrodidae: Development of universal and Bemisia tabaci biotype-specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I polymerase chain reaction primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefly is the common name of heteropteran insects that comprise the Aleyrodidae family composed of over 160 genera and 1500 different species. The mitochondrial cytochome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence has been used extensively in whitefly phylogenetic comparisons and in biotype identification of th...

  10. Metabolic profiling and enzyme analyses indicate a potential role of antioxidant systems in complementing glyphosate resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri biotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted metabolomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify metabolite-level perturbations induced by glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. Plants were treated with 0.4 kg ae ha-1 glyphosate and tissues were harvested at 8 and 72 hours af...

  11. Characterisation of geographically and temporally diverse Yersinia ruckeri isolates: evidence that UK and mainland European biotype 2 isolates represent different clonal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been increased reports of outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri in previously-vaccinated salmonids in Europe, with some of these outbreaks attributed to emergent non-motile, Tween 80 negative, biotype 2 isolates. To gain information about their likely orig...

  12. High Ozone (O3) Affects the Fitness Associated with the Microbial Composition and Abundance of Q Biotype Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanyun; Yi, Tuyong; Tan, Xiaoling; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) affects the fitness of an insect, such as its development, reproduction and protection against fungal pathogens, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unclear. Here, we compared the fitness (i.e., the growth and development time, reproduction and protection against Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana) of Q biotype whiteflies fumigated under hO3 (280 ± 20 ppb) and control O3 (50 ± 10 ppb) concentrations. Moreover, we determined that gene expression was related to development, reproduction and immunity to B. bassiana and examined the abundance and composition of bacteria and fungi inside of the body and on the surface of the Q biotype whitefly. We observed a significantly enhanced number of eggs that were laid by a female, shortened developmental time, prolonged adult lifespan, decreased weight of one eclosion, and reduced immunity to B. bassiana in whiteflies under hO3, but hO3 did not significantly affect the expression of genes related to development, reproduction and immunity. However, hO3 obviously changed the composition of the bacterial communities inside of the body and on the surface of the whiteflies, significantly reducing Rickettsia and enhancing Candidatus_Cardinium. Similarly, hO3 significantly enhanced Thysanophora penicillioides from the Trichocomaceae family and reduced Dothideomycetes (at the class level) inside of the body. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the abundance of Candidatus_Cardinium and the female whitefly ratio and the fecundity of a single female, and positive correlations were found between the abundance of Rickettsia and the weight of adult whiteflies just after eclosion and immunity to B. bassiana. We conclude that hO3 enhances whitefly development and reproduction but impairs immunity to B. bassiana, and our results also suggest that the changes to the microbial environments inside of the body and on the surface could be crucial factors that alter whitefly fitness under hO3. PMID:27799921

  13. Phage Library Screening for the Rapid Identification and In Vivo Testing of Candidate Genes for a DNA Vaccine against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Biotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John B.; Jepson, Catherine D.; Clark, Jason R.; Totsika, Makrina; Calcutt, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A new strategy for rapidly selecting and testing genetic vaccines has been developed, in which a whole genome library is cloned into a bacteriophage λ ZAP Express vector which contains both prokaryotic (Plac) and eukaryotic (PCMV) promoters upstream of the insertion site. The phage library is plated on Escherichia coli cells, immunoblotted, and probed with hyperimmune and/or convalescent-phase antiserum to rapidly identify vaccine candidates. These are then plaque purified and grown as liquid lysates, and whole bacteriophage particles are then used directly to immunize the host, following which PCMV-driven expression of the candidate vaccine gene occurs. In the example given here, a semirandom genome library of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) biotype was cloned into λ ZAP Express, and two strongly immunodominant clones, λ-A8 and λ-B1, were identified and subsequently tested for vaccine potential against M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC biotype-induced mycoplasmemia. Sequencing and immunoblotting indicated that clone λ-A8 expressed an isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC biotype protein with a 28-kDa apparent molecular mass, identified as a previously uncharacterized putative lipoprotein (MSC_0397). Clone λ-B1 contained several full-length genes from the M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC biotype pyruvate dehydrogenase region, and two IPTG-independent polypeptides, of 29 kDa and 57 kDa, were identified on immunoblots. Following vaccination, significant anti-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC biotype responses were observed in mice vaccinated with clones λ-A8 and λ-B1. A significant stimulation index was observed following incubation of splenocytes from mice vaccinated with clone λ-A8 with whole live M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC biotype cells, indicating cellular proliferation. After challenge, mice vaccinated with clone λ-A8 also exhibited a reduced level of mycoplasmemia

  14. An investigation into the influences of species and biotype on the type of IgA1 protease produced by isolates of Haemophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, B W; Ip, C L

    1999-04-01

    A total of 59 isolates of different Haemophilus spp., mostly from clinical specimens, was characterised, biotyped and examined for production of type 1 or type 2 IgA1 protease. IgA1 protease activity was not found in any isolate of a species with no or low virulence for man including H. parainfluenzae, H. haemolyticus, H. aphrophilus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, H. paraphrohaemolyticus and H. haemoglobinophilus. IgA1 protease was produced by all isolates of H. influenzae and H. aegyptius and by some isolates of H. parahaemolyticus. The type of IgA1 protease appeared to be independent of the biotype of the isolate in H. influenzae. For the first time some isolates of H. aegyptius were found that produced type 2 IgA1 protease. IgA1 protease production in H. parahaemolyticus may be associated with the virulence of the isolate.

  15. Uso da eletroforese de isoenzimas para avaliação da competitividade de biotipos de tiririca Isoenzyme evaluation of intra-specific competitivity of purple nutsedge biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. R. Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar, por meio de eletroforese de isoenzimas, em casa de vegetação, a competitividade dos biotipos de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L. mais freqüentes que ocorrem no estado de São Paulo. Dos quatorze sistemas enzimáticos testados, seis apresentaram polimorfismo (a e b-EST, ACP, IDH, MDH e SKDH e foram utilizados para a identificação das 66 amostras coletadas, classificando-as em 10 biotipos de Cyperus rotundus. Durante a amostragem, foram identificadas as espécies C. flavus, C. iria e C. esculentus. Foram identificados diferentes biotipos de C. rotundus, com diferentes freqüências de ocorrência no estado de São Paulo. Houve predominância de dois biotipos, que estiveram presentes em 48,5% e 21,2% dos pontos de amostragem. Os diferentes biotipos de C. rotundus mostraram-se distintos em termos de competitividade intra-específica. Os biotipos mais competitivos foram os mais freqüentes nas avaliações de campo.The objective of this research was to evaluate intra-specific competition ability of purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus biotypes, using isoenzymes. We sampled weed populations in 66 sites all around São Paulo State - Brazil. Polymorphism was observed in six out of fourteen enzymatic systems studied (aand b-EST, ACP, IDH, MDH, and SKDH. Polymorphism was not observed for ADH, CAT, GDH, AAT, LAP, MADH, PER, and SDH. Using the information of the six polymorphic isoenzymes, it was possible to identify 10 biotypes of Cyperus rotundus and C. flavus, C. iria e C. esculentus species. The two major biotypes were predominant in 48.5% and 21.2% of the sampling sites. The competition ability assay was carried out showing that the most widely spread biotypes were the most competitive ones.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with clinical significance which do not correlate with biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manning Georgina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii has come to prominence due to its association with infant infections, and the ingestion of contaminated reconstituted infant formula. C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus are closely related, and are defined according their biotype. Due to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, and the high severity of infection for the immunocompromised, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme has been developed for the fast and reliable identification and discrimination of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus strains. It was applied to 60 strains of C. sakazakii and 16 strains of C. malonaticus, including the index strains used to define the biotypes. The strains were from clinical and non-clinical sources between 1951 and 2008 in USA, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and the Far East. Results This scheme uses 7 loci; atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB, and pps. There were 12 sequence types (ST identified in C. sakazakii, and 3 in C. malonaticus. A third (22/60 of C. sakazakii strains were in ST4, which had almost equal numbers of clinical and infant formula isolates from 1951 to 2008. ST8 may represent a particularly virulent grouping of C. sakazakii as 7/8 strains were clinical in origin which had been isolated between 1977 - 2006, from four countries. C. malonaticus divided into three STs. The previous Cronobacter biotyping scheme did not clearly correspond with STs nor with species. Conclusion In conclusion, MLST is a more robust means of identifying and discriminating between C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus than biotyping. The MLST database for these organisms is available online at http://pubmlst.org/cronobacter/.

  17. Cyclical parthenogenetic reproduction in the Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States: sexual reproduction and its outcome on biotypic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, G J; Hammon, R W; Burd, J D; Peairs, F B; Randolph, T L; Cooper, W R

    2012-06-01

    In 1986, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), became an invasive species of United States. Nearly 20 yr later, new biotypes appeared that were capable of overcoming most sources of resistance and became a renewed threat to wheat, Triticum aestivum L., production. Cyclical (CP) and obligate (OP) parthenogenesis enables aphids to both adapt to changing environments and exploit host resources. We documented these forms of reproduction for Russian wheat aphid in wheat and wild grasses in the Central Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions during falls 2004-2009. Colonies from sample sites also were held under unheated greenhouse conditions and observed for the presence of sexual morphs and eggs through the winter. Russian wheat aphid populations were mainly OP and attempted to overwinter as adults, regardless of region sampled. A few populations contained oviparae but no males (gynocyclic) and were not specific to any particular region. Observation of the Russian wheat aphid colonies under greenhouse conditions failed to produce males or eggs. In spring 2007, CP was confirmed in a small population of Russian wheat aphid that eclosed from eggs (fundatricies) on wild grasses and wheat near Dove Creek, CO, in the Colorado Plateau region where other aphid species undergo CP. Lineages from ninety-three fundatricies were screened against 16 resistant and susceptible cereal entries to determine their biotypic classification. A high degree of biotypic diversity (41.4%) was detected in this population. Although CP was a rare in Russian wheat aphid populations, genetic recombination during the sexual cycle creates new biotypes and can have significant effects on population genetics.

  18. About the interplay of sensitive and resistant biotypes in weed populations - simulation exercises for Echinochloa crus-galli in maize crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Redwitz, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed species easily establish in crops with a similar life cycle. Especially mono-cropping provides best conditions for such weeds. In maize this is true for Echinochloa crus-galli, which is a C4 plant and one of the worst weeds worldwide. In Germany E. crus-galli is one of the few typical weed species in maize. When recurrent herbicide treatments are applied, development of herbicide resistance is likely. Since maize is typically only treated once with herbicides, later germinating weeds can escape and produce seeds. These escaping weeds are not selected for herbicide resistance. Hence, they still have a more sensitive gene pool. E. crus-galli emerges with the highest density in spring and continues to germinate over the whole vegetative period of maize. In that way the early germinating biotypes are selected for herbicide resistance while the later germinating biotypes are not. To avoid the reproduction of E. crus-galli effort is made to suppress these later germinating weeds. Using undersown cover crops is one way to do that. We hypothesize that suppressing the later germinating biotypes enhances the development of herbicide resistance. We simulated the development of herbicide resistance in populations of E. crus-galli, composed of sensitive and resistant biotypes, in a continuous maize cropping system. We used the model PROSPER for our simulations. We assumed three levels of suppression of the later germinating weeds (0%, 30%, and 100%. The results show a faster development of herbicide resistance, when the later germinating individuals are suppressed. Nevertheless, the suppressive effect of undersown crops is able to lower the weed density even with high resistance level in the population.

  19. Importance and approaches for the control of different photosystem-II-inhibitor resistant Chenopodium album biotypes in sugar beet and potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrikola, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistances in weeds for PS-II herbicides are well known. Since the end of the 1970s especially resistances to triazines in maize represented a problem. Today, because of the variety of alternative active ingredients in maize, this problem is considered to be solved. This is different in sugar beet and potatoes because hardly any new herbicides have been developed during the last 20 years. Chenopodium album is a major weed in all summer crops. In maize, resistance to triazines (target-site resistance (TSR at position 264 on the D1 protein is known. In recent years, new TSR in C. album (position 251 in Sweden and 218 in Lower Saxony, Germany has been found. These biotypes exhibit resistances to triazinones and chloridazon but showed no cross-resistances to triazines. An outdoor pot trial with sugar beets and potatoes showed that higher dosages of ethofumesate in sugar beets and aclonifen in potatoes are able to control triazine and triazinone resistant C. album biotypes to certain extend or even completely, respectivly. A competition pot trial with maize and different C. album biotypes showed no significant differences in weed fitness concerning the parameters plant height, biomass and seed production.

  20. 牙周生物型对种植治疗的影响%The influence of periodontal biotype on implant treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洁(综述); 姜宝岐(审校)

    2016-01-01

    种植的成功需要满足功能与美学两方面的要求。牙周生物型是获得种植修复美学效果、提高即刻种植成功率、预防远期牙龈退缩的一项重要的评估指标。种植术前对牙周生物型进行准确评估是制定种植治疗计划及获得可预期种植美学效果的重要环节。本文就牙周生物型对种植治疗的影响作一综述。%A successful implant should fulfill both the functional and the esthetic criteria.Periodontal bio-type is an important parameter to consider in achieving esthetic implant restoration,improving immediate implant suc-cess,and preventing future gingival recession.An accurate diagnosis of periodontal biotype before implant surgery is of the utmost importance in making an appropriate implant treatment plan and achieving a predictable esthetic outcome. This paper reviews the influence of periodontal biotype on implant treatment.

  1. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth.

  2. Identification and characterization of RAPD-SCAR markers linked to glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye San; Anne-Marie, Kaben; Chuah, Tse Seng

    2014-02-01

    Eleusine indica is one of the most common weed species found in agricultural land worldwide. Although herbicide-glyphosate provides good control of the weed, its frequent uses has led to abundant reported cases of resistance. Hence, the development of genetic markers for quick detection of glyphosate-resistance in E. indica population is imperative for the control and management of the weed. In this study, a total of 14 specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified and two of the markers, namely S4R727 and S26R6976 were further sequence characterized. Sequence alignment revealed that marker S4R727 showing a 12-bp nucleotides deletion in resistant biotypes, while marker S26R6976 contained a 167-bp nucleotides insertion in the resistant biotypes. Based on these sequence differences, three pairs of new sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were developed. The specificity of these primer pairs were further validated with genomic DNA extracted from ten individual plants of one glyphosate-susceptible and five glyphosate-resistant (R2, R4, R6, R8 and R11) populations. The resulting RAPD-SCAR markers provided the basis for assessing genetic diversity between glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant E. indica biotypes, as well for the identification of genetic locus link to glyphosate-resistance event in the species.

  3. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  4. Pasteurella haemolytica bacteriophage: identification, partial characterization, and relationship of temperate bacteriophages from isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, A.B.; Renshaw, H.W.; Sneed, L.W.

    1985-05-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) isolates (n = 15) from the upper respiratory tract of clinically normal cattle, as well as from lung lesions from cases of fatal bovine pasteurellosis, were examined for the presence of bacteriophage after irradiation with UV light. Treatment of all P haemolytica isolates with UV irradiation resulted in lysis of bacteria due to the induction of vegetative development of bacteriophages. The extent of growth inhibition and bacterial lysis in irradiated cultures was UV dose-dependent. Bacterial cultures exposed to UV light for 20 s reached peak culture density between 60 and 70 minutes after irradiation; thereafter, culture density declined rapidly, so that by 120 minutes, it was approximately 60% of the original value. When examined ultrastructurally, lytic cultures from each isolate revealed bacteriophages with an overall length of approximately 200 nm and that appeared to have a head with icosahedral symmetry and a contractile tail. Cell-free filtrate from each noninduced bacterial isolate was inoculated onto the other bacterial isolates in a cross-culture sensitivity assay for the presence of phages lytic for the host bacterial isolates. Zones of lysis (plaques) did not develop when bacterial lawns grown from the different isolates were inoculated with filtrates from the heterologous isolates.

  5. Different cross-resistance patterns to AHAS herbicides of two tribenuron-methyl resistant flixweed (Descurainiasophia L.) biotypes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Qian; Liu, Ming Jie; Mei, Yu; Zheng, Ming Qi

    2014-06-01

    Flixweed (Descurainiasophia L.) is a troublesome weed in winter wheat fields in China. Two flixweed accessions, HB08 and HB16 with a Pro-197-Leu and Pro-197-Ser AHAS-mutation respectively, have evolved very high levels resistance to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide, tribenuron-methyl. Cross resistance of HB08 and HB16 to AHAS herbicides of SU, imidazolinone (IMI), triazolopyrimidine (TP) and pyrimidinyl-thiobenozoate (PTB) families was investigated by dose-response experiments. In addition, the effects of AHAS herbicides on the activity of AHAS extracted from HB08 and HB16 plants were evaluated. HB16 exhibited cross resistance to SU herbicides halosulfuron-methyl and triasulfuron, TP herbicides flumetsulam and penoxsulam, but displayed more sensitivity to IMI herbicide imazethapyr. By contrast, HB08 only showed cross resistance to SU herbicides halosulfuron-methyl and triasulfuron. The in vitro sensitivity of AHAS to AHAS herbicides is consistent with the results of dose-response experiments and the estimated Pearson's r values for HB08 and HB16 are 0.996 and 0.912 respectively. These indicated that altered AHAS sensitivity was responsible mainly for cross resistance patterns observed in the two resistant biotypes.

  6. Resistance induction in chrysanthemum due to silicon application in the management of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Almeida Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a key pest in many cultures worldwide, among them chrysanthemum. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether silicon application in chrysanthemum plants can induce resistance to whitefly. The experiments were conducted in chrysanthemum cv. Rage in a greenhouse at EPAMIG in São João Del Rei, MG. The treatments were: 1 silicon applied as soil drench (dosage of 2t SiO2/ha on the 4th day after planting, 2 two silicon applied as foliar spray on the 4th and 12th days after planting, 3 control, with 10 replications each. The plants were infested with 100 whitefly adults/pot, released 16 days after planting. The number and viability of whitefly eggs and number of nymphs and adults were evaluated. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and the silicon content in plants were also evaluated. Silicon did not affect the whitefly oviposition preference; however, it affected the development of nymphs in free-choice test. Foliar silicon applications reduced the viability of whitefly eggs. There was no difference of fresh and dry weight and silicon content in plants with the application of silicon. Therefore, foliar silicon application on chrysanthemum can reduce the viability of eggs and delay the development of nymphs and thus contribute to the integrated whitefly management in commercial crops.

  7. Sustained Local Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotypes in a Previously Cholera-Free Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Boucher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V. cholerae monitoring from environmental and clinical sources in Mexico (S. Y. Choi et al., mBio 7:e02160-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02160-15. It reveals that multiple V. cholerae variants, including classical strains from the previous pandemic, as well as completely novel biotypes, have been circulating in Mexico. This discovery has important implications for the epidemiology and evolution of V. cholerae.

  8. Mating behaviour of host-specialized and migratory biotypes of the cotton aphid%寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜的交配行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 刘向东

    2012-01-01

    Variation in host use and flight ability in the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Clover is such that some biotypes can be regarded as cotton-specialized, cucurbits-specialized, migratory and sedentary. However, it is not known whether cotton-specialized and cucurbits-specialized biotypes, or migratory (M) and sedentary (S) biotypes, interbreed. The sexual forms of cotton-specialized, cucurbits-specialized, migratory, and sedentary biotypes were induced under reduced temperature and short photoperiod and their mating behavior was investigated. The results indicate that migratory and sedentary biotypes interbred, and the number of males that completed copulation within three hours did not significantly differ between inter-biotype and intra-biotype mating. However, it took significantly longer for males to find a mate of another biotype than one of their own biotype. The duration of copulation of M 9 X S S was also significantly longer than that of M ♀ x M ♂ and S ♀ ×M♂. Mating was more likely to occur when the male and female were of the same biotype than when they were from different biotypes. There was a trend towards assortative mating between migratory and sedentary biotypes. Interbreeding occurred between cotton-specialized (Co) and cucurbits-specialized (Cu) biotypes, and the time required for males to find a mate and complete copulation were similar between Co ♀ × Cu ♂ cross and Cu ♀ × Co ♂ cross.%棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover种群存在寄主利用和迁飞能力上的明显分化,有棉花型和瓜型、迁飞型和滞留型之分.但是,棉花型与瓜型之间,以及迁飞型与滞留型之间是否能发生交配行为,尚无研究报道.本文在低温和短光照条件下分别诱导棉花型、瓜型、迁飞型和滞留型棉蚜的性蚜,并进行性蚜间的交配行为观察.结果表明,迁飞型和滞留型性蚜间可以发生交配行为,杂交时发生交配行为的个体比率与自交时无显著差异,但是杂交时雄蚜寻

  9. Tomato pathogenesis-related protein genes are expressed in response to Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, David P; Holzer, Frances M; Perring, Thomas M; Walling, Linda L

    2010-11-01

    The temporal and spatial expression of tomato wound- and defense-response genes to Bemisia tabaci biotype B (the silverleaf whitefly) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (the greenhouse whitefly) feeding were characterized. Both species of whiteflies evoked similar changes in tomato gene expression. The levels of RNAs for the methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA)- or ethylene-regulated genes that encode the basic β-1,3-glucanase (GluB), basic chitinase (Chi9), and Pathogenesis-related protein-1 (PR-1) were monitored. GluB and Chi9 RNAs were abundant in infested leaves from the time nymphs initiated feeding (day 5). In addition, GluB RNAs accumulated in apical non-infested leaves. PR-1 RNAs also accumulated after whitefly feeding. In contrast, the ethylene- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated Chi3 and PR-4 genes had RNAs that accumulated at low levels and GluAC RNAs that were undetectable in whitefly-infested tomato leaves. The changes in Phenylalanine ammonia lyase5 (PAL5) were variable; in some, but not all infestations, PAL5 RNAs increased in response to whitefly feeding. PAL5 RNA levels increased in response to MeJA, ethylene, and abscisic acid, and declined in response to SA. Transcripts from the wound-response genes, leucine aminopeptidase (LapA1) and proteinase inhibitor 2 (pin2), were not detected following whitefly feeding. Furthermore, whitefly infestation of transgenic LapA1:GUS tomato plants showed that whitefly feeding did not activate the LapA1 promoter, although crushing of the leaf lamina increased GUS activity up to 40 fold. These studies indicate that tomato plants perceive B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum in a manner similar to baterical pathogens and distinct from tissue-damaging insects.

  10. Biophysicochemical evaluation of wild hilly biotypes of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production and micropropagation study of elite plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, K C; Verma, S K

    2015-01-01

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 °C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 °C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.

  11. Culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis with concomitant septicemia due to a nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype gravis isolate in a patient with multiple risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Lani Kai; Bankowski, Matthew J; Shimasaki, Teppei; Sae-Ow, Wichit; Whelen, A Christian; O'Connor, Norman; Kim, Wesley; Young, Royden

    2013-11-01

    A 54-year-old female with a prosthetic mitral valve presented with a 3-day history of dizziness, subjective fever, and chills. Blood cultures were positive for a pleomorphic Gram-positive rod. Initial phenotypic testing could only support the identification of a Corynebacterium species. Nucleic acid sequencing (16S rRNA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were conclusive for Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Definitive phenotypic testing classified the strain as nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae biotype Gravis.

  12. Resposta de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate Response of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to glyphosate rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla é uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequência em lavouras de soja na região Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready® - RR com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, o controle dessa espécie não tem sido satisfatório em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados biótipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, biótipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistência ao glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. ha-1, aplicadas sobre cinco biótipos de leiteira, oriundos de lavouras de soja RR do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As variáveis avaliadas foram controle e matéria seca da parte aérea. Os resultados evidenciam que os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate.Wild poinsettia is an annual cycle weed, commonly found in soybean crop in southern Brazil. It is controlled by glyphosate in genetically- modified soybean (Roundup Ready® - RR. The control of this species has not proven to be satisfactory in some places in the last years, leading to the suspicion that biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been selected. The objective this work was to evaluate, by response-dose curve, wild poinsettia biotypes with suspected resistance to glyphosate. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of increased application rates of glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,080, 1,440 and 2,160 g a.e. ha-1 on five wild poinsettia biotypes, from crop soybean RR in the state of Rio

  13. Emergence of Tetracycline Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor Serotype Ogawa with Classical ctxB Gene from a Cholera Outbreak in Odisha, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Kumar, P; Goel, A K

    2016-01-01

    In September 2010, a cholera outbreak was reported from Odisha, Eastern India. V. cholerae isolated from the clinical samples were biochemically and serologically confirmed as serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, and serotype Ogawa. Multiplex PCR screening revealed the presence of various genes, namely, ompW, ctxB, zot, rfbO1, tcp, ace, hlyA, ompU, rtx, and toxR, in all of the isolates. The isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and vibriostatic agent 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine (O/129). Minimum inhibitory concentration of tetracycline decreased in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of efflux pumps. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of class I integrons as well as SXT elements harbouring antibiotic resistance genes in all isolates. Sequencing revealed the presence of ctxB gene of classical biotype in all the isolates. The isolates harboured an RS1-CTX prophage array with El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome. The study indicated that the V. cholerae El Tor variants are evolving in the area with better antibiotic resistance and virulence potential.

  14. Silicon influence on resistance induction against Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and on vegetative development in two soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R S; Moraes, J C; Antunes, C S

    2011-01-01

    The potential of populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) to become resistant to insecticides has stimulated research into alternative tactics of integrated pest management such as the induction of host-plant resistance. Recent data have shown that silicon can increase the degree of resistance of host plants to insect pests. Therefore the aim of our work was to study the effects of silicon application on the vegetative development of soybean plants and on the induction of resistance to the silverleaf whitefly, B. tabaci biotype B. We performed choice and no-choice tests of oviposition preference on two soybean cultivars, IAC-19 (moderately resistant to B. tabaci biotype B) and MONSOY-8001 (susceptible), with and without application of silicon. Silicon did not affect silverleaf whitefly oviposition preferences, but caused significant mortality in nymphs. Thus, silicon increased the degree of resistance to silverleaf whitefly. Silicon decreased the production of phenolic compounds, but did not affect lignin production. However, when applied to cultivar IAC-19, it increased the production of non-protein organic nitrogen. Silicon had no effect on the vegetative development of soybean plants, but it increased the degree of resistance to the silverleaf whitefly. We conclude that silicon applications combined with cultivar IAC-19 can significantly decrease silverleaf whitefly populations, having a positive impact both on the soybean plant and on the environment.

  15. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moon Moon; Bhotra, Tilothama; Zala, Dolatsinh; Singh, Durg Vijai

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and ctxB gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical ctxB in four strains and Haitian ctxB in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, Vibrio seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to tcpAET and rstRET, the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian ctxB and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination.

  16. The optimization and validation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database for the identification of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veloo, A C M; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H;

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix-assisted......Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix......-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) database for the identification of GPAC. Main spectral profiles (MSPs) were created for 108 clinical GPAC isolates. Identity was confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Species identification was considered to be reliable...... if the sequence similarity with its closest relative was ≥98.7%. The optimized database was validated using 140 clinical isolates. The 16S rRNA sequencing identity was compared with the MALDI-TOF MS result. MSPs were added from 17 species that were not yet represented in the MALDI-TOF MS database or were under...

  17. Clinical significance and evaluation methods of gingival biotype%牙龈生物型的临床意义和评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞

    2013-01-01

    牙龈组织的形态因人而异,不同形态的牙龈在经过口腔的各种治疗后会有不同的结果和预后.因此在口腔治疗之前,对牙龈形态的评估逐渐为各个学科所重视.Oschenbein等针对牙龈的不同形态提出了“厚”与“薄”牙龈生物型的概念,随后许多学者均对牙龈生物型进行了相应的研究并取得了一定的成果,对牙龈生物型的评估和检测方法已有多种.本文就牙龈生物型的临床意义和评估方法作一综述.%Gingival morphology might be individually different , and it the plays an important role in oral treatments. Attention shoud be paid to the character of gingival form. Oschenbein described the various forms of gingiva and gave the concept of gingival biotypt including two basic types; "thick" and "thin" . Several study obtained various conclusions. The gingival biotype may be related to the methods of periodontal treatment. The clinical significance and evaluation methods of gingival biotype are summarized in this paper.

  18. A large cholera outbreak due to a new cholera toxin variant of the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype in Orissa, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Jain, M; Goel, A K; Bhadauria, S; Sharma, S K; Kamboj, D V; Singh, L; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G B

    2009-02-01

    A total of 32 Vibrio cholerae isolates were collected during a recent large cholera outbreak in Eastern India. Biochemical and serological studies revealed that all of the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa. Two multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of various toxigenic and pathogenic genes - ace, ctxAB, hlyA, ompU, ompW, rfbO1, rtx, tcp, toxR and zot - in all of the isolates. Sequencing of the ctxB gene from the isolates revealed a novel mutation in the gene. Sequencing also confirmed the presence of altered cholera toxin B of the classical biotype in all of the El Tor isolates, suggesting infection of isolates by classical CTXPhi. The molecular diversity of V. cholerae isolates studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR, BOX-PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis uniformly showed the clonal relationship among the outbreak V. cholerae O1 isolates. The results of this study suggest that cholera-causing V. cholerae strains are constantly evolving in epidemic areas, highlighting the potential of the emergence of more virulent strains.

  19. Complete sequence of three different biotypes of tomato spotted wilt virus (wild type, tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking and pepper Tsw resistance-breaking) from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreczeni, Diana E; López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Darós, José Antonio; Soler, Salvador; Galipienso, Luis; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) occurs worldwide and causes production losses in many important horticultural crops such as tomato and pepper. Breeding resistant cultivars has been the most successful method so far for TSWV disease control, but only two genes have been found to confer resistance against a wide spectrum of TSWV isolates: Sw-5 in tomato and Tsw in pepper. However, TSWV resistance-breaking isolates have emerged in different countries a few years after using resistant cultivars. In this paper, we report the first complete nucleotide sequences of three Spanish TSWV isolates with different biotypes according to their abilities to overcome resistance: LL-N.05 (wild type, WT), Pujol1TL3 (Sw-5 resistance breaking, SBR) and PVR (Tsw resistance-breaking, TBR). The genome of these TSWV isolates consisted of three segments: L (8913-8914 nt), M (4752-4825 nt) and (S 2924-2961 nt). Variations in nucleotide sequences and genomic RNA lengths among the different virus biotypes are reported here. Phylogenetic analysis of the five TSWV open reading frames showed evidence of reassortment between genomic segments of LL-N.05 and Pujol1TL3, which was supported by analysis with different recombination-detecting algorithms.

  20. Competitividade de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac Competitiveness of echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competitividade de dois biótipos de capim-arroz, resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac, coletados em regiões orizícolas do Estado de Santa Catarina. O experimento foi instalado em ambiente protegido, e os tratamentos constaram de diferentes densidades de plantas dos biótipos de capim-arroz comprovadamente resistente (ITJ-13 e suscetível (ITJ-17 ao quinclorac, oriundos da região arrozeira de Itajaí/SC. No centro da unidade experimental, foram semeadas três sementes do biótipo de capim-arroz, considerado como o tratamento da unidade experimental. Na periferia foram semeadas dez sementes do biótipo oposto ao do tratamento (central. Dez dias após a germinação foi efetuado o desbaste, deixando-se apenas uma planta no centro da unidade experimental e um número variável de plantas do biótipo oposto, de acordo com o tratamento (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, foram avaliados altura de plantas, número de afilhos e de folhas, área foliar, massa fresca e seca e conteúdo de água de colmos e folhas. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste F, sendo efetuado teste de Duncan para comparar o efeito de densidade de plantas e teste da Diferença Mínima Significativa (DMS para avaliar diferenças entre os biótipos resistente e suscetível, além de correlação linear simples entre as variáveis avaliadas. Nas análises, utilizou-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os biótipos estudados de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac são similares quando sob alta intensidade de competição, com vantagem em algumas variáveis para o biótipo suscetível sob baixa ou moderada intensidade competitiva.The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive potential of two Echinochloa sp. biotypes, resistant and susceptible to

  1. Clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A represent two phylogenetic lineages with differing pathogenicity-related properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihvonen Leila M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y. enterocolitica biotype (BT 1A strains are often isolated from human clinical samples but their contribution to disease has remained a controversial topic. Variation and the population structure among the clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates have been poorly characterized. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR for ystA and ystB, lipopolysaccharide analysis, phage typing, human serum complement killing assay and analysis of the symptoms of the patients to characterize 298 clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates in order to evaluate their relatedness and pathogenic potential. Results A subset of 71 BT 1A strains, selected based on their varying LPS patterns, were subjected to detailed genetic analyses. The MLST on seven house-keeping genes (adk, argA, aroA, glnA, gyrB, thrA, trpE conducted on 43 of the strains discriminated them into 39 MLST-types. By Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS the strains clustered conclusively into two distinct lineages, i.e. Genetic groups 1 and 2. The strains of Genetic group 1 were more closely related (97% similarity to the pathogenic bio/serotype 4/O:3 strains than Genetic group 2 strains (95% similarity. Further comparison of the 16S rRNA genes of the BT 1A strains indicated that altogether 17 of the 71 strains belong to Genetic group 2. On the 16S rRNA analysis, these 17 strains were only 98% similar to the previously identified subspecies of Y. enterocolitica. The strains of Genetic group 2 were uniform in their pathogenecity-related properties: they lacked the ystB gene, belonged to the same LPS subtype or were of rough type, were all resistant to the five tested yersiniophages, were largely resistant to serum complement and did not ferment fucose. The 54 strains in Genetic group 1 showed much more variation in these properties. The most commonly detected LPS types were similar to the LPS types of reference strains with serotypes O

  2. Strategy for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria directly recovered from positive blood cultures using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and the BD Phoenix system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Jana L; Long, S Wesley; Cernoch, Patricia; Land, Geoffrey A; Davis, James R; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2012-07-01

    Decreasing the time to species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of strains recovered from patients with bacteremia significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Herein, we validated a method to identify Gram-negative bacteria directly from positive blood culture medium using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and to rapidly perform susceptibility testing using the BD Phoenix.

  3. Resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e Conyza canadensis no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Resistance to glyphosate in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis biotypes in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de curva de dose-resposta foram conduzidos para avaliar a ocorrência de resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza canadensis e Conyza bonariensis oriundos de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. Para cada espécie foi realizado um experimento com dois biótipos um suscetível e outro com suspeita de resistência. Glyphosate nas doses de 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 800 e 1.200 g ha-1 foi aplicado em plantas no estádio de 8-10 folhas. Curvas sigmoidais foram ajustadas para todos os biótipos testados. Confirmou-se a resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de ambas as espécies, com fator de resistência em torno de 2,3.Dose-response experiments were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of resistance to glyphosate in Conyza canadensis and Conyza bonariensis biotypes originated from Rio Grande do Sul counties. For each species, one experiment was conducted with two biotypes, one susceptible and one suspected of resistance. Glyphosate rates of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 800 and 1200 g ha-1 were sprayed on the plants after reaching the 8-10 leaf growth stage. Sigmoidal curves were adjusted to each biotype tested. Resistance to glyphosate was confirmed for biotypes of both species with resistance factor of 2.3.

  4. Buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil

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    L. Vargas

    2007-09-01

    com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. Entretanto, o biótipo resistente mostra baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em doses elevadas, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for over 20 years to control weeds in Rio Grande do Sul. Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis is a common weed in Rio Grande do Sul and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, during the last years, some horseweed plants have not shown significant injury symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they are resistant to this herbicide. Aiming to evaluate the response of a population of horseweed plants to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatment had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1, and also the herbicides paraquat and 2,4-D as standards. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, the treatments were increasing rates of glyphosate (720, 1,440 and 2,880 g ha-1 and herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, paraquat and diuron + paraquat sprayed on plants of resistant and susceptible biotypes. Horseweed control was accessed at 7, 15 and 30 DAT (days after treatment. Overall results of the field and greenhouse experiments provided evidence that the susceptible biotype is easily controlled by glyphosate and the other tested herbicides. In addition, the results demonstrated that the resistant biotype, as the susceptible biotype, is highly sensitive to herbicides with mode of action that differs from glyphosate. However, the resistant biotype showed low response to glyphosate, even at very high rates, confirming resistance of this horseweed

  5. Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1 and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocação do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetíveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1 sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro nó, utilizando-se uma microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda com atividade específica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias após a emergência da buva. A concentra

  6. Shotgun sequencing of Yersinia enterocolitica strain W22703 (biotype 2, serotype O:9: genomic evidence for oscillation between invertebrates and mammals

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    Starke Mandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica strains responsible for mild gastroenteritis in humans are very diverse with respect to their metabolic and virulence properties. Strain W22703 (biotype 2, serotype O:9 was recently identified to possess nematocidal and insecticidal activity. To better understand the relationship between pathogenicity towards insects and humans, we compared the W22703 genome with that of the highly pathogenic strain 8081 (biotype1B; serotype O:8, the only Y. enterocolitica strain sequenced so far. Results We used whole-genome shotgun data to assemble, annotate and analyse the sequence of strain W22703. Numerous factors assumed to contribute to enteric survival and pathogenesis, among them osmoregulated periplasmic glucan, hydrogenases, cobalamin-dependent pathways, iron uptake systems and the Yersinia genome island 1 (YGI-1 involved in tight adherence were identified to be common to the 8081 and W22703 genomes. However, sets of ~550 genes revealed to be specific for each of them in comparison to the other strain. The plasticity zone (PZ of 142 kb in the W22703 genome carries an ancient flagellar cluster Flg-2 of ~40 kb, but it lacks the pathogenicity island YAPIYe, the secretion system ysa and yts1, and other virulence determinants of the 8081 PZ. Its composition underlines the prominent variability of this genome region and demonstrates its contribution to the higher pathogenicity of biotype 1B strains with respect to W22703. A novel type three secretion system of mosaic structure was found in the genome of W22703 that is absent in the sequenced strains of the human pathogenic Yersinia species, but conserved in the genomes of the apathogenic species. We identified several regions of differences in W22703 that mainly code for transporters, regulators, metabolic pathways, and defence factors. Conclusion The W22703 sequence analysis revealed a genome composition distinct from other pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica

  7. Epidemiologic and Drug Resistance Pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor, Serotype Ogawa, in the 2011 Cholera Outbreak, in Alborz Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Hojatolah; Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the national guidelines recommend special antibiotics, based on the antibiogram of National Reference Laboratory, it seems that, because of uncontrolled usage of antibiotics in the society and due to the changes in the serotypes causing the disease, it is essential to monitor the status of drug resistance, permanently, and to revise the current prescriptions guidelines. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the epidemiological aspects and drug resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, in cholera outbreak, in Alborz province in Iran, during 2011. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, which reviews a cholera epidemic that occurred in Iran. A total of 9844 specimens were taken from suspected cases, among diarrheal patients, via rectal swabs. The specimens were placed in Cary-Blair transport medium and sent to laboratory. Samples were enriched, in alkaline peptone water, and isolated on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar. From the 244 confirmed cases, 239 cases underwent antibiogram test, via disk diffusion method and based on national committee for clinical laboratory standards (NCCLS) instructions. The standard Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used for antibiogram quality control and, eventually, all results were interpreted and reported using NCCLS standard table. Results: In total, until October 22, 2011, which was announced as the end of outbreak, 9844 samples were taken from diarrheal patients. Regarding the type of V. cholerae, 244 El Tor biotype positive cases were reported. The case fatality rate was 1.3%. The mean age of patients was 37.8 years and the highest incidence rate occurred in the age group 21 - 30 years. After conducting antibiotic susceptibility test in the 244 V. cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, it was found that ciprofloxacin had the highest level of antibiotic susceptibility (99.6%) and the highest level of antibiotic resistance was observed in co

  8. Glyphosate no controle de biótipos de azevém e impacto na microbiota do solo Glyphosate application for italian ryegrass biotype control and impact on soil microbiota

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho a resistência de azevém (L. multiflorum ao glyphosate e o impacto do controle desses biótipos sobre a respiração e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios: no primeiro foram avaliadas a intoxicação e a massa seca das plantas de biótipos de três populações de azevém: população 1 (reconhecidamente resistente, população 2 (resistência intermediária, e população 3 (sensível ao glyphosate, submetidas a diferentes doses de glyphosate (200, 400, 800, 1.600 e 3.200 g ha-1. No segundo ensaio foram avaliados a massa seca da parte aérea, a altura de plantas, o número de folhas de azevém e a respiração e massa microbiana do solo cultivado com os biótipos resistente e sensível, com e sem aplicação de glyphosate (480 g ha-1. Aos 14 DAT, observou-se morte do biótipo sensível quando tratado com doses a partir de 200 g ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos biótipos resistentes e com nível intermediário de resistência, a toxicidade do glyphosate às plantas de azevém foi de 85% na maior dose avaliada. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior produção de massa seca da parte aérea aos 42 DAT e na rebrota, aos 72 DAT, quando comparado ao biótipo intermediário. O biótipo sensível apresentou maior altura de plantas, número de folhas e massa seca da parte aérea, em comparação ao resistente, quando não tratados com o glyphosate. Não foi observada diferença na atividade microbiana do solo entre os tratamentos avaliados.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum against glyphosate and the impact of the control of these biotypes on soil respiration and microbial biomass. Two essays were conducted: the first evaluated intoxication and dry mass of the plants of biotypes of three Italian ryegrass population (population 1 - resistant; population 2 - intermediary resistance; and population 3 - sensitive to glyphosate submitted to different glyphosate rates. The

  9. Distinguishing suitable biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) for biological control of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2009-12-01

    Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Cff) (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) is native to Mexico and Arizona and was introduced into South Africa for ornamental purposes. It subsequently became highly invasive, necessitating control. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), was selected as a potential biological control agent based on its restricted host range among Cylindropuntia species and previous success in controlling C. imbricata (DC.) F. Knuth (Ci). Eight D. tomentosus provenances (Cholla, Cholla E, Fulgida, Mamillata, Imbricata, Tunicata U, Tunicata V and Rosea) from Cylindropuntia species in their native ranges were reared on Cff, whilst Cholla and Imbricata were also reared on Ci. Large differences were found in the development and survival of crawlers, and in the reproductive capacity of females. Three subjective categories of provenance interaction with host plants were identified based on a fitness index (FI) calculated from data relating to crawler survival, female development time and fecundity: (i) thriving (FI > or = 1) - insects had shorter developmental times, high crawler survival and highly fecund females (Cholla); (ii) surviving (FI0) - insects had extended development times, low crawler survival and low fecundity (Imbricata, Fulgida and Mamillata); and (iii) dying (FI = 0) - insects died before or at the second instar (Rosea, Tunicata U and Tunicata V). Cholla, therefore, is highly suitable for biological control of Cff in South Africa. In addition, Cholla thrived on Cff but only survived on Ci whilst, in contrast, Imbricata thrived on Ci but only survived on Cff. This differential ability of provenances to thrive or survive on different host plants demonstrated that host adapted biotypes of D. tomentosus exist; therefore, biotypes should be taken into account when considering this species as a biological control agent of cactus weeds.

  10. Flower-bud formation in explants of photoperiodic and day-neutral Nicotiana biotypes and its bearing on the regulation of flower formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, M.S.; Lang, A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1993-05-15

    The capacity to form flower buds in thin-layer explants was studied in Nicotiana of several species, cultivars, and lines of differing in their response to photoperiod. This capacity was found in all biotypes examined and could extend into sepals and corolla. It varied depending on genotype, source tissue and its developmental state, and composition of the culture medium, particularly the levels of glucose, auxin, and cytokinin. It was greatest in the two day-neutral plants examined, Samsun tobacco and Nicotiana rustica, where it extended from the inflorescence region down the vegetative stem, in a basipetally decreasing gradient; it was least in the two qualitative photoperiodic plants studied, the long-day plant Nicotiana silvestris and the short-day plant Maryland Mammoth tobacco, the quantitative long-day plant Nicotiana alata and the quantitative short-day plant Nicotiana otophora line 38-G-81, where it was limited to the pedicels (and, in some cases, the sepals). Regardless of the photoperiodic response of the source plants, the response was the same in explants cultured under long and short days. The capacity to form flow buds in explants is present in all Nicotiana biotypes studied supports the idea that it is regulated by the same mechanism(s), regardless of the plant's photoperiodic character. However, flower formation in the explants is not identical with de novo flower formation in a hitherto vegetative plant: it is rather the expression of a floral state already established in the plant, although it can vary widely in extent and spatial distribution. Culture conditions that permit flower-bud formation in an explant are conditions that maintain the floral state and encourage its expression; conditions under which no flower buds are formed reduce this state and/or prevent its expression. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Crescimento diferencial de biótipos de Conyza SPP. resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato Differential growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza SPP

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    Murilo Sala Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar, em condição controlada e não-competitiva, o crescimento de biótipos de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato, a fim de quantificar os efeitos da pressão de seleção para resistência nos biótipos. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos com tratamentos organizados em esquema fatorial 9 x 2, com nove avaliações periódicas de crescimento e dois biótipos de cada espécie. As variáveis avaliadas por planta foram: área foliar; massa seca da parte aérea, das raízes e total, obtendo-se, a partir desta última, a taxa de crescimento absoluto. O biótipo de C. canadensis resistente ao glifosato possui crescimento mais lento, menor acúmulo de área foliar e de massa seca que o biótipo suscetível. Menores áreas foliar e massa seca também foram registradas para o biótipo de C. bonariensis resistente ao glifosato quando comparado ao suscetível, porém com diferenças mais sutis que aquelas constatadas para C. canadensis. O crescimento absoluto do biótipo suscetível foi superior ao do resistente em ambas as espécies. A pressão de seleção para resistência ao glifosato teve impactos negativos na habilidade de crescimento dos biótipos.This work was carried out with the objective of comparing, under controlled and non-competitive condition, the growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; to quantify the effects of resistance selection pressure on the biotypes. Two trials were developed with treatments organized according to a factorial scheme 9 x 2, where nine were periodical growth evaluations and two were biotypes of each species. The variables evaluated per plant were: leaf area and dry mass (shoot, root and total; to determine absolute growth rate from the total dry mass. The glyphosate-resistant biotype of C. canadensis exhibits slower growth and smaller accumulation of leaf area

  12. Competitiveness of ALS inhibitors resistant and susceptible biotypes of Greater Beggarticks (Bidens subalternans Competitividade de biótipos de Picão-Preto (Bidens subalternans Resistente e euscetível aos inibidores da ALS

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    F.P. Lamego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of ALS-inhibiting herbicides has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Greater beggarticks is one of the most troublesome weeds found in the soybean production system in Brazil. Recently, a greater beggarticks biotype that is resistant (R to ALS inhibitors due to Trp574Leu mutation in the ALS gene was identified. Also, the adaptive traits between susceptible (S and R to ALS inhibitors biotypes of greater beggarticks were compared. Specifically, we aimed to: (1 evaluate and compare the relative growth rates (RGR between the biotypes; (2 analyze the seed germination characteristics of R and S biotypes under different temperature conditions; and (3 evaluate their competitive ability in a replacement series study. The experiments were conducted at the University of Arkansas, USA, in 2007 and at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2008. Plant proportions for replacement series studies were respectively 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 150 plants m-2. There was no difference in RGR between R and S biotypes. The R-biotype germination rate was lower than that of the S biotype. However, at low temperature conditions (15 ºC, the reverse was observed. In general, there is no difference in the competitive ability between R and S greater beggarticks biotypes.O uso contínuo de herbicidas inibidores da ALS tem levado à evolução de plantas daninhas resistentes mundialmente. Picão-preto é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas no sistema de produção de soja no Brasil. Recentemente, foi identificado um biótipo de picao-preto resistente (R aos inibidores da ALS devido à mutação Trp574Leu no gene ALS. Também, foram comparadas características adaptativas entre biótipos de picao-preto suscetível (S e R aos inibidores da ALS. Especificamente, os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (1 avaliar e comparar o crescimento

  13. 牙周生物型对前牙美学区口腔治疗影响的研究进展%Advances of the effects of periodontal biotype on oral therapy in anterior dental aesthetic area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 孙颖

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal biotype is very important for oral therapy, especially in anterior dental aesthetic area. It is related with period-ontology, implantology, prosthodontics, orthodontics and so on, and has attracted attentions from more and more researchers and clini-cians. This paper reviewed the classifications, characteristics, measurement methods and effects of periodontal biotype on oral therapy in anterior dental aesthetic area.%牙周生物型对口腔治疗,尤其是前牙美学区治疗具有重要意义,涉及牙周、种植、修复、正畸等多个临床领域,近年来已受到越来越多学者的关注.该文拟就牙周生物型的分型、特点、常用测量方法 及对前牙美学区治疗的影响作一综述.

  14. Resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza spp. das regiões oeste e sudoeste do Paraná Resistance to glyphosate in Conyza spp. biotypes in western and southwestern Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M Trezzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistência ao glyphosate em biótipos de Conyza spp. em áreas de lavoura das regiões oeste e sudoeste do Paraná causa grandes dificuldades ao manejo e, consequentemente, problemas econômicos e ambientais. Este experimento objetivou determinar a existência de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza spp. suspeitos, coletados em lavouras das regiões oeste e sudoeste do Paraná, comparando-os com biótipos suscetíveis. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 12 x 8 x 3. Os fatores consistiram de 12 biótipos de buva, doses de glyphosate (0, 100, 180, 324, 583, 1.050, 1.888 e 3.345 g ha-1 e épocas de avaliação para a variável controle (7, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação. Para as variáveis matéria verde e matéria seca, o esquema fatorial utilizado foi o 12 x 8. As variáveis avaliadas foram controle visual, matéria verde, matéria seca, C50, GR50 e fator de resistência. A dose de 3.345 g glyphosate ha-1 foi a que apresentou maior nível de controle dos biótipos, porém o controle dos biótipos suspeitos não foi efetivo, necessitando de doses mais altas. Todos os biótipos de buva suspeitos de resistência ao glyphosate tiveram essa característica confirmada. Entretanto, constatou-se grande amplitude de fatores de resistência, o que caracteriza a variabilidade entre os biótipos resistentes. Essas informações poderão ser utilizadas no planejamento de estratégias de manejo das populações resistentes e na prevenção da ocorrência de novas áreas com buva resistente ao glyphosate.Glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp. (hairy fleabane, horseweed in crop areas in the western and southwestern regions of the state of Paraná, Brazil, cause great management, economic, and environmental problems. This experiment aimed to determine the existence of horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate in the suspected populations collected from farms in western

  15. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

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    Antonio Camarda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  16. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

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    Egidio Mallia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  17. Differential expression of the CrV1 haemocyte inactivation-associated polydnavirus gene in the African maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) parasitized by two biotypes of the endoparasitoid Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, C W; Gundersen-Rindal, D; Pedroni, M; Mbugi, P J; Dupas, S

    2007-07-01

    Polydnaviruses are rarely studied for their natural variation in immune suppressive abilities. The polydnavirus harboring braconid Cotesia sesamiae, a widespread endoparasitoid of Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis in sub-Saharan Africa exists as two biotypes. In Kenya, the western biotype completes development in B. fusca larvae. However, eggs of the coastal C. sesamiae are encapsulated in this host and ultimately, no parasitoids emerge from parasitized B. fusca larvae. Both biotypes develop successfully in S. calamistis larvae. Encapsulation activity by B. fusca larvae towards eggs of the avirulent C. sesamiae was detectable six hours post-parasitization. The differences in encapsulation of virulent and avirulent strains were associated with differences in nucleotide sequences and expression of a CrV1 polydnavirus (PDV) gene, which is associated with haemocyte inactivation in the Cotesia rubecula/Pieris rapae system. CrV1 expression was faint or absent in fat body and haemolymph samples from B. fusca parasitized by the avirulent C. sesamiae, which exhibited encapsulation of eggs. Expression was high in fat body and haemolymph samples from both B. fusca and S. calamistis larvae parasitized by the virulent C. sesamiae, encapsulation in the former peaking at the same time points as CrV1 expression in the latter. Non synonymous difference in CrV1 gene sequences between virulent and avirulent wasp suggests that variations in B. fusca parasitism by C. sesamiae may be due to qualitative differences in CrV1-haemocyte interactions.

  18. Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Identificación de los biotipos presentes en poblaciones argentinas Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Identification of biotypes present in populations of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ricci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento de líneas de trigo y cultivares diferenciales, portadores de genes de resistencia, a fin de determinar la composición biotípica del áfido Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, "Pulgón Ruso del Trigo" (PRT, en Argentina; y se identifican aquellos hospederos con resistencia genética al PRT. Los 18 cultivares diferenciales y líneas Novel, se sembraron en invernáculo, en un diseño aleatorio con 2 repeticiones. Las observaciones se realizaron a los 21 y 51 días de la infestación, se determinó el grado de clorosis y de enrollamiento foliar. Los resultados se analizaron con ANOVA y el Test de Tuckey (a=0,05. A los 21 días, las líneas 14 y 1 (Noveles presentaron el mejor comportamiento, pero se desconocen sus genes de resistencia. Los cultivares portadores de Dn2 y Dn7 resultaron con un alto nivel de tolerancia, mientras que Dn1 y dn3 fueron moderadamente tolerantes y las portadoras de Dn4 y Dn5, muy dañados por las poblaciones Argentinas de PRT. A los 51 días, solo Dn7 y las líneas 14 y 1 mantuvieron un comportamiento de tolerancia al áfido. Se infiere que en el país se encontrarían los biotipos 1, 2* y 5*, estos dos últimos con características diferentes a los identificados en EE.UU. Se concluye que los cultivares mejorados en otros países, pueden comportarse como susceptibles frente a las poblaciones locales.The aim of the current research was to assess the plant responses of wheat lines and differential cultivars carrying Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov resistance genes when subjected to aphid infestation, in order to determine the biotypic composition of RWA populations in Argentina. Eighteen lines and differential cultivars were sown in a greenhouse in a randomized design with two replicates. Two recordings of the chlorotic damage and the level of leaf rolling were made after 21 and 51 days from the infestation onset. The results were analyzed with an ANOVA and Tuckey Test (a=0.05. After

  19. Potencial competitivo de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Competitive potential of ryegras (Lolium multiflorum biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade competitiva entre biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, bem como a interferência deles, em diferentes densidades, sobre o crescimento de plantas de trigo. No momento da colheita, aos 50 dias após a emergência do azevém, avaliaram-se o número de perfilhos, a altura de plantas e a área foliar. Nessa mesma ocasião, coletou-se a parte aérea e as raízes das plantas de trigo e de azevém resistente e suscetível, determinando-se a seguir a massa seca desse material em partes separadas (raiz, caule e folhas. Com base nos dados avaliados, as seguintes variáveis para o trigo e para os biótipos de azevém foram calculadas: taxa de crescimento da cultura (TCC = MS A/Ndias, em que MS A é a massa seca da parte aérea e Ndias é o período em dias entre a emergência e a colheita das plantas; área foliar específica (SLA = Af/MSf, em que Af é a área foliar e MSf é a massa seca foliar; e o índice de área (IAF = Af/St, sendo St a superfície de solo, indicando qual a área de folhas por m² de solo. As características avaliadas altura de planta, massa seca e área foliar dos biótipos de azevém suscetível apresentaram menor tendência de redução e maior plasticidade fenotípica, com o incremento da densidade de plantas por área em relação aos biótipos resistentes. Com relação à competição dos biótipos de azevém com plantas de trigo, efeito negativo sobre a cultura também foi observado quando esta se encontrava sob interferência do biótipo suscetível. Conclui-se que o biótipo suscetível de azevém é mais competitivo que o resistente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness of ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, as well as their interference in wheat growth at different densities. At harvesting, 50 days after emergence, tillering, height, and leaf area of ryegrass plants were evaluated and shoot and roots

  20. Identificación y tipificación de biotipos y serotipos de Yersinia enterocolitica Identification and typing of Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes and serotypes isolated

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    Paulino Elizalde Castañeda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la existencia de Yersinia enterocolitica en suínos visiblemente sanos y sacrificados para el consumo humano. MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 100 muestras de tejido linfático obtenidas en el momento del sacrifício, en un matadero del Estado de México. Fueron realizados muestreos pilotos de 20 casos, de los cuales 20% fueron positivos, permitiendo obtener una muestra estudiada (n=100. Las muestras colectadas de tejido linfático fueron acondicionadas para el aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica en caldo de Rappaport y en medio de cultivo de Salmonella-Shigella y MacConkey. Las identificaciones fueron efectuadas por medio de pruebas bioquímicas y serológicas, utilizándose en el caso los antisueros O:3, O:8 y O:9 para la biotipificación correspondiente. RESULTADOS: Fueron obtenidos 22 aislamientos tipificándose 8 serotipos pertenecientes al O:3 y 8 al O:9 correspondientes al biotipo 1; y, en 6 muestras no fue posible la serotipificación. No se encontró en el total de los aislados el serotipo O:8. CONCLUSIONES: En base en la metodología, se registró la presencia de Y. enterocolitica y sus serogrupos en tejido linfático de porcinos por la primera vez en México; esto es importante porque el patógeno y sus serotipos aislados están comprometidos con mayor frecuencia con problemas de salud pública.OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica in otherwise healthy pigs slaughtered for human consumption. METHODS: One hundred pharyngeal tonsils were sampled in a slaughterhouse in the state of Mexico. The minimum sample size (n=100 was calculated based on a preliminary sample of 20 cases, which had 20% positive cases. The collected tonsil samples were inoculated in Rappaport broth, and Salmonella-Shigella and McConkey media. The biotyping identification process was based on biochemical and serological tests using O:3, O:8 and O:9 antisera. RESULTS: Twenty-two isolates were obtained. Most were biotype 1 (8 cases

  1. Suscetibilidade de biótipos de arroz-vermelho e de cultivares de arroz irrigado ao herbicida imazethapyr Susceptibility of red rice biotypes and commercial rice cultivars to imazethapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.B. Dornelles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a suscetibilidade de biótipos de arroz-vermelho(Oryza sativa e cultivares comerciais de arroz ao herbicida imazethapyr, realizou-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação com cinco biótipos de arroz-vermelho (acessos Santa Maria 5, Pelotas 3, Rio Pardo 1, Manoel Viana 2 e Catuçaba 1, dois cultivares comerciais de arroz: Clearfield® (IRGA 422 CL e Puitá INTA CL e um cultivar convencional (IRGA 417. Utilizou-se a metodologia de curvas de dose-resposta proposta por Seefeldt et al. (1995. A metodologia de curvas de resposta foi gerada a partir dos parâmetros do modelo logístico e dos valores de I50. Os biótipos de arroz-vermelho e os cultivares foram submetidos a seis doses do herbicida imazethapyr (0; 33,12; 66,25; 132,5; 265,0; e 530,0 g i.a. ha-1. As plantas de arroz foram contadas e coletadas no 20º dia após a aplicação dos tratamentos. A análise do percentual de dano foi realizada através de avaliação visual da fitointoxicação (%, massa verde e massa seca das plantas. Analisando as curvas e os resultados da análise da variância, pode-se inferir que os cultivares Clearfield Irga 422 CL e Puitá INTA CL foram significativamente iguais ao biótipo de arroz-vermelho Catuçaba 1, resistindo a doses de imazethapyr superiores à recomendada em campo para o sistema Clearfield®. Os biótipos Manoel Viana 2, Santa Maria 5 e Pelotas 3 agruparam-se com o cultivar convencional IRGA 417, sendo suscetíveis à dose comercial do herbicida. O biótipo Rio Pardo 1 também é resistente ao herbicida imazethapyr, porém menos resistente que o biótipo Catuçaba 1.To evaluate the susceptibility of biotypes of red rice (Oryza sativa and commercial rice cultivars to the herbicide imazethapyr, a greenhouse assay was conducted with five red rice biotypes (accesses Santa Maria 5, Pelotas 3, Rio Pardo 1, 2 and Manoel Viana Catuçaba 1, two commercial rice cultivars: Clearfield ® (Irga CL 422 and CL Puit INTA, and a conventional cultivar (Irga

  2. Aspectos morfofisiológicos de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum sensíveis e resistentes ao glyphosate Morphophysiological aspects of ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

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    J Galvan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea com elevado potencial de infestação em lavouras e pomares, e seu controle com glyphosate tem sido limitado devido à existência de biótipos resistentes a esse herbicida. Objetivou-se comparar quatro biótipos de azevém coletados em diferentes regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, com o intuito de testar a hipótese de que aspectos morfofisiológicos e fenológicos estejam vinculados à resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde um biótipo suscetível (B1S, Passo Fundo e três resistentes ao glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Júlio de Castilhos; e B4R, Vacaria foram colhidos aos 126, 147, 168 e 189 dias de idade. O biótipo B1S mostrou 21 dias de antecipação no florescimento em relação aos demais biótipos. O biótipo B4R produziu significativamente mais folhas (43 por planta, afilhos (14 por planta, espigas (14 por planta, sementes (3.484 por planta e matéria seca total (raízes + parte aérea = 13,8 g por planta. Conclui-se que biótipos sensíveis não podem ser diferidos de biótipos resistentes apenas por aspectos morfológicos relacionados ao vigor.Ryegrass has a high potential for infestation in crops and orchads and its control with glyphosate has been limited due to the existence of herbicide-resistant biotypes. The objective of this work was to compare four ryegrass biotypes collected from different regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to test the hypothesis that morphophysiological aspects and phenology are linked to resistance. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where four biotypes, one susceptible (B1S, Passo Fundo and three resistant to glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Julio de Castillos; B4R, Vacaria were collected at 126, 147, 168 and 189 days of age. Biotype B1S showed 21 days in advance of flowering in relation to the other biotypes. Biotype B4R produced significantly more leaves (43 per plant, tillers (14 per plant, ears (14 per plant, seeds

  3. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  4. Biotipos antimicrobianos e tipos de colicina: potenciais marcadores epidemiologicos de Salmonella agona Antimicrobial biotypes and colicine types: potential epidemiological markers of Salmonella agona

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    Claude André Solari

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de se obter marcadores epidemiológicos, foram analisadas 240 amostras de S. agona isoladas de diferentes fontes (humana, alimentar e ambiental oriundas de cinco Estados brasileiros (MG,SP,RJ,PE e RS. O sestudo da sensibilidade a 15 antimicrobianos e codificação numérica dos perfis de resistência propiciou o reconhecimento de 56 biotipos antimicrobianos, enquanto foram evidenciadas 40 amostras produtoras de colicina, pertencentes aos tipos: Ia (55%; B (32,5%, Ib (10% e não tipável (2,5%. A aplicação desses elementos numa diferenciação intra-sorotipo é discutida.With the purpose of characterizing epidemiologic markers, 240 strains of S. agona isolated from differents sources (man, food and environment and obtained from five Brazilian States (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Sul were analysed. The susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents and numeric codification of the resistance profiles allowed us to recognize 56 antibiotic resistance biotypes, while 40 strains were able to produce colicine, belonging to the types: la (55%; B (32.5%; Ib (10% and (2.5%. the application of these elements into intra-serotype differentiation is discussed.

  5. Novos acessos de tomateiro resistentes à mosca-branca biótipo B New accessions of tomato resistant to whitefly biotype B

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    Maria Elisa de Sena Fernandes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar novas fontes de resistência a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, entre 34 acessos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da UFV. Avaliaram-se os números de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta, além da densidade de tricomas. Detectaram-se diferenças entre os acessos nas variáveis avaliadas. Os acessos BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 e BGH-2125 apresentaram menor número de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta e tiveram menor densidade de tricomas. A resistência dos acessos de tomate à mosca-branca foi associada a uma menor densidade de tricomas.The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance to Bemisia tabaci biotype B in 34 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum accessions from the Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças of UFV. The number of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant besides of trichome density were evaluated. Differences between accessions were found for the evaluated variables. Accessions BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 and BGH-2125 presented less infestation of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant and showed lower trichome density. The resistance of these tomato accessions to whitefly was associated to a lower trichome density.

  6. Competitividade relativa entre cultivares de arroz irrigado e biótipo de arroz-vermelho Relative competitivity among flooded rice cultivars and a red rice biotype

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    N.G. Fleck

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as habilidades competitivas relativas entre dois cultivares de arroz e um biótipo de arroz-vermelho. Para isso, foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, na estação de crescimento 2001/02. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em série de substituição e constituíram-se de cinco proporções de plantas de arroz e do biótipo competidor: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100. O arroz foi representado pelos cultivares IRGA 417 e EEA 406, e os competidores, pelo arroz-vermelho e pelo cultivar EEA 406, usado como simulador daquele. A análise da competitividade foi efetuada por meio de diagramas aplicados a experimentos substitutivos e uso de índices de competitividade relativa. As variáveis estudadas foram afilhamento, estatura, área foliar e massa seca da parte aérea das plantas. O arroz-vermelho modificou negativamente o número de afilhos, a estatura e a massa seca da parte aérea das plantas dos cultivares IRGA 417 e EEA 406, demonstrando habilidade competitiva superior. Os cultivares de arroz IRGA 417 e EEA 406 não modificaram suas características morfofisiológicas quando em competição, independentemente da proporção de plantas entre ambos, demonstrando habilidades competitivas equivalentes.The objective of this study was to compare the relative competitive abilities between two rice cultivars and a red rice biotype. Greenhouse experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in the 2001/2002 growing season, in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in a replacement series assay, with five plant proportions of rice cultivars and competitor biotype being established: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100, respectively. Rice was represented by the cultivars IRGA 417 and EEA

  7. Resistência de meloeiro a Bemisia Tabaci biótipo B Resistance of melon to Bemisia Tabaci biotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alexandre Mottola Pereira Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em âmbito mundial, a mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B é praga-chave em diversas culturas. O uso de resistência varietal se destaca entre os métodos de controle, sendo considerado o método ideal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, a resistência de 32 cultivares de meloeiro em relação a essa mosca-branca. Para atratividade, em 'Neve' observou-se o menor número de adultos na face abaxial das folhas (0,6 adulto/10 cm², enquanto 'Nilo' foi a mais preferida (5,6 adultos/10 cm². A oviposição foi avaliada em testes com e sem chance de escolha; em ambos, 'Neve' proporcionou o menor número de ovos, contrastando com 'Nilo', a cultivar com a maior média. A colonização da mosca-branca durante o ciclo das plantas foi avaliada por meio de uma escala de notas variando de 0 (ausência de colonização até 6 (folha totalmente colonizada; 'Neve' destacou-se por sua reduzida colonização, sendo as mais altas médias obtidas em 'Imperial', 'Jangada', 'Vereda', 'Deneb' e 'Nilo'. Na duração do ciclo ovo-adulto da mosca-branca, que variou de 24,0 ('Neve' a 25,4 dias ('Jangada', as cultivares não diferiram entre si. Quanto à emergência de adultos, as menores médias foram induzidas por Vereda' (68,2% e 'Nilo' (69,3%, indicando a possível ocorrência de resistência do tipo antibiose nessas duas cultivares, enquanto as maiores médias ocorreram em 'Imperial' (90,9 % e 'Deneb' (89,6%. Considerando-se os parâmetros avaliados, infere-se que 'Neve' é a cultivar mais resistente a B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser indicada para plantio em regiões onde essa praga ocorra de forma acentuada ou para uso em programas de melhoramento.Silverleaf whitefly B. tabaci biotype B is an important worldwide pest of many crops. Use of resistant cultivars is considered the ideal method of control. In this research, 32 cultivars of melon were evaluated under greenhouse conditions reganding resistance to silverleaf

  8. A SURVEY OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF BEMISIA TABACI(HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)B BIOTYPE LIFE STAGES FROM FIELD GROWN COTTON AND CANTALOUPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chiChu; JamesS.Buckner; KamilKarut; ThomasP.Freeman; DennisR.Nelson; ThomasJ.Henneberryl

    2003-01-01

    Size and weight measurements were made for all the life stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype from field grown cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) and cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo L., var. cantalupensis )in Phoenix, AZ and Fargo, ND, USA in 2000 and 2001. Nymphal volumes were derived from the measurements.The average nymphal volume increase for settled 1 st to the late 4th instar was exponential. The greatest increase in body volume occurred during development from the 3rd to early 4th instar. Nymphs on cotton leaves were wider,but not longer compared with those on cantaloupe. Ventral and dorsal depth ratios of nymphal bodies from 1st tolate 4th instars from cantaloupe leaves were significantly greater compared with those from cotton leaves. During nymphal development from 1st to 4th instar, the average (from the two host species) ventral body half volume in-creased by nearly 51 times compared with an increase of 28 times for the dorsal body half volume. Adult female and male average lengths, from heads to wing tips, were 1 126 μm and 953 μm, respectively. Average adult fe-male and male weights were 39 and 17 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights of eggs from cottonand cantaloupe were, 99 μm, 197 μm, and 0.8 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights for exu-viae of non-parasitized nymphs from both cotton and cantaloupe were 492 μm, 673 μm, and 1.20 μg, respective-ly; and widths, lengths, and weights of parasitized nymph exuviae were 452 μm, 665 μm, and 3.62 μg, respec-tively. Both exuviae from non-parasitized and parasitized nymphs from cotton leaves were wider, longer, and heavier than those from cantaloupe leaves.

  9. Plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance ofVibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa associated with an outbreak in Kolkata, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha DebMandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antibiotic resistance ofVibrio cholerae (V. cholerae)O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa isolates involved in an outbreak of watery diarrhea in Kolkata, and to explore the role of plasmid in mediating antibiotic resistance.Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) values of antibiotics for the isolated V. choleraeO1 Ogawa (n=12) were determined by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively, using ampicillin (Am), chloramphenicol (C), trimethoprim (Tm), tetracycline (T), erythromycine (Er), nalidixic acid (Nx), ciprofloxacin (Cp), amikacin (Ak) and cefotaxime (Cf). Plasmid curing of multidrug resistant(MDR)V. choleraeO1 Ogawa strains was done following ethidium bromide treatment. Following electrophoresis, the plasmidDNAs, extracted from the isolatedMDRV. choleraeO1 Ogawa strains and their cured derivatives, were visualized and documented in‘gel doc’ system.Results: The outbreak causingV. choleraeO1 Ogawa isolates wereMDR as determined by disk diffusion susceptibility test, andMIC determination. The isolates showed three different drug resistance patterns: AmTmTErNx (for6 isolates), TmTErCp (for 5 isolates), and AmTmNx (for one isolate), and showed uniform sensitivity to C, Ak and Cf. The loss of plasmids with the concomitant loss of resistance to Am, Tm, T and Er of the isolates occurred following ethidium bromide treatment.Conclusions: The current findings suggest that theV. choleraeO1Ogawa associated with the cholera outbreak wereMDR, and resistance to Am, Tm, T and Er among the isolates were plasmid mediated.

  10. Response of the polyphagous whitefly Bemisia tabaci B-biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to crop diversification - influence of multiple sensory stimuli on activity and fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, T L; Krüger, K

    2006-02-01

    A fundamental question concerning crop diversification is which mechanisms determine pest population size in polycultures compared to monocultures. It has been proposed that polyphagous insects experience a difficulty in decision-making when selecting food and oviposition sites in the presence of different host plants. This hypothesis was tested in the extremely polyphagous whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype, where behaviour (movement) and fecundity of females were compared in choice and no-choice experiments in the laboratory. Two parallel tests, one on different crops, including cucumber, bean and tomato, and one on different tomato cultivars, were conducted using both a mixture of crops and of tomato cultivars, as opposed to the same crop or cultivar respectively. Bemisia tabaci showed a distinct behavioural preference for cucumber when exposed to different crops simultaneously suggesting that B. tabaci has no difficulty in choosing a host plant, i.e. in making a decision, when one of the plants offered in the choice test is a high-ranking host plant. Conversely, when only low-ranking hosts of similar, but not identical, signatures were present, female whiteflies appeared to have difficulty in making a decision, resulting in increased movement and reduced fecundity. This is consistent with both the hypothesis that polyphagous insects have a problem selecting a host plant when given multiple choices and with the hierarchy threshold model, under which egg loads are lessened between periods of searching for better host plants. The study illustrates how insect behaviour can be affected by inter-cropping not only with different crops, but also with different cultivars of the same crop, thus potentially providing a simple and efficient way of reducing whitefly population build-up.

  11. Effect of dose and application site on quinclorac absorption by barnyardgrass biotypes Efeito de dose e local de aplicação na absorção de quinclorac em biótipos de capim-arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of quinclorac in function of application sites (shoot or roots by Echinochloa crusgalli biotypes resistant and susceptible to this herbicide. The treatments consisted of quinclorac doses (0; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 16 and 64 ppm, applied on the shoot or roots of seedlings of barnyardgrass biotypes. The experimental units consisted of plastic cups containing 250 cm³ of sand. The treatments were applied 10 days after emergence, when barnyardgrass plants reached a 2- to 3- leaf growth stage. The barnyardgrass biotypes were irrigated with nutritive solution weekly and maintained for 40 days after emergence, when length, fresh and dry matter of shoot and roots were evaluated. Variance analysis was carried out using the F test at 5% probability, and in case of significance, a non-linear regression analysis was also carried out using a three-parameter logistic model. In the susceptible biotype, quinclorac was more absorbed by the roots than by the shoot. Comparing dry mass production of the different plant parts of the susceptible biotype per application site, it was verified that quinclorac action is higher when applied to the plant roots. However, for the resistant biotype, it was not possible to determine the dose causing 50% reduction in dry mass accumulation (GR50 and in the resistance index (RI between both biotypes, due to its high resistance to quinclorac (128 times the recommended dosage. The results showed that quinclorac resistance by the evaluated biotype is not due to differences in the absorption site, strongly suggesting that the resistance acquired by the biotype may result from alteration in the target site.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção e a translocação do quinclorac em função dos locais de aplicação (parte aérea ou raiz em biótipos de capim-arroz (Echinochloa crusgalli resistente e suscetível a esse herbicida. Os tratamentos foram compostos por doses de

  12. Applicability of an in-House Saponin-Based Extraction Method in Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Species in Positively Flagged Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yien Chien

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We used an in-house saponin-based extraction method to evaluate the performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS system for the identification of bacteria and fungi in 405 positively flagged blood culture bottles. Results obtained from MALDI-TOF/MS were compared with those obtained using conventional phenotypic identification methods. Of the 405 positively flagged blood culture bottles, 365 showed monomicrobal growth and were correctly identified to the species (72.1% or genus (89.6% level using the Bruker Biotyper system. The remaining 40 positively flagged blood culture bottles showed polymicrobial growth. Of them, 82.5% (n=33 of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level and 92.5% (n=37 to the genus level using the Bruker Biotyper system. The overall accuracy of identification to the genus level in flagged blood cultures was 89.5% for Gram-positive organisms, 93.5% for Gram-negative pathogens and 71.9% for fungi. Confidence scores were 1.500 for 307 (75.8% bottles, 1.700 for 249 (61.5% bottles and 2.000 for 142 (35.1% bottles. None of the yeast cultures yielded scores 1.700. Using an identification-score cutoff of 1.500, the MALDI Biotyper correctly identified 99.2% of Gram-positive bacteria, 97.6% of Gram-negative bacteria and 100% of yeast isolates to the genus level and 77.6% of Gram-positive bacteria, 87.1% of Gram-negative bacteria and 100.0% of yeast isolates to the species level. The overall rate of identification using our protocol was 89.9% (364/405 for genus level identification and 73.1% (296/405 for species level identification. Yeast isolates yielded the lowest confidence scores, which compromised the accuracy of identification. Further optimization of the protein extraction procedure in positive blood cultures is needed to improve the rate of identification.

  13. Distribuição de glyphosate e acúmulo de nutrientes em biótipos de azevém Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    produto.This work aimed to evaluate nutrient accumulation and glyphosate translocation in ryegrass biotypes. Two trials were conducted: in the first, 10 uL of 14C-glyphosate ware applied on the upper side of the first leaf showing completely visible ligule, with ryegrass plants at the three-tiller stage. The amount of glyphosate absorbed, translocated and exudated was evaluated 64 hours after application, by using a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Glyphosate was quantified in the leaf it had been applied, in the tillers, roots and in the nutritive solution the plants were grown. In the second trial, glyphosate was applied on the resistant and the susceptible biotypes at the rate of 480 g L-1. Ten days after application, the shoot and roots were collected and oven-dried and the levels of macronutrients were determined. In the first trial, root exudation was observed in both biotypes, in which the amount of exudated glyphosate was similar and not greater than 5% of the absorbed glyphosate. In the main tiller of the susceptible biotype, a higher concentration of 14C-glyphosate was observed, compared to the resistant one. The resistant biotype showed more glyphosate accumulation in the leaf it had been applied and in the susceptible biotype; most 14-C glyphosate was found in the root system. In the second trial, the susceptible biotype showed less P accumulation than the resistant one. Both the resistant and susceptible biotypes tended to accumulate more total N and inorganic N in the shoot and in the whole plant in the absence of glyphosate, compared to the applied treatments. Both biotypes presented the same absorption capacity and macronutrients accumulation in the absence of the glyphosate.

  14. Composição química da cera epicuticular de biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate Chemical composition of the epicuticular wax of Italian ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate

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    A.A. Guimarães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a composição química da cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, buscando relações entre suas características e a resistência dos biótipos ao herbicida. A cera epicuticular foi extraída e quantificada e os seus constituintes analisados por cromatografia em fase gasosa, acoplada a espectrômetro de massa (CG-EM. Para determinação da composição química, amostras de lâmina foliar foram retiradas 30 dias após a emergência das plantas, coletando-se a primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível. A quantidade de cera epicuticular extraída não diferiu entre os biótipos. Entre os compostos que constituem a cera epicuticular, os álcoois são os mais abundantes, sendo representados por apenas um composto: o hexacosan-1-ol (46,80% no biótipo resistente e 52,20% no biótipo suscetível. Ao comparar a polaridade da cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém, constatou-se que tanto no biótipo resistente quanto no suscetível a cera epicuticular apresentou mais de 50% de componentes polares (álcoois e aldeídos em sua constituição, sendo esse valor igual a 69,80% no biótipo resistente e 64,94% no biótipo suscetível. Por meio da caracterização apresentada, pode-se afirmar que existem pequenas diferenças na cera epicuticular dos biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate; o biótipo resistente apresentou grau de polaridade pouco superior ao do biótipo suscetível, porém essa diferença não pode ser considerada marcante a ponto de determinar maior ou menor tolerância de um biótipo ou outro ao herbicida glyphosate.The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition of epicuticular wax of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, searching for relationships between their characteristics and the resistance of the biotypes to the product. The

  15. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

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    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  16. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes under competition

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    G. Concenço

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, condutância estomática (Gs, pressão de vapor na câmara subestomática (Ean, gradiente entre temperatura da folha e do ar (deltaT e taxa de transpiração (E foram avaliadas 50 dias após a emergência das plantas, sendo calculada também a eficiência do uso da água (WUE pela relação entre a quantidade de CO2 fixado pela fotossíntese e a quantidade de água transpirada. Foi elaborada ainda uma matriz de correlação entre as variáveis. O biótipo suscetível apresentou maior acúmulo de MSPA, comparado ao biótipo resistente ao glyphosate, quando cultivado livre ou em competição, porém foi menos eficiente quanto ao uso da água.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics associated to water use efficiency in ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, under different competition levels. The trial was installed in factorial scheme (2 x 5, with one plant of the studied biotype alone at the center of the plot, under competition against 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 plants of the opposite biotype. The variables (shoot dry matter (MSPA, water vapor stomatal conductance (Gs, water vapor pressure from the leaf chamber (Ean, leaf and air temperature difference (deltaT and transpiration rate (E were evaluated 50 days after emergence, with water use efficiency (WUE being obtained by the relation between the amount of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the corresponding transpired water. A correlation table was built between all evaluated variables. The

  17. 生物型自锁式人工髋关节假体的改良设计%Modified design of biotype self-locking hip joint prosthesis

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    黄伟韬; 李彩华; 蒋托; 杨俊

    2016-01-01

    体的推荐指标。%BACKGROUND:Hip prosthesis needs to meet the good structural compatibility with femoral bone marrow cavity and the biomechanical properties of the original bone tissue. However, the difference of individual anatomical characteristics and the stress concentration in the local area after replacement directly affect postoperative combination of femoral prosthesis stem, force flow transfer and femoral reconstruction, and finaly result in aseptic loosening of hip joint in some patients. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the biomechanical characteristics of modified biotype self-locking hip prosthesis by the method of finite element analysis, and to provide the reference for the application of self-locking hip prosthesis in hip replacement. METHODS:Experimental design contained traditional biotype hip joint prosthesis group and self-locking hip joint prosthesis group. In accordance with the finite element models of self-locking hip prosthesis, 28 kinds of screw fixation were established. Three-dimensional models were generated in the Minics system. After the optimization of prosthesis, prosthesis was designed. In the Solidworks software, the femur was re-positioned and set for contacting set in Ansys to analyze the stress distribution and displacement distribution of the femoral-prosthesis-screw by Ansys. We compared the peak of stress and displacement of the femur and prosthesis, and analyzed the biomechanical stability of prosthesis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) By using the Ansys finite element method, we analyzed the stress and displacement distribution of the femoral-prosthesis-screw. The minimum stress peak value of the femur was 15.698 MPa. The minimum stress peak value of prosthesis was 45.491 MPa. The minimum stress peak value of screw was 8.359 MPa. The minimum displacement peak value of femur was 1.125 3 mm. The minimum displacement peak value of prosthesis was 1.039 6 mm. The minimum displacement peak value of screw was 0.566 4 mm. (2) Compared with the traditional biotype hip joint prosthesis group

  18. Resistência de genótipos de feijoeiro a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Resistance of bean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci biotype B

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    Lucas Castro Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de genótipos de feijoeiro resistentes à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae é de grande importância devido aos danos ocasionados por essa praga à cultura. Neste trabalho, foram estudados a atratividade para adultos, a preferência para oviposição em testes com e sem chance de escolha, o ciclo ovo-adulto e o tipo e número de tricomas presentes nos folíolos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação avaliando-se, inicialmente, cem genótipos de feijoeiro. A resistência do tipo não-preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose foi observada nos genótipos ARC-3, IAC-Alvorada e Canário 101, sendo a emergência de adultos fortemente influenciada pelos genótipos. Também se observou correlação negativa moderada entre o número de ovos e o número de tricomas glandulares, e correlação positiva muito forte entre o número de ovos e o número de tricomas tectores unciformes.The study of bean genotypes resistant to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been of great importance due to the damage caused by this pest. In this research, bean genotypes were evaluated regarding attractiveness to whitefly adults, the preference for oviposition in free-choice and non choice tests, egg-to-adult development time and characterized for the presence, type and number of trichomes. The experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions initially evaluating 100 bean genotypes. The non-preference type of resistance for feeding and/or antibiosis was observed in the genotypes ARC-3, IAC-Alvorada and Canário 101, and the emergence of adults was strongly influenced by the genotypes. It was also observed a moderate negative correlation between the number of eggs and the number of glandular trichomes, as well as a very strong positive correlation between the number of eggs and the number of unciform non-glandular trichomes.

  19. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

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    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate

  20. Adequação de uma dieta artificial para os biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Adaptation of an artificial diet for the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda é considerada uma das principais pragas da cultura do milho (lagarta-do-cartucho e do arroz irrigado (lagarta-da-folha, ocasionando altos índices de desfolhamento. O objetivo do estudo foi obter uma dieta artificial adequada para criar os biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, em laboratório. Os insetos foram coletados em áreas cultivadas com milho e arroz irrigado no ecossistema de várzea e a identificação foi realizada pela análise do DNA genômico. O desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos foi acompanhado sobre a dieta de Greene e a mesma dieta modificada a 25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O estudo foi realizado com 150 lagartas por dieta, individualizadas em tubos de vidro e contendo dieta artificial. Por ocasião da emergência, 20 casais foram individualizados e alimentados com solução aquosa de mel a 10%. A dieta Greene possibilitou melhor desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos, proporcionando maior velocidade de desenvolvimento, maior massa de lagartas no máximo desenvolvimento, massa de pupas e fecundidade total, além de valores mais elevados da taxa líquida de reprodução, taxa intrínseca de crescimento e taxa finita de aumento.Spodoptera frugiperda is considered one of the main pest in corn and irrigated rice (fall armyworm crops, causing high leaf losses. The objective of this study was to obtain an appropriate artificial diet to rear the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of S. frugiperda in laboratory. The insects were collected in areas cultivated with corn and irrigated rice in the meadow ecosystem and the identification was accomplished by the analysis of the DNA genomic. The development of the two biotypes was accompanied on Greene's diet and the same diet modified to 25 ± 1ºC, UR of 70 10% and fotofase of 14 hours. The study was accomplished with 150 larvae by diet individualized in glass tubes containing artificial diet. At emergency 20 couples were individualized

  1. 混合型与生物型人工全髋关节置换术后并发异位骨化的比较%Comparison of Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification in Combination Versus Biotype Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟敏; 于秀淳; 付志厚; 孙海宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the frequency of heterotopic ossification in patients with a vascular necrosis of femoral head who underwent combination or biotype total hip arthroplasty. Methods Seventy six patients who underwent combination prosthesis (cohort A) individually matched 76 patients with biotype prosthesis (cohort B). The match parameters were age (±5 years), sex and weight (±10 kg). The radiographs at 3 months and 12 months after the operation were used to evaluate the heterotopic ossification by Brooker classification. Results There were 21 cases of HO in cohort A, while 30 cases in cohort B. The ratio of HO was 27.63% and 39.47% respectively. Conclusion There are no significant statistic differences in the prevalence of heterotopic ossification between combination and biotype total hip arthroplasty in patients with avascular necrosis of femoral head. Fear of heterotopic ossification should not be a factor in the choice of fixation for THA.%目的 研究使用混合型与生物型假体的全髋关节置换术(THA)术后异位骨化(H0)的情况.方法 回顾性研究自2004年1月~2010年1月行初次单侧人工THA患者,从中配对选取76对,配对的参数为年龄、性别、体重.A组患者行混合型人工THA,B组患者行生物型人工THA.HO诊断依据术后3个月和12个月的髋关节前后位X线片,按Brooker分级记录.结果 A组发生HO的例数为21例,总发生率27.63%,B组发生HO例数为30例,总发生率为39.47%,两者差异无统计学意义.结论 混合型与生物型人工THA术后HO的发生率没有明显差异.

  2. Parâmetros biológicos de Bemisia Tabaci (genn. biótipo B (hemiptera: aleyrodidae em genótipos de algodoeiro Biological parameters of Bemisia Tabaci B biotype on cotton genotypes

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    Zeneide Ribeiro Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é uma praga de grande importância econômica para muitas culturas em todo o mundo. No Brasil, especialmente no Estado da Bahia, essa praga causou perdas que variam entre 30% e 70% em cultura de algodão. Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros biológicos de B. tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de algodoeiro para verificar a possível ocorrência de antibiose como mecanismo de resistência sob condições de casa de vegetação. Os genótipos estudados foram IAC-23, Coodetec 406, BRS Aroeira, Fabrika, Coodetec 407, IAC-24, Makina, IAC 20-233, Coodetec 401 e CNPA Acala I. Foram avaliados os períodos de incubação e ninfal, o desenvolvimento total e a longevidade. Dos genótipos avaliados observou-se em Coodetec 406 maior período ninfal (14,7 dias e IAC-23 a menor viabilidade de ninfas (30,7%, indicando a ocorrência de resistência do tipo antibiose contra essa mosca-branca.The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype is an important pest of many crops throughout the world. In Brazil, specifically in the Bahia State, this insect caused losses estimated to 30-70% on cotton crops. The purpose of this research was to investigate biological parameters of the silverleaf whitefly biotype B in genotype of cotton bush to verify a possible occurrence of antibiosis as resistance mechanism cotton, under greenhouse conditions. The duration of the egg and nymphal stages, and the adult longevity of B. tabaci biotype B were evaluated in the genotypes IAC-23, Coodetec 406, BRS Aroeira, Fabrika, Coodetec 407, IAC-24, Makina, IAC 20-233, Coodetec 401 and CNPA Acala I. Among those evaluated genotypes, Coodetec 406 increased the nymph stage (14.7 days and IAC-23 reduced the nymphal viability (30.7%, suggesting the occurrence of antibiosis against this whitefly.

  3. Análise do risco da ocorrência de biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas The risk of finding herbicide resistant weed biotypes

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    Ribas A. Vidal

    1997-01-01

    biotype depends on two aspects : the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant, and the probability of spreading the resistance in the area. The objectives of this work were to study factors that control the probability of selecting a herbicide resista NT mutant, and to predict the risk of selecting a resistant plant. The factors that control the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant are grouped in three categories: those related to the genetics of resistance, those related to the number of plants under selection, and thoserelated to the herbicide. The genetics of resistance is governed by the initial frequency of the resista nt allele, dominance of the gene, and type of species pollination. The number of plants under selection depend on size of the herbicide treated area and weed density. The factors related to the herbicide are its mechanism of action, and frequency of use of the same mechanism of action in the area. Computer simulations indicate great risk of occurrence of a resistant mutant in áreas with high weed density, mainly those sprayed with herbicides whose mechanisms of action present history of high initial frequency of the resistant trait on the weed populations.

  4. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

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    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

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    M.S. Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological

  6. Exigências térmicas e estimativa do número de gerações dos biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda Thermal requirements and estimate of the number of generations of biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a biologia dos biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e estimar o número de gerações por ano em laboratório e campo. Foram coletadas lagartas de quatro populações de S. frugiperda no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, identificadas eletroforeticamente como os biótipos "milho" e "arroz", em áreas isoladas, distanciadas entre si em mais de 300 km, produtoras de milho e arroz irrigado e em áreas adjacentes, que produzem milho e arroz irrigado lado a lado. A temperatura mais adequada para o desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos foi 25ºC. Em laboratório, podem ser obtidas 11,0 e 11,3 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "milho" proveniente de áreas isoladas e adjacentes, respectivamente. Foram estimadas 12,1 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "arroz" quando proveniente de áreas isoladas e 12,2 gerações ano-1 quando proveniente de áreas adjacentes. Em campo, estimou-se a ocorrência de 8,3 e 6,1 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "milho", respectivamente, em áreas isoladas e áreas adjacentes e 8,4 e 7,0 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "arroz", respectivamente, em áreas isoladas e áreas adjacentes. Em áreas adjacentes, o biótipo "arroz" apresenta uma geração a mais ao longo de um ano em relação ao biótipo "milho".The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the biology of the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and to estimate the number of generations per year in laboratory and field. Caterpillars of four populations of S. frugiperda were collected in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, identified by electrophoresis as the biotypes "corn" and "rice" in isolated areas (spaced for more than 300 km, areas of corn and irrigated rice production, as well as in adjacent areas that produces corn and rice irrigated side by side. The most appropriate

  7. A comparative study of the removal of endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci biotypes B and Q using three antibiotics%三种抗生素对B型和Q型烟粉虱内共生菌的去除效果比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏奇; 潘慧鹏; 王少丽; 吴青君; 徐宝云; 张友军

    2012-01-01

    利用烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)内共生菌特异性引物,研究了内共生菌在B、Q型烟粉虱种群中的分布和感染率,同时评价了3种不同的抗生素利福平、氨苄青霉素和硫酸卡那霉素分别在3种不同的浓度下(100.0、50.0及25.0 μg/mL)对烟粉虱内共生菌的去除效果.结果表明:B、Q型烟粉虱原生内共生细菌Portiera 的带菌率均为100.0%;B、Q型烟粉虱次生内共生菌Hamiltonella的带菌率分别为91.7%和100.0%;B型烟粉虱次生内共生菌Rickettsia的带菌率为87.5%,Q型为0;其它次生内共生菌在B、Q型烟粉虱中均未检测到.利福平、氨苄青霉素和硫酸卡那霉素在3种不同的浓度下均不能去除B、Q型烟粉虱Portiera;利福平、氨苄青霉素在3种不同的浓度下均能完全去除B型烟粉虱Rickettsia,硫酸卡那霉素在不同浓度下去除Rickettsia的效果不同;3种抗生素去除Hamiltonella的能力受抗生素种类以及浓度的影响.同一抗生素在不同浓度下去除Hamiltonella的效果均是100.0 μg/mL >50.0 μg/mL >25.0 μg/mL;不同浓度的抗生素去除Hamiltonella的效果均是利福平>氨苄青霉素>硫酸卡那霉素,各浓度与各抗生素之间的去除Hamiltonella的效果均具有显著性差异.%A PCR survey of endosymbionts in one B and one Q Bemisia tabaci biotype was conducted. Kanamycin sulfate, ampicillin trihydrate, and rifampicin were used to investigate the sensitivity of endosymbionts in the two biotypes to antibiotics. The results show that 100% of all individuals of the both biotypes had Portiera. Hamiltonella was also found in both biotypes, with an infection frequency of 91. 7% and 100.0%, respectively. Rickettsia was only detected in 87.5% of the B biotype. Other endosymbionts including Wolbachia, Fritschea, Arsenophonus, and Cardinium were not detected in either biotype. The three antibiotics failed to eliminated Portiera from any individual of the B and Q biotypes

  8. Pathophysiological and immune cell responses in calves prior to and following lung challenge with formalin-killed Pasteurella multocida biotype A:3 and protection studies involving subsequent homologous live challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, A; Hodgson, J C; Dagleish, M P; Eckersall, P D; Sales, J

    2004-08-01

    Pneumonic pasteurellosis is a common respiratory infection in cattle that has major economic and welfare implications world-wide and the incidence in the UK due to Pasteurella multocida, currently the same as that associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, is increasing. Whereas much is known regarding the pathogenesis of M. haemolytica infections little information is available on the pathogenic process of pasteurellosis initiated by P. multocida. In the present work calf systemic and innate immune responses to intratracheal challenge with formalin-killed P. multocida biotype A:3 and to subsequent experimental lung infection with live P. multocida were investigated. Eight-week-old calves were challenged intratracheally on day 0 with either 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) of formalin-killed P. multocida biotype A:3 in 300 ml saline (n = 10) or 300 ml saline alone (n = 10), followed, at day 21, by challenge with 10(9) cfu live P. multocida. Pathophysiological and lung phagocyte responses were assessed by clinical monitoring, sequential lung lavage and blood sampling. Results for samples obtained before, during and after challenge showed clinical and acute phase protein responses to both bacterial culture and saline control treatments, although higher responses were associated with bacterial challenge. Phagocytosis of P. multocida during 1h incubation periods with lavaged cells in vitro was unaffected by exposure in vivo to killed P. multocida and there was evidence that P. multocida was able to survive intracellularly during this assay. There was no indication that lung exposure to formalin-killed P. multocida conferred protection against subsequent homologous live challenge.

  9. Biotype identification and epidemiological analysis of twenty-four Brucella strains%24株布鲁菌的种型鉴定和流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 屈平华; 吴尚为; 陈经雕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the biotype and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of twentyfour Brurella strains from the primary hospitals in Guangdong Province.Methods The twenty-four Brucella strains,collected from Oct.2009 to Oct.2015,were identified by routine biochemical methods,VITEK 2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,16S rRNA gene sequencing and biology phenotype based on serological and bacteriophages lysis test.The etiology was analyzed based on clinical data,biotypes of the isolates and other clinical information.Results All of the twenty-four strains were Gram-negative coccobacilli,including two strains of Brucella suis biotype Ⅱ,four strains of Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅰ and eighteen strains of Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅲ.By GN card of VITEK 2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,one strain was mistaken as Bordetella bronchiseptica and two strains were mistaken as Ochrobaetrum anthropi.The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed they were high homology to Ochrobactrum intermedium and Ochrobaetrum anthropi,which completely excluded the possibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica.Tbe clinical data showed that all of the twenty-four patients were adults with an average age of 49.0 years old,men and women were twelve people respectively,with no significant gender differences and no occupational exposure,which presenting a wide and diverse range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms,but brucellosis was not aware of by the physician.Conclusion Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅲ is the main pathogen of brucellosis,with the characteristics of sporadic outbreak and occult infection in the primary hospitals in Guangdong Province.%目的 对广东省基层地区24株布鲁菌进行种型鉴定和流行病学分析.方法 对24株来自于2009年10月至2015年10月广东省基层医院血培养阳性的布鲁菌进行传统生化鉴定、VITEK 2仪器鉴定、16S rRNA基因测序、血清学试验和噬菌体试验,比较不

  10. 两种体色生物型桃蚜对杀虫剂敏感性差异及其与酶活力的关系%The sensitivity of two body colour bio-types of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to the pesticides and its correlation to enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫亚军; 王泽华; 石宝才; 姜春燕; 康总江; 金桂华; 魏书军

    2013-01-01

    In order to survey the difference of sensitivity to insecticides between the two body colour bio -types of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera:Aphididae),the bioassay was conducted in the laboratory,and three detoxifying enzymes and acetylcholinesterase activities of the two colour bio-types were tested.The results showed that the green bio-type was more sensitive to the insecticides than the red bio-type.There was a significant difference in the sensitivity to the imidacloprid between the red bio-type and green bio-type.The LC50 of red bio-type was 23.88 times higher than that of the green bio-type with the value was 679.6648 and 28.4597 mg/L,respectively.The difference of the sensitivity to chlorpyrifos between two body colour bio-types was moderate.The LC50 of red bio-type was 6.35 times higher than that of the green bio-type with the value was 1229.5798 and 193.6816 mg/L,respectively.There was a little difference in the sensitivity to the abamectin between the two body colour bio-types.The LC50 of red bio-type was 1.07 times as much as that of the green bio-type with the value was 31.1678 and 29.0966 mg/L,respectively.The esterase,glutathione-S-transferase and mixed function oxidase specific activity of red bio-type was extraordinarily higher than that of the green bio-type.The esterase,glutathione-S-transferase and mixed function oxidase specific activity of the red bio-type were 3.1,4.1 and 1.5 times as much as that of the green bio-type,respectively,whereas there was no difference in the acetylcholinesterase specific activity between the two body colour bio-types of M.persicae,indicating that the acetylcholinesterase specific activity was not correlate with the sensitivity to the insecticides.%为了明确不同体色生物型桃蚜Myzus persicae(Suizer)对药剂的敏感性差异,本文采用室内生物测定和酶活力测定法检测不同体色生物型桃蚜对杀虫剂的敏感性以及与3种解毒酶和1种靶标酶活力关

  11. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  12. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    induce selection of resistant biotypes, such as occurred to Euphorbia heterophylla L. in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in areas of the Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States, in Brazil. In order to verify possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage this population, seeds of E. heterophylla were collected in the Assis region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species had survived to continuous herbicides application. The trial was carried out in glasshouse conditions where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. The study used several post-emergence herbicides sprayed at zero, one, two, four and eight times the recommended field application rates of these products. Twenty days after application, the plants were harvested and the percentage of control and the fresh weight were determined to establish the dose-response curves, to get the resistance factor using data of DL50 and GR50 and to verify if there was a multiple resistance. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was efficiently controlled by fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, ammonium-gluphosinate (150 g.ha-1 and glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.

  13. Toxicity of spirotetramat to Bemisia tabaci biotype B and the impact on the biological parameters%螺虫乙酯对B型烟粉虱毒力及部分生物学参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈大庆; 姜兴印; 王燕; 李俊虎; 段强

    2011-01-01

    In order to value the bioactivity and impact on the biology of spirotetramat against Bemisia tabaci biotype B, the toxicity of spirotetramat and imidacloprid (control agent) to different instar nymphs of B. tabaci biotype B and the effects of the longevity, fecundity and eggs hatchability were measured in the laboratory by using egg-dipping and leaf-dipping. The toxicity of the 2nd instar nymph is high after treatment by spirotetramat, the LCso was 4.07 mg/L, it was 2.73 times to the toxicity of imidacloprid, toxicity was low to the eggs and adults, and lower than that of imidacloprid. Longevity of the B. tabaci biotype B was 17.3 days after treatment with 12.5 mg/L spirotetramat, it was significantly shorted compared with the contrast experiment (treatment without pesticides), while imidacloprid was insignificant. The fecundity was 5 and the eggs hatching rate was 3.23% after treatment with 12.5 mg/L spirotetramat, which has significantly inhibition to the fecundity and the eggs hatching, and it was significantly lower than those treated with imidacloprid and the contrast experiment. It was no significant differences between imidacloprid and the contrast experiment. The repellent action was 52% to the adults of spirotetramat after 24 h treated with 100 mg/L spirotetramat, and the repellent action was not very good.%为系统评价新药剂螺虫乙酯(spirotetramat)对B型烟粉虱(Bem isia tabacibiotype B)的生物活性及生物学参数的影响,采用浸渍法测定了螺虫乙酯及对照药剂吡虫啉对B型烟粉虱各个虫态的室内毒力、成虫寿命、产卵量及所产卵孵化率的影响。结果表明,螺虫乙酯对2龄若虫毒力最高,LC50为4.07mg/L,为吡虫啉的2.73倍,对卵及成虫毒力较低,且显著低于吡虫啉;12.5 mg/L螺虫乙酯处理后,成虫寿命为17.3天,较空白对照显著缩短,吡虫啉与空白对照无显著差异;12.5mg/L螺虫乙酯处理后平均产卵量为5.0粒,所

  14. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    . multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina. Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

  15. Controle químico de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae Chemical control of Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae eggs and nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Etore do Valle

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas brancas são pragas de diversas culturas, causam redução na produção e na qualidade do produto. Inseticidas, com diferentes modos de ação vêm sendo utilizados, sem muito sucesso. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência de inseticidas sobre ovos de diferentes idades (1, 3 e 5 dias e de ninfas de 1° ínstar da mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Os experimentos foram realizados em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e fotofase de 12 horas. Piriproxifem (75 mg L-1 atuou como excelente ovicida, sendo altamente eficiente, 3 dias de idade. Cartape (500 mg L-1 não teve efeito satisfatório, mas a 1000 mg L-1 foi eficiente em ovos com até 5 dias de idade. Quanto à ação sobre ninfas de 1° ínstar, para pulverizações na face superior das folhas, piriproxifem, a 75 mg L-1, apresentou eficiência na supressão da emergência de adultos, caracterizando presença de ação translaminar; buprofezim, cartape, acefato e fempiroximate não apresentaram eficiência no controle de ninfas. Quando aplicado na face inferior das folhas, buprofezim (375 mg L-1 apresentou eficiência comparável à de piriproxifem, impedindo a emergência de adultos.Whiteflies are pests of many crops, cause severe yield losses and reduce crop quality. Insecticides of different modes of action have been used without success. In this work, the efficiency of five insecticides on Bemisia tabaci B biotype (= B. argentifolii eggs and nymphs was evaluated under laboratory conditions (T = 25 ± 2°C; 12 h photophase. In relation to the ovicidal effect, pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1 caused egg hatching inhibition up to three day old eggs. Cartap showed efficiency only at the concentration of 1000 mg L-1, supressing the viability of eggs up to five days. Soybean leaves with first instar nymphs were treated in the upper surface with pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1, buprofezin (375 mg L-1, cartap (1000 mg L-1, acephate (750 mg L-1 and fenpyroximate (100 mg L-1; in

  16. 农药胁迫对2种体色型麦长管蚜生长发育和繁殖的影响%Effect of pesticide stress on the development and reproduction of different body-color biotypes of Sitobion avenae (Fab.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢菊侠; 惠凯凯; 胡祖庆

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 Effects of pesticide stress on different body-color biotypes of colors of aphids were studied to provide theoretical basis for genetic inheritance and evolution.【Method】 Under strict controlled conditions in artificial bioclimatic chamber,new-born nymph of red and green biotypes of Sitobion avenae were placed on wheat treated under pesticide stress.Their impacts on biological characteristics of aphids(development duration(T),weight difference,mean relative growth rate(MRGR),mean generation time,net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase) were subsequently measured.【Result】 The results illustrated that under pesticide stress,as the dose of omethoate and imidacloprid increased,the two body-color biotype of wheat aphid developmental duration and the mean generation time were increased,but the weight differences,the relative growth rate of average daily body weight,net reproductive rate and intrinsic growth rate were reduced.【Conclusion】 Under pesticide stress,the two body-color biotypes reproduction of aphid was reduced,and the green biotype was more sensitive than the red one.%【目的】研究农药胁迫对不同体色型麦长管蚜生长发育和繁殖的影响,为蚜虫生态遗传与进化提供理论依据。【方法】在不同剂量氧化乐果、吡虫啉农药胁迫下,于人工气候箱中饲养2种不同体色型(红色型和绿色型)麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae Fab.)初生若蚜,分别测定各处理麦长管蚜的发育历期、体质量差、相对日均体质量增长率、种群平均世代周期、净增殖率及内禀增长率等生长发育和繁殖生物学参数。【结果】随着氧化乐果和吡虫啉施用剂量的增加,2种体色型麦长管蚜的发育历期、种群平均世代周期均增加,且绿色型麦长管蚜增加幅度比

  17. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  18. Infestação de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e Caliothrips phaseoli em genótipos de feijoeiro Infestation of Bemisia tabaci biotype B and Caliothrips phaseoli on bean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento de genótipos de feijoeiro sob a infestação de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B e Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood em condições de campo, nas épocas de cultivo "de inverno", "das águas" e "da seca". Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas sub-subdividida (19x3x6, com 19 genótipos (IAC Tybatã, IAC Una, FT Nobre, Pérola, Gen 96A98-15-3-32-1, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, IAC Alvorada, IAC Diplomata, Gen 96A3-P1-1-1, LP 98-122, LP 02-130, LP 01-38, LP 9979, BRS-Pontal, BRS-Requinte, BRS-Triunfo, BRS-Grafite, CV-48 e Z-28, três épocas de cultivos (inverno, águas e seca e seis períodos de avaliação. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, contando-se o número de ovos e ninfas de B. tabaci e ninfas de C. phaseoli em dez folíolos por parcela. Os genótipos IAC Una, Pérola, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, Gen 96A98-15-32-1, FT Nobre, IAC Tybatã, IAC Alvorada, LP 02-130, LP 01-38, LP 98-122, IAC Diplomata e Gen 96A3P1-1-1 foram menos ovipositados por B. tabaci no cultivo "das águas". Os genótipos Pérola, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, IAC Una, Gen 96A98-15-32-1, IAC Tybatã e FT Nobre foram menos infestados por C. phaseoli. A maior incidência de ninfas de mosca-branca ocorreu no fim de janeiro no cultivo "das águas" e início de maio no cultivo "da seca"; para tripés, foi em junho durante o cultivo "de inverno". A maior incidência da população de B. tabaci e C. phaseoli, ocorreu dos 46 aos 60 dias após a emergência das plantas.The response of bean genotypes to infestation of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood in field conditions on the winter, rainy and dry seasons was evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a randomized Sub-divided (19x3x6 blocks design with 19 genotypes (IAC Tybatã, IAC Una, FT Nobre, Pérola, Gen 96A98-15-3-32-1, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, IAC Alvorada, IAC Diplomata, Gen 96A3-P1-1-1, LP 98-122, LP 02-130, LP 01-38, LP 9979, BRS-Pontal, BRS

  19. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper; Fatores que afetam a oviposicao de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em pimentao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade, Engenharia Rural e Solos]. E-mail: lclima@aluno.feis.unesp.br; campos@bio.feis.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  20. Biotipagem e resistotipagem para o traçado epidemiológico da origem fecal de Klebsiella pneumoniae em infecções urinárias Biotyping and resistotyping for epidemiological tracing of the fecal origin of Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary infections

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    José Augusto Adler Pereira

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 24 (82,7% de 29 pacientes com infecção urinária por Klebsiella pneumoniae isolamos a mesma espécie a partir de amostras fecais. Estudamos 24 cepas urinárias e 219 cepas fecais encontrando 50 biótipos distintos (em média quatro biótipos por amostra fecal. Em dez (34,4% dos 29 pacientes o biótipo de uma ou mais cepas fecais corresponderam ao biotipo da cepa urinária - sem encontrarmos associação entre a simultaneidade e a prévia cateterização vesical (p>0,05. Na resistotipagem - utilizando quatro substâncias químicas previamente escolhidas entre 34 produtos testados (verde brilhante, verde malaquita, telurito de potássio e cloreto mercúrico encontramos 16 resistotipos distintos. Em 14 (58,3%, dos 24 casos houve detecção do mesmo resistotipo em cepa(s fecal(is e urinária do mesmo paciente, entretanto, só em cinco (20,9% dos casos houve concordância com a biotipagem na indicação de simultaneidade. A concordância de resultados quanto à ausência ou presença de biotipos ou resistotipos simultâneos, na urina e nas fezes, foi de somente 54,2%. A presença de resistência aos íons telurito e mercúrio, entre cepas fecais e cepas urinárias, no mesmo paciente, estava significativamente associada (pTwenty-four (82.7% out of 29 patients suffering from hospital acquired urinary infections by Klebsiella pneumoniae had the same species in their faeces. Biotyping of 24 urinary and 219 fecal strains of K. pneumoniae resulted in 50 different biotypes - an average of four biotypes per fecal sample. Ten patients (34.4% had the same biotype in urine and faeces without any correlation with previous vesical catheterization (p>0.05. Using resistotyping to four chemical compounds selected among 34 tested substances (brilliant green, malachite green, potassium tellurite and mercuric chloride 16 different resistotypes were found. Fourteen patients (58.3% presented the same resistotype in urine and faeces but only in five patients was

  1. Suscetibilidade comparativa a herbicidas pós-emergentes de biótipos de Digitaria ciliaris resistente e suscetível aos inibidores da ACCase Relative susceptibility to post-emergence herbicides of ACCase-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Digitaria ciliaris

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    R.F. López-Ovejero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de resistência múltipla aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, ALS e síntese de carotenos em um biótipo de capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris resistente aos inibidores da ACCase. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando dois biótipos de capim-colchão: um resistente (R e outro suscetível (S aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados 11 herbicidas: fluazifop-p-butil, haloxyfop-r-methyl, propaquizafop, sethoxydim, tepraloxydim, clethodim, fenoxaprop + clethodim, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, iodosulfuron + foramsulfuron e mesotrione. Para cada herbicida, os tratamentos resultaram da combinação fatorial entre os dois biótipos de capim-colchão e 10 doses (0,0D; 0,016D; 0,03D; 0,06D; 0,25D; 0,5D; 1,0D; 2,0D; 4,0D; e 16,0D, em que D é a dose recomendada para cada produto. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre as plantas de capim-colchão em estádio de desenvolvimento de 3-4 folhas. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de controle aos 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA. O biótipo R foi confirmado como resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase (grupos químicos dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas com níveis variáveis de resistência cruzada. O biótipo R foi controlado satisfatoriamente pela dose de campo de todos os herbicidas alternativos aplicados (sulfoniluréias, imidazolinonas e inibidores da síntese de caroteno, excluindo a hipótese de resistência múltipla nesse biótipo de capim-colchão.This research was conducted to evaluate the possibility of multiple resistances to ACCase, ALS and carotene synthesis inhibiting herbicides in one ACCase-resistant biotype of crab-grass (Digitaria ciliaris. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using two crab-grass biotypes: one resistant (R and another susceptible (S to ACCase inhibiting herbicides

  2. Biology, management and biochemical/genetic characterization of weed biotypes resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides Biologia, manejo e caracterização bioquímica e genética de biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase

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    Patrícia Andrea Monquero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus quitensis are major weeds infesting soybean [Glycine max L (Merrill] fields in Brazil and Argentina. The repetitive use of acetolactate synthase (ALS EC 4.1.3.18 inhibiting herbicides in São Gabriel do Oeste, MS, Brazil and in the provinces of Córdoba and Tucumã, Argentina, has selected for resistant (R biotypes of these weeds. Research work was developed to study the management, growth, biochemistry, and genetics of these R weed biotypes. In a field experiment it was found that chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr at recommended rates (both ALS inhibitor herbicides, did not control R B. pilosa, but the alternative lactofen, fomesafen and bentazon were effective, either sprayed alone or mixed with the ALS inhibitor herbicides. Greenhouse studies confirmed the cross-resistance of both R biotypes to the imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides, and these alternative herbicides, when sprayed alone or mixed with the ALS inhibitor, efficiently controlled both R and S populations. A growth analysis of the R and S biotypes of these weeds, under non-competitive conditions, indicated that there is no adaptive cost to the R biotypes (pleiotropic effect. A quick bioassay using ALS and ketoacid reductoisomerase (KARI inhibitors showed that the resistance of the R biotypes to herbicides is related to a lack of sensitivity of the ALS enzyme to the herbicides. On the other hand, the sequencing of the gene that codifies the ALS resistance in R A. quitensis did not present any mutation in the A Domain region, suggesting that other positions of the gene that confer insensitivity of the ALS to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides could have mutated.Bidens pilosa e Amaranthus quitensis são as principais plantas daninhas infestantes na cultura de soja [Glycine max L (Merrill] no Brasil e Argentina, respectivamente. O uso repetitivo de herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS EC 4.1.3.18 em São Gabriel do Oeste (MS

  3. Efficiency of neem oil nanoformulations to Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biotype B (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeEficiência de nanoformulações a base de óleo de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Sheila Salles Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology, through encapsulation of active ingredients, has showed an important way to avoid problems with quickly degradation of the pesticide molecules. Thus, neem (Azadirachta indica oil nanoformulations containing ?-ciclodextrin and poli-?-caprolactone (PCL were tested as to their control efficiency against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B reared in soybean. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 was estimated using a commercial neem oil (Organic Neem® on first-instar nymphs to establish the adequate volume of the nanoformulations per treatment. After that, they were sprayed on eggs and first-instar nymphs in laboratory and greenhouse and on third-instar nymphs in greenhouse. The commercial neem oil and distilled water were used as controls. Egg viability was not affected by any treatment. Among six nanoformulations, only one was efficient against the first-instar nymphs in laboratory conditions. However, its effective period was not increased as expected. In greenhouse, first-instar nymphs were more affected by two nanoformulations which were significantly different of the commercial neem oil - the most effective one. No mortality differences among the formulations in the third-instar test were observed. The nanoformulations were less efficient to control the B. tabaci biotype B nymphs than the commercial neem oil. A nanotecnologia, através do encapsulamento de ingredientes ativos, tem-se revelado uma importante estratégia para evitar problemas com a rápida degradação de moléculas inseticidas. Assim, nanoformulações à base de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica utilizando os polímeros ?-ciclodextrina e poli-?-caprolactona (PCL foram testadas quanto a sua eficiência de controle de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B mantidas em soja. Foi estimada a CL50 utilizando uma formulação comecial de óleo de nim (Organic Neem® sobre ninfas em 1º ínstar da qual se estipulou o volume das nanoformula

  4. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

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    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  5. Herança da resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS em biótipos da planta daninha Euphorbia heterophylla Inheritance of ALS inhibitor resistance in Euphorbia heterophylla weed biotypes

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    L. Vargas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores da ALS são os principais produtos aplicados para o controle da planta daninha amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia herterophylla em lavouras de soja; no entanto, já foram identificados biótipos desta planta daninha resistentes a estes herbicidas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a herança, o número de genes que conferem a resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre os genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, posteriormente, realizaram-se os retrocruzamentos (RC com os genitores resistente (R e suscetível (S. Plantas F1 foram autofecundadas artificialmente para obtenção da geração F2. As plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e dos genitores foram tratadas com o herbicida imazethapyr (150 g ha-1. Para avaliar o grau de resistência, plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e suscetível foram tratados com as doses de imazethapyr de 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. As plantas F1 mostraram-se totalmente resistentes ao herbicida, demonstrando que a resistência é nuclear e dominante. As plantas F2 apresentaram alta probabilidade para segregação 3:1, indicando que a resistência é codificada por um gene dominante. A aplicação de doses de imazethapyr sobre as plantas F1 demonstrou que os biótipos homozigotos resistentes e os heterozigotos apresentam o mesmo grau de resistência para doses de até 1.600 g ha-1 deste herbicida. A resistência é codificada por um gene dominante nuclear com dominância completa.The ALS inhibitor herbicides are the main products applied to control Euphorbia heterophylla in the soybean crop; however, resistant biotypes to these herbicides have been identified in Brazil. This research aimed to study the inheritance, number of genes involved in the resistance and the degree of resistance of the homozygous and heterozygous resistant biotypes. Reciprocal crossings (RSs

  6. Effects of calcium fertilizer on the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima%钙肥对B型烟粉虱发育、存活及取食为害的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 张娟; 郁永明; 刘建新; 李明江; 朱开元

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the development, survival, and feeding of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci on Euphorbia pulcherrima under the conditions of 26±1 ℃ and 60% -80% relative humidity after applying calcium fertilizer, taking applying fresh water as the control. There existed significant differences in the developmental duration of B. tabaci between treatment applying calcium fertilizer and the control. After applying calcium fertilizer, the egg stage of B. tabaci shortened significantly, and the development from egg to adult took 20. 18 days (for the control, it took 18.72 days). However , there were no significant differences in the survival rates of B. tabaci at different development stages between the two treatments. The feeding of B. tabaci on E. pulcherrima induced the plant leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed, i. e. , the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm ) , photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) , light use efficiency (α) , maximum photosynthesis rate (rETRmax ) , and tolerance to light (Ik) decreased significantly, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) had a significant increase. After applying calcium fertilizer, the plant leaf photoinhibition parameter (β) , rETRmax,and Ik had less difference with the control. The nail polish blot observation on the lower epidermis structure of plant leaf showed that calcium fertilizer could effectively compensate the decrease in the photosynthesis of E. pulcherrima damaged by B-biotype B. tabaci.%以清水为对照,研究了施用钙肥后一品红植株对B型烟粉虱发育、存活和取食为害的影响.结果表明:在温度(26±1)℃、相对湿度60%~80%条件下,钙肥处理的一品红植株上的B型烟粉虱在发育历期上与对照存在显著差异,卵期明显缩短,各龄若虫期延长,从卵到成虫的发育时间为20.18 d,而对照为18.72 d;但钙肥处理对B型烟粉虱各虫态的存活率无显著影响.B型烟粉虱的取食为害诱导了一品红叶片叶

  7. Interaction between resistant tomato genotypes and plant extracts on Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B Interação de genótipos resistentes de tomateiro e extratos vegetais sobre Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B

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    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicon spp. productivity is severely reduced by attack of several insects and microorganisms. It is economically one of the most important crops that has been extensively cultivated in the Americas. Therefore, assays were performed in the greenhouse and the laboratory to evaluate the possible interaction between resistant tomato genotypes and plant extracts on the control of the pest Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biotype B. This evaluation was performed for genotypes IAC-Santa Clara, PI-134417, LA-716, PI-134418, and PI-127826, and aqueous extracts from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Rutales: Meliaceae, branches and leaves of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Rutales: Meliaceae. In the greenhouse, spraying with extracts from seeds of A. indica, and leaves and branches of T. pallida reduced whitefly attraction with IAC-Santa Clara; on PI-134417, LA-716, PI-134418, and PI-127826 the extracts did not affect the attractiveness to the B. tabaci biotype B. Extracts from A. indica seeds and T. pallida leaves and branches reduced oviposition on IAC-Santa Clara; extracts from T. pallida branches reduced oviposition on PI-134417, PI-134418, and PI-127826, while the extract from A. indica seeds reduced oviposition in PI-127826. The extracts did not affect oviposition on LA-716. In the laboratory, the extracts increased the mortality of nymphs on the genotypes. The "genotype × extract" interaction was significant, indicating an addictive effect between resistant genotypes and plant extracts on whitefly control.O tomate (Lycopersicon spp. é uma das hortaliças mais importantes do mundo em termos econômicos e tem sido extensivamente cultivado nas Américas há séculos. Entretanto, a produtividade poderia ser mais alta se ela não fosse suscetível a ataques de insetos e microorganismos. Foram realizados ensaios em casa-de-vegetação e laboratório visando avaliar a possível interação de genótipos de tomateiro

  8. Oviposição e dispersão de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro Oviposition and nymphal dispersion of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos métodos têm sido empregados para avaliar a resistência de plantas a moscas-brancas. Todavia, poucos trabalhos têm sido realizados visando determinar a dispersão de ninfas desses insetos sobre as plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B e a dispersão de suas ninfas em folíolos com e sem exsudatos de genótipos de tomateiro. Foram utilizados sete genótipos de tomateiro: LA716, LA1739, PI134417, LA462, LA1584, 'Santa Clara' e P25 (controle suscetível. A oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B foi avaliada em gaiolas plásticas (2,8 cm² fixadas na face abaxial dos folíolos, nas quais foram inseridos dez casais do inseto. Para avaliação da dispersão das ninfas, considerou-se o deslocamento dos insetos além do limite da área ocupada pelas gaiolas. As variáveis observadas foram: mortalidade de adultos 24 horas após a liberação, número de ovos, viabilidade da fase de ovo, período de incubação, número de ninfas e dispersão. Em folíolos com exsudato, LA716, LA1739 e PI134417 provocaram as maiores mortalidades. Adultos mortos nos folíolos desses genótipos ficaram aderidos aos tricomas glandulares, o que provocou redução na oviposição do inseto. Para dispersão, nos folíolos com exsudato, os máximos valores ocorreram nos genótipos LA716, LA462 e P25. Na condição sem exsudato, LA716 promoveu a menor dispersão das ninfas. A presença do exsudato influencia negativamente a sobrevivência e oviposição do inseto. A dispersão das ninfas também é afetada pelo exsudato, embora outros fatores possam ser importantes para o deslocamento do inseto.Several methods have been employed for evaluating plant resistance to whiteflies. Although, a few researches have been conducted aiming to determine the whitefly nymphal dispersion on crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B and nymphal dispersion in leaflets with and without

  9. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on tomato genotypes Biologia de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em genótipos de tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Godoy Oriani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the main tomato (Solanum lycopersicum producers worldwide. Nevertheless, considerable part of the production is lost due to Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype attacks. Resistant plants can be an important method for controlling this pest in an integrated pest management. Tests for evaluating some biological aspects of B. tabaci were carried out on 18 tomato genotypes, in controlled laboratory greenhouse conditions. Thirty-day-old plants placed in plastic cages were infested with 20 whitefly pairs each, for 24 h. The development of at least 30 eggs in three leaflets per plant (repetition was observed until adult emergence. The development period of insects grown in LA1335, PI365928 and LA722 genotypes took three days longer when compared to the ones grown in PI134418 (20.3 days. The highest mortality rate of whitefly nymphs occurred in PI365928, LA1335 and LA722 genotypes (63.8, 54.5 and 53.3%, respectively, and the smallest ones in IAC294 and IAC68F-22-2 genotypes (4.9 e 6.2%, respectively. LA1335, PI365928 and LA722 genotypes presented moderate feeding nonpreference and/or antibiosis-based resistance to B. tabaci B biotype.O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores mundiais de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum, porém grande parte da produção é perdida devido ao ataque de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B. Entre as táticas de controle dessa praga num manejo integrado de pragas, pode-se relacionar a resistência de plantas. Ensaios para avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos de B. tabaci foram realizados com 18 genótipos de tomateiro, em condições controladas de laboratório (casa de vegetação. Plantas com 30 dias de idade foram colocadas em gaiolas plásticas e infestadas com 20 casais de moscas-brancas cada, durante 24h. Acompanhou-se então o desenvolvimento de pelo menos 30 ovos em três folíolos por planta (repetição até a emergência dos insetos. Os insetos criados nos genótipos LA1335, PI365928 e LA722 apresentaram

  10. Identification of Candida haemulonii Complex Species: Use of ClinProTools(TM) to Overcome Limitations of the Bruker Biotyper(TM), VITEK MS(TM) IVD, and VITEK MS(TM) RUO Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Rafaella C; da Silva Junior, Afonso R; Del Negro, Gilda M B; Munhoz, Regina B; Gimenes, Viviane M F; Assis, Diego M; Rockstroh, Anna C; Motta, Adriana L; Rossi, Flavia; Juliano, Luiz; Benard, Gil; de Almeida Júnior, João N

    2016-01-01

    Candida haemulonii is now considered a complex of two species and one variety: C. haemulonii sensu stricto, Candida duobushaemulonii and the variety C. haemulonii var. vulnera. Identification (ID) of these species is relevant for epidemiological purposes and for therapeutic management, but the different phenotypic commercial systems are unable to provide correct species ID for these emergent pathogens. Hence, we evaluated the MALDI-TOF MS performance for the ID of C. haemulonii species, analyzing isolates/strains of C. haemulonii complex species, Candida pseudohaemulonii and Candida auris by two commercial platforms, their databases and softwares. To differentiate C. haemulonii sensu sctricto from the variety vulnera, we used the ClinProTools(TM) models and a single-peak analysis with the software FlexAnalysis(TM). The Biotyper(TM) database gave 100% correct species ID for C. haemulonii sensu stricto, C. pseudohaemulonii and C. auris, with 69% of correct species ID for C. duobushaemulonii. Vitek MS(TM) IVD database gave 100% correct species ID for C. haemulonii sensu stricto, misidentifying all C. duobushaemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii as C. haemulonii, being unable to identify C. auris. The Vitek MS(TM) RUO database needed to be upgraded with in-house SuperSpectra to discriminate C. haemulonii sensu stricto, C. duobushaemulonii, C. pseudohaemulonii, and C. auris strains/isolates. The generic algorithm model from ClinProTools(TM) software showed recognition capability of 100% and cross validation of 98.02% for the discrimination of C. haemulonii sensu stricto from the variety vulnera. Single-peak analysis showed that the peaks 5670, 6878, or 13750 m/z can distinguish C. haemulonii sensu stricto from the variety vulnera.

  11. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile Ocorrência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos em bovinos de corte e de leite no sul do Chile

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    Heriberto Fernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9% than among dairy cattle (21.3%, being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalente nos bovinos de corte (35,9% do que nos bovinos de leite (21,3%, sendo C. jejuni a espécie mais frequentemente isolada.

  12. Análise comparativa do crescimento de biótipos de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa resistente e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of Bidens pilosa biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    , TCA, TCR e TAL maiores que o suscetível. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que o biótipo de Bidens pilosa resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS apresenta a mesma eficiência de produção de biomassa no final do ciclo. É provável que, quando em competição entre si e com as culturas, possua a mesma competitividade, sendo a dominância numérica de um biótipo sobre o outro decorrente apenas da pressão de seleção causada pelo herbicida.The resistance of weed biotypes to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitor herbicides is due to this enzyme's lack of sensitivity to ALS inhibitor herbicides, which inhibit its catalytic activity. ALS insensitivity results from a structural change in the aminoacid sequence, exactly in the site of action of these herbicides. Eventually this modification in the enzyme may result in a reduced plant growth rate. Such reduction was also observed in biotypes resistant to Photosystem II inhibitor herbicides. The possibility of a lower growth rate of the resistant plant may directly affect biotype competitiveness, its population dynamics and, as a consequence, resistance management strategies. The objective of this research was to compare the growth rates of both resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa biotypes to ALS inhibitor herbicides. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using one plant per pot of 5 L capacity. Four plants per biotype were harvested weekly, starting 14 days after planting, and the leaf area and dry biomass were measured. The Richards function fitted to the data enabled the derivation of absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. The susceptible biotype had a higher biomass accumulation during the early stages, with both biotypes having the same size, afterwards. The higher net assimilation rate of the resistant biotype during the early stages of growth was balanced by its lower size during the first four weeks of growth. It was concluded that both biotypes have the same size, being very

  13. Curvas de dose-resposta de biótipos resistente e suscetível de Bidens pilosa L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Rate-response curves of resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa L. biotypes to ALS-inhibitor herbicides

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    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2002-09-01

    phenomenon. In this regard, experiments aiming to build rate-response curves comparing a resistant (R and a susceptible (S biotype of the weed Bidens pilosa L., to ALS inhibitor herbicides, were set up. At the stage of three to four leaves, biotypes R and S of B. pilosa were sprayed with the herbicides chlorymuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron and imazethapyr, at multiples of 0.0; 0.001, 0.01, 0.1; 1.0; 10; 100 and 1,000 of the recommended field rates. Results lead to the building of percentage control rate-response curves. The ratio between the C50 of the resistant biotype, divided by the C50 of the susceptible biotype, were 40.92; 173.84; 57.47 and 57.16 for the herbicides chlorymuron-ethyl, nicosulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl and imazethapyr, respectively. The R biotype of B. pilosa had a high degree of resistance in relation to all ALS inhibitor herbicides studied, being also cross resistant to imidazolinone and sulfonylurea.

  14. Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

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    L. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50, a resposta do biótipo resistente e sensível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas.The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosate. Their effects on GR50 dry matter

  15. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Lactic Acid and Citric Acid Blend against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Carcass Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Adler, Jeremy M; Belk, Keith E

    2015-12-01

    Studies were conducted to (i) determine whether inoculants of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli biotype I effectively served as surrogates for E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Salmonella when prerigor beef carcass tissue was treated with a commercially available blend of lactic acid and citric acid (LCA) at a range of industry conditions of concentration, temperature, and pressure; (ii) determine the antimicrobial efficacy of LCA; and (iii) investigate the use of surrogates to validate a hot water and LCA sequential treatment as a carcass spray intervention in a commercial beef harvest plant. In an initial laboratory study, beef brisket tissue samples were left uninoculated or were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on the adipose side with E. coli O157:H7 (5-strain mixture), non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (12-strain mixture), Salmonella (6-strain mixture), or nonpathogenic E. coli (5-strain mixture). Samples were left untreated (control) or were treated with LCA, in a spray cabinet, at one of eight combinations of solution concentration (1.9 and 2.5%), solution temperature (43 and 60°C), and application pressure (15 and 30 lb/in(2)). In a second study, the E. coli surrogates were inoculated (∼6 log CFU/cm(2)) on beef carcasses in a commercial facility to validate the use of a hot water treatment (92.2 to 92.8°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2)) followed by an LCA treatment (1.9%, 50 to 51.7°C, 13 to 15 lb/in(2), 10 s). In the in vitro study, surrogate and pathogen bacteria did not differ in their response to the tested LCA treatments. Treatment with LCA reduced (P < 0.05) inoculated populations by 0.9 to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2), irrespective of inoculum type. The hot water and LCA sequential treatments evaluated in the commercial facility reduced (P < 0.05) the inoculated nonpathogenic E. coli surrogates on carcasses by 3.7 log CFU/cm(2). This study therefore provides the meat industry with data for this sequential multiple hurdle system for the

  16. Assesing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B resistance in soybean genotypes: Antixenosis and antibiosis Evaluación de la resistencia de genotipos de soya a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotipo B: Antixenosis y antibiosis

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    José Paulo Gonçalves Franco da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first reported in Brazil in the 1990s, the B biotype of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been recognized as an important pest in soybeans (Glycine max L., reducing the productivity of this legume species in some areas of the country. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM. This study evaluated the performance of 10 soybean genotypes prior to whitefly infestation, by testing attractiveness and preference for oviposition in the greenhouse and antibiosis in the laboratory. In a multiple-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive to insects. In a no-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive for egg deposition, indicating the occurrence of non-preference for oviposition on this genotype. Trichome density was positively correlated with the oviposition site and may be associated with the resistance of 'IAC-17' to infestation. The genotypes 'IAC-PL1', 'IAC-19', 'Conquista', 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-17' extended the insect's life cycle, indicating the occurrence of a small degree of antibiosis and/or non-preference for feeding.Desde que se registró por primera vez en Brasil en la década de 1990, el biotipo B de la mosca-blanca (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, se reconoce como una importante plaga de la soya (Glycine max L. y es lo que reduce la productividad de estas especies de leguminosas en algunas zonas del pais. Como una alternativa al control químico, el uso de genotipos resistentes representa una herramienta importante para la gestión integrada de plagas (MIP. Este trabajo evaluó el comportamiento de 10 genotipos de soya frente al ataque de la mosca-blanca, por medio de ensayos de atractividad y preferencia para ovipostura en invernaderos y antibiosis en laboratorio. En una prueba de elección multiple, 'IAC-17' fue el menos atractivo para los insectos. En una prueba sin elecci

  17. Salmonella typhi: lisotipia VI e biotipificação em amostras oriundas de algumas regiões do Brasil Salmonella typhi: lysotype VI and biotyping in sample from some regions of Brazil

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    Ernesto Hofer

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se uma análise da distribuicão da frequência dos lisotipos VI e dos tipos fermentativos segundo o esquema de Kristensen, em 1.150 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas de diferentes regiões do Brasil (Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. No computo geral, observou-se a prevalência dos lisotipos A (38,1%; Ela (18,9%; amostras VI negativas (16,6%; D6 (8,7% I + IV (4,6%; T (2,3% e C1 (2,1% e a ocorrência de alguns tipos fágicos característicos para determinadas áreas (B3, C4 e 40 na Bahia; E1b, F2, G1 e L1 em São Paulo; E4 e 28 no Rio de Janeiro. Quanto a classificacão bioquímica, 55,2% das amostras caracterizaram-se no biotipo II (xilose e arabinose negativas, 44,2% no tipo fermentativo I (xilose positiva e arabinose negativas e 0,52% no tipo III (xilose e arabinose positivas, respectivamente.The frequency of Vi-phage types and fermentative types according to Kristensen's scheme was studied among 1,150 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from different areas in Brazil (states of Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. The most prevalent phage types encountered in this study were: A (38.1%; Ela (18.9%, D6 (8.7%, T (2.3% and C1 (2.1%, including categories of untypable strains (group I + IV-4.6%, and Vi negative (16.6%. There was,however, some types characteristics of particular areas (B3, C4, 40 from Bahia; Elb, F2,G1, L1 from São Paulo; E4 and 28 from Rio de Janeiro. In respect to the biochemical classification, 55.2% of the strains were classified as a biotype II (xylose and arabinose negative, 44,2% as of type I (xylose positive and negative0 and 0.52% as a type III (xylose and arabinose positive, respectively.

  18. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

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    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  19. Lengthened-handle biotype total hip arthroplasty with spiral cerclage band for the treatment of aged patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture%加长柄生物型人工全髋关节置换结合钛捆绑带治疗老年股骨粗隆间骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆浩; 陈友浩; 张友; 谢鲤钟; 周继斌; 李章华; 刘忠厚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of treatment using lengthened-handle biotype total hip arthroplasty with spiral cerclage band on aged patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture. Methods Twenty-three patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture in our department from January 2006 to January 2011, treated with lengthened-handle biotype total hip arthroplasty with spiral cerclage band, were selected. The clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results All the patients were followed up from 6 to 38 months. The function of the hip was graded with Harris system; excellent in 7 cases, good in 10 cases, fair in 5 cases, and poor in 1 case. The percentage of excellent and good was 73.91% and total patient satisfaction was 100%. No fracture deformity, artificial joint dislocation, infection, loosening, and down-place occurred. Conclusion For aged patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture, lengthened-handle biotype total hip arthroplasty with spiral cerclaged band is a safe and efficient method.%目的 探讨钛捆绑带结合加长柄生物型人工全髋关节置换术治疗老年股骨粗隆间骨折的临床疗效.方法 对2006年1月至2011年1月收入我科的23例老年股骨粗隆间骨折患者,采用钛捆绑带结合加长柄生物型人工全髋关节置换术进行治疗,评价其临床疗效与安全性.结果 所有患者随访6月~38月,按Harris髋关节功能评定,优7例,良10例,中5例,差1例,优良率为73.91%,患者满意度100%;无骨折畸形、人工关节脱位、感染、假体松动、假体下沉等情况发生.结论 对老年股骨粗隆间骨折,钛捆绑带结合生物型假体行全髋关节置换术是一种安全有效的方法.

  20. 随州地区阴道加德纳菌生物型分布及药敏结果分析%Biotype distribution and drug sensitivity of gardnerella vaginalis in suizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明水; 刘杨; 李玲

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the current situation of infection and biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis in suizhou area. METHODS Gardnerella vaginalis strains were isolated and cultured from vaginal secretions of Obstetrics and gynecology patients, either inpatients or outpatients. The isolated strains were typed by Piot. Susceptibility test was performed by K-B method. RESULTS The overall detection rate of GV in 326 patients suffered vaginopathy was 35.9%, all types were detected with the exception of 7 types. The sensitivity of ciprofloxacin, gentamycin,ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, azithromycin, arilin, SMZ-TMP, tazocin, and sulperazonewere49.6%, 21.4%, 35.0%, 56.4%, 66.7%, 59.0%, 87.2%, 54.7%, 46.2%,84.6%, 96.6%and 86.3% respectively. CONCLUSION The majority of types of GV isolated from BV suffers in the suizhou area are type 1,5,6 which are comparatively susceptive to cefepime, SMZ-TMP, tazocin, and sulperazone while are more resistant to ampicillin, arilin and aminoglycosides antibacterials.%目的 了解随州地区阴道加德纳菌(GV)的感染情况及生物型分布情况,分析药敏结果 为临床提供有价值的参考依据. 方法 对妇产科门诊和住院患者的宫颈或阴道分泌物进行分离培养,对分离的菌株进行鉴定并采用Piot分型法分型,再采用K-B法检测抗菌药物敏感性. 结果 326例细菌性阴道病(BV)患者GV的总检出率为35.9%,除7型外其余各型均检测到;GV对环丙沙星、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢吡肟、阿奇霉素、甲硝唑、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的敏感率分别为49.6%、21.4%、35.0%、56.4%、66.7%、59.0%、87.2%、54.7%、46.2%、84.6%、96.6%、86.3%. 结论 随州地区BV患者分离出的GV主要为1、5、6型,对头孢吡肟、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶以及哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦有

  1. Indutores de resistência à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Biótipo B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em soja Resistance inducers to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in soybeans

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    Jair Campos Moraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação de indutores na resistência de duas cultivares de soja à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Entomologia - UFLA. As sementes de soja, cultivar IAC-19 e MONSOY-8001, foram previamente tratadas com o fungicida captan. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: T1- irrigação no solo, ao redor das plantas de cada vaso, de 250 mL de solução de ácido silícico a 1%; T2- pulverização das plantas, até o ponto de escorrimento, com solução a 0,3% de acibenzolar-s-methyl; T3- pulverização das plantas, até o ponto de escorrimento, com calda a 0,24% de pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole e T4- testemunha. As plantas foram infestadas com 100 adultos da mosca-branca por vaso que liberados oito dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o número de ovos na face abaxial de cada folha, que foi marcada para posterior avaliação de ninfas; teores de taninos e de lignina; peso seco das raízes e da parte aérea. Não houve diferença para número de ovos e ninfas entre as cultivares de soja, porém, a viabilidade média de B. tabaci foi menor a cultivar IAC-19. O cultivar de soja IAC-19 demonstrou moderada resistência ao biótipo B de B. tabaci. A aplicação de silício ou acibenzolar-s-methyl induz um aumento no teor de lignina na cultivar de soja IAC-19.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the application of inducers on the resistance of two soybean cultivars to the whitefly B. tabaci Biotype B. The experiment was carried out at the Entomology Department - UFLA. The soybean seeds of cultivars IAC-19 and MONSOY-8001 were previously treated with Captan fungicide. The following treatments were tested: T1- irrigating the soil around the plants of each pot with 250 mL of solution of 1% silicic acid; T2- spraying of the plants, to the 'point of dripping', with a solution of 0.3% acibenzolar-s-methyl; T3- spraying of

  2. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

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    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  3. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

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    M. Yanniccari

    2012-03-01

    glyphosate on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes of low and high glyphosate sensitivity. It was worked with clones of both types, in tillering, sprayed with 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate as treatments and without herbicide as controls. The glyphosate effects on the regrowth of leaves was studied until 50 hours post-application and on total free sugar, reducing free sugar and nonreducing free sugar from leaves to 1, 2, 3 and 5 days post-application were periodically evaluated. From 25 hours after glyphosate application, it caused on the susceptible biotype a growth decrease of 58% and an accumulation of free sugar above 90% compared to controls. In susceptible biotypes, growth inhibition does not depend on a reduced photoassimilate translocation from the overground part. Therefore, the free sugar accumulation in leaves could be explained by the fall in the rate of growth. These effects are limited in the low sensitivity biotype, where growth inhibition has not been detected.

  4. Effect of bean genotypes, insecticides, and natural products on the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae = Efeito de genótipos de feijoeiro, inseticida e produtos naturais no controle Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Júlio Cesar Janini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of bean genotypes, insecticides, and natural products on the control of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. The influence of bean genotypes associated with neem oil as insecticide was evaluated to control B. tabaci (Gennadius biotype B and C. phaseoli (Hood during the wet season sowing. The experimental design used was the randomized block arrangement in a 4x4x3 factorial scheme, represented by genotypes, neem oil and insecticides respectively, with three replications. The genotypes Carioca, IAC Harmonia, IAC Centauro and Pérola were used. The evaluations were done at 14 and 42 days after seedling emergence, bycounting B. tabaci biotype B eggs and nymphs and C. phaseoli nymphs in the genotypes leaf. Conclusion: The B. tabaci biotype B eggs and nymphs number were smaller in IAC Centauro and higher in IAC Harmonia. The tested genotypes were similarly infested by C. phaseoli. IAC Centauro and IAC Harmonia genotypes associated with neem oil (highlighting the full dose – 1% provided lower number of whitefly eggs and thrips nymphs. Neem oil at the full dose alsoreduced whitefly nymph number. In the tested genotypes the insecticide provided reduction in the number of whitefly eggs and nymphs as well in the thrips nymphs, with increase in therecommend dose. Avaliou-se a influência de genótipos de feijoeiro associado à aplicação de óleo de nim e inseticida no controle de B. tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e C. phaseoli (Hood na época de semeadura “das águas”. O delineamento experimental utilizados foi o de blocos casualizados dispostos em um esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 3, representado por variedades, óleo de nim e inseticidas, respectivamente, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se os genótipos Carioca, IAC Harmonia, IAC Centauro e Pérola. As avaliações foram realizadas dos 14 aos 42 dias após a emergência das plantas, contando-se o número de ovos e

  5. Susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação Susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to insecticides with different action manners

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    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda, a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação. Os insetos foram coletados em milho e em arroz irrigado no agroecossistema de várzea, município de Pelotas, região que produz milho e arroz irrigado (lado a lado. Os experimentos foram realizados, em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 1°C, umidade relativa (70 ± 10% e fotofase (14 horas, utilizando-se folhas do híbrido de milho Pionner 30F33 (40 dias após a emergência. As folhas pulverizadas em torre de Potter calibrada para aplicação de um volume de calda de 1,7 ± 0,305mg cm-2, foram colocadas em recipientes de plásticos com tampa, sendo individualizadas 25 lagartas de 3° ínstar de cada biótipo de S. frugiperda. Os inseticidas e concentrações avaliados foram: clorpirifós [Lorsban 480 BR, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Organofosforado], lambda-cialotrina [Karate Zeon 50 CE, 0,003g i.a. L-1 (Piretróide sintético], lufenuron [Match CE, 0,006g i.a. L-1 (Aciluréia], methoxifenozide [Intrepid 240 SC, 0,158g i.a. L-1 (Diacilhidrazina] e spinosad [Tracer, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Naturalyte]. A avaliação da mortalidade foi realizada 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após o tratamento. O biótipo milho de S. frugiperda foi menos suscetível aos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina, lufenuron e methoxifenozide. Os inseticidas clorpirifós e spinosad foram eficientes no controle das lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda, to insecticides with different action manners. The insects were collected in corn and in irrigated rice in the lowland, county of Pelotas, area that produces corn and irrigated rice (side by side. The experiments were conducted, in controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 1°C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% and photophase (14

  6. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla resistente e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

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    A.M. Brighenti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação contínua de herbicidas do grupo químico das imidazolinonas, nas mesmas áreas de produção de soja, durante anos seguidos, no município de Cafelândia, PR, favoreceu a seleção de um biótipo resistente de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. Um estudo comparativo das características do crescimento do biótipo resistente e do suscetível foi realizado em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR, a fim de identificar diferenças no crescimento e no desenvolvimento das plantas e de seus órgãos. A produção de matéria seca total, a área foliar, a matéria seca dos caule, das raízes e das folhas, bem como a altura por planta, foram avaliadas em 13 vezes a intervalos regulares, iniciando aos 14 dias após a semeadura. A partir desses parâmetros, foram calculadas a taxa de crescimento relativo, a taxa assimilatória líquida, a razão de área foliar, a razão de peso foliar e a área foliar específica, que decrescem com a ontogenia das plantas de amendoim-bravo, sendo similares para ambos os biótipos. A matéria seca total acumulada pelas plantas e seus órgãos, a área foliar e a altura apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes para os biótipos resistente e suscetível. O ciclo vegetativo dos dois biótipos estudados não mostrou diferença significativa quanto ao crescimento e ao desenvolvimento.Repetitive spraying of imidazolinone herbicides year after year to control weeds in the soybean grown areas of Cafelândia, Paraná, Brazil, has favored the selection of an ALS (acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicide resistant biotype of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. A comparative study of growth and development of wild poinsettia resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides was carried out in the greenhouse of the experimental station of Soybean Embrapa in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Total dry biomass yield, leaf area, shoot dry weight, leaf

  7. Adult oviposition and larvae feeding behavior of Spodoptera litura ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)on tobacco plants after infested by B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)%B型烟粉虱为害烟草后对斜纹夜蛾成虫产卵和幼虫取食行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪涛; 薛明; 陈会娜; 周方园

    2011-01-01

    为明确外来入侵害虫B型烟粉虱取食诱导的烟草防御反应对斜纹夜蛾的影响,探讨其与斜纹夜蛾的种间竞争机制,在室内条件下研究了B型烟粉虱取食后的烟草对斜纹夜蛾成虫产卵选择、幼虫取食选择、拒食作用和其他取食行为指标的影响.结果表明:斜纹夜蛾成虫在B型烟粉虱为害后的植株上的落卵量较对照植株降低了40.9%.B型烟粉虱为害的虫体叶对斜纹夜蛾初孵化幼虫具有明显的驱避作用,而中间叶和系统白脉叶有一定的吸引作用,心叶不影响幼虫对寄主的选择性.B型烟粉虱为害叶片对斜纹夜蛾幼虫具有显著的拒食作用,虫体叶拒食作用明显大于系统白脉叶片.与对照相比,B型烟粉虱为害的虫体叶和系统白脉叶降低了斜纹夜蛾幼虫单位时间取食次数或取食比例,虫体叶还显著延长了幼虫开始取食时间,总取食面积显著减少.表明B型烟粉虱为害烟草对斜纹夜蛾成虫产卵和幼虫取食行为均产生不利影响.研究结果对了解烟田害虫种群变动规律和指导害虫治理具有较大意义.%To understand the effects of the defense responses of tobacco plants induced by the infesting of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci to Spodoptera litura , and to explore the mechanisms of the interspecific interactions between B-biotype B. tabaci and S. litura. a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of tobacco plants after infested by B-biotype B. tabaci on the adult oviposition selection and the larvae feeding, anti-feeding, and other feeding behaviors of S. litura. Comparing with that on control plants, the egg number oviposited by adult S. litura on the infested plants decreased by 40.9% . The plant leaves infested had great repellent effect to the newly-hatched S. litura larvae. while the middle leaves and the leaves with systemic damage symptom ( white-vein) had definite attractive effect. Unexpanded terminal leaves had no effects on

  8. Effects of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B Infestation on Photosystem Ⅱ in Nicotiana tabacum%B型烟粉虱危害对烟草叶片光系统Ⅱ的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆亮; 谭伟; 薛明

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究B型烟粉虱取食危害对烟草光系统Ⅱ的影响,为明确烟粉虱对寄主植物光合作用的影响机制提供依据.[方法]通过测定烟草叶片叶绿素荧光快速诱导曲线,使用JIP-test分析技术进行参数分析,研究B型烟粉虱危害烟草后对烟草的局部虫体叶和系统叶光系统Ⅱ (PSⅡ)的影响.[结果]B型烟粉虱危害烟草后虫体叶和系统叶上的最大光化学效率(φpo)和光化学性能指数(PIABS)与对照相比均明显升高(P<0.05),表明处理烟草植株的局部叶和系统叶的原初光化学反应受到较大的伤害.B型烟粉虱危害烟草后虫体叶和系统叶PSⅡ反应中心的电子传递均受阻,放氧复合体受到严重破坏.B型烟粉虱危害烟草后系统叶的单位反应中心吸收的能量(ABS/RC)和单位反应中心热耗散掉的能量(DIo/RC)增加,单位反应中心捕获的能量(TRo/RC)下降;B型烟粉虱危害的虫体叶中ABC/RC没有变化,DIo/RC增加,TRo/RC下降.B型烟粉虱危害烟草后虫体叶和系统叶的单位面积反应中心数量(RC/CS)均明显降低(P<0.05),而光系统PS Ⅱ反应中心的关闭程度(1-qP)却明显升高,分别较各自对照升高了69.83%和142.58%(P<0.05).[结论] B型烟粉虱的危害严重影响了烟草叶片的光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ),主要是由于PSⅡ反应中心的失活和关闭以及对PSⅡ电子传递的抑制,电子传递中受抑制的位点包括放氧复合体和QA到Q8间的电子传递过程,同时B型烟粉虱危害影响了烟草叶片光系统的能量流动,且烟粉虱对烟草叶片PSⅡ的影响具有系统传导性.%[ Objective ] The objective of this study is to define the effects of Bemisia tabaci biotype B infestation on the photosystem II (PSII) in tobacco, and to reveal the mechanism of B. tabaci infestation affecting photosynthesis of host plant. [Method! Effects of B. tabaci infestation on the PSII performance in damaged leaves and systemic leaves of tobacco were

  9. 生物型与骨水泥型人工股骨头置换治疗高龄股骨颈骨折%Biotype and bone cement-type artificial femoral head replacement for the treatment of femoral neck fracture in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建国; 邱南海

    2013-01-01

      BACKGROUND: With the maturity and development of artificial joint materials, processes and technology, artificial femoral head replacement has been widely used for the treatment of femoral neck fracture, especial y the elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fracture. OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of biotypes and cementless artificial femoral head replacement for the treatment of elderly femoral neck fracture combined with heart disease. METHODS: Thirty-five elderly femoral neck fracture patients with heart disease treated in the Department of Orthopedic Center, Tianjin Nursing Home from January 2004 to December 2009 were selected, including 16 cases of coronary heart disease combined with angina pectoris, eight cases of myocardial infarction coronary heart disease, eight cases of asymptomatic coronary heart disease and three cases of ischemic cardiomyopathy and coronary heart disease. And 18 cases were treated with biotypes artificial femoral head replacement, 17 cases were treated with cementless artificial femoral head replacement. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: One of the 35 patients was dead in the surgery, other 34 cases were fol owed-up for 8 to 36 months. Three cases of complications occurred in surgery were belongs to cementless group, and one patient died during surgery, two cases had to drop in blood pressure and suffered from difficulty breathing in surgery, whose life characteristics returned to normal after efforts to save. In the fol ow-up process, part of the prosthesis implanted in the two cases of patients with severe osteoporosis appears sinking in the biotype group, the excel ent rate of biotype group was 89%(16/18), and the cementless group was 94%(16/17). It suggests that biotype artificial femoral head replacement is suitable for the patients with severe heart disease, while the cementless artificial femoral head replacement is suitable for osteoporosis patients.%  背景:随着人工关节材料、工艺及技术的

  10. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

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    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  11. Only the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci is present on vegetables in São Paulo State, Brazil Somente o biótipo B de Bemisia tabaci ocorre em hortaliças no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Kelly Cristina Gonçales Rocha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Genn. is one of the most important pests in cultivated areas of vegetables and ornamental crops around the world. Based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidize I (mtCOI sequence, there is evidence that B. tabaci should be considered a cryptic species complex of 11 groups containing 24 species. Two of the groups, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean include biotypes B and Q, respectively. In this study we evaluated the mtCOI sequence of B. tabaci populations collected in sites of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Using PCR-RFLP with Taq I, a typical biotype B profile was obtained for all specimens. Based on the comparison with mtCOI reference sequences we found four haplotypes all belonging to the Middle East-Asia Minor 1. They occurred in the hosts pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and cucurbitaceae plants.Bemisia tabaci (Genn. é considerada uma das mais importantes pragas em cultivos de hortaliças e ornamentais em todo o mundo. Baseado na análise da seqüência mitocondrial (citocromo oxidase I - mtCOI foi proposto recentemente que B. tabaci deva ser considerado um complexo críptico de espécies, contendo 11 grupos e 24 espécies. Dois destes grupos: Middle East-Asia Minor e Mediterranean englobam os biótipos B e Q, respectivamente. Avaliou-se a sequência mtCOI de espécimes de B. tabaci coletados em regiões do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Por PCR-RFLP utilizando-se a enzima Taq I, pôde-se observar somente o padrão típico de clivagem para o biótipo B. Comparando-se com sequências consenso, todas as moscas brancas foram classificadas no grupo Middle East-Asia Minor e puderam ser separadas em quatro haplótipos, indicando prevalência do biótipo B em áreas de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L., cucurbitáceas e berinjela (Solanum melongena L. do Estado de São Paulo.

  12. Uso da água por plantas de arroz em competição com biótipos de Echinochloa crusgalli resistente e suscetível ao herbicida quinclorac Water use by rice plants under competition with Echinochloa crusgalli biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac

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    G. Concenço

    2009-06-01

    de arroz quando em interação com outros fatores.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics related to water use efficiency of rice plants, under competition with different densities of Echinochloa crusgalli plants. The trial was installed under greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized block design, and factorial scheme 2 x 6 (two biotypes and six infestation densities, with four replications. The treatments consisted of one rice plant at the center of the plot, under competition with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants of Echinochloa crusgalli, resistant or susceptible to quinclorac, at the periphery of the plot. Fifty days after emergence, water vapor stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal water pressure, leaf temperature and transpiration rate were evaluated, as well as water use efficiency. The plants were cut at the soil level and put into paper bags and dried at 70 ± 1 ºC until dry mass stabilization. Data were analyzed by the F-test and, in case of significance, submitted to the DMRT test to evaluate the effect of increasing competition with Echinochloa over the rice plants, and to DMS test to compare the rice plants submitted to the biotypes at each competition level. Rice plants were more affected as the barnyardgrass density increased, but differences related to the biotype were not observed. Important variables, such as water use efficiency, were more affected when rice plants were under competition with plants of the susceptible biotype. Under field conditions, this characteristic may not be relevant to rice plant development, when interacted with other factors.

  13. Distribution of biotypes and leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolated from Brazilian patients with chronic periodontitis Distribuição de biótipos e atividade leucotóxica de Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolados de pacientes brasileiros com periodontite crônica

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    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an important etiologic agent of the periodontitis and is associated with extra-oral infections. In this study, the detection of the ltxA gene as well as the ltx promoter region from leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans isolated from 50 Brazilian patients with periodontitis and 50 healthy subjects was performed. The leukotoxic activity on HL-60 cells was also evaluated. Leukotoxic activity was determined using a trypan blue exclusion method. The 530 bp deletion in the promoter region was evaluated by PCR using a PRO primer pair. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected by culture and directly from crude subgingival biofilm by PCR using specific primers. By culture, A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in nine (18% of the periodontal patients and one (2% healthy subject. However, by PCR, this organism was detected in 44% of the periodontal patients and in 16% of the healthy subjects. It was verified a great discrepancy between PCR detection of the ltx operon promoter directly from crude subgingival biofilm and from bacterial DNA. Only one periodontal sample harbored highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans. Moreover, biotype II was the most prevalent and no correlation between biotypes and leukotoxic activity was observed. The diversity of leukotoxin expression by A. actinomycetemcomitans suggests a role of this toxin in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and other infectious diseases.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans é um importante agente etiológico da periodontite e produz infecções extra-bucais. Neste estudo, foram detectados os biótipos, o gene ltxA associado à produção de leucotoxina e o promotor ltx em A. actinomycetemcomitans de pacientes com e sem periodontite. A atividade leucotóxica sobre células HL-60 também foi avaliada. A atividade leucotóxica foi determinada através do método de exclusão do azul de tripam. A deleção de 530 bp no promotor ltx foi avaliada usando-se o

  14. Caracterização morfofisiológica e agronômica de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e valor nutritivo Morphophysiological and agronomic characterization of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb: 2. Forage availability and nutritive value

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    Deise Isabel da Costa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial forrageiro de Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biótipo Virasoro e Festuca arundinacea Schreb., exótica e hibernal na região sul do Brasil. Foi colhida mensalmente a parte aérea de plantas individuais, cultivadas no campo durante 12 meses e avaliadas quanto à disponibilidade de massa seca (DMS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra detergente neutro (FDN e fibra detergente ácido (FDA. O virasoro apresentou ciclo estacional, com a maior DMS na primavera/verão (98 g MS/planta, enquanto a festuca teve a maior DMS no inverno/primavera (100 g MS/planta. O virasoro mostrou teores mais elevados de PB nas folhas (19,09% em relação à festuca (17,8%, mas essa apresentou menor conteúdo de FDA (29% em relação ao virasoro (43%; para FDN nas folhas não houve diferença entre as espécies, com médias de 62%. No colmo, as diferenças foram apenas no outono (festuca=19,9%; virasoro=73,9%. O biótipo Virasoro não foi infectado por Claviceps paspali, que comumente ocorre em P. dilatatum, indicando resistência ao fungo. O biótipo Virasoro detém características desejáveis como planta forrageira, sendo uma boa opção para a estação quente.This work had the objective to evaluate the forage potential of Paspalum dilatatum Poir. biotype Virasoro and Festuca arundinacea Schreb., an exotic species in the southern regions of Brazil. The individual plant shoots were harvested for twelve months, cultivated in the field, and evaluated as for the dry matter availability (DMA, crude protein (CP and neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF. The virasoro showed seasonal cicle, with the maximum DMA in the spring/summer period (98 g DM/plant, while tall fescue had the top DMD in the winter/spring period (100 g DM/plant. The virasoro showed higher CP in the leaves (19,09% in relation to tall fescue (17.8%, but the latter had the smallest values of ADF (29% in relation to the former (43%; the ADF in the leaves

  15. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B-biotype and parasitism by Encarsia formosa (Gahan on collard, soybean and tomato plants Aspectos biológicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B e parasitismo por Encarsia formosa (Gahan em couve, soja e tomateiro

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    Karina Manami Takahashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B-biotype (= B. argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a polyphagous insect attacking many plant species of economic importance. A comparison study was conducted on the duration of the egg-to-adult period, and the percentage of hatching eggs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B-biotype on collard (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C., soybean(Glycine max (L. Merr. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. plants, as well as the egg-to-adult period of Encarsia formosa (Gahan on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th whitefly nymphal instars on these three plant species. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory (25ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, 14-hour photophase. The duration of the egg-to-adult period of B. tabaci was 19.8 days on collard, 21.2 days on soybean and 22.0 days on tomato. The number of hatched eggs was higher on collard when compared to soybean and tomato plants. Concerning E. formosa regardless of plant species, the duration for the egg-to-adult period was shorter for the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs as compared with the other instars.A mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B é uma praga polífaga que ataca muitas culturas de importância econômica. O controle químico pode causar problemas como o aparecimento de resistência nesse inseto, resíduos nos produtos das culturas, ou mesmo poluição ambiental. Um método alternativo seria o controle biológico, com o parasitóide Encarsia formosa (Gahan, o mais usado contra moscas brancas a nível mundial. Avaliaram-se o tempo de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto e a porcentagem de ninfas eclodidas de B. tabaci (Genn. biótipo B em couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C., soja (Glycine max (L. Merr. e tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., bem como o desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto de E. formosa em ninfas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstares dessa mosca-branca nessas três espécies vegetais. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em laboratório, a 25ºC, 70

  16. Prevalence of thermotolerant species of Campylobacter and their biotypes in children and domestic birds and dogs in Southern Chile Prevalência de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter e seus biotipos em crianças, aves domésticas e cães no sul do Chile

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    Heriberto Fernández

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in diarrhoeic and healthy children as well as in dogs, hens, ducks and pigeons was determined in Southern Chile. Campylobacter were found in 34.5% of the faecal samples examined. The isolation rate of Campylobacter in diarrhoeic and healthy children was 16.3% and 6.4% respectively. Despite C.jejuni was always more frequent than C. coli, the latter was isolated with a high frequency (29% from patients with diarrhoea. C.jejuni and C. coli biotypes I and II were found in healthy and diarrhoeic children and were predominant in all the animals species studied. This may point out towards the possible origin of strains infecting children.Foi determinada, no sul do Chile, a prevalência de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter e seus biotipos, em crianças normais e diarréicas, bem como em cães e aves domésticas. Campylobacter foi isolado em 34,5% do total das amostras estudadas sendo sua frequência de isolamento de 16,3% e 6,4% nas crianças com diarréia e normais, respectivamente. C. jejuni foi a espécie mais freqüente. Porém, C. coli foi isolado em 29% das crianças com diarréia. Somente os biotipos I e II, tanto de C. jejuni como de C. coli, foram isolados das crianças, os quais foram também os mais frequentemente encontrados nos animais, sugerindo uma possível associação epidemiológica entre eles

  17. Study of molecular subtypes of biotype 1A Yersinia enterocolitica in Shandong province from 2008 to 2009%2008-2009年山东省生物1A型小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌分子亚型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文魁; 胡彬; 毕振旺; 寇增强; 侯配斌; 王鑫; 毕振强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular subtypes of 73 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolated in Shandong province by PFGE,and thereby to analyze the relationship between PFGE typing and biological characteristics.Methods Seventy-three strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A were isolated from animal feces and meat pnoducts in Gaomi city and Wulian county in Shandong province from 2008 to 2009.Motility test,serum agglutination and virulent genes detection by PCR were used to learn the biological characteristics of the isolated strains.The molecular subtypes were determined by PFGE,whose relationships with motility,serotypes and virulent genotypes were also analyzed.Results Out of the 73strains of Yersinia enterocolitica,5 showed medium-active motility while the other 68 showed well-active motility.The dominated serotypes were O∶ 5 (17/73) and O∶ 8 (14/73),followed by O∶ 9 (5/73) and O∶ 7,8(1/73),and there was no O∶ 3 serotype found.Meanwhile,36 strains couldn't be serotyped.All the strains were negative with the gene ail,ystA,yadA and virF,yet the positive rate of ystB gene was 72.6%(53/73).The 73 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated could be subtyped into 54 PFGE patterns (K6GN11SD0001-K6GN11SD0054),most of which only had 1 or 2 isolated strains,and no pattern was dominant.The strains in the same or similar cluster were from different hosts; each serotype and toxic genotype scattered in the clustering trees,without specific correlation with PFGE subtypes.4 out of 5 strains,which showed medium-active motility,belonged to one branch,with the similarity coefficient at 80.9%-100.0% ; while all the toxic genotype belonged to type B.Conclusion Biotype 1A Yersinia enterocolitica has many clones,whose PFGE types had relations with motility but no relations with virulent genotype and host.%目的 对山东省73株生物1A型小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌分离株进行PFGE分型,分析菌株相关性及PFGE分型与菌株

  18. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B

  19. Effects of the volatiles from different tomato varieties on host selection behavior of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci%不同番茄品种挥发物对B型烟粉虱寄主选择行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳群; 赵金瑞; 毛黎娟; 施祖华

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱法鉴定了6个番茄品种(浙杂809、浙杂203、合作903、凯特一号、黄椭圆和金妃)植株挥发物的成分,并利用Y型嗅觉仪测定了烟粉虱对不同番茄品种植株及其挥发物的嗅觉反应.结果表明:从6个番茄品种中共鉴定出13种化合物,其主要成分为萜类化合物,品种间挥发物的组成成分和各成分所占比例存在差异.(+)-3-蒈烯和β-石竹烯对B型烟粉虱的驱避性较其他萜类强.烟粉虱对含萜类挥发物种类多、比例高的品种(如浙杂809和浙杂203)选择性较弱,而对含萜类挥发物种类少、比例低的品种(如黄椭圆和金妃)选择性较强.%By the methods of headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and using Y-type olfactometer, this paper identified the volatiles from six tomato varieties (Zheza 809, Zheza 203, Hezuo 903, Kate No. 1, Huangtuoyan, and Jinfei) , and bio-assayed the olfactory responses of female B-biotype Bemisia tabaci to the tomato plants and their released volatiles. Thirteen kinds of compounds in the volatiles collected from the six tomato varieties were identified, among which, terpenoids were the main components. However, the compositions and contents of the volatiles differed with tomato varieties. (+)-3-carene and β-caryophyllene showed stronger repellency than other terpenoids to B-type B. tabaci. B-type B. tabaci showed the lowest preference to the tomato varieties such as Zheza 809 and Zheza 203 which contained more kinds of terpenoids and had higher proportion of terpenoids in the volatiles, and showed the greatest preference to the varieties like Huangtuoyan and Jinfei which contained fewer kinds of terpenoids and had lower proportion of terpenoids in the volatiles.

  20. Avaliação de extratos vegetais no controle de mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abóbora Evaluation of plant extracts in the control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B in squash

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    Bruno Marcus Freire Vieira Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch. é uma cultura de importância para a agricultura familiar da região Nordeste do Brasil. No entanto, a ocorrência do prateamento das folhas da aboboreira ocasionado pela mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B limita sua produção, causando prejuízos aos agricultores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de extratos vegetais sobre o nível populacional de ninfas de mosca-branca em abóbora cv. Jacarezinho. O experimento foi instalado em campo experimental, em blocos casualizados, constituído de seis tratamentos e três repetições. As aplicações dos extratos vegetais foram feitas com intervalo de sete dias, fazendo-se uso de substâncias extraídas das seguintes plantas: canudo (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, mamona (Ricinus communis L., tinguí (Mascagnia rigida Griseb, cardo-santo (Argemone mexicana L., e o óleo comercial Natuneem®. Todos os extratos vegetais obtiveram eficiência no controle de ninfas B. tabaci, sendo o R. communis (75,49%, M. rigida (73,99%, I. carnea (72,24%, óleo de nim (70,4% e A. mexicana (69,16%.The squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. is an important crop for family farmers in the northeast of Brazil. However, the occurrence of leaf silvering caused by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, limits production, causing losses to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of plant extracts on the population levels of whitefly nymphs on the squash cv. Jacarezinho. The experiment was conducted at an experimental field, in a randomized block design consisting of six treatments and three replications. Applications of plant extracts were made at an interval of seven days, making use of substances extracted from the following plants: Ipomoea carnea subsp. Fistulosa, castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Tingui (Mascagnia rigida Griseb, cardo-santo (Argemone mexicana L., and the commercial oil product Natuneem ®. All of the plant extracts were

  1. The mechanism of applying lysogenicity in phage-biotyping scheme for subtyping O1 E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae strains%O1群E1Tor型霍乱弧菌溶原性测定的机理研究

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    申小娜; 张京云; 付秀萍; 李杰; 梁未丽; 阚飙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the principle of applying lysogenicity in Phage-Biotyping Scheme developed for the subtyping of O1 E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae strains.Methods 118 V.cholerae strains including 76 E1 Tor strains,8 classical strains and 34 serogroup O139 were selected to analyze the lysogenicity and sensitivity to lysogenic phage 919TP as described in the Manuals of cholera prevention and control,the genes of this phage were also determined among the genome sequences of these strains and the phages produced by them.Results All O1 E1Tor Vibrio cholerae 19 strains that produced positive results in lysogenicity,had the lysogenic K139 phage in genome and could both resist to lysogenic phage 919TP and release the K139 family phage.All the O1 E1Tor Vibrio cholerae 22 strains that produced positive results in sensitivity to the lysogenic phage,had no K139 family phage genes and got negative results in lysogenicity.However,the phages of this family were not released from 6 classical strains with positive lysogenicity result.Five serogroup O139 strains were detected releasing temperate phages K139 without the sensitivity to phage 919TP.Conclusions Applying the lysogenicity in Phage-Biotyping Scheme for subtyping O1 E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae strains is based on the ability to produce lysogenic bacteriophage K139.The index of "sensitivity to the lysogenic phage" was also associated with this ability.%目的 确定我国O1群El Tor生物型霍乱弧菌“噬菌体-生物分型”方案中“溶原性测定”中检测噬菌体的种类,研究溶原性测定的原理.方法 选择O1群El Tor型霍乱弧菌76株、O1群古典株8株、O139群菌株34株,利用溶原性测定方法检测菌株溶原性,检测菌株自发产生的溶原性噬菌体种类,检测阳性和阴性菌株染色体中该前噬菌体基因组,并检测这些菌株对溶原性噬菌体919TP(弧菌噬菌体K139家族)的敏感性.结果 O1群El Tor型菌株溶原性测定为阳性的19株菌,其释

  2. No-choice ovipositional nonpreference of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype on tomato genotypes Não-preferência para oviposição de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro em teste sem chance de escolha

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Godoy Oriani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the main tomato producers worldwide. Nevertheless, 40 to 70% of the production is lost due to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype attacks. Resistant plant germplasm can be an important method for controlling this pest in an integrated pest management program. This research aimed to evaluate the no-choice ovipositional preference of B. tabaci B biotype on 18 tomato genotypes with different densities and types of trichomes testing two screening techniques and to determine the influence of trichomes on whitefly ovipositional preference. Two methods of confinement experiments were used. Leaflets detached from the upper third part of the tomato plants (first experiment and 30-day-old plants (second experiment were infested with whiteflies during 24 h. For the first experiment, simple linear correlation tests between the number of insects and eggs, and number of trichomes in the tomato genotypes were carried out. The first technique was better than the second one, as it was easier to carry out and the evaluation demanded less time and as well as was effective to discriminate the resistance level of the evaluated genotypes. Glandular trichomes had a negative correlation with attracted adults and number of eggs deposited, and a positive correlation with number of trapped insects. Negative correlations were observed between number of nonglandular trichomes and trapped insects, and also between total number of trichomes and attracted and trapped insects. Positive correlations were observed between number of total trichomes and eggs cm-2 and nonglandular trichomes and number of eggs. Both confinement methods efficiently discriminated whitefly oviposition among genotypes, especially the resistant ones. High levels of antixenosis for oviposition related to type IV glandular trichomes were exhibited by genotypes LA716, PI134417 and PI134418. The high level of ovipositional preference by B. tabaci for genotypes LA1963 and NAV1062 was related

  3. Bermudagrass: Spring weed control programs and biotype research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research conducted from 2008 through 2012 evaluated bermudagrass control with Sencor (metribuzin) and Command (clomazone) plus Direx (diuron). Averaged across experiments, bermudagrass was controlled 54, 41, and 43% four weeks after Sencor application at 3 lb/A in mid-February, early-March, and mid-...

  4. New Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype ElTor bacteriophages

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    Sen Anindito

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the presence of three new O1 ElTor vibriophages named AS1, AS2 and AS3, isolated from the sewage and pond waters of the outskirts of Kolkata. A few phages, named AS4, with hexagonal heads and abnormally long tails with typical curly projections were also found in the water samples.

  5. Biotype Q in North America and whitefly control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefly control is still a major issue. We will discuss a rotation project that was published this year and our future plans to extend this work to additional rotation research in order to better manage resistance. This is extremely critical in light of the demands on the industry to reduce the use...

  6. Aqueous extracts and oil of neem combined with neonicotinoid insecticides against Bemisia tabaci biotype B in melon Extratos aquosos e óleo de nim associados com inseticidas neonicotinóides sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em meloeiro

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    Maria Santana de Araújo Trindade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at evaluating nymph population density of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B in melon plants after treatment with neem-dry-leaf aqueous extracts and neem-oil ( A. Juss. applied alternately with neonicotinoid insecticides under field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were control (only water; neem-dry-leaf extract at 5% (neem-dry-leaf powder 50g L-1 of water; neem oil (5.0mL L-1 water; chemicals insecticides imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 of water and acetamiprid (5g 20L-1 of water; neem-dry-leaf extract at 5% weekly alternated with imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 of water and acetamiprid (5g 20L-1 of water; neem oil (5.0mL L-1 of water weekly alternated with imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 of water and acetamiprid (5g20 L-1 of water. The efficiency of treatments was compared through of the number of nymphs recorded in leaves of melon with 35, and 50 days after planting. The less number of nymphs was registered when the neem oil was applied alternatively with the chemical treatment with efficiency of 28.58 and 7.85% in the first and second evaluations, respectively. However, the nymphs incidence was higher when the neem oil and the chemical treatment were applied separately.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a densidade populacional de ninfas de mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em plantas de melão após o tratamento com extratos aquosos de folhas secas de nim e de óleo de nim (Azadiracta indica A. Juss., aplicados alternadamente com inseticidas neonitotinóides, sob condições de campo. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: controle (apenas água; extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim a 5% (pó de folhas secas de nim, 50 g L-1 de água; óleo de nim (5mL L-1 de água; inseticidas químicos imidacloprid (30g 25L-1 de água e acetamiprid (5g 20L-1 de

  7. Effects of insecticides used in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B control and their selectivity to natural enemies in soybean cropEfeitos dos inseticidas utilizados no controle de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e sua seletividade aos inimigos naturais na cultura da soja

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    Simone Silva Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent crop seasons, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B has become a serious pest in soybean crops due to high infestations and its control difficulties. Therefore, it is important to search control alternatives in the integrated pest management approach. Thus, it was evaluated in this study the efficacy of the whitefly control using different insecticides in greenhouse conditions and their selectivity to the parasitoids Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus. Buprofezin 150 g. a.i.ha-1 + mineral oil 0.2% v/v and pyriproxyfen 100 g. a.i.ha-1 were considered the best options for the whitefly management due to combine good pest control efficacy with higher selectivity to the parasitoids except Encarsia formosa for which no treatment was classified as harmless. Betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 g. i.a. ha-1 was efficient on controlling whiteflies nymphs but was not harmless to the studied natural enemies. In general, the treatments including pyretroids compounds (betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 + spiromesifen 60, betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 and lambda-cyhalothrin 26.5 + thiametoxan 35.25 g. a.i. ha-1 were the most harmful to the evaluated parasitoids and therefore it use should be avoid whenever possible. Nas últimas safras a mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae tornou-se praga de importância econômica para a cultura da soja devido à ocorrência de altas infestações e à dificuldade de controle desta praga. Sendo assim, é importante buscar alternativas de manejo com base em um programa de manejo integrado de pragas. Assim, avaliaram-se neste trabalho a eficiência de diferentes inseticidas no controle da mosca-branca em casa-de-vegetação e a seletividade destes aos parasitoides Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum e Telenomus remus. Buprofezina 150 g i.a. ha-1 + óleo mineral 0,2% v/v e piriproxifem 100 g. i.a. ha-1 foram consideradas as melhores opções para

  8. Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy

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    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI. Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant

  9. Dinâmica populacional de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomate monocultivo e consorciado com coentro sob cultivo orgânico e convencional Population dynamic of Benisua tabaci B biotype in monoculture tomato crop and consortium with coriander in organic and conventional crop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro HB Togni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, é um herbívoro de difícil controle devido à alta plasticidade genotípica da espécie. No tomateiro pode causar danos severos principalmente pela transmissão de diversas viroses. O manejo do sistema de produção e o consórcio de culturas podem ter um efeito direto nas populações desse herbívoro, sem que seja necessária a aplicação de inseticidas. Avaliou-se a influência dos sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional e o consórcio tomate-coentro na dinâmica populacional da mosca-branca no campo experimental da Embrapa Hortaliças, de maio a setembro/06. O monitoramento dos adultos da mosca-branca e de seus inimigos naturais foi realizado utilizando-se armadilhas adesivas amarelas fixadas nas bordas e no interior das parcelas experimentais e a amostragem de ninfas foi realizada por observação direta das folhas de tomate no campo. Embora as populações ao redor dos diferentes tratamentos fossem equivalentes, a abundância de adultos de mosca-branca foi significativamente menor nas parcelas de tomate consorciado com coentro, tanto no sistema convencional como orgânico. Apenas o consórcio tomatecoentro em sistema orgânico apresentou redução significativa na quantidade de ninfas por planta em relação aos demais tratamentos. Os inimigos naturais foram significativamente mais abundantes em sistema orgânico e foi verificada uma correlação negativa da abundância dos inimigos naturais e a quantidade de ninfas por planta. A associação tomate-coentro e o manejo orgânico do agroecossistema favoreceram ao controle biológico natural da mosca-branca.Due to its high genotypic plasticity, the control of the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is difficult. This insect may cause severe damage to the tomato crop as a vector of several viruses. The management of the production system and the consortium with other crops may have a

  10. Quimiotipagem do Cryptococcus neoformans. Revisão da literatura. Novos dados epidemiológicos sobre a criptococose. Nossa experiência com o emprego do meio de C.G.B. no estudo daquela levedura Biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Review of the literature. New epidemiologic informations about cryptococcosis. Our experience with the utilization of C.G.B medium in this yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Takahashi de Melo

    1993-10-01

    about the biotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans. The more up-to date research concerning the epidemiology of cryptococcosis comprising quite a few articles, mainly after the advent of AIDS, was also reviewed. The Cryptococcus neoformans varieties neoformans and gattii are well defined biochemically nowadays chiefly through the C.G.B. medium, according to KWON-CHUNG et al. (198224. The isolation of C. neoformans var. gattii from flowers and leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, specially in Australia, through the works of ELLIS & PFEIFFER (1990 16 and PFEIFFER & ELLIS (1992 41 permitted very interesting epidemiological investigations on C. neoformans, a capsulaled yeast by which SANFELICE 50, 51, in Italy (1894; 1895 attracted attention of medical class. BUSSE 8, in 1894, described the first human case of cryptococcosis under the presentation of a bone lesion simulating sarcoma. In this paper, the Brazilian researchers focused on this subject were pointed out, followed by the Author's experience with the C.G.B medium (L - canavanine, glycin and bromothymol blue proposed by KWON-CHUNG et al. (1982 24 with very good results. It was possible with such medium the study of 50 C.N.S. liquor samples, being 39 from AIDS patients (78% and 11 from non-AIDS ones (22%. Thirty-seven out of the 39 HIV- positive patients (74% were identified as C. neoformans var. neoformans and 2 (4% as C. neoformans var. gattii. From the negative HIV, 8 (16% were classified as C. neoformans var. neoformans and 3 (6% as C. neoformans var. gattii. We could not perform the serotyping of the above referred samples. It is evident anyway that in Brazil there exist both varieties gattii and neoformans, agents of neurocryptococcosis, including AIDS patients. The importance of neurocryptococcosis, mainly among AIDS patients, is stressed here, showing once more the value of C.G.B. medium in the typing of C. neoformans in its two varieties. Also, it is of relevant importance the

  11. 花绒寄甲松褐天牛生物型的越冬特性及耐寒性%Overwintering Characteristics and Cold-Hardiness of Biotype of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera:Bothrideridae) on Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚坤; 张彦龙; 唐艳龙; 杨忠岐; 王小艺; 路纪芳; 王健; 司徒春南; 付甫永

    2016-01-01

    低的过冷却点和结冰点。花绒寄甲能够在我国大多数松褐天牛分布区安全越冬。%[Objective]In order to know the range of an excellent parasitic enemy insect,Dastarcus helophoroides,to control the cerambycid beetle,Monochamus alternatus and its population dynamic,the overwintering characteristics and the cold-hardiness are studied,providing an valuable information for applying them to control the cerambycid beetle and furthermore through control of the vector of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus to manage the pine welt disease in China.[Method]The overwintering location and height at tree trunk,aggregation ways,azimuths of natural population of D. helophoroides were surveyed by dissecting the damaged host trees by the cerambycid. At the 6 different artificially simulated overwintering locations,the overwintering survival rate,supercooling point and freezing point were determined. Furthermore,the possible suitable range of the mass-rearing D. helophoroides biotype of M. alternatus was explored on the basis of distribution area of M. alternatus.[Result]The results showed that the parasitoid overwintering positions were mainly in the bark crevice and under the trunk bark of the dead Pinus massoniana damaged by the cerambycid. Most of the parasitoid stayed in individuals and some gathered with 3 - 5 ones together for overwintering. The overwintering location was mainly at the 2. 5 -8 m height range of tree trunk,with the largest numbers at the height of 7 m. They freely selected azimuths at tree trunk for overwintering,with 58. 33% individuals at south,21. 79% at east,and 9. 62% at north. There was significant difference in survival rate at the 6 simulative overwintering sites. the survival rate of parasitoid groups were 68 . 33% ± 9 . 21%,67 . 92% ± 8 . 87%,73 . 33% ± 12 . 52%,52 . 08% ± 8 . 87%,52 . 92% ± 11 . 61% and 44. 17% ± 12. 58%,respectively under the bark,in the surface soil layer,in the trunk xylem,in the metal net partly covered tree

  12. B型烟粉虱和温室白粉虱热激蛋白90基因(hsp90)的全长cDNA克隆与系统发育分析%cDNA cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the heat shock protein 90 gene (hsp90) in two whiteflies,Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昊; 万方浩

    2009-01-01

    B型烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B和温室白粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum均为全球普遍发生的重要害虫.本研究以其他昆虫热激蛋白90基因(hsp90)保守区域设计兼并引物扩增两种粉虱hsp90中间片段,然后利用RACE技术获得全长cDNA.温室白粉虱hsp90全长cDNA的开放性阅读框2 166 bp,编码722个氨基酸;烟粉虱hsp90全长cDNA的开放性阅读框2 160 bp,编码720个氨基酸.两种粉虱HSP90的完整氨基酸序列相似性高达92.94%,并均具有定义HSP90家族签名序列的5个氨基酸保守区域和末尾基序"MEEVD".通过real-time PCR技术,探测到两个基因在mRNA水平上皆能高温诱导表达.采用昆虫纲所有完整HSP90氨基酸序列进行Kimura双参数遗传距离分析并构建NJ进化树,结果显示hsp90在昆虫纲低级阶元水平和高级阶元水平系统进化上能得到一个较理想结果.本研究结果为B型烟粉虱和温室白粉虱抗逆适应性研究提供基础,并进一步验证保守的功能基因hsp90可以作为研究生物系统发育的手段之一.

  13. Q型烟粉虱化学感受蛋白CSP1与植物挥发物的结合特征%Binding Characterization of Chemosensory Protein CSP1 in the Bemisia tabaci Biotype Q with Plant Volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴帆; 张晓曼; 赵磊; 崔旭红; 李红亮; 罗晨

    2015-01-01

    α-蒎烯(KD值分别为26.47、39.43、54.01和83.46µmol∙L-1),且3-蒈烯具有较强的竞争结合能力,能在200µmol∙L-1时将1-NPN报告子相对荧光值竞争至约40%。【结论】Q型烟粉虱CSP1蛋白能与测试的多种寄主植物挥发物产生较为广谱的结合能力,尤其与对烟粉虱有趋避性的挥发物的结合更强,表明CSP1很有可能参与Q型烟粉虱对非寄主植物的趋避行为,这对揭示其入侵寄主选择行为生理机制具有重要意义。%[Objective]The objective of this study is to clone the ORF (open reading frame) of chemosensory protein 1 (CSP1) from Bemisia tabaci biotype Q, and characterize the binding profiles of CSP1 with some candidate plants volatiles.[Method] By means of full-length ORF primer, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify the full-length ORF BtCSP1, which was then cloned into the pET-30a (+)/BL21 (DE3) prokaryotic expression vector after double enzyme digestion. The recombinant BtCSP1 protein was expressed and purified by the method of Ni2+-agroase affinity chromatograph. The protein concentration was measured with Bradford method. The competitive fluorescence assay was used to analyze the binding properties of BtCSP1 with general plant volatiles with different chemical structures. As a suitable fluorescence reporter in studies of insect GOBPs’ function in vivo, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) was used to titrate the BtCSP1 solution until the fluorescence emission peak at maximum wavelength of BtCSP1 completely quenched. Then all plant volatiles were added into BtCSP1-1-NPN complex, respectively. The dissociation constants K D data represented the affinity of BtCSP1 with ligands were calculated by the Scatchard equation. [Result] BtCSP1 protein was successfully expressed after induction of 1 mmol·L-1 of IPTG, then purified by Ni2+affinity column with gradient imidazole as washing solutions, finally dialyzed sufficiently using PBS buffer. The working

  14. Comparative analysis of carbohydrates, amino acids and volatile components of honeydew produced by two whiteflies Bemisia tabaci B-biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) feeding cabbage and cucumber%甘蓝与黄瓜寄主上B型烟粉虱和温室白粉虱蜜露糖分、氨基酸和挥发物组分的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万学; 杨勇; 万方浩; 金道超

    2007-01-01

    粉虱蜜露是粉虱寄生性天敌搜索寄主的主要利它素源.应用离子色谱分别对甘蓝与黄瓜上B型烟粉虱(Bemisia tabaci B_biotype)蜜露以及黄瓜上温室白粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum蜜露的接触性利它素糖和氨基酸组分和含量进行了比较研究.结果表明: 2种粉虱在不同寄主植物上的蜜露均富含糖和氨基酸,其中糖含量占绝对优势,甘蓝上B型烟粉虱蜜露、黄瓜上B型烟粉虱蜜露和黄瓜上温室白粉虱蜜露中的糖含量分别是相应氨基酸含量的42.5、2.6和5.4倍,其中糖类物质中又以寡糖含量占绝对优势,分别占89.3%、81.7%和88.2%.不同寄主植物和粉虱种类显著影响蜜露中糖和氨基酸的组成和含量.其中,甘蓝上B型烟粉虱蜜露中的寡糖以二糖占优势,占97.3%;二糖中又以蔗糖异构糖和松二糖占优势,分别占52.7%和35.4%.黄瓜上B型烟粉虱蜜露和温室白粉虱蜜露寡糖中以三糖和四糖占优势,分别占73.1%和85.4%;优势糖水苏(四)糖和松三糖分别占40.3%和 26.2%及49.9%和27.0%.甘蓝上B型烟粉虱蜜露中氨基酸以丙氨酸占优势,含量为66.5%;而黄瓜上B型烟粉虱及温室白粉虱蜜露中氨基酸以甘氨酸含量最高,分别占氨基酸总量的38.2%和51.7%.应用GC-MS对甘蓝上B型烟粉虱蜜露和黄瓜上温室白粉虱蜜露挥发物组分的鉴定结果显示,两种粉虱蜜露中共同含有的主要挥发物为邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯.

  15. Bioherbicidal effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible Palmer amaranth biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioherbicidal effects of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (MV) on glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible Palmer amaranth were examined on whole plants and in leaf bioassays of young and mature plants. Leaf bioassays using mycelia from the fermentation product of MV indicated that excised leaves of ...

  16. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  17. Inflammatory response of Haemophilus influenzae biotype aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristiane Gentile Cury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF is a systemic disease with many clinical features of meningococcal sepsis and is usually preceded by purulent conjunctivitis. The illness is caused by Haemophilus influenza biogroup aegyptius, which was associated exclusively with conjunctivitis. In this work construction of the las gene, hypothetically responsible for this virulence, were fusioned with ermAM cassette in Neisseria meningitidis virulent strains and had its DNA transfer to non BPF H. influenzae strains. The effect of the las transfer was capable to increase the cytokines TNFα and IL10 expression in Hec-1B cells line infected with these transformed mutants (in eight log scale of folding change RNA expression. This is the first molecular study involving the las transfer to search an elucidation of the pathogenic factors by horizontal intergeneric transfer from meningococci to H. influenzae.

  18. Inflammatory response of Haemophilus influenzae biotype aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Gisele Cristiane Gentile; Pereira, Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro; de Hollanda, Luciana Maria; Lancellotti, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF) is a systemic disease with many clinical features of meningococcal sepsis and is usually preceded by purulent conjunctivitis. The illness is caused by Haemophilus influenza biogroup aegyptius, which was associated exclusively with conjunctivitis. In this work construction of the las gene, hypothetically responsible for this virulence, were fusioned with ermAM cassette in Neisseria meningitidis virulent strains and had its DNA transfer to non BPF H. influenzae strains. The effect of the las transfer was capable to increase the cytokines TNFα and IL10 expression in Hec-1B cells line infected with these transformed mutants (in eight log scale of folding change RNA expression). This is the first molecular study involving the las transfer to search an elucidation of the pathogenic factors by horizontal intergeneric transfer from meningococci to H. influenzae.

  19. LAMP (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA) - A technique for biotype discrimination in Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about 1 hour. LAMP technology has great potential for agricultural applications because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. Assays based on LAMP technology are well suited...

  20. Mortality of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae adults by aliphatic and aromatic synthetic sucrose esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The B-strain of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is a key pest of several crops and chemical control is the main control method used by growers, although reduction in efficacy due to insecticide resistance has already been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the insecticidal effect of an array of synthetic sucrose esters with the aliphatic and aromatic groups on whitefly adults. Sucrose butyrate, caprate, octanoate, palmitate, oleate, octaacetate, phthalate, benzoate, and sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate were tested. The solutions were prepared and applied on the adults caught on yellow sticky traps using the Potter spray tower. Long-chains sucrose aliphatic esters were more effective against the silverleaf whiteflies and the highest mortality was obtained with sucrose oleate and sucrose octanoate. Since these compounds were tensoactive, sodium dodecylsulphate was also tested for the comparison but no effect was observed. Sucrose butyrate and other aliphatic and aromatic sucrose polyesters showed negligible effect on the silverleaf whiteflies.O biótipo B de B. tabaci Gennadius tem se destacado como uma praga-chave de diversas culturas. O controle químico tem sido a principal tática de controle utilizada, embora já se tenha observado redução na eficiência dos produtos devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diversos ésteres de sacarose com grupos alifáticos ou aromáticos sobre adultos de mosca-branca. Butirato de sacarose, caprato, octanoato, palmitato, oleato, actaacetato, ftlato, benzoato e diacetato hexaisobutirato de sacarose foram testados. Soluções de éster de sacarose foram preparadas e aplicadas sobre adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas utilizando Torre de Potter. Ésteres alifáticos de sacarose com longas cadeias foram mais efetivos contra mosca-branca e as maiores taxas de mortalidade foram obtidas com oleato e octanoato de sacarose. Uma vez que estes compostos são caracterizados como tensoativos, dodecilsulfato de sódio foi testado para comparação e não se observou qualquer efeito. Butirato de sacarose e outros poliésteres de sacarose alifáticos ou aromáticos foram praticamente inócuos para mosca-branca.

  1. Comparative growth of triazine-susceptible and -resistant biotypes of Solanum nigrum at different light levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, E.; Kropff, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of variation in light intensity on growth of plants from five different populations of triazine-susceptible and -resistantSolanum nigrumwere studied in growth chambers at three light levels. Plants were grown without intraspecific competition and with optimal mineral nutrition. After 29 d, t

  2. Inflammatory response of Haemophilus influenzae biotype aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Cristiane Gentile Cury; Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro Pereira; Luciana Maria de Hollanda; Marcelo Lancellotti

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF) is a systemic disease with many clinical features of meningococcal sepsis and is usually preceded by purulent conjunctivitis. The illness is caused by Haemophilus influenza biogroup aegyptius, which was associated exclusively with conjunctivitis. In this work construction of the las gene, hypothetically responsible for this virulence, were fusioned with ermAM cassette in Neisseria meningitidis virulent strains and had its DNA transfer to non BPF H. influenza...

  3. An atypical biotype I Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 is present in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.

    2012-01-01

    analysis of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of a representative strain revealed that the CPS is almost identical to that of the reference strain of serotype 13, having a slightly higher degree of glycose O-acetylation. However, it produces an O-PS within the LPS antigenically...... and structurally identical with that of the reference strain of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10. The O-PS was characterized as a homopolymer of 1,2 linked β-d-galactofuranosyl residues, a structure unrelated to that of the O-PS produced by the reference strain of serotype 13. Strains from Canada and United States...

  4. Inflammatory response of Haemophilus influenzae biotype aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Gisele Cristiane Gentile; Pereira, Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro; de Hollanda, Luciana Maria; Lancellotti, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF) is a systemic disease with many clinical features of meningococcal sepsis and is usually preceded by purulent conjunctivitis. The illness is caused by Haemophilus influenza biogroup aegyptius, which was associated exclusively with conjunctivitis. In this work construction of the las gene, hypothetically responsible for this virulence, were fusioned with ermAM cassette in Neisseria meningitidis virulent strains and had its DNA transfer to non BPF H. influenzae strains. The effect of the las transfer was capable to increase the cytokines TNFα and IL10 expression in Hec-1B cells line infected with these transformed mutants (in eight log scale of folding change RNA expression). This is the first molecular study involving the las transfer to search an elucidation of the pathogenic factors by horizontal intergeneric transfer from meningococci to H. influenzae. PMID:25763053

  5. Insecticidal Activity of Some Reducing Sugars Against the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 15 sugars on sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) survival were determined using bioassays. Arabinose, mannose, ribose and xylose were strongly inhibitory to both nymphal and adult survival. When 10% mannose was added to the diet, 10.5%, 1.0% and 0% of nymphs developed to the 2nd, ...

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Chromobacterium subtsugae on the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromobacterium subtsugae crude extracts contain compounds that are toxic to nymphal and adult Bemisia tabaci. When fed on artificial diet containing 10% of the supernatant of an aqueous cell-free extract of C subtsugae, the number of 2nd and 4th instar nymphs and of emerged adults was significantl...

  7. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    aquatic habitats and display considerable variation in morphology and phenology (Cook and Lüönd 1982, Verkleij et al. 1983a). Several examples... phenology (winter senescence and lack of water-column biomass) with overwintering requirements of the agents (H. pakistanae larvae utilize available water...edge in their new environment. Hybridization can also increase genetic variation , thereby increasing the chance of adaptive evolution in the

  8. Candida spp. biotypes in the oral cavity of school children from different socioeconomic categories in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA Daniella

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-nine (239 Brazilian children, distributed into five distinct socioeconomic categories (A to E were studied. Saliva samples were analyzed as to flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters. The results revealed the presence of Candida spp. in 47.3% of the samples. The most commonly isolated species was C. albicans, in all socioeconomic categories, followed by C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. There was no statistical correlation between secretion rate, buffer capacity and Candida spp. CFU/ml. The prevalence of Candida spp. did not differ substantially among the groups; however the microorganisms were more detected in categories B and C. Among all species, C. albicans was the most prevalent. Only 5% of the sample presented more than one species - C. albicans associated with C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis or C. krusei. It was possible to detect a significant correlation between caries indices and the socioeconomic categories. All categories presented increased caries indices; however the studied population was considered of low caries risk. There was no positive correlation between the presence of Candida and caries risk in the analyzed population.

  9. In vitro adhesiveness and biotype of Gardnerella vaginalis strains in relation to the occurrence of clue cells in vaginal discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T G; Smyth, C J; Keane, C T

    1987-01-01

    Haemagglutination and tissue culture adherence tests using a McCoy cell line were used to examine the adherence characteristics of 105 strains of Gardnerella vaginalis. Each strain represented one isolate per patient. For each patient, a direct smear of vaginal discharge was examined for clue cells. The relation between in vitro adherence and the presence of clue cells was examined. There seemed to be no appreciable relation between the presence of clue cells in smears and the haemagglutinating activity of strains. In contrast, adherence as judged by the McCoy tissue culture system showed a significant relation to the presence of clue cells (p less than 0.001). Though both adhesive characteristics were not inhibited by mannose, the mechanism of haemagglutination of human red cells appeared to differ from that of adherence of tissue culture cells. The findings imply that the clue cell phenomenon is due to attachment of adherent strains of G vaginalis to epithelial cells. Adherent strains of G vaginalis may play a part in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis. Images PMID:3493202

  10. Resistance to lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) biotype 0 in wild lettuce accessions PI 491093 and PI 274378

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera : Aphididae), is a major insect pest of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L, in many commercial lettuce productions areas around the world. Resistance to lettuce aphid was first reported in Lactuca virosa L. accession IVT 280 and characterized as complete,...

  11. The influence of fire disturbance on the biotype structure and seasonal dynamics of ground-dwelling spider on Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the influence of fire disturbance on the function, structure and seasonal dynamics of ground-dwelling spider assemblages, we chose a burned site and an unburned control site. Both study sites were in broadleaf-conifer mixed forest on Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan Province. The results showed that (1 Zelotes zhui (relative dominance value (DV' =33.03, Pardosa chionophila (DV'=22.53 and Sibianor sp. 1 (DV'=8.75 were obviously dominant at the burned site and that Draconarius sp. 2 (DV'=63.50 was absolutely dominant at the control site; (2 At the burned site, the relative abundance of web-builders was significantly lower than that of hunters (P<0.001, whereas the relative abundance of web-builders was significantly higher than that of hunters at the control site; and (3 As season changed, the dominant group fluctuated significantly at the burned, with the lowest abundance during the part of the summer with the maximum rainfall and during the coldest winter; the spider assemblages were stable at the control site, with agelenids consistently the dominant group. These results indicated that fire disturbance changes the community function and structure of ground-dwelling spiders in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Cangshan Mountain, increases the relative abundance of hunters and reduces the stability of ground-dwelling spider assemblages.

  12. [Rearing of a biotype of Myzus persicae Sulzer on synthetic media. III. Respective nutritive value of L-methionine, L-cysteine and sulfates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonie, G

    1975-01-01

    The respective influence of some different components of a synthetic diet on the survivial and the fecundity of one strain of Myzus persicae Slz. have been established by experiments with the deletion of some components and with variations of their concentrations. 1. L.methionin is the only essential amino-acid amd the variations of its concentrations are related with variations of the fecondity of the aphids. 2. When the amount of L. methionin is inadequate to satisfy the whole sulphur requirements, the supply of L. cystein or inorganic sulphur is beneficial. 3. The nutritional values of L. cystein and of inorganic sulphur seem to be identical. 4. The fecundity of the aphids is depending on the concentration of the everall L. aminoacides and on the amount of L. methionin in the synthetic diet without any interaction between these two factors. So, it can be assumed that the concentration of overall L.amino-acids and the concentration of L. methionin exert separate controls of the fecundity of the aphids.

  13. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas;

    ” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  14. Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam in 2007 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh Minh; Lee, Je Hee; Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Choi, Seon Young; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Anh, Dang Duc; Lee, Hye Ri; Ansaruzzaman, M; Endtz, Hubert P; Chun, Jongsik; Lopez, Anna Lena; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Clemens, John D; Kim, Dong Wook

    2009-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected during cholera outbreaks occurring from late 2007 to early 2008 in northern Vietnam were revealed to represent an altered strain containing the RS1 element followed by a CTX prophage harboring El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome.

  15. Genomic profile of antibiotic resistant, classical ctxB positive Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolated in 2003 and 2005 from Puri, India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bhotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine eight strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in 2003 and 2005 from Puri, India, for antibiotic susceptibility, presence of virulence and regulatory genes, cholera toxin (CT production, CTX arrangement and genomic profiles. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion assay. Polymerase chain reaction determined the presence of antibiotic resistance, virulence and regulatory genes. To determine the type of cholera toxin subunit B (ctxB, nucleotide sequencing was performed. Southern hybridisation determined the number and arrangement of CTXΦ. Ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were used to determine the genomic profile of isolates. Results: All the eight strains, except one strain, showed resistant to nalidixic acid, sulphamethoxazole, streptomycin and trimethoprim and possessed the sullI, strB, dfrA1 and int SXT genes. All the strains carried the toxin-co-regulated pilus pathogenicity island, the CTX genetic element, the repeat in toxin and produced CT. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis showed that V. cholerae O1 possess a single copy of the CTX element flanked by tandemly arranged RS element. Nucleotide sequencing of the ctxB gene showed the presence of classical ctxB. RFLP analysis of conserved rRNA gene showed two ribotype patterns. PFGE analysis also showed at least three PFGE patterns, irrespective of year of isolations, indicating the genomic relatedness among them. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that classical ctxB-positive V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains that appeared in 2003 continue to cause infection in 2005 in Puri, India, and belong to identical ribotype(s and/or pulsotype(s. There is need to continuous monitor the emergence of variant of El Tor because it will improve our understanding of the evolution of new clones of variant of V. cholerae.

  16. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  17. Preferência de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em linhagens mutantes de algodoeiro Bemisia tabaci biotype B preference in mutant cotton lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de caracteres mutantes morfológicos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch.: folha okra, bráctea frego e planta vermelha, em relação à resistência à mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, foram avaliados em experimentos com ou sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em fatorial 23 + 1, com quatro repetições. O mutante com a característica planta vermelha foi menos atrativo e menos preferido para oviposição, em relação à planta verde, em ambos os ensaios, com ou sem escolha. Não houve preferência quanto à forma da folha e ao tipo de bráctea.The effects of cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. with mutants morphologic characteristics: okra leaf, frego bract and red plant in relation to host plant resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci bioyipe B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, were evaluated in choice or no choice assays. The assays were carried out in the greenhouse conditions, according to a completely randomized block design, in a 23 + 1 in a factorial arrangement with four replications. The mutant with red plant characteristic was less attractive and less preferred for oviposition than the normal green plant does, in both, whit or without choice tests. It did not have preference in relation to the form of the leaf and bract type.

  18. Sequence Analysis of mtDNA COIGene and Molecular Phylogeny of Different Geographical Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Dong; ZHANG You-jun; CONG Bin; XU Bao-yun; WU Qing-jun; ZHU Guo-ren

    2005-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) is a serious pest in many cropping systems worldwide and occurs in different biotypes. The mtDNA COI gene of the 12 Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations from different regions and countries were analyzed.Based on mtDNA COI sequences, their biotypes were characterized and phylogenetic relationships among these populations were established with the method of UPGMA. The results indicated the genetic similarity between those populations from Beijing, Zhengzhou, Zaozhuang, Nanjing, Shanghai, Haikou, and the B-biotype populations from California, Texas, Arizona reached 99.8-100%, which meant the nation-wide infested populations of B. tabaci in China in recent years were B-biotypes. Another population collected from Kunming of Yunnan Province showed very high similarity with Q-biotype B. tabaci from Spain and Morocco, which meant the Kunming population was Q-biotype. This is the first report on the invasion of Q-biotype into China.

  19. Rapid spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China is aided differentially by two invasive whiteflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was introduced into China in 2006, approximately 10 years after the introduction of an invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype. Even so the distribution and prevalence of TYLCV remained limited, and the economic damage was minimal. Following the introduction of Q biotype into China in 2003, the prevalence and spread of TYLCV started to accelerate. This has lead to the hypothesis that the two biotypes might not be equally competent vectors of TYLCV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The infection frequency of TYLCV in the field-collected B. tabaci populations was investigated, the acquisition and transmission capability of TYLCV by B and Q biotypes were compared under the laboratory conditions. Analysis of B. tabaci populations from 55 field sites revealed the existence of 12 B and 43 Q biotypes across 18 provinces in China. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both B and Q biotypes can acquire and transmit the virus, however, Q biotype demonstrated superior acquisition and transmission capability than its B counterparts. Specifically, Q biotype acquired significantly more viral DNA than the B biotype, and reached the maximum viral load in a substantially shorter period of time. Although TYLCV was shown to be transmitted horizontally by both biotypes, Q biotype exhibited significantly higher viral transmission frequency than B biotype. Vertical transmission result, on the other hand, indicated that TYLCV DNA can be detected in eggs and nymphs, but not in pupae and adults of the first generation progeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These combined results suggested that the epidemiology of TYLCV was aided differentially by the two invasive whiteflies (B and Q biotypes through horizontal but not vertical transmission of the virus. This is consistent with the concomitant eruption of TYLCV in tomato fields following the recent rapid invasion of Q biotype whitefly in China.

  20. Adequação de uma dieta artificial para os biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Adaptation of an artificial diet for the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Rossato Busato; Mauro Silveira Garcia; Alci Enimar Loeck; Marcelo Zart; Adrise Medeiros Nunes; Oderlei Bernardi; Fabiana da Silva Andersson

    2006-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda é considerada uma das principais pragas da cultura do milho (lagarta-do-cartucho) e do arroz irrigado (lagarta-da-folha), ocasionando altos índices de desfolhamento. O objetivo do estudo foi obter uma dieta artificial adequada para criar os biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith), em laboratório. Os insetos foram coletados em áreas cultivadas com milho e arroz irrigado no ecossistema de várzea e a identificação foi realizada pela análise do DNA genômico....

  1. A specific PCR-assay for resistance to Biotypes 1 and 2 of the rosy leaf curling aphid in apple based on an RFLP marker closely linked to the Sd1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, P.; Arkel, van G.; Heusden, van A.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the conversion of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker (the 2B12a locus), linked to the Sd1 aphid resistance gene, to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based marker. A section of the 2B12 probe was sequenced and two primers were designed to amplify this sequ

  2. Estadísticos vitales de Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en frijol e interacción con el parasitoide Amitus fuscipennis: Life history parameters and absence of hostparasitoid interaction with Amitus fuscipennis Bemisia tabaci biotype B in bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Manzano Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los estadísticos vitales de la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en condiciones de laboratorio (26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de HR en fríjol cultivar ICA-Pijao. Los valores promedios fueron: longevidad 34 ± 1.64 días, fecundidad de 211.4 ± 15.1 huevos/hembra y tasa de oviposición de 6.1 ± 0.28 huevos/día. La tasa neta reproductiva fue de 137.8. El tiempo generacional de 43.8 días y la tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m de 0.125. Estos valores son coincidentes con los reportados en la literatura e indicaron la utilidad del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L ICA-Pijao para la multiplicación de B. tabaci. No se logró la reproducción de Amitus fuscipennis en B. tabaci. Estudios de comportamiento mostraron que el parasitoide permaneció solo 617.3 seg en promedio en foliolos infestados con la mosca blanca, la mayor parte del tiempo lo invirtió en caminar (46.4%, limpiarse el cuerpo (35.6% y permanecer quieta (16.7%. A. fuscipennis solo tocó una vez accidentalmente una ninfa de B. tabaci, pero no la examinó con las antenas ni la ovipositó. Los resultados indican que A. fuscipennis no es un enemigo natural potencial de B. tabaci biotipo B.Life-history parameters of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotipo B were determined at laboratory conditions at 26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de RH on bean ICA-Pijao. Mean longevity of the whitefly was 34 ± 1,64 days, mean total fecundity was 211,4 ± 15,1 eggs per female with a daily oviposition rate of 6,1 ± 0,28 eggs per day. Net reproduction rate was 137,8. Generation Time was 43,8 days and the intrinsic rate of population increase r m was 0,125. These values are according to previous ones reported and support usefulness of ICA-Pijao bean for B. tabaci rearing. It was not possible to rear Amitus fuscipennis from B. tabaci. Behaviour studies showed that the parasitoid stayed only average 617,3 s on whitefly infested leaflets. It invested most of the time walking (46,4%, preening (35,6% and standing still (16,7%. A. fuscipennis just touched accidentally one nymph once but it neither drummed it with the antenna nor laid an egg. Results indicated that A. fuscipennis is not a potential natural enemy of B. tabaci biotipo B.

  3. Association of Biotypes and Genotypes of Gardnerella Vaginalis with Bacterial Vaginosis%阴道加德纳菌生物学分型、基因分型与细菌性阴道病相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳颖; 车雅敏; 纪岩文

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨阴道加德纳菌(GV)的不同生物学型别和基因型别与细菌性阴道病(BV)的相关性.方法 采用Biswas标准诊断BV;根据Briselden方法对GV进行生物学分型;运用ARDRA方法(扩增rDNA限制性分析)对GV进行基因分型.结果 BV现患率为24.1%;BV患者的GV检出率(48.4%)高于非BV患者(13.1%),两者比较差异有显著性(P<0.001);共检测出7种型别,1,2,3,4型在BV患者的分布显著高于非BV患者(P<0.001),5型在非BV患者分布高于BV患者(P<0.05),未检出6型;将50株GV分为A,B,C三个基因型,没有发现基因型与BV有相关性.结论 GV的不同生物型别与BV发病相关,未发现与BV发病相关的基因型别.

  4. Research on biotypes, drug susceptibility test and route of infection of Gardnerella vaginalis%阴道加德纳菌生物学分型、药敏和感染途径的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文竹; 涂晨; 王小龙

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解兰州地区阴道加德纳菌(GV)的生物学分型、药敏和感染途径.方法 根据Briselden方法对GV进行生物学分型和传播途径研究,采用微量稀释法进行药敏试验.结果 细菌性阴道炎组(BV组)GV检出率51.8%,对照组(NBV组)GV检出率10.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).共检出6种生物型,两组生物型分布有显著性差异(P<0.01).对GV敏感的药物为:克林霉素、罗红霉素、四环素和甲硝唑.配偶间与自身不同部位检出同型菌株的几率差异无统计学意义.结论 GV的不同生物型与BV发病有关,GV可通过多种途径传播,对常用药物敏感性不高.

  5. 埃尔托霍乱弧菌感染棘阿米巴原虫的实验研究%Intracellular survival and multiplication of El Tor biotype V. cholerae inside Acanthamoeba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强松; 李勤学; 朱建福; 王法第; 王学才; 姜庆五

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨埃尔托霍乱弧菌能否在棘阿米巴原虫内生存繁殖,并观察棘阿米巴原虫对埃尔托霍乱弧菌存活的影响.方法 采用埃尔托霍乱弧菌与棘阿米巴共培养的方法,通过倒置显微镜和电镜切片观察霍乱弧菌在阿米巴滋养体内的生长情况.结果 共培养8 h后可见埃尔托霍乱弧菌已进入棘阿米巴滋养体的细胞质中.随着共培养时间的延长,吉曼尼兹染色下可见埃尔托霍乱弧菌在棘阿米巴滋养体的空泡中的数量增多.共培养液经成囊培养待95%棘阿米巴转化为包囊后,使用盐酸处理的包囊传代实验能再分离培养出埃尔托霍乱弧菌.与棘阿米巴共培养的霍乱弧菌的活菌数在15 d内维持在(1.02~9.77)106 CFU/mL;而单独培养的埃尔托霍乱弧菌的活菌数量2 d后下降了3个数量级,在后续13 d内基本保持(1.40~3.07)×103 CFU/mL;对每一时间段两者作t检验比较,差异在统计学上都有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论 埃尔托霍乱弧菌能在棘阿米巴的滋养体和包囊内生存繁殖,棘阿米巴能提高埃尔托霍乱弧菌的存活数量.

  6. 'Bio-load' and bio-type profiles of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in the domestic livestock population endemic for Johne's disease: a survey of 28 years (1985-2013) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, P K; Singh, A V; Sohal, J S; Kumar, N; Chaubey, K K; Gupta, S; Rawat, K D; Kumar, A; Bhatia, A K; Srivastav, A K; Dhama, K

    2014-08-01

    Bio-load and bio-profile of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was studied in the domestic livestock population of the country. Of the 23,429 farm and farmer's animals screened, average bio-load was 23.3% (Period of study; 28 years for goats; 13 years for sheep, cattle and buffaloes). Species-wise, bio-load was 20.1, 32.7, 39.3 and 28.3% in goats, sheep, cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Bio-load was significantly lower in time period A (P livestock species and the geographical zone.

  7. 不同生物型烟粉虱体内Wolbachia共生菌的检测及其系统树分析%Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in different Bemisia tabaci biotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚栋; 丛斌; 张友军; 徐宝云; 吴青君; 朱国仁

    2005-01-01

    Wolbachia是广泛分布于节肢动物体内一类共生细菌,它能够通过多种机制调控宿主的生殖方式.近年来的研究表明,Wolbachia与许多外来生物的成功入侵相关.本文利用长PCR的方法特异扩增了不同生物型烟粉虱(共24个种群)体内Wolbachia的wsp基因,结果发现B型和Q型烟粉虱入侵种群体内均未检测到Wolbachia,而在非B/Q型的浙江种群和肯尼亚种群体内检测到了Wolbachia.对该wsp基因进行测序并和已知序列进行同源性分析发现,浙江烟粉虱种群的Wolbachia属于B组Con/Rug亚种群,而肯尼亚种群属于B组Btab1亚种群.Wolbachia的存在与否可能与烟粉虱的成功入侵有一定的关系.

  8. Analysis of 146 Strains of Haemophilus Influenzae Biotypes and Antibiotic Resistance%146株流感嗜血杆菌的生物学分型及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈碧英; 马晨芸; 陈佩宏; 段爱华

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解引起呼吸道感染的流感嗜血杆菌主要生物型及其对常用抗生素的耐药性.方法 收集上海市第七人民医院2005年1月~2009年4月146株流感嗜血杆菌临床分离株,采用API NH细菌鉴定并进行生物学分型,头孢硝噻吩纸片法进行β-内酰胺酶试验,微量稀释法进行药物敏感试验.结果 流感嗜血杆菌Ⅰ型分离率最高为39.0%,其次为Ⅰ型29.5%.Ⅰ型27.4%,Ⅳ~Ⅶ型4.1%.产β-内酰胺酶菌株占49.3%,其中Ⅱ型、Ⅲ型产酶率高分别为66.7%和62.8%,Ⅰ型产酶率仅为17.5%,其它生物型中未检出.流感嗜血杆菌对氨苄西林、复方磺胺耐药率高,分别为46.6%,41.1%,对阿莫西林/克拉维酸、左氧氟沙星、头孢噻肟耐药率为0.结论 呼吸道流感嗜血杆菌感染的主要生物型是Ⅰ型,菌株产β-内酰胺酶严重,含酶抑制剂抗生素、氟喹诺酮类、三代头孢菌素可作为产酶菌株的首选药物.

  9. A novel high-resolution melting analysis-based method for Yersinia enterocolitica genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Roberto A; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-11-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains are associated with biotypes 1B, 2-5, while environmental strains with biotype 1A. In this work a method for Y. enterocolitica genotyping based on HRMA to determine SNPs was developed and the genetic diversity of 50 strains was determined. The strains were clustered into three groups consistent with the pathogenic profile of each biotype. The results provided a better understanding of the Y. enterocolitica genetic variability.

  10. Heterogeneity in restriction patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis isolates from individuals with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, K; Devlin, D; Beddoe, A M

    1992-02-01

    This study was undertaken to resolve the genetic make up of Gardnerella vaginalis present in bacterial vaginosis (BV). DNA from several G. vaginalis isolates from within and between individual BV patients were compared by BamHI, ClaI and EcoRI restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) followed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) study, utilizing a 5.7-kb BamHI G. vaginalis ATCC14018 DNA probe. Four G. vaginalis isolates from one patient (GVP-062) were composed of 3 different biotypes (biotypes 3, 5 and 8), and while the REA mirrored the biotype, in RFLP studies at least 3 isolates had DNA fragments in common. All of the isolates from 2 other patients (GVP-063 and GVP-072) represented a single biotype (biotype 2), but under REA and in RFLP studies, the isolates GVP-063 differed from GVP-072. An opposite case existed with the isolates GVP-072 (biotype 2) and GVP-065 (biotype 5), which appeared similar under REA and in RFLP studies. Finally, reisolates after 8 weeks (GVP-080) from a BV patient (isolates GVP-065) representing the same biotype (biotype 5) differed under REA and in RFLP studies. Thus, lacking any unique DNA fingerprint, G. vaginalis occurring in BV represents a (genetically) mixed population.

  11. Differential susceptibility and resistance to glyphosate in annual ryegrass and wavy-leaved fleabane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and wavy-leaved fleabane (Conyza bonariensis were tested, aiming to investigate the dose-response of biotypes of both species to glyphosate. Glyphosate herbicide at doses varying from 0 up to 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 was sprayed onto annual ryegrass plants showed four leaves and wavy-leaved fleabane showed three pair of leaves. The fresh weight of shoot was obtained at 21 days after herbicide application. The response of biotypes of L. multiflorum and C. bonariensis to glyphosate was clearly different. For L. multiflorum, the S2, R1, and R3 biotypes supported glyphosate doses 1.5, 3.0, and 8.3 times higher than the biotype S1. For C. bonariensis, the S2 and R biotypes supported glyphosate doses 2.0 and 15.5 times higher than the biotype S1. We found a low glyphosate-resistant (R1 and a high glyphosate-resistant (R2 biotypes of L. multiflorum, in agricultural regions where other biotypes had been found. In addition, a high glyphosate-resistant (R biotype of C. bonariensis was identified in an agricultural area of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, where weed resistant was not previously found.

  12. Phenology and temperature-dependent development of Ceutorhynchus assimilis, a potential biological control agent for Lepidium draba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart-podded hoary cress (Lepidium draba) is an alien weed that has invaded rangeland in the northwestern USA. A host race (i;e; host-specific biotype) of the weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis, is being evaluated as a prospective biological control agent. This biotype is only known from southern Eur...

  13. Identification of the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are two major invasive cryptic species within the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex in Florida, called MEAM1 or biotype B, and MED or biotype Q. We used loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA to detect these groups. Primer sets developed in house and those previously published wer...

  14. The role of absorption and translocation as a mechanism of resistance to glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuous use of glyphosate has resulted in the selection of resistant biotypes in 13 different species. Three different mechanisms of resistance have been proposed for these biotypes: 1) Decreased translocation to meristems; 2) Mutation of target site (EPSPS) and 3) Increased expression of EP...

  15. Species identification of Streptococcus bovis group isolates causing bacteremia: a comparison of two MALDI-TOF MS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agergaard, Charlotte N; Knudsen, Elisa; Dargis, Rimtas; Nielsen, Xiaohui C; Christensen, Jens J; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2017-02-20

    This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS was reliable. Additional optimization of the available system databases is needed.

  16. Laboratory review of reference strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae indicates mistyped intermedius strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, M B; Nowowiejski, D J; Russell, J Q; Groman, N B

    1993-01-01

    All biotyped strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were compared for morphology and biochemical reactions. Biotypes of all gravis strains and most mitis strains were confirmed, but intermedius strains were found to be misclassified. New lipid-dependent intermedius strains have been deposited with the ATCC.

  17. Inheritance and mechanism of resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase in Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsalis, P; Powles, S B

    1995-07-01

    A biotype of Sonchus oleraceus L. (Compositae) has developed resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) following field selection with chlorsulfuron for 8 consecutive years. The aim of this study was to determine the inheritance and mechanism of resistance in this biotype. Determination of ALS activity and inhibition kinetics revealed that Km and Vmax did not vary greatly between the resistant and susceptible biotypes. ALS extracted from the resistant biotype was resistant to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides in an in vitro assay. ALS activity from the resistant biotype was 14 19, 2, 3 and 3 times more resistant to inhibition by chlorsulfuron, sulfometuron, imazethapyr, imazapyr and flumetsulam, respectively, than the susceptible biotype. Hybrids between the resistant and a susceptible biotype were produced, and inheritance was followed through the F1, F2 and F3 generations. F1 hybrids displayed a uniform intermediate level of resistance between resistant and susceptible parents. Three distinct phenotypes, resistant, intermediate and susceptible, were identified in the F2 generation following chlorsulfuron application. A segregation ratio of 1∶2∶1 was observed, indicative of the action of a single, nuclear, incompletely dominant gene. F3 families, derived from intermediate F2 individuals, segregated in a similar manner. Resistance to herbicides inhibiting ALS in this biotype of S. oleraceus is due to the effect of a single gene coding for a resistant form of the target enzyme, ALS.

  18. Pool of resistance mechanisms to glyphosate in Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco; Alves, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar; González-Torralva, Fidel; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo Enrique; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; De Prado, Rafael; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; de Castro, María Dolores Luque

    2012-01-18

    Digitaria insularis biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been detected in Brazil. Studies were carried out in controlled conditions to determine the role of absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation as mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in D. insularis. The susceptible biotype absorbed at least 12% more (14)C-glyphosate up to 48 h after treatment (HAT) than resistant biotypes. High differential (14)C-glyphosate translocation was observed at 12 HAT, so that >70% of the absorbed herbicide remained in the treated leaf in resistant biotypes, whereas 42% remained in the susceptible biotype at 96 HAT. Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), glyoxylate, and sarcosine by >90% in resistant biotypes, whereas a small amount of herbicide (up to 11%) was degraded by the susceptible biotype up to 168 HAT. Two amino acid changes were found at positions 182 and 310 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to threonine and a tyrosine to cysteine substitution, respectively, in resistant biotypes. Therefore, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation play an important role in the D. insularis glyphosate resistance.

  19. Investigating the Mechanism of Glyphosate Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been used extensively for more than 20 yr. The first glyphosate-resistant weed biotype appeared in 1996; it involved a rigid ryegrass population from Australia that exhibited an LD50 value approximately 10-fold higher than that of sensitive biotypes....

  20. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion.

  1. Yersinia enterocolitica: Mode of Transmission, Molecular Insights of Virulence, and Pathogenesis of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeasmin Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Yersinia enterocolitica is usually transmitted through contaminated food and untreated water, occasional transmission such as human-to-human, animal-to-human and blood transfusion associated transmission have also identified in human disease. Of the six Y. enterocolitica biotypes, the virulence of the pathogenic biotypes, namely, 1B and 2–5 is attributed to the presence of a highly conserved 70-kb virulence plasmid, termed pYV/pCD and certain chromosomal genes. Some biotype 1A strains, despite lacking virulence plasmid (pYV and traditional chromosomal virulence genes, are isolated frequently from humans with gastrointestinal diseases similar to that produced by isolates belonging known pathogenic biotypes. Y. enterocolitica pathogenic biotypes have evolved two major properties: the ability to penetrate the intestinal wall, which is thought to be controlled by plasmid genes, and the production of heat-stable enterotoxin, which is controlled by chromosomal genes.

  2. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum in Competition Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D J Palik

    Full Text Available The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium, and high (with Bromus inermis. In both states, the two "lowland" cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels.

  3. Vibrio vulnificus produces quorum sensing signals of the AHL-class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, E.; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2009-01-01

    been described in human strains of biotype 1, and here we show that the luxS gene which encodes AI-2 is present in all strains of V. vulnificus regardless of origin, biotype or serovar. In this study, we also demonstrate that V. vulnificus produces QS signals of the acylated homoserine lactone (AHL......-positive biotype 2 strains. No known AHL-related gene was detected by PCR or Southern blot suggesting that AHL-related genes in V. vulnificus are different from those found in other Gram-negative bacteria....

  4. Identification of Chinese populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) by analyzing ribosomal ITS1 sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Spreading of Bemisia tabaci B biotype has had a large impact on the production of vegetables, ornamental and fiber crops in many countries of the world since the 1990s. This study analyzes the ribosomal ITS1 sequence (~520 bp) to distinguish genetic difference of B. tabaci from representative different geographical populations in China. Phylogenetic analysis shows that populations of B.tabaci from Beijing and Shandong Province are of biotype B, and populations of B.tabaci from sweet potato in Fujian Province and pumpkin in Guangxi, China, belong to two different non-B biotypes and have a geographical origin of Asia.

  5. Feline coronavirus in multicat environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Yvonne; Alcaraz, Ana; Bossong, Frank J; Collisson, Ellen W; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P

    2011-11-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal disease in cats worldwide, is caused by FCoV infection, which commonly occurs in multicat environments. The enteric FCoV, referred to as feline enteric virus (FECV), is considered a mostly benign biotype infecting the gut, whereas the FIP virus biotype is considered the highly pathogenic etiologic agent for FIP. Current laboratory tests are unable to distinguish between virus biotypes of FCoV. FECV is highly contagious and easily spreads in multicat environments; therefore, the challenges to animal shelters are tremendous. This review summarizes interdisciplinary current knowledge in regard to virology, immunology, pathology, diagnostics, and treatment options in the context of multicat environments.

  6. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Populations in Brazil revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.C. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Genn. was considered a secondary pest in Brazil until 1990, despite being an efficient geminivirus vector in beans and soybean. In 1991, a new biotype, known as B. tabaci B biotype (=B. argentifolii was detected attacking weed plants and causing phytotoxic problems in Cucurbitaceae. Nowadays, B. tabaci is considered one of the most damaging whitefly pests in agricultural systems worldwide that transmits more than 60 different plant viruses. Little is known about the genetic variability of these populations in Brazil. Knowledge of the genetic variation within whitefly populations is necessary for their efficient control and management. The objectives of the present study were to use RAPD markers (1 to estimate the genetic diversity of B. tabaci populations, (2 to study the genetic relationships among B. tabaci biotypes and two other whitefly species and (3 to discriminate between B. tabaci biotypes. A sample of 109 B. tabaci female individuals obtained from 12 populations in Brazil were analyzed and compared to the A biotype from Arizona (USA and B biotype from California (USA and Paraguay. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Aleurodicus cocois samples were also included. A total of 72 markers were generated by five RAPD primers and used in the analysis. All primers produced RAPD patterns that clearly distinguished the Bemisia biotypes and the two other whitefly species. Results also showed that populations of the B biotype have considerable genetic variability. An average Jaccard similarity of 0.73 was observed among the B biotype individuals analyzed. Cluster analysis demonstrated that, in general, Brazilian biotype B individuals are scattered independently in the localities where samples were collected. Nevertheless, some clusters were evident, joining individuals according to the host plants. AMOVA showed that most of the total genetic variation is found within populations (56.70%, but a significant portion of the variation is found

  7. Competition effects with mixed stands of wheat and kochia (Kochia scoparia biotypes resistant and susceptible to acetolactase synthase inhibitor herbicides Efeitos competitivos da mistura de stands de trigo e biotipos de kochia (Kochia scoparia resistentes e susceptíveis aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactase sintase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare the competitive ability of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard compared to wheat. The results of several replacement series experiments indicate that wheat was the dominant competitor, and an average of one wheat plant reduced resistant kochia yield per plant equal to the effect of 4.8 resistant kochia or 5.4 susceptible kochia plants. Intraspeciflc competition was more important than interspecific competition for wheat, whereas the reverse was true for the resistant and susceptible kochia. The results of the niche differentiation index (NDI indicate that wheat and either resistant or susceptible kochia are only partly limited by the same resources. The resistant and susceptible kochia, however, are limited by the same resources.Experimentos foram instalados em condições de casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de comparar a capacidade competitiva de biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactase synthase da planta daninha kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard comparada com trigo. Os resultados de diversos experimentos, utilizando a metodologia chamada de substitutiva, indicaram que o trigo foi o competidor dominante, e em média uma planta de trigo reduziu o crescimento da planta de kochia resistente igual ao efeito de 4,8 plantas de kochia resistente ou 5,4 plantas de kochia suscetível. A competição chamada de intraespecífíca foi mais importante que a competição interespecífica para o trigo, porém o inverso foi verdadeiro para os biotípos resistentes e susceptíveis de kochia. Os resultados do índice de diferenciação ecológica indicaram que trigo e qualquer um dos dois biotípos de kochia estudados foram limitados apenas parcialmente pelos mesmos recursos de crescimento. No entanto, o crescimento dos biotípos resistentes e susceptíveis de kochia foram limitados pelos mesmos fatores de crescimento.

  8. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for improving the sampling techniques and revealing differences in the behavior of non-target species between both cultivars. So, this experiment aimed to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of those species on the conventional non-Bt cotton crop, compared to the Bt cultivar. The samplings took place in two areas of 5.000 m² each, where it was done 14 evaluations counting adults of white-flies and colonies of aphids. The aggregation indexes (variance/mean rate, index of Morisita and Exponent k of the Negative Binomial Distribution were calculated and accomplished the fitness tests of the individuals' numeric classes found and expected to the theoretical distributions of frequency (Poisson, Negative Binomial and Positive Binomial. Those analyses showed that in both cultivars, the spatial distribution of B. tabaci fitted to negative binomial distribution throughout the study period, indicating that the transgenic cultivar did not influence the pattern of aggregate distribution of this insect. With respect to the analysis for A. gossypii, the aggregation indexes showed aggregated distribution in both cultivars, but the distributions of frequency pointed to the occurrence of aggregate distribution only on conventional cotton, since there was no adjustment to the data on Bt crop. This indicates that Bt cotton has altered the aphids normal pattern of dispersion in the crop.

  9. 寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜在线粒体DNA COⅠ基因序列上的分化%Variation of host-specialized and migratory biotypes of Aphis gossypii Glover based on mtDNA CO Ⅰ gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 刘向东

    2012-01-01

    为了探明同域棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)种群的生态分化与进化程度,检测了室内长期筛选所得的迁飞型、滞留型、棉花型和瓜型棉蚜品系,以及在南京田间采集的棉花和黄瓜上的棉蚜,共84个样本的线粒体DNA COⅠ基因的部分序列.结果表明:南京地区寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜种群的COⅠ序列同源性很高,为99.8%~100%.在各样本的569 bp大小序列中检测到3个突变位点,共形成4种单倍型( H1~H4),其中2个突变发生在迁飞型中,另1个发生在滞留型中,而棉花型和瓜型棉蚜中没有检测到突变,各品系棉蚜还共享着同一单倍型H4.迁飞型棉蚜的单倍型多样性(h)最高,为0.68~0.75,滞留型为0~0.18,而棉花型和瓜型无多样性.各种群内核苷酸多样性(Π)都极低.UPGMA聚类分析表明,迁飞型与其他各品系间的遗传距离相对较远.系统进化树显示,棉蚜种群正向着3个支系分化:支系一为COⅠ没有变异的棉花型、瓜型、滞留型和迁飞型个体所组成,数量占绝对优势;支系二和支系三仅由迁飞型组成,其COⅠ序列均发生了变异.迁飞型品系中存在突变位点的单倍型H3和没发生突变的H4,在平均寿命、净增殖率与内禀增长率上均没有显著差异,COⅠ序列在该位点上的变异还不足以影响迁飞型棉蚜的生态适合度.%In order to illustrate the degree of ecological differentiation and evolution in Aphis gossypii population, portion of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (CO I ) in mtDNA of 84 samples from migratory, sedentary, cotton- and cucurbits-specialized strains,and the natural population in cotton and cucumber fields in Nanjing,were examined. The results showed that the identity of CO I pairwise sequences was 99.8%-100% among these samples, and three mutations in CO I sequence were found in migratory and sedentary strains which resulted in 4 haplotypes( H1-H4). Two mutations were detected in the migratory strain,and one was found in the sedentary,while no mutation was detected in the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized strains. Notwithstanding,all the strains still shared haplotype H4. Haplotype diversity of the migratory strain was maximum(h = 0. 68-0. 15) followed by the sedentary(0-0. 18) ,and these of the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized strains were zero. The nucleotide diversity within all strains was very low. Cluster analysis by UPGMA showed that the migratory strain was relatively distant from the other three strains. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on CO I gene showed that cotton aphid in Nanjing was evolving gradually for three clades. Clade 1 was dominant and no mutation in CO I sequnce, which was composed of the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized, migratory and sedentary strains. And the clade 2 and clade 3 were rare which contained only some migratory strain with mutations in CO I sequnce. There was no significant difference between haplotype H3 and H4 in net reproductive rate,average lifespan and innate increase rate,and the ecological fitness of migratory strain was not affected by the mutation in CO I sequence.

  10. Comparative on development and reproduction between Bemisia tabaci biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum on four species of host-plants%寄主植物对B型烟粉虱(Bemisia tabaci)和温室粉虱(Trialeurodes vaporariorum)个体发育和种群繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晨; 向玉勇; 郭晓军; 张帆; 张芝利

    2007-01-01

    烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)和温室粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)在我国北方常混合发生,为了解两种粉虱所造成的危害和自身种群的增长变化,制定科学的综合防治措施,在(27±1)℃条件下研究了两种粉虱在棉花Gossypium hirsutum L. (泗棉3号)、黄瓜Cucumis sativas L. (北京202)、茄子Solanum melongena L. (北京七叶茄)和番茄Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (佳粉十号)上各虫态大小、存活率、发育历期、成虫寿命、平均产卵量等生物学参数.在同一种寄主植物上,温室粉虱的1,2龄若虫的体长和体宽均显著大于烟粉虱,3龄以后两种粉虱的体型则变异较大.两种粉虱从卵到成虫羽化,在棉花上的发育历期无显著差异,在黄瓜、茄子和番茄上,温室粉虱的发育历期(19.7、19.4、20.8d)显著长于烟粉虱(17.3、17.6、18.3d).在黄瓜和番茄上,烟粉虱的平均寿命(31.2、32.1)显著长于温室粉虱的平均寿命(26、24.9d);在棉花、黄瓜和番茄上,烟粉虱的单雌产卵量(122.2、220.2、266.5粒)显著高于温室粉虱(97.1、186.6、197.1粒).烟粉虱在棉花、黄瓜、茄子和番茄上的总存活率分别为67.9%、 77.8%、67.8% 和 59.0% ,温室粉虱依次为 62.2%、67.2%、64.4% 和66.1%.综合比较4种寄主植物,烟粉虱比温室粉虱具有个体发育时间短、种群繁殖速度快、生殖竞争能力强等特点.

  11. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase in Bemisia tabaci B-biotype(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) at different developmental stages%B型烟粉虱与温室白粉虱不同虫态的碱性磷酸酶性质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严盈; 刘万学; 万方浩

    2008-01-01

    为了探明B型烟粉虱,Bemisia tobaci B-biotype和温室白粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum体内的碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)在两者竞争替代中所起的作用,以对硝基苯磷酸二钠(pNPP)为底物,采用个体测定和群体测定的方法,研究比较了2种粉虱不同虫态中该酶的性质.结果表明:2种粉虱的碱性磷酸酶比活力在整个发育历期均逐渐增加,成虫期达到最大.温室白粉虱2至4龄若虫(伪蛹)期的碱性磷酸酶比活力分别是B型烟粉虱对应龄期酶比活力的2.58、2.68和3.14倍;B型烟粉虱雌雄成虫的碱性磷酸酶比活力分别是温室白粉虱雌雄成虫酶比活力的1.24和1.26倍,且2种粉虱雌虫的酶比活力显著大于其雄虫.2种粉虱2龄若虫到成虫的碱性磷酸酶最适pH均为7.8,最适温度均为47 ℃;在1龄若虫中均未能检测到该酶活性.测定并比较2种粉虱不同虫态碱性磷酸酶动力学特征参数的结果显示,温室白粉虱碱性磷酸酶在3、4龄若虫的亲和力以及在2,3,4龄若虫的酶蛋白浓度均显著大于B型烟粉虱的对应值,而在成虫期2种粉虱的亲和力、酶蛋白浓度无差异,B型烟粉虱的活化能显著小于温室白粉虱.据此推测,B型烟粉虱利用碱性磷酸酶在若虫期进行组织骨化和生长发育不如温室白粉虱,但羽化为成虫后利用其进行解毒代谢则可能强于温室白粉虱.

  12. MALDI Biotyper高通量微生物鉴定系统在台湾进口鳖蛋检疫中的初步应用%The Trial Application of MALDI Biotyper Appraisal System in the Inspection of the Terrapin Eggs from Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑菲; 孔繁德

    2011-01-01

    [目的]应用MALDI-TOF-MS和Biotyper分析软件对台湾进口的鳖蛋进行携带病原菌的检测.[方法]按照病原菌检测标准进行培养,选取可疑菌株,肉汤培养后,按照MALDI-TOF-MS要求进行样品制备、点靶以及样品质谱图的获取,并运用Biotyper分析软件对所获取的质谱图进行分析.[结论]应用MALDI-TOF-MS方法从进口鳖蛋中分离出绿脓杆菌、奇异变形杆菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌等致病菌,为进出口商、检验机构及其他相关部门敲响警钟.此鉴定方法简单快速,能够加快鳖蛋的通关速度,为两岸建设作贡献.

  13. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children Diversidade fenotípica e genotípica entre amostras de Candida albicans isoladas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livre de cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mardegan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans oral strains collected from caries-free and caries-active healthy children ranging from 24 to 36 months old, were studied. The aim of the study was to determine proteinase and phospholipase activities produced by Candida albicans in the two groups and to determine the phenotypic diversity of these enzymes based on genetic polymorphism using the AP-PCR method. Strains identified by morphological and fermentation tests as C. albicans were grown in proteinase and phospholipase agar media at 37ºC for 7 and 4 days, respectively. After the incubation period, the enzyme activity of the proteinase and phospholipase positive strains was measured. All strains were subjected to AP-PCR, using the arbitrary primer AP-3. The enzymatic analysis showed no differences between the two groups. The AP-PCR method was effective in demonstrating intra-individual genetic polymorphism in C. albicans, showing a greater clonal diversity in caries-active versus caries-free children. Dendograms of similarity showed only intra-individual clonal lineage. The results suggest that the enzymatic profile does not depend on the genotypic characteristics of the strains.Cepas orais de Candida albicans coletadas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livres de cárie com idade variando de 24 a 36 meses, foram estudadas. O propósito do estudo foi determinar a atividade da proteinase e da fosfolipase produzida por Candida albicans nos dois grupos e comparar com a diversidade genotípica usando o método AP-PCR. As cepas identificadas como C. albicans por testes morfológicos e de fermentação, foram cultivadas em meio ágar proteinase e fosfolipase a 37ºC por 7 e 4 dias, respectivamente. Após o período de incubação, a atividade enzimática das cepas proteinase e fosfolipase positiva foram medidas. Todas as cepas foram submetidas a técnica genotípica AP-PCR, usando o primer arbitrário AP-3. A análise enzimática demonstrou que não há diferença entre os dois grupos estudados. O método AP-PCR foi eficiente em demonstrar o polimorfismo genético de C. albicans intra indivíduos demonstrando uma maior diversidade clonal em crianças cárie ativas em relação as livres de cárie. Dendogramas de similaridade demonstraram semelhança na linhagem clonal apenas intra-indivíduos. Os resultados sugerem que o perfil enzimático não depende das características genotípicas das cepas.

  14. Genetic mutations associated with chemical resistance in the cytochrome P450 genes of invasive and native Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Li Qiu; Li Liu; Xiao-Xi Li; Vartika Mathur; Zhen-Qiang Qin; Shun-Xiang Ren

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex, and its two most damaging biotypes B and Q are globally distributed pests. Despite increasing biological and economic impacts, little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that favor their competfion with native populations. Here, we investigated the genetic mutations in the P450 gene of the invasive B, Q biotypes and the native Cv population. Four mutations associated with chemical resistance, Pro-Leu, Ala-Ser, Ser-Phe and Trp-Leu, were found in the cytochrome P450 CYP6C and CYP9F genes of the B and Q biotypes. Bioassay results also revealed that both the B and Q biotypes have about 12-47 times more resistance to acephate, betacypermethrin, methomyl, and 5-7 times more resistance to imidacloprid insecticide than Cv population. Our results provide a molecular approach for better understanding and monitoring the pesticide resistances of invasive and native B. tabaci populations in China.

  15. Inhalation anthrax in a home craftsman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffin, S C; Carnes, W H; Kaufmann, A F

    1978-09-01

    Inhalation anthrax with complicating subarachnoid hemorrhage due to simultaneous infection with two capsular biotypes of Bacillus anthracis of different virulence for the mouse is reported. The patient, a home craftsman, acquired his infection from imported animal-origin yarn.

  16. Tribenuron-Methyl Resistant Flixweed(Descurainia sophia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hai-lan; ZHANG Chao-xian; ZHANG Hong-jun; HUANG Hong-juan; WEI Shou-hui; LIU Xue; WANG Gui-qi; LIU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Flixweed seeds were collected from suspected winter wheat fields and remote hillside in Shaanxi Province,China,their sensitivities to tribenuron-methyl were evaluated in the greenhouse.Results revealed that biotype S was susceptible to tribenuron,and its GR50 was 0.23 g a.i.ha-1,whereas biotypes R1,R2,R3,and R4 were resistant to the tribenuron,and their GR50 were 161.99,79.70,439.80,and 312.30,respectively.Biotypes R1 and R2 showed moderate resistance with resistant indices(RI)of 615.23 and 302.7,respectively.Whereas biotypes R3 and R4 showed high resistance to the herbicide with RI values as high as 1670.34 and 1186.10,respectively.

  17. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  18. Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis and from patients with healthy vaginal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroutcheva, A A; Simoes, J A; Behbakht, K; Faro, S

    2001-10-01

    The differences in the phenotype and genotype of Gardnerella vaginalis isolates from patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and from patients without BV are unknown. In our study, 43 isolates of G. vaginalis were examined for biotype (hippurate hydrolysis, lipase, and beta-galactosidase activity), sensitivity to metronidazole, and genotype. Of the 117 women visiting the gynecology clinic at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center who were included in the study, 27.4% were found to have BV. G. vaginalis was found in samples from 87.5% of women with BV, from 34.0% of women with intermediate BV, and from 26.4% of women with healthy vaginal ecosystems. Among patients with G. vaginalis, biotypes 7 and 8 were isolated from 32% and 20% of patients, respectively. Biotype 5 was predominantly associated with a healthy vaginal ecosystem (P=.0004). Biotypes 5 and 7 were the most resistant to metronidazole. No specific phenotype or genotype of G. vaginalis causes BV.

  19. Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, CSP; Chu, FCS; Leung, WK; Jin, LJ; Samaranayake, LP; Siu, SC

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to biotype and characterize phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of oral Candida albicans isolates from 210 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventy-six and 50 C. albicans isolates were obtained from type 2 DM patients and controls, respectively, using the oral rinse technique. The isolates were characterized with a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation pat...

  20. Impact of non-target-site-resistance on herbicidal activity of imazamox on blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. in comparison to other ALS-graminicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievernich, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. resistance-monitoring conducted by BASF in 2010 - 2012 revealed a high number of accessions with resistance against imazamox. However, application of imazamoxbased products in a winter crop was limited to winter beans in France and United Kingdom only until the introduction of the Clearfield®-production system in autumn 2012 in winter oilseed rape. It is therefore assumed that the resistance mechanisms were probably selected by the frequent use of ACCase- and ALSinhibitors in winter crop rotations during the last 2 decades. Resistance level for each product-biotype combination was calculated according the “R”-classification system (S, R?, RR, RRR by directly comparing the product performance on a biotype versus untreated control. Majority of resistant biotypes did not show a target-site mutation at the known codon Pro197 or Trp574. In order to better evaluate the impact of Non-Target-Site-Resistance (NTSR on the activity of BEYOND (imazamox, ATLANTIS WG (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron and ABAK (pyroxsulam, biotypes who have shown an ALS-target-site mutation were removed from further analysis. At the dose rate of 35 g ai/ha BEYOND provided good activity on susceptible biotypes of black-grass almost matching up with ATLANTIS WG and ABAK. However, activity of BEYOND declined stronger on biotypes classified as R? or RR for that product, while ATLANTIS WG and ABAK hardly showed any decline in control on this group of biotypes when applied at the recommended dose rate. It is assumed that the underlying NTSR-mechanism is not effective enough yet to confer resistance to ATLANTIS WG and ABAK, but on BEYOND. In contrast, biotypes classified as R? for ATLANTIS WG did show a stronger impact on the activity of BEYOND and ABAK then of ATLANTIS WG. These differences in control level probably do translate into differences in selection pressure as well.

  1. Vector-virus mutualism accelerates population increase of an invasive whitefly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiu

    Full Text Available The relationships between plant viruses, their herbivore vectors and host plants can be beneficial, neutral, or antagonistic, depending on the species involved. This variation in relationships may affect the process of biological invasion and the displacement of indigenous species by invaders when the invasive and indigenous organisms occur with niche overlap but differ in the interactions. The notorious invasive B biotype of the whitefly complex Bemisia tabaci entered China in the late 1990s and is now the predominant or only biotype in many regions of the country. Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV are two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses that have become widespread recently in south China. We compared the performance of the invasive B and indigenous ZHJ1 whitefly biotypes on healthy, TbCSV-infected and TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants. Compared to its performance on healthy plants, the invasive B biotype increased its fecundity and longevity by 12 and 6 fold when feeding on TbCSV-infected plants, and by 18 and 7 fold when feeding on TYLCCNV-infected plants. Population density of the B biotype on TbCSV- and TYLCCNV-infected plants reached 2 and 13 times that on healthy plants respectively in 56 days. In contrast, the indigenous ZHJ1 performed similarly on healthy and virus-infected plants. Virus-infection status of the whiteflies per se of both biotypes showed limited effects on performance of vectors on cotton, a nonhost plant of the viruses. The indirect mutualism between the B biotype whitefly and these viruses via their host plants, and the apparent lack of such mutualism for the indigenous whitefly, may contribute to the ability of the B whitefly biotype to invade, the displacement of indigenous whiteflies, and the disease pandemics of the viruses associated with this vector.

  2. Estudio citogenético del ganado bovino Criollo Argentino biotipo Patagónico

    OpenAIRE

    Género, Enrique Rubén; Moreno-Millán, M; Rumiano, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Twenty five animals belonging to the Argentinian Creole breed cattle Patagonic biotype, biotype originated only by the natural selection by the reasons of geographical isolation, were cytogenetically studied. The analized animals were not carrier of chromosomic alterations involved on the fertility, as the 1/29 robertsonian translocation. That would explain the high fertility observed in these animals in relation with other American Creole breeds in which was observed the presence of this tra...

  3. Phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains identified in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China during the last 50 years.Methods Traditional biotyping testings including susceptibility to polymyxin B,sensitivity to groupⅣphage,Voges-Proskauer test and haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were conducted.Results Data from Biotype-specific phenotype analysis revealed that only 133 isolates carried the typical E1 Tor phenotypes while the other 251

  4. The limitations of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, B J; Robson, B; Lin, S; Hudson, J A; Weaver, L; Dufour, M; Strydom, H

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the analysis of 432 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE had a high level of discrimination with biotype 1A isolates (Simpson's Diversity Index 0.997), but with the clinically important biotypes 2, 3 and 4, the discriminatory ability of PFGE was so low as to severely limit its usefulness (DI <0.6). For biotypes 2, 3 and 4, 79% or more of isolates of each biotype were of just three different PFGE profiles. Because of this, four known outbreaks of yersiniosis would not have been identified by PFGE analysis. However, a previously unrecognized potential outbreak of yersiniosis caused by biotype 4 isolates was identified on the basis of a rare PFGE genotype with spatial and temporal clustering. We conclude that PFGE has a very limited application to the genotyping of Y. enterocolitica biotypes 2, 3 and 4, and inferences based on finding indistinguishable PFGE profiles among cases or between cases and sources need to be substantiated using alternative typing tools, or strong epidemiological evidence.

  5. Abundance and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in Bangladesh and their cry genes profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. MozammelHoq

    1900-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt biopesticides, a recognized eco-friendly pest control agent, can be used to reduce many problems associated with indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides such as environmental pollutions, public health problems, emergence of resistance among pests in many developing countries etc. Bt strains were, therefore, isolated from different ecosystems of Bangladesh and characterized based on biochemical typing, 16S rRNA gene analysis, plasmid and cry genes profiles. Bt index was calculated 0.86 in this study and variations in abundance and distribution pattern of 16 different biotypes were demonstrated within 316 indigenous Bt strains which was compared to the other parts of the world. Bt indiana (17.8%, Bt kurstaki (16.7% and Bt thuringiensis (12.7% were found to be the most prevalent in Bangladesh among other biotypes. Hemolytic activity was variable among the biotypes and it was maximum for Bt biotype 10 (100%. Plasmids in the biotypes indiana, kurstaki, thuringiensis and israelensis were observed to occupy a wider range than other biotypes. The screening for insecticidal genes viz. cry1, cry2, cry3, cry4A, cry8, cry9, cry10 and cry11 in the native Bt strains revealed their presence in varied proportion rendering cry1, cry2 and cry3 the most abundant. The abundance of Bt strains, their diversities and the cry genes profile were thus analyzed in this study which will be the basis for further research development with Bt biopesticide in Bangladesh.

  6. MSMA resistance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism.

  7. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michelle; Hill, Curtis B; Voegtlin, David J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-12-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive insect pests on soybeans in the United States. One method for managing this pest is through host plant resistance. Since its arrival in 2000, 4 aphid biotypes have been identified that are able to overcome soybean aphid resistance (Rag) genes. A soybean aphid isolate collected from Moline, Illinois readily colonized soybean plants with the soybean aphid resistance gene Rag2, unlike biotypes 1 and 2, but similar to soybean aphid biotype 3. Two no-choice experiments compared the virulence of the Moline isolate with biotype 3. In both experiments, differences in aphid population counts were not significant (P > 0.05) on soybean genotypes LD08-12957a (Rag2) and LD11-5413a (Rag2), but the aphid counts for the Moline isolate were significantly (P soybean genotypes Dowling (Rag1), LD05-16611 (Rag1), LD11-4576a (Rag1), and PI 567598B (rag1b and rag3). The Moline isolate was a variant of aphid biotype 3, which is the first report showing that soybean aphid isolates classified as the same biotype, based on virulence against specific Rag genes, can differ in aggressiveness or ability to colonize specific host genotypes.

  8. Vibrio vulnificus produces quorum sensing signals of the AHL-class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Esmeralda; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Jens Laurits; Roig, Francisco J; Gram, Lone; Amaro, Carmen

    2009-07-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic pathogenic bacterium that can cause vibriosis in humans and fish. The species is subdivided into three biotypes with the fish-virulent strains belonging to biotype 2. The quorum sensing (QS) phenomenon mediated by furanosyl borate diester or autoinducer 2 (AI-2) has been described in human strains of biotype 1, and here we show that the luxS gene which encodes AI-2 is present in all strains of V. vulnificus regardless of origin, biotype or serovar. In this study, we also demonstrate that V. vulnificus produces QS signals of the acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) class (AI-1). AHLs were detected in strains of biotype 1 and 2 from water, fish and human wound infections but not in strains isolated from human septicaemic cases. The AHL compound was identified as N-butanoyl-homoserine-lactone (C(4)-HL) by both reporter strains and by HPLC-high-resolution MS. C(4)-HL was detected when AHL-positive strains were grown in low-nutrient medium [modified sea water yeast extract (MSWYE)] but not in rich media (tryptic soy broth or brain-heart infusion) and its production was enhanced when blood factors were added to MSWYE. C(4)-HL was detected in vivo, in eels infected with AHL-positive biotype 2 strains. No known AHL-related gene was detected by PCR or Southern blot suggesting that AHL-related genes in V. vulnificus are different from those found in other Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Physiological and molecular basis of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riar, Dilpreet S; Norsworthy, Jason K; Srivastava, Vibha; Nandula, Vijay; Bond, Jason A; Scott, Robert C

    2013-01-16

    Barnyardgrass biotypes from Arkansas (AR1 and AR2) and Mississippi (MS1) have evolved cross-resistance to imazamox, imazethapyr, and penoxsulam. Additionally, AR1 and MS1 have evolved cross-resistance to bispyribac-sodium. Studies were conducted to determine if resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in these biotypes is target-site or non-target-site based. Sequencing and analysis of a 1701 base pair ALS coding sequence revealed Ala₁₂₂ to Val and Ala₁₂₂ to Thr substitutions in AR1 and AR2, respectively. The imazamox concentrations required for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro of AR1 and AR2 were 2.0 and 5.8 times, respectively, greater than the susceptible biotype. Absorption of ¹⁴C-bispyribac-sodium, -imazamox, and -penoxsulam was similar in all biotypes. ¹⁴C-Penoxsulam translocation out of the treated leaf (≤2%) was similar among all biotypes. ¹⁴C-Bispyribac-treated AR1 and MS1 translocated 31- 43% less radioactivity to aboveground tissue below the treated leaf compared to the susceptible biotype. ¹⁴C-Imazamox-treated AR1 plants translocated 39% less radioactivity above the treated leaf and aboveground tissue below the treated leaf, and MS1 translocated 54 and 18% less radioactivity to aboveground tissue above and below the treated leaf, respectively, compared to the susceptible biotype. Phosphorimaging results further corroborated the above results. This study shows that altered target site is a mechanism of resistance to imazamox in AR2 and probably in AR1. Additionally, reduced translocation, which may be a result of metabolism, could contribute to imazamox and bispyribac-sodium resistance in AR1 and MS1.

  10. Is it possible to detect Echinochloa spp. tolerance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides using a simple quick tolerance test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Santaella, J P; Bakkali, Y; Fischer, A J; De Prado, R

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the reliability of one quick tolerance test that would enable us, in only six days, to quantify tolerance levels of one biotype to one or more herbicides. For this purpose, we evaluated tolerance levels to cyhalofop-butyl of five Echinochloa spp. biotypes: muricata, crus-galli, crus-pavonis, oryzicola and utilis, with unknown records of herbicide treatment. Moreover, two biotypes of Echinochloa phyllopogon were tested, one of them resistant (R) to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and the other one susceptible (S). The Oryza sativa Puntal var. and Oryza sativa var. (wild rice) were also checked in order to demonstrate cyhalofop-butyl selectivity profiles. The assays were conducted with petri-dishes where, over the following increasing doses, fifty seeds per biotype and dose, were placed in each one: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 60 ppm of cyhalofop-butyl and codacide oil adjuvant. Six days later, the following parameters were evaluated: plumule length, root length, germination (%) and fresh weight reduction (%). E. muricata germination was reduced by 50% with a 6 ppm dose. A non linear relation dose-germination was observed in the rest of the biotypes. The plumule length permitted the ranking of the biotypes into three groups: (1) resistant (E. phyllopogon R) or very tolerant (Oryza sativa Puntal var. and wild rice), those with a reduction of less than 30%, (2) tolerant, between 30 and 60% (E. oryzicola), and (3) susceptible, with a reduction of over 80% (E. muricata, E. crus-galli, E. crus-pavonis, E. utilis and E. phyllopogon S). Only Oryzo sativa and E. phyllopogon R had a minimal reduction of fresh weight (less than 15%). The assays were repeated with whole plants and we checked the accuracy of this test that indicated the resistance level of one biotype in a quick, reliable and economic way.

  11. Impact of imazamox containing herbicides on the development of resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. within an oilseed rape / wheat crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenhauer, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of imazamox as an herbicide in oilseed-rape got possible due to the introduction of Clearfield oilseed-rape varieties which are tolerant to ALS inhibitors. The question of this investigation was, if the broader use of ALS-inhibitors increases the selection pressure on herbicide resistant weeds and increases their occurrence in the crop rotation. An outdoor container trial with 30 containers (350 l, 0,7 m² was performed, starting in autumn 2011. A winter wheat – oilseed-rape rotation was simulated for four years. Three different black-grass biotypes with different resistance pattern and 5 different herbicide programmes were analysed in this study in order to investigate the population dynamics of target-site resistance (TSR and the development of metabolic resistance. The trials showed interactions between the black-grass biotype and the herbicide strategy on the increase of the black-grass density. There was no interaction due to the use of propyzamide. The frequency of target-site resistance to ACCase inhibitors increased for the corresponding biotypes independently of the herbicide strategy during the trial period. The low frequency of ALS-TSR at trial start did not change during the trial period, independently of the use of imazamox in the oil-seed rape cultivation. The comparison of the resistance factors between the original biotypes and the seeds harvested after the four year container trial showed increasing resistances against pinoxaden for all biotypes. Within the different black-grass biotypes there was a slightly decrease as well as an increase in imazamox efficacy observed. There was no significant increase of meso- + iodosulfuron resistance compared to the original biotypes from 2011 caused by different herbicide treatments. The results indicated that the integration of imazamox tolerant oilseed rape in winter wheat crop rotations did not necessarily increase the development of herbicide resistant black-grass.

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  13. Use of chlorophyll lfuorescence and P700 absorbance to rapidly detect glyphosate resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tai-jie; FENG Li; TIAN Xing-shan; YANG Cai-hong; GAO Jia-dong

    2015-01-01

    The rapid detection of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) wil enhance our ability to respond to new resistant populations of this major weed. Chlorophyl lfuorescence (Fluo) and P700 (reaction center chlorophyl of pho-tosystem I) absorbance were analyzed in one biotype of goosegrass that is resistant to glyphosate and in another that remains sensitive to the herbicide. Both biotypes were treated with a foliar spray of glyphosate. Differences in photosys-tem II maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective photochemical quantum yield (Y(II)), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) between the biotypes increased over time. Values for Fv/Fm and Y(II) differed between the two biotypes 24 h after treatment (HAT). Differentiated activities and energy dissipation processes of photosystem II (PSII) and energy dissipation processes of photosystem I (PSI) were manifested in the two biotypes 24 HAT with 20 mmol L–1 glyphosate. Differentiated energy dissipation processes of PSI were stil apparent 24 HAT with 200 mmol L–1 glyphosate. These results indicate that the Fluo parameters related to PSII activity and energy dissipation and the P700 parameters related to energy dissipation are suitable indicators that enable rapid detection of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass.

  14. Circulating Strains of Brucella abortus in Cattle in Santo Domingo De Los Tsáchilas Province - Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar Ivan; Contreras-Zamora, Javier; Benitez Ortiz, Washington; Guerrero-Viracocha, Karina; Salcan-Guaman, Holger; Minda, Elizabeth; Ron Garrido, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    The Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador represents the largest informal cattle market. Because of its strategic position, cattle movement is very high and therefore we selected this region, to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp. Part of the study aimed at the isolation, biotyping, and genotyping of Brucella species from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines, using selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays, and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR, and HOOF-Prints techniques. In total, 656 animals from 12 sero-positive dairy herds and from the provincial slaughterhouse were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright's Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. Amongst these animals, 50 animals were sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were transferred to culture medium. Isolation was possible from 4 (16%) lymph nodes and 9 (36%) milk samples; out of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All four isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, showed biochemically a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  15. Difference in Feeding Behaviors of Two Invasive Whiteflies on Host Plants with Different Suitability: Implication for Competitive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiming Liu, Fengming Yan, Dong Chu, Huipeng Pan, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Baoyun Xu, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, Bemisia tabaci Q (commonly known as biotype Q has rapidly displaced B (commonly known as biotype B in the past 6 years. The mechanisms underlying such phenomenon have been studied extensively in recent years; however, we have not come to a definitive conclusion yet. In the present study, the differences in host suitability between B and Q whitefly adults to five host plants (cabbage, cotton, cucumber, poinsettia, and tomato were evaluated based on their respective feeding behaviors using a direct-current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG system. Pair-wise comparisons of B. tabaci B and Q feeding on each of the five host plants clearly indicate that Q feeds better than B on tomato, cotton and poinsettia, while B feeds better than Q on cabbage and cucumber. The EPG parameters related to both phloem and non-phloem phases confirm that cabbage and cucumber are best suited to B, while tomato, cotton, and poinsettia are best suited to Q. Our present results support the contention that host suitability and adult feeding behavior contribute to the competitive displacement of biotype B by biotype Q. The discrepancy between field (previous studies and laboratory results (this study, however, suggests that 1 whitefly displacement is apparently contributed by multiple factors; and 2 factor(s other than the host plant suitability may play a vital role in dictating the whitefly biotypes in the field.

  16. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Marion F; Lines, Rosemarie E; Revill, Peter; Chaleeprom, Worawan; Ha, Cuong V; Gibbs, Adrian J; Dale, James L

    2002-10-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of PRSV from Vietnam (50), Thailand (13), India (1) and the Philippines (1), and analysed them together with 28 PRSV sequences already published, so that we can better understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PRSV. In Thailand, variation was greater among PRSV-W isolates (mean nucleotide divergence 7.6%) than PRSV-P isolates (mean 2.6%), but in Vietnamese populations the P and W biotypes were more but similarly diverse. Phylogenetic analyses of PRSV also involving its closest known relative, Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, indicate that PRSV may have originated in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, as PRSV populations there are most diverse and hence have probably been present longest. Our analyses show that mutation, together with local and long-distance movement, contributes to population variation, and also confirms an earlier conclusion that populations of the PRSV-P biotype have evolved on several occasions from PRSV-W populations.

  17. Diversity within a colony morphotype: Implications for ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, D.L.; Amy, P.S. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States))

    1993-03-01

    In microbial ecology, accurate identification based on morphotype is often impossible, so the assumption is often made that colonies of the same morphotype represent the same species or biotype. This study examines the validity of using colony morphology as the selection criterion for calculating ecological indices of the diversity and equitability of recoverable microbial communities. Isolates within sets of microbial colonies were very similar in terms of colony morphology, microscopic appearance, resistance to metals, and response to API-rapid-NFT tests. Resistance to antibiotics was variable within sets. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis distinguished between isolates of the same species or biotype. However, isolates belonging to the same biotype can be selected by morhotype. The researchers conclude colony morphology can provide an accurate basis on which to define recoverable diversity.

  18. Circulating strains of Brucella abortus in cattle in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas - Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richar Ivan Rodríguez Hidalgo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, the Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas represents the largest informal market of livestock due to its strategic position in the country; thus, given the high mobility of cattle in this region, the aim of this study was to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp.. Part of the study was the isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species isolated from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines. Protocols used for isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species were selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR and HOOF-Prints techniques, respectively. In total, 656 animals from sero-positive dairy herds and from the slaughterhouse of the province were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright’s Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. From these animals, 50 animals were found sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were cultured and growth. Isolation was possible in 4 (16% and 9 (36%, respectively; and of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All 4 isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, biochemically showed a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  19. The intensity of non-target site mechanisms influences the level of resistance of sourgrass to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-target site mechanisms are involved in the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis to glyphosate. Studies on the 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation as well as the detection of glyphosate and its metabolites in sourgrass plants were carried out under controlled conditions to investigate if the differential response of resistant sourgrass biotypes (R1 and R2 is derived from the intensity of non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate. Different pattern of absorption was observed between S (susceptible and R2 from 12 up to 48 hours after treatment with glyphosate (HAT, and between S and R1 just at 12 HAT. The initial difference in glyphosate absorption among the biotypes did not maintained at 96 HAT and afterwards. Smaller amount of herbicide left the treated leaf into the rest of shoot and roots in R2 (25% than in S (58% and R1 (52%. In addition, slight difference in glyphosate translocation was observed between S and R1. We found high percentage (81% of glyphosate in the S biotype up to 168 HAT, while just 44% and 2% of glyphosate was recovered from R1 and R2 plant tissues. In addition, high percentage of glyphosate metabolites was found in R2 (98% and R1 (56% biotypes, while a very low percentage (11% was found in the S biotype. As previous studies indicated resistant factors of 3.5 and 5.6 for R1 and R2, respectively, we conclude that the differential response of sourgrass biotypes is derived from the intensity of the non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate.

  20. Tolerance of two Bifora radians bieb populations to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl; Ngouajio, Mathieu;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Bifora radians, an annual weed in winter wheat, is distributed mainly in the Mediterranean area, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. It infests winter-sown crops of the Central Anatolia and Middle Black Sea regions of Turkey. Field experiments in heavily B. radians-infested fields were...... be important to establish tools demonstrating when farmers recognise loss of herbicide efficacy. There has been no indication of evolution of resistant biotypes so far, but continuous spraying favours biotypes with increased levels of tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry....

  1. Update on the Status of Bemisia tabaci in the UK and the Use of Entomopathogenic Fungi within Eradication Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae continues to be a serious threat to crops worldwide. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Both B and Q Bemisia biotypes are now regularly intercepted entering the UK. With increasing reports of neonicotinoid resistance in both these biotypes, it is becoming more problematic to control/eradicate. Therefore, alternative means of control are necessary. Entomopathogenic fungi (Lecanicilllium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana offer much potential as control agents of B. tabaci within eradication programmes in the UK.

  2. Susceptibility of Haemophilus aegyptius to trooleandomycin: lack of taxonomic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, A Y; Sottnek, F O; Thomas, M L; Albritton, W L

    1986-04-01

    Two hundred and nine strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus aegyptius were screened for trooleandomycin susceptibility. Four strains were shown to be sensitive to the drug. Of these four, two were Haemophilus aegyptius (ATCC 11116, NCTC 8134), and the other two were Haemophilus influenzae biotype I (1-605) and IV (80-212. One strain of Haemophilus aegyptius (NCTC 8135) was resistant to trooleandomycin. Restriction enzyme assays and DNA homology were carried out to establish relationships between the strains. It is concluded that trooleandomycin susceptibility has no taxonomic value to differentiate between Haemophilus aegyptius and biotype III Haemophilus influenzae.

  3. Diagnostics of the red rice problem in the U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice was first grown in the United States in what is now North Carolina and South Carolina at the end of the 17th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, rice was being grown in North and South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana (LA), and Arkansas (AR). Different red rice biotypes, including “str...

  4. Host plant resistance in melon to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato whitefly biotype B (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon (Cucumis melo L.) yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant r...

  5. Enhanced resistance to CYSDV in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of significant reservoir hosts for virus transmission in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), which is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) biotype B, emerged in the Southwest US in 2006. CYSDV can infect diverse regional weed and crop species, some of which serve as sources for virus transmission to melon. To de...

  6. A method to evaluate relative ovicidal effects of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Katakam, Kiran Kumar;

    2015-01-01

    Thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic ascarid nematodes can survive and remain infective in the environment for years. The present study evaluated a simple in vitro method and evaluation scheme to assess the relative effect of two species of soil microfungi, Pochonia chlamydosporia Biotype 10...

  7. Aerial electrostatic-charged spray for deposition and efficacy against sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacy of aerial electrostatic-charged sprays was evaluated for spray deposit characteristics and season-long control of sweet potato whitefly (SWF), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (a.k.a. B. argentifolii), in an irrigated 24-ha cotton field. Treatments included electrostatic-charged sprays at full and ...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  9. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  10. Recurrent Posttraumatic Meningitis due to Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunze, W; Müller, L; Kilian, Mogens;

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of relapsing Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a boy at the age of nearly 3 years and 4.2 years who had been successfully vaccinated against H. influenzae serotype b (Hib). The pathogen was a nonencapsulated (nontypable) H. influenzae strain of biotypes III and VI, respectively...

  11. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in cloned Amaranthus palmeri plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (GA) possesses multiple copies of the target site, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) of this herbicide. Cloned plants of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi (MS) were compared with GA populations using le...

  12. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli en tres grupos de gallinas de diferente origen geográfico del sur de Chile Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in three groups of hens of different geographic origin in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FERNANDEZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 300 muestras fecales de gallinas obtenidas en tres sitios geográficos del sur de Chile (comunas de Loncoche, Valdivia y Puerto Montt, para conocer la prevalencia de Campylobacter jejuni y de C. coli en estas aves consideradas como reservorio. La prevalencia de especies termotolerantes del género Campylobacter fue del 25,7%, siendo C. jejuni aislado con una frecuencia del 76,6% y la de C. coli del 23,4%. Fueron encontrados sólo 2 de los 4 biotipos de C. jejuni, siendo aislado el biotipo II con mayor frecuencia (68.8%. En C. coli fueron encontrados los 2 biotipos descritos para esta especie, siendo, también, el biotipo II el más frecuenteIn order to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, 300 fecal samples obtained from hens in three different geographical places (Loncoche, Valdivia and Puerto Montt cities from Southern Chile were studied. The prevalence of the thermotolerant species of Campylobacter was 25.7%, being Campylobacter jejuni isolated with a frequency of 76.6% and C. coli with 23.4%. Only two of the four biotypes of C. jejuni were found, being biotype II the most frequent one (68.8%. The two biotypes described for C. coli were isolated, and biotype II was also the most frequent (68.8%.

  14. Opsonization of Treponema pallidum is mediated by immunoglobulin G antibodies induced only by pathogenic treponemes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, J. M.; Baker-Zander, S A; Lukehart, S A

    1993-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to Leptospira interrogans, Borrelia hermsii, and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter, reactive to shared spirochetal antigens, failed to enhance phagocytosis of Treponema pallidum by macrophages, while immunoglobulin G to Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue and Treponema paraluiscuniculi promoted phagocytosis. Opsonic antibodies are directed to pathogen-restricted, not shared spirochetal, antigens.

  15. Development of monoclonal antibodies that recognize Treponema pallidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; Folds, J D

    1983-01-01

    We developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies to Treponema pallidum (Nichols) antigens, some of which recognize treponemal antigens on T. pallidum (Nichols), T. pallidum strain 14, and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter. The antibodies were detected by either an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or a radioimmunoassay.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  17. Microbial evolution of traditional mountain cheese and characterization of early fermentation cocci for selection of autochtonous dairy starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Clementi, Francesca; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The microbial population of Traditional Mountain (TM) cheese was investigated and characterized for the selection of cocci suitable for developing new starter cultures. Samples of milk, curd and cheese at different ripening times were enumerated in selective culture media and 640 colonies were isolated from curd and cheese after 24 h of ripening. The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from M17 were clustered into 231 biotypes by RAPD-PCR analysis and identified as Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis. Forty percent of enterococci showed the in vitro ability to inhibit raw milk resident coliforms, but they were excluded as possible starters due to the presence of associated risk factors. All lactococci and streptococci were tested for their technological properties; 4 Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and 2 Sc. thermophilus which were fast acidifiers and did not produce unpleasant flavours were subjected to the freeze-drying stability test. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biotype 68 and Sc. thermophilus biotype 93 showed the best technological properties and may be appropriate for cheese production. This work gave evidence of the high biodiversity of TM-cheese autochthonous biotypes which could be used as starter cultures for the improvement of TM-cheese technology.

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals ecological fitness cost of multi-herbicide resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Zhang, Zichang; Gu, Tao; Dong, Mingchao; Peng, Qiong; Bai, Lianyang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-01-06

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is one of the top 15 herbicide-resistant weeds around the world that interferes with rice growth, resulting in major losses of rice yield. Thus, multi-herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass presents a major threat, with the underlying mechanisms that contribute to resistance requiring elucidation. In an attempt to characterize this multi-herbicide resistance at the proteomic level, comparative analysis of resistant and susceptible barnyardgrasses was performed using iTRAQ, both with and without quinclorac, bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam herbicidal treatment. A total of 1342 protein species were identified from 2248 unique peptides by searching the UniProt database and conducting data analysis. Approximately 904 protein species with 4774 Gene Ontology (GO) terms were grouped into the categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function. Among these, 688 protein species were annotated into 1583 KEGG pathways, with 980 protein species relating to metabolism and 93 relating to environmental information processing. A total of 292 protein species showed more than a 1.2-fold change in abundance in the resistant biotype relative to the susceptible biotype. Furthermore, herbicide treatment resulted in 157 protein species that showed more than a 1.2-fold change in the resistant biotype. Moreover, physiological analyses demonstrated an ecological fitness cost in the resistant biotype.

  19. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Gram-Positive, Catalase-Negative Cocci Not Belonging to the Streptococcus or Enterococcus Genus and Benefits of Database Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dargis, Rimtas; Hammer, Monja;

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with a Bruker Daltonics microflex LT system was applied to 90 well-characterized catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci not belonging to the streptococci or enterococci. Biotyper version 2.0.43.1 software was...

  20. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratorie...

  1. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Fast and reliable identification from agar plates and blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis, and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles.

  2. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Fast and Reliable Identification from Agar Plates and Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Laura; Vega Castaño, Silvia; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; González-Cabrero, Sandra; Menegotto, Fabiola; Orduña-Domingo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis), and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. Conclusions/Significance MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles. PMID:21151913

  3. Acquisition and transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae; quantitative aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Studying the transmission of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae from infected Physalis floridana plants, revealed that the ability of aphids to transmit the virus differed widely among individuals and strongly depended on the biotype of the vector aphid and the age of the virus source. V

  4. Overview of the epidemiology of Giardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of all species of Giardia, only G. duodenalis infects humans, livestock, companion animals, and wildlife. The similar morphology within G. duodenalis masks genetic and biotypic differences that are large enough for G. duodenalis now to be considered a species complex. Within the G. duodenalis compl...

  5. Phylogeny and VCG analysis of vascular competent and incompetent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fov isolates belonging to all known races, biotypes, and most of known genotypes were characterized by phylogenetic and VCG analysis. VCGs with multiple members were sequenced for at least two members, and the resulting sequences were always identical except for VCG01111 members. Vegetative compatib...

  6. Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly Mutations in ACCase Gene, Endow Cross-resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ in Phalaris minor from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cruz-Hipolito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides that inhibit acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase are commonly used in Mexico to control weedy grasses such as little seed canarygrass (Phalaris minor. These herbicides are classified into three major families (ariloxyphenoxypropionates (APP, cyclohexanodiones (CHD, and, recently, phenylpyrazolines (PPZ. In this work, the resistance to ACCase (APP, CHD, and PPZ inhibiting herbicides was studied in a biotype of Phalaris minor (P. minor from Mexico, by carrying out bioassays at the whole-plant level and investigating the mechanism behind this resistance. Dose-response and ACCase in vitro activity assays showed cross-resistance to all ACCase herbicides used. There was no difference in the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the 14C-diclofop-methyl between the R and S biotypes. The PCR generated CT domain fragments of ACCase from the R biotype and an S reference were sequenced and compared. The Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly point mutations were identified. These mutations could explain the loss of affinity for ACCase by the ACCase-inhibing herbicides. This is the first report showing that this substitution confers resistance to APP, CHD, and PPZ herbicides in P. minor from Mexico. The mutations have been described previously only in a few cases; however, this is the first study reporting on a pattern of cross-resistance with these mutations in P. minor. The findings could be useful for better management of resistant biotypes carrying similar mutations.

  7. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae), Homoptera, auchenorrhyncha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M. brevipennis as well as the unisexual M. fairmairei (3n) were investigated from a biosystematic point of view.

  8. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, L.L.; Cotterman, J.C.; Primiani, M.M. (E.I. duPont de Nemours Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Selection of kochia (Kochia scoparia) biotypes resistant to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron has occurred through the continued use of this herbicide in monoculture cereal-growing areas in the United States. The apparent sulfonylurea resistance observed in kochia was confirmed in greenhouse tests. Fresh and dry weight accumulation in the resistance kochia was 2- to >350-fold higher in the presence of four sulfonylurea herbicides as compared to the susceptible biotype. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity isolated from sulfonylurea-resistant kochia was less sensitive to inhibition by three classes of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonanilides. The decrease in ALS sensitivity to inhibition (as measured by the ratio of resistant I{sub 50} to susceptible I{sub 50}) was 5- to 28-fold, 2- to 6-fold, and 20-fold for sulfonylurea herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, and a sulfonanilide herbicide, respectively. No differences were observed in the ALS-specific activities or the rates of ({sup 14}C)chlorsulfuron uptake, translocation, and metabolism between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes. The K{sub m} values for pyruvate using ALS from susceptible and resistant kochia were 2.13 and 1.74 mM, respectively. Based on these results, the mechanism of sulfonylurea resistance in this kochia biotype is due solely to a less sulfonylurea-sensitive ALS enzyme.

  9. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...

  10. Testing Tools for Glyphosate Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are multiple tools available for testing for glyphosate resistance. Whole plant screens, whether in the field or greenhouse, should be used as an initial method to determine if a biotype is glyphosate resistant. Screening for resistance using seedling assays such as in Petri plates, sand cul...

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirms difficulties in separating species of the Avibacterium genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alispahic, Merima; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study a well-characterized strain collection (n = 33) of Avibacterium species was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The robustness of the currently available reference database (Bruker Biotyper 3.0) was test...

  12. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Haemophilus aegyptius and Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casin, I; Grimont, F; Grimont, P A

    1986-01-01

    Haemophilus aegyptius should be considered a junior subjective synonym of Haemophilus influenzae. Both nomenspecies are indistinguishable by DNA/DNA hybridization (S1 nuclease method). No single phenotypic test can unambigously separate H. aegyptius from the other biotypes of H. influenzae.

  13. Registration of ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean with resistance to soybean aphid and powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2 and resistance to powdery mildew was jointly released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) as a late maturity group (MG) II (2.9) foo...

  14. Effect of soil application of cyantraniliprole on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  15. Effect of dinotefuran on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  16. Evaluations of melon germplasm reported to exhibit host plant resistance to sweetpotato whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) displaced B. tabaci biotype A in 1991 in the lower desert area of southern California and the adjoining areas of Arizona and western Mexico. The search for high-level host plant resistance to this devastating insect has been ongoin...

  17. Determination of Butachlor and Quinclorac Resistance of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Paddy Fields of Jiangxi Province%江西省稻田稗草对丁草胺和二氯喹啉酸的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪利; 吴尚; 李保同; 石绪根; 汤丽梅

    2015-01-01

    The resistance of eight barnyardgrass ( Echinochloa crus-galli) biotypes from paddy fields in Jiangxi Province to butachlor and quinclorac was determined by pot bioassays. Levels of barnyardgrass resistance to butachlor differed a-mong paddy fields of Jiangxi Province;a biotype from Henghu farm had the highest resistance index of 11 to 13 in 2012—2013. Biotypes from Guangfu town and Zhugang farm of Nanchang City had lower resistance levels with indexes ranging from 6 to 9. Biotypes from Wenzhen Town of Jinxian County,Qingtang Town of Ningdu County of Ganzhou City,and Chian Town of Fengxin County of Yichun City in Nanchang City had the lowest resistance levels with resistance indexes ranging from 3 to 4. Three sensitive biotypes were identified at agricultural science institutes of Ganzhou City and Jian. Coverse-ly,the quinclorac resistance indexes of the biotypes from eight regions of Jiangxi Province were less than 2,therefore those biotypes remain susceptible to quinclorac.%利用盆钵法测定了江西省8个地区稻田稗草对丁草胺和二氯喹啉酸的抗药性。结果表明,江西省稻田稗草对丁草胺已经产生了不同程度的抗药性,其中恒湖农场的抗药性最高,2012-2013年的抗性指数在11~13之间,处于中等水平抗药性阶段;南昌市南昌县广福镇和朱港农场的抗性指数在6~9之间,处于低水平抗药性阶段;南昌市进贤县温圳镇、赣州市宁都县青塘镇和宜春市奉新县赤岸镇的抗性指数在3~4之间,处于敏感性下降阶段;而赣州市农业科学研究所和吉安市农业科学研究所的抗性指数均低于3,仍处于敏感阶段。总体而言,江西省8个地区稻田稗草对二氯喹啉酸的抗性指数均低于2,仍处于敏感阶段。

  18. Investigating the mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) population from South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun; FENG Li; HE Ting-ting; YANG Cai-hong; CHEN Guo-qi; TIAN Xing-shan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate has been used worldwide for nearly 40 years, and 30 types of resistant weeds have been reported. Glyphosate is mass-produced and widely used in China, but few studies and reports on glyphosate-resistant weeds and resistance mechanisms exist. Previous studies found a goosegrass species with high glyphosate resistance from orchards in South China and its glyphosate resistant mechanism was described in this study. The cDNA of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, EC 2.5.1.19), the target enzyme of glyphosate, was cloned from the glyphosate-resistant and-suscep-tible goosegrass, respectively, and referred as EPSPS-R and EPSPS-S. The Pro106 residue was known to be involved in the glyphosate resistance in most goosegrass populations. However, sequence analysis did not ifnd the mutation at the Pro106 residue in the R biotype EPSPS amino acid sequence. The residue 133 and 382 was mutated in the R biotype EPSPS amino acid sequence instead, but it did not affect the EPSPS-S and EPSPS-R genes sensitivities to glyphosate. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses suggested that EPSPS mRNA and protein are mainly present in the shoot tissues both in the R and S goosegrass biotypes. The EPSPS-R rapidly responds to the glyphosate in R-biotype goosegrass and the induced expression was detected at 12 h post glyphosate treatment. The mRNA and protein expression of EPSPS-R increased constantly as the increasing concentration of glyphosate. However, the expression of the EPSPS-S was not induced signiifcantly by glyphosate in the S goosegrass biotype. Quantiifcation of real-time PCR results showed that the copy number of the EPSPS in R-biotype goosegrass was 4.7 times higher than that in the S goosegrass biotype. Al the results implied that EPSPS gene ampliifcation might mainly caused the glyphosate resistance of a goosegrass population col ected from orchards in South China.

  19. Resistence of Euphorbia Heterophylla L. to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelmini Gerson Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are widely used in soybean for weed control, and the selection pressure attributed to the repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action on the same site has caused selection for resistant biotypes within and among previously susceptible species, such as Euphorbia heterophylla L., in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, Brazil. Seeds of E. heterophylla were collected to examine possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage these populations, in the Caarapó region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species have survived continuous herbicide applications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. Several post-emergence herbicides were sprayed at zero, one, two, four, and eight times the recommended field application rates. Twenty days after application, plants were harvested, and control percentage and fresh weight were determined to establish dose-response curves, in the aim to obtain the resistance factor using CD50 and RD50 data. The chlorimuron-ethyl resistance factor values for the control percentage and fresh weight parameters were higher than 16.5 and 16.9, respectively, while imazethapyr showed resistance factors higher than 25.0 and 23.5, respectively. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was effectively controlled by fomesafen (250 g ha-1, lactofen (120 g ha-1, flumiclorac-pentyl (40 g ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (150 g ha-1, and glyphosate (360 g ha-1.

  20. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  1. 4株荚膜型流感嗜血杆菌分型情况的比较%Comparison of typing among 4 haemophilus influenzae isolates with capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王复甦; 占利; 杨婷婷; 姚苹苹; 徐宝祥; 叶菊莲

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To provide fundamental information about bacterial typing for Hi - associated diseases control. Methods:Serotypes, biotypes, PFGE types and MLST(Multilocus Sequence Typing) types of 4 Haemophilus influenzae capsule strains isolated from children under 5 years old were analyzed. Results: It was found that the 2 Hib isolates were biotype Ⅰ, the Hie isolate was biotype Ⅲ , and the Hia/f which was cross reacted with antisera a and f capsule types belonged to biotype Ⅰ . The similarity of PFGE pattern among the 4 capsule Hi isolates varied between 48. 8 % ~ 58. 5 % , and the two biotype I Hibs only 48. 8 % . The ST types of 2 Hibs with the same biotype Ⅰ were both ST95 ,while the biotype Ⅲ Hie was ST - 18. The biotype Ⅰ Hia/f maybe a new ST type, waiting for submitting and verification. Conclusion: The association among 4 capsuled Hi is comparatively weak, suggesting thare is no dominant capsuled Hi type among human group. PFGE can be used to identify the source of Hi strains with the same serotype and biotype.%目的:为预防和控制Hi相关疾病提供菌株分型资料.方法:分析比较4株从5岁以下幼儿中分离的荚膜型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae,Hi)的血清分型、生物分型、脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)和多位点序列分型(MLST)的结果.结果:4株荚膜型Hi中,2株Hib均为生物Ⅰ型;1株Hie为生物Ⅲ型;1株与a、f荚膜型抗血清有交叉凝集的Hia/f为生物Ⅰ型.4株PFGE型的相似度,为48.8% ~ 58.5%,其中,2株Hib菌株之间的相似度仅为48.8%;MLST分型,2株Ⅰ型Hib同为ST-95型,1株生物Ⅲ型的Hie为ST-18型,1株生物Ⅰ型的Hia/f可能为新的ST型,等待提交验证.结论:4株荚膜型Hi彼此间遗传关联度小,提示人群中尚未形成优势荚膜型Hi的聚集.Hi当菌株生物型和血清型相同时,PFGE能较好地区分不同来源的菌株.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 on the interspecific competition between two sympatric species of Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci fed on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yi Li; Tong-Jin Liu; Neng-Wen Xiao; Jun-Sheng Li; Fa-Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient vs.ambient) and Bt CrylAc transgene (Bt cotton cv.33B vs.its nontransgenic parental line cv.DP5415) on the interspecific competition between two ecologically similar species of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and whitefly biotype-Q Bemisia tabaci were studied in open-top chambers.The results indicated that elevated CO2 and Bt cotton both affected the population abundances of A.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci when introduced solely (i.e.,without interspecific competition) or two species coexisted (i.e.,with interspecific competition).Compared with ambient CO2,elevated CO2 increased the population abundances ofA.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci as fed on Bt and nontransgenic cotton on 45 (i.e.,seedling stage) and 60 (i.e.,flowering stage) days after planting (DAP),but only significantly enhanced aphid abundance without interspecific competition on the 45-DAP nontransgenic cotton and 60-DAP Bt cotton,and significantly increased whitefly abundance with interspecific competition on the 45-DAP Bt cotton and 60-DAP nontransgenic cotton.In addition,compared with nontransgenic cotton at elevated CO2,Bt cotton significantly reduced biotype-Q B.tabaci abundances without and with interspecific competition during seedling and flowering stage,while only significantly decreasing A.gossypii abundances without interspecific competition during the seedling stage.When the two insect species coexisted,the proportions ofbiotype-Q B.tabaci were significantly higher than those ofA.gossypii on Bt and nontransgenic cotton at the same CO2 levels,and elevated CO2 only significantly increased the percentages of biotype-Q B.tabaci and significantly reduced the proportions ofA.gossypii on seedling and flowering nontransgenic cotton.Therefore,the effects of elevated CO2 were favorable for biotype-Q B.tabaci to out-compete A.gossypii under the predicted global climate change.

  3. 稻田稗草对丁草胺和二氯喹啉酸抗药性的测定%Identification of Barnyardgrass(Echinochloa crusgalli) Resistant to Butachlor and Quinclorac in Rice Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩宏; 冯莉; 杨红梅; 岳茂峰; 田兴山

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance level of barnyardgrass to butachlor and quinclorac. Fourteen barnyardgrass biotypes were collected from different rice fields at areas in Guangdong province. The resistance level of barnyardgrass to buthachlor and quinclorac was assessed by pot assay method. [Results] The results demonstrated that Longmen biotype has the highest ED50 value (757.33 g a.I./ha) to butachlor and its relative resistance index (RI) was 3.4 which showed that Longmen biotype had developed resistance to butachlor in fields. In terms of quinclorac, no resistance was found in these 14 barnyardgrass biotypes. [Conclusions] Resistance of barnyardgrass in rice fields has occurred to butachlor, and Longmen biotype was the most resistant one. All identified barnyardgrass biotypes have not developed resistance to quinclorac.%[目的]为明确稻田稗草对丁草胺和二氯喹啉酸的抗药性水平,利用盆钵法测定了广东佛冈、韶关、梅州等地共14个点稻田稗草对丁草胺和二氯喹啉酸的抗药性.[结果]对于丁草胺,惠州龙门稗草ED50值最大,为757.33 g a.i./hm2,相对抗性指数(RI)为3.4,说明龙门点稗草对丁草胺已产生一定的抗药性;对于二氯喹啉酸,所测定的14个稗草生态型对其未表现出抗药性.[结论]稻田稗草对丁草胺已经产生不同程度的抗药性,其中惠州龙门点抗性最高;稻田稗草对二氯喹啉酸未产生抗药性.

  4. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV- positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI, and mucosal disease (MD. Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp, 10 were cytopathic (cp, and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44% followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%. Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36% followed by PI (25% and MD (16%.

  5. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor from southern Vietnam in 2010 was molecularly distinct from that present from 1999 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V H; Pham, H T; Diep, T T; Phan, C D H; Nguyen, T Q; Nguyen, N T N; Ngo, T C; Nguyen, T V; Do, Q K; Phan, H C; Nguyen, B M; Ehara, M; Ohnishi, M; Yamashiro, T; Nguyen, L T P; Izumiya, H

    2016-04-01

    The Vibrio cholerae O1 (VCO1) El Tor biotype appeared during the seventh cholera pandemic starting in 1961, and new variants of this biotype have been identified since the early 1990s. This pandemic has affected Vietnam, and a large outbreak was reported in southern Vietnam in 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to screen 34 VCO1 isolates from the southern Vietnam 2010 outbreak (23 patients, five contact persons, and six environmental isolates) to determine if it was genetically distinct from 18 isolates from outbreaks in southern Vietnam from 1999 to 2004, and two isolates from northern Vietnam (2008). Twenty-seven MLVA types and seven PFGE patterns were identified. Both analyses showed that the 2008 and 2010 isolates were distinctly clustered and separated from the 1999-2004 isolates.

  6. Improved ERM vaccination efficacy using combined vaccine administration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Desmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that immersion vaccination (30 sec) using the Aquavac Relera vaccine (containing formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 of both biotypes 1 and 2) provides the best protection (when compared to other commercial ERM vaccines on the Danish market) against infection...... following i. p. challenge using Y. ruckeri O1, biotype 2, which at present is the main bacterial pathogen in fingerling trout production in Denmark. Despite a significant protection conferred by this vaccine (immersion) some mortality could be observed following challenge. We have therefore performed...... a study in order to elucidate if different vaccine administration methods (using Aquavac Relera) can improve protection and reduce mortality of exposed trout following challenge with this particular pathogen. Rainbow trout (mean weight 7.8 g) reared at the Bornholm Salmon Hatchery under pathogen free...

  7. BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES ON NEEM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bhandare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value , free fatty acid, saponification value, flash point and fire point which were estimated for selection of the elite neem biotype. The best shoot regeneration (60%-80% was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid NAA (0.2-0.4 mg/L and benzyl amino purine BAP (0.2-0.4 mg/L. Root induction (80% was successfully obtained in MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.05 mg/L and IAA (0.05 mg/L. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.

  8. Phenotyping and genotyping methods applied to investigate the relatedness of Brazilian isolates of Enterobacter cloacae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.C. Darini

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the resolving power of several typing methods to identify relatedness among Brazilian strains of Enterobacter cloacae, we selected twenty isolates from different patients on three wards of a University Hospital (Orthopedics, Nephrology, and Hematology. Traditional phenotyping methods applied to isolates included biotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, phage-typing, and O-serotyping. Plasmid profile analysis, ribotyping, and macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were used as genotyping methods. Sero- and phage-typing were not useful since the majority of isolates could not be subtyped by these methods. Biotyping, antibiogram and plasmid profile permitted us to classify the samples into different groups depending on the method used, and consequently were not reliable. Ribotyping and PFGE were significantly correlated with the clinical epidemiological analysis. PFGE did not type strains containing nonspecific DNase. Ribotyping was the most discriminative method for typing Brazilian isolates of E. cloacae.

  9. 湖南稻区稗草对二氯喹啉酸的抗性研究%Studies on Resistance of Echinochloa crusglli to Quinclorac in the Rice Plantation Area in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国兰; 余柳青; 刘都才; 刘雪源; 陆永良; 柏连阳

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse study was carried out to determine the resistance level to quinclorac of 29 barnyard grass bio-types collected from rice planting area in Hunan province. The result showed that the biotype collected from Shaoyang suburb was the most susceptible barnyard grass to quinclorac,the EC50 was 76.3883 g a. i. /hm2. The biotype collected from Shaoyang suburb as the susceptible biotype, the biotypes collected from Zhihukou town in Yiyang and Wangcheng in Changsha presented very high resistance to quinclorac,the EC50 was 1567.164 g a. i. /hm2 and 2477.542 g a. i./hm2 respectively, and its resistance index was riched to 20.52 and 32.43 respectively which indicated the two biotypes had resistance to quinclorac on high level. Among 29 biotypes 10 were resistant to quinclorac with a EC50 value ranged from 155.9318 to 375.114 g a. i./hm2 ,and a resistant index ranged from 2.02 to 4.91. And the susceptibility to quinclorac of the other 16 biotypes was decreasing with the EC50 value ranged from 84.0203 to 151.596 g a. i. /hm2 ,and the resistant index ranged from 1.10 to 1.98.%利用整株测定法,测定湖南省主要稻区29个稗草生物型对二氯喹啉酸的抗性.结果表明,湖南省隆回县的生物型稗草对二氯喹啉酸最敏感,其EC50为76.3883 g a.i./hm2,为敏感生物型.湖南省益阳芷湖口镇和湖南省长沙望城县(直播田)的生物型稗草对二氯喹啉酸的EC50分别为1567.164 g a.i./hm2和2477.542 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数分别达20.52和32.43,表明这两种生物型稗草的抗药性处于高水平抗性.其中10个生物型稗草的EC50为155.9318 ~375.114 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数为2.02 ~4.91,表明这些生物型稗草已产生抗性.而其余16个生物型稗草的EC50为84.0203 ~151.596 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数为1.10 ~1.98,表明这些地方稗草的敏感性正在下降.

  10. [Post-antibiotic effect of imipenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin against various strains of Serratia marcescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollet, C; Mallet, M N; Bouchemal, H; de Micco, P

    1990-05-01

    The authors compared the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of imipenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and latamoxef against Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880 (type strain) and against 12 clinical strains belonging to Grimont's most frequent biotypes: A2a, A3a, A3b, A4a, A4b, A5, A6a, A8a, A8b, A8c, TT, TCT. PAE was determined by measuring bacterial growth kinetics after one hour exposure to concentration of 2 x MIC of 10(6) CFUs in Mueller-Hinton broth. Drug removal was by 10-3 dilution of the exposed culture. A PAE was consistently present with imipenem (range 0.8-2.9 hrs), amikacin (range 1.0-4.9 hrs), ciprofloxacin (range 1.4-2.8 hrs). The duration of PAE did not correlate with MIC or Grimont's biotypes.

  11. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated gingival recession 1 year following apical surgery of 70 maxillary anterior teeth (central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars). A visual assessment of the mid-facial aspect of the gingival level and of papillary heights of treated teeth was carried out...... using photographs taken at pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up appointments. In addition, changes in the gingival margin (GM) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were calculated with the use of clinical measurements, that is, pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up pocket probing depth and level of gingival...... margin. Changes in GM and CAL were then correlated with patient-, tooth-, and surgery-related parameters. The following parameters were found to significantly influence changes in GM and CAL over time: gingival biotype (P gingival recession than thick biotype...

  12. Poor value of surveillance cultures for prediction of septicaemia caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients undergoing haemodialysis with central venous catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Kolmos, H J; Rosdahl, V T

    1998-01-01

    Surveillance cultures for the demonstration of coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients on catheter haemodialysis were performed in an attempt to predict dialysis catheter-related septicaemia. In all, 43 patients with 67 haemodialysis catheters were followed for a 1-y period. Once a week, swab...... specimens were obtained from the skin at the insertion site and the hub, and blood cultures were obtained from the catheter. Among coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. epidermidis was the most frequently (80%) isolated species, and two biotypes accounted for 55.7% of the 41 biotypes isolated. 11 septicaemia...... cases due to coagulase-negative staphylococci occurred, all caused by S. epidermidis, and the incidence of S. epidermidis septicaemia was 21% among patients and 16% among catheter periods. S. epidermidis septicaemia occurred in 17%, 31% and 33% of all catheter periods in which S. epidermidis...

  13. Mycoplasma bovoculi infection increases ocular colonization by Moraxella ovis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbusch, R F; Ostle, A G

    1986-06-01

    To determine whether infection with Mycoplasma bovoculi increases ocular colonization of cattle eyes with Moraxella bovis and other bacteria, colonization of ocular gram-negative bacteria were measured in eyes of cattle infected with Mycoplasma bovoculi. Strains of Moraxella ovis were chosen because these are among the most commonly isolated species of gram-negative bacteria from cattle eyes. Five strains of M ovis were characterized biochemically and by pilus structure, permitting the recognition of 2 biotypes. All strains were tested in a mouse corneal pathogenicity model. One strain of each biotype was selected for testing in calves. All 5 strains were apathogenic for mice, and the 2 strains tested in cattle did not induce keratitis. Infection of calves with Mycoplasma bovoculi increased the amount and persistence of colonization with the strains of M ovis.

  14. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... vaccinations with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Eight groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w...

  15. Genetic identification of cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus causing urogenital and neonatal infections by PCR using specific primers targeting genes coding for 16S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, R; Ruimy, R; Rosenau, A; Musser, J M; Christen, R

    1996-06-01

    Previous genetic analysis of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from genital and neonatal infections identified a group of biotype IV that constitutes a cryptic genospecies only distantly related to H. influenzae and H. Haemolyticus. Small-subunit rRNA genes of two representative strains of this genital Haemophilus genospecies (strains 16N and 2406) were sequenced. The analysis indicated that these strains form a monophyletic unit with H. haemolyticus and H. influenzae biogroups Influenzae and Aegyptius and are more closely related to H. haemolyticus than to H. influenzae biogroups Influenzae and Aegyptius. 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to formulate primers for PCR-based identification of cryptic genital Haemophilus organisms. A 242-bp fragment was amplified from strains belonging to the genital Haemophilus genospecies but not from strains of 12 other Haemophilus species, including strains of H. influenzae biotype IV sensu stricto.

  16. Nosocomial klebsiellas. II. Transfer in a hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkorn, M J; Michel, M F

    1979-04-01

    During a 6-month period an epidemiological survey of the carriage of Klebsiella was conducted in a hospital ward where no outbreak of nosocomial infection occurred. In this endemic situation the regular sampling of several sites of patients, members of the nursing staff, and the environment, and the biotyping of Klebsiella made it possible to analyse the patterns of transmission between sites. There was abundant evidence for striking transmission of Klebsiella between the throat, hands, and faeces of patients. Transmission between patients seemed to be mainly through hands. The role of nurses' hands in transmission was not evident from this survey, probably due to the relatively long interval (a week) between samplings. Through the hands of patients, wash stands and the surrounding floor were contaminated with Klebsiella. The biotyping of Klebsiella facilitated the epidemiological analysis of the results.

  17. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained...... from 105 different Danish dairy herds was investigated. A total of 85 strains (81%) proved susceptible to all of the 11 antibiotics tested, and the remaining 20 strains could be divided into 5 different antibiogram patterns. The predominant resistance pattern, penicillin resistance, was observed in 15...... (75%) of the 20 antibiotic resistant strains. Biotyping assigned the strains to 14 different types, with the most common type accounting for 25.7% of the strains. Ninety eight (93.3%) strains could be typed by phages, assigning them to 19 different phage types. The predominant phage type accounted...

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from calf diarrhea in and around Kombolcha, South Wollo, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Ashenafi; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out from October 2012 to end of February 2013 in and around Kombolcha, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, using a total of 201 neonatal calves aged 1 day to 4 months and suffering from diarrhea. The objectives of the study were to isolate Escherichia coli from diarrheic calves, and to determine E. coli biotypes and risk factors associated with its isolation. The fecal samples were collected, transported, and processed following standard microbiological procedures. Seventy-four isolates of E. coli were identified. Yellowish diarrhea, younger age, and low-colostrum feeding were significantly associated with rate of E. coli isolation (P calf diarrhea, with very diverse biotypes.

  19. The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Prickly Paddy Melon (Cucumis myriocarpus)

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Brodie; Carmel Ryan; Carmel Lancaster

    2012-01-01

    The growing list of herbicide-resistant biotypes and environmental concerns about chemical use has prompted interest in alternative methods of managing weeds. This study explored the effect of microwave energy on paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) plants, fruits, and seeds. Microwave treatment killed paddy melon plants and seeds. Stem rupture due to internal steam explosions often occurred after the first few seconds of microwave treatment when a small aperture antenna was used to apply the mi...

  20. Marcadores epidemiológicos de Salmonella typhimurium e Salmonella agona Epidemiological markers of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella agona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Fernandes

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre as cepas de S. typhimurium e S. agona isoladas no período 1971-1987 foram caracterizados os biotipos, colicinotipos e antibiotipos de 734 cepas de S. typhimurium e 631 de S. agona. As 734 cepas de S. typhimurium foram classificadas em 65 biotipos com o predomínio dos biotipos 1a com 28,34%, 1b com 29,84% e 9bi com 18,25%. Com relação a S. agona, o biotipo 1a com 87,16% representou entre nós o clone amplamente disseminado. Foram encontradas freqüências baixas de cepas colicinogênicas, entretanto, a colicinotipia parece ser um bom método quando aplicada ao estudo de amostras homogêneas provenientes de surtos. Acentuada multirresistência aos agentes antimicrobianos, foi observada principalmente entre aquelas cepas de origem humana quase sempre representadas por cepas hospitalaresAmong S. typhimurium and S. agona strains isolated during the period from 1971 to 1987, the biotypes, colicine types and resistance patterns were determined for 734 S. typhimurium and 631 S. agona strains. Among 734 S. typhimurium strains 65 biotypes were disclosed with prevalence of biotypes 1a (28,34%, 1b (29,84% and 9bi (18,28. Concerning S. agona, the biotype 1a represented by 87,16%, was the commonest clone among our strains. Although colicine typing added little information to characterize these serotypes, it should be usefull when applied in epidemilogical study of outbreaks. It was observed multiply antimicrobial resistance mainly among human strains, particularly from nosocomial origins.

  1. Molecular insights into the evolutionary pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 atypical El Tor variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-09-01

    Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of C. diphtheriae strains during different phases of the diphtheria epidemic in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimont Patrick AD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular investigations were conducted with the aim to analyze the genetic variability of C diphtheriae during the post-epidemic period. Methods The biotype and toxigenicity status of 3513 C. diphtheriae strains isolated from all areas in Belarus during a declining period of diphtheria morbidity (1996–2005 was undertaken. Of these, 384 strains were isolated from diphtheria cases, 1968 from tonsillitis patients, 426 from contacts and 735 from healthy carriers. Four hundred and thirty two selected strains were ribotyped. Results The C diphtheriae gravis biotype, which was prevalent during 1996–2000, was "replaced" by the mitis biotype during 2001–2005. The distribution of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains also decreased from 47.1% (1996 to 5.8% (2005. Changes in the distribution of the epidemic ribotypes Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija were also observed. During 2001–2005 the proportion of the Sankt-Peterburg ribotype decreased from 24.3% to 2.3%, in contrast to the Rossija ribotype, that increased from 25.1% to 49.1%. The circulation of other toxigenic ribotypes (Otchakov, Lyon, Bangladesh, which were prevalent during the period of high diphtheria incidence, also decreased. But at the same time, the proportion of non-toxigenic strains with the Cluj and Rossija ribotypes dramatically increased and accounted for 49.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusion The decrease in morbidity correlated with the dramatic decrease in the isolation of the gravis biotype and Sankt Peterburg ribotype, and the prevalence of the Rossija ribotype along with other rare ribotypes associated with non-toxigenic strains (Cluj and Rossija, in particular.

  3. Identification of non-diphtheriae corynebacterium by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatoom, Adnan A; Cazanave, Charles J; Cunningham, Scott A; Ihde, Sherry M; Patel, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for identification of 92 clinical isolates of Corynebacterium species in comparison to identification using rpoB or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eighty isolates (87%) yielded a score of ≥1.700, and all of these were correctly identified to the species level with the exception of Corynebacterium aurimucosum being misidentified as the closely related Corynebacterium minutissimum.

  4. Comparison of three trap types for adult catching of whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus in tomato greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Nombela, Gloria; Chu, CC.; Heneberry, T.; Muñiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The attractiveness of three trap types to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype (= Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet adult was compared in two choice experiments in a greenhouse at the Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid, Spain.  Yellow sticky cards equipped with light-emitting-diodes (LED-YC) caught more adults per trap per day than yellow sticky card (YC) traps.YC traps caught significantly more B. tabaci and E. mundus adults than plastic cup traps...

  5. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    between the biotypes were successful and variations of these early tests are in use today (Ryan et al. 1991; Madeira et al. 2004; Rybicki et al. 2013...Management Society awarded a graduate student stipend to Dr. Rob Richardson at North Carolina State University (NCSU) to evaluate the phenology and...optimal treatment timing require additional information on tuber sprouting dynamics (e.g. plant phenology information described above would provide

  6. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qiao-Ting; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Shih-Hua; Peng, Li-Yun; Chen, Ping-Hung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS) and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID) with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex) levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database), Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis) were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, 39 (43.8%), including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5%) by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati) isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex

  7. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ting Chao

    Full Text Available We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database, Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD system, 39 (43.8%, including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5% by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii

  8. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo; ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve tendência de A. hybridus (tipo verde dominar tanto A. hybridus (tipo roxo como A. viridis, e de A. hybridus (tipo roxo dominar A. viridis. Em cultivo misto, houve casos em que as espécies estavam competindo pelos mesmos recursos, ou explorando recursos diferentes do ambiente, ou mesmo com antagonismo mútuo.The objective of this paper was to study the interspecific interference between two Amaranthus species -- A. viridis and A. hybridus --, the latter with two distinct biotypes (green and purple; both species ocurred in two localities. In the populations of each of the locations, some independent substitution trials were made in pots, and it could be concluded that the populations that germinate more readily are those which are superior in competition i.e., those that establish themselves and produce the largest number of seeds. There was a tendency for A. hybridus (green biotype to dominate both A. hybridus (purple biotype and A. viridis, and for A. hybridus (purple biotype to dominate A. viridis. In mixed stands, there were cases where the species were competing for the same resources, cases where they were exploiting different environmental resources, and even cases of mutual antagonism.

  9. Variation in metabolic enzyme activity of persistent Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, L V; Grasselier, H; Dankert, J.; van Alphen, L

    1996-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae organisms were isolated from sputum specimens prospectively collected from 40 patients with cystic fibrosis during 2 years to study variations in the metabolic enzyme activities of persistent H. influenzae strains as determined by biotyping. In total, 97 distinct H. influenzae strains without variations in their major outer membrane protein (MOMP) patterns and 73 MOMP variants derived from 30 of these distinct strains were obtained. Twelve distinct strains and 42 MOMP v...

  10. Produção e características qualitativas de sementes de plantas daninhas Production and qualitative characteristics of weed seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção (número e peso e a composição (teores de lipídeo total, proteína total, carboidrato e cinzas de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla (biótipos suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum em condições de campo. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram maiores valores para peso de 100 sementes. D. tortuosum produziu maior número de sementes por planta (714,2. Para todas as espécies avaliadas, a maior parte da reserva da biomassa seca das sementes foi constituída por carboidrato, e B. pilosa apresentou o maior acúmulo (61,7%. Biótipos de E. heterophylla acumularam maiores quantidades de lipídeos e de cinzas, enquanto D. tortuosum acumulou maior teor de proteínas (34,8%. Biótipos de E. heterophylla não diferiram quanto a produção e composição de suas sementes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the production (number and weight and composition (contents of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and ashes of Euphorbia heterophylla seeds (susceptible and resistant biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum under field conditions. Biotypes of E. heterophylla presented the highest weight of 100 seeds. D. tortuosum produced the largest number of seeds per plant (714.25. For all the evaluated species, most of the seed dry biomass reserve was constituted of carbohydrate with B. pilosa presenting the largest accumulation (61.7%. Biotypes of E. heterophylla accumulated higher amounts of lipids and ashes, while D. tortuosum accumulated higher protein content (34.8%. Biotypes of E. heterophylla did not differ in their seed production and composition.

  11. Comparison of the Microflex LT and Vitek MS systems for routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Delphine; Busson, Laurent; Wybo, Ingrid; El Haj, Rachid Ait; Dediste, Anne; Vandenberg, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    This study compared the performance of three matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems: Microflex LT (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany), Vitek MS RUO (Axima Assurance-Saramis database; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and Vitek MS IVD (bioMérieux). A total of 1,129 isolates, including 1,003 routine isolates, 73 anaerobes, and 53 bacterial enteropathogens, were tested on the Microflex LT and Axima Assurance devices. The spectra were analyzed using three databases: Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics), Saramis, and Vitek MS (bioMérieux). Among the routine isolates requiring identification to the species level (n = 986), 92.7% and 93.2% were correctly identified by the Biotyper and Vitek MS databases, respectively. The Vitek MS database is more specific for the identification of Streptococcus viridans. For the anaerobes, the Biotyper database often identified Fusobacterium isolates to only the genus level, which is of low clinical significance, whereas 20% of the Bacteroides species were not identified or were misidentified by the Vitek MS database. For the enteropathogens, the poor discrimination between Escherichia coli and Shigella explains the high proportion of unidentified organisms. In contrast to the Biotyper database, the Vitek MS database properly discriminated all of the Salmonella entrica serovar Typhi isolates (n = 5). The performance of the Saramis database was globally poorer. In conclusion, for routine procedures, the Microflex LT and Vitek-MS systems are equally good choices in terms of analytical efficiency. Other factors, including price, work flow, and lab activity, will affect the choice of a system.

  12. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vigeant

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely mode of transmission in this case.

  13. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Vigeant; Jack Mendelson; Miller, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely ...

  14. Genetic Diversity within Streptococcus mutans Evident from Chromosomal DNA Restriction Fragment Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to study the acquisition, transmission, and other aspects of the natural history of Streptococcus mutans infections in humans have been hampered by limitations and inconsistencies in methods by which phenotypic characteristics of individual isolates are examined. Because most mutans streptococci associated with human dental caries fall within the biotype I (serotypes c and f) grouping, designated S. mutans, these typing methods are of little value in distinguishing individual isolate...

  15. Ploidy levels and reproductive behaviour in invasive Hieracium pilosella in Patagonia

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    František Krahulec

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Within a population of invasive Hieracium pilosella in Chilean Patagonia we found two ploidy levels, pentaploid and hexaploid. Each ploidy level was represented by one clone. Their reproductive system was apomictic (and thus replicating the maternal genome, with a low degree of residual sexuality. It is necessary to prevent the evolution of new biotypes via hybridisation with different clones of H. pilosella or other Hieracium species introduced into Patagonia.

  16. 蔬菜上两种粉虱的识别与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国仁; 吴青君; 张友军; 徐宝云

    2006-01-01

    为害我国蔬菜作物的粉虱主要有两种,分别是温室白粉虱[Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood)]和B-生物型烟粉虱[B—biotype Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)],本文概述了它们的发生为害、田间识别特征和防治技术。

  17. Multiple-herbicide resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. formosensis, an allohexaploid weed species, in dry-seeded rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakami, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Masato; Matsushima, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Hamamura, Kenshiro; Uchino, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Biotypes of Echinochloa crus-galli var. formosensis with resistance to cyhalofop-butyl, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor, have been found in dry-seeded rice fields in Okayama, Japan. We collected two lines with suspected resistance (Ecf27 and Ecf108) from dry-seeded rice fields and investigated their sensitivity to cyhalofop-butyl and other herbicides. Both lines exhibited approximately 7-fold higher resistance to cyhalofop-butyl than a susceptible line. Ecf108 was susceptible to penoxsulam, an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor. On the other hand, Ecf27 showed resistance to penoxsulam and two other ALS inhibitors: propyrisulfuron and pyriminobac-methyl. The alternative herbicides butachlor, thiobencarb, and bispyribac-sodium effectively controlled both lines. To examine the molecular mechanisms of resistance, we amplified and sequenced the target-site encoding genes in Ecf27, Ecf108, and susceptible lines. Partial sequences of six ACCase genes and full-length sequences of three ALS genes were examined. One of the ACCase gene sequences encodes a truncated aberrant protein due to a frameshift mutation in both lines. Comparisons of the genes among Ecf27, Ecf108, and the susceptible lines revealed that none of the ACCases and ALSs in Ecf27 and Ecf108 have amino acid substitutions that are known to confer herbicide resistance, although a single amino acid substitution was found in each of three ACCases in Ecf108. Our study reveals the existence of a multiple-herbicide resistant biotype of E. crus-galli var. formosensis at Okayama, Japan that shows resistance to cyhalofop-butyl and several ALS inhibitors. We also found a biotype that is resistant only to cyhalofop-butyl among the tested herbicides. The resistance mechanisms are likely to be non-target-site based, at least in the multiple-herbicide resistant biotype.

  18. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    Full Text Available Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  19. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Silvia; Colauzzi, Michele; Scarabel, Laura; Collavo, Alberto; Rosan, Valentina; Sattin, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance) for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group) database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems) that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  20. Kinetics of Interaction and Fate of Pasteurella hemolytica in Bovine Alveolar Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswaran, S K; Berggren, K. A.; Simonson, R. R.; Ward, G E; Muscoplat, C C

    1980-01-01

    To study the role of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in phagocytizing Pasteurella hemolytica, we developed an in vitro cultivation method for preparing them. This procedure provided an adherent monolayer of PAMs which were nonspecific esterase-positive and phagocytized latex beads. The phagocytosis and fate of P. hemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) by PAMs in suspension were studied. The kinetics of phagocytosis were determined by quantitatively measuring the uptake of 24-h [3H]thymidine...

  1. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of Niš, Serbia

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Objective. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS and heat labile (HL antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Methods. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. Results. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C. jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C. jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. Conclusion. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Niš, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.

  2. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

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    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  3. Species distribution and physiological characterization of Acinetobacter genospecies from healthy human skin of tribal population in India

    OpenAIRE

    Yavankar S; Pardesi K; Chopade B

    2007-01-01

    Background: Various reports on distribution of Acinetobacter spp. from healthy human skin restricted to urban population. However, no such data is available from healthy human skin of tribal population not exposed to modern antibiotics during their life time. Purpose: Isolation, biotyping, distribution and physiological characterisation of Acinetobacter spp. from healthy human skin of tribal population. Methods: Tribal population of Toranmal area of Satpuda Ranges, Maharashtra, India...

  4. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by fungi strains isolated from the sand and soil of recreational areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wójcik, Anna; Błaszkowska, Joanna; Góralska, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16). In addition, 13 biotypes characteristic of particular species of fungi were defined. Most strains could be categorized as biotypes C2 – 39.5% and A – 26%. The examined fungal strains isolated from recreational areas have selected biochemical characteristics i.e. production of hydrolases, which demonstrate their pathogenicity. They produce a number of enzymes which are also present in strains isolated from patients with mycoses, including: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11) and alkaline phosphatase (e1). The biotypes identified in the course of this study (A, B3, B4, C1, C6 and D3) have been also reported in cases of fungal infection. Therefore, the fungi present in the sand and soil of recreational have pathogenic properties and are possible factors of fungal infection among children.

  5. Distinct antigenic and genetic properties of the immunoglobulin A1 protease produced by Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius associated with Brazilian purpuric fever in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Lomholt, H; Kilian, M

    1995-01-01

    All examined Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius isolates of the clone associated with Brazilian purpuric fever (the BPF clone) produced type 2 immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases encoded by identical iga genes that were distinct from the iga genes of other Brazilian H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius isolates. A partial nucleotide sequence analysis revealed close similarities to the iga genes of H. influenzae serotype c and one noncapsular H. influenzae biotype III strain isolated from a ...

  6. Tomographic anatomy of the vena cava and renal veins: features relevant to vena cava filter placement

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    Thiago Melo do Espírito Santo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing demand for invasive procedures involving the inferior vena cava, in particular for placement of vena cava filters. It is not always easy to identify the more distal renal vein with cavography, for safe release of filters. OBJECTIVES: To determine parameters for the relationships between the renal veins and the infrarenal vena cava and their corresponding vertebral bodies, their relationships with biotype and the occurrence of anatomic variations, the relationships between vertebral bodies and the bifurcation of the common iliac veins and the distance from this bifurcation to the outflow of the more distal renal vein, with reference to placement of vena cava filters. METHODS: A total of 150 abdominal computed tomography scans conducted from October to November 2011 were analyzed and classified according to the biotype exhibited (using Charpy's angle. Scans were performed at MEDIMAGEM and analyzed at the Integrated Vascular Surgery Service, both part of Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: In 127 of the 150 scans analyzed (84.66%, the more distal renal vein emerged between the first lumbar intervertebral space (L1-L2 and the body of L2, irrespective of patient biotype. Just 23 patients (15.33% exhibited a more distal renal vein with outflow below the body of L2, i.e. in the projection of the space between L2 and L3. CONCLUSIONS: The radiological correlation between the confluence of the more distal renal vein and vertebral bodies exhibits little variation, irrespective of the biotype of the patient.

  7. Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for a Brucella MLVA typing assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoeud France

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typing reagents. In addition, the resolution of this biotyping is moderate and requires the manipulation of the living agent. More efficient DNA-based methods are needed, and this work explores the suitability of multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA for both typing and species identification. Results Eighty tandem repeat loci predicted to be polymorphic by genome sequence analysis of three available Brucella genome sequences were tested for polymorphism by genotyping 21 Brucella strains (18 reference strains representing the six 'classical' species and all biovars as well as 3 marine mammal strains currently recognized as members of two new species. The MLVA data efficiently cluster the strains as expected according to their species and biovar. For practical use, a subset of 15 loci preserving this clustering was selected and applied to the typing of 236 isolates. Using this MLVA-15 assay, the clusters generated correspond to the classical biotyping scheme of Brucella spp. The 15 markers have been divided into two groups, one comprising 8 user-friendly minisatellite markers with a good species identification capability (panel 1 and another complementary group of 7 microsatellite markers with higher discriminatory power (panel 2. Conclusion The MLVA-15 assay can be applied to large collections of Brucella strains with automated or manual procedures, and can be proposed as a complement, or even a substitute, of classical biotyping methods. This is facilitated by the fact that MLVA is based on non-infectious material (DNA whereas the biotyping procedure itself requires the manipulation of the living agent. The data produced can be queried on a dedicated MLVA web service site.

  8. Pesquisa de Brucella spp. em linfonodos de suínos e javalis com linfadenite

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Acácia Ferreira [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Pork is the most consumed source of animal protein in worldwide. Brucellosis is one of the most important and worldwide distributed zoonosis. The prevention of human brucellosis depends on controlling the disease in animals. The bacteria isolation is the standard technique but new molecular methods allow the detection and differentiation the agent in species and biotypes reducing the time required for the final diagnosis. The control and eradication programs are based in serological tests for...

  9. Vibrio cholerae InV117, a Class 1 Integron Harboring aac(6′)-Ib and blaCTX-M-2, Is Linked to Transposition Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso J C Soler Bistué; Martín, Fernando A.; Petroni, Alejandro; Faccone, Diego; Galas, Marcelo; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.; Zorreguieta, Angeles

    2006-01-01

    A ca. 150-kbp Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor plasmid includes blaCTX-M-2 and a variant of aac(6′)-Ib within InV117, an orf513-bearing class 1 integron. InV117 is linked to a tnp1696 module in which IRl carries an insertion of IS4321R. The complete structure could be a potential mobile element.

  10. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions.

  11. Comparison of the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry with that of other commercial identification systems for identifying Staphylococcus saprophyticus in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Lee, Hao; Chen, Chung-Ming; Du, Shin-Hei; Cheng, Ya-Chih; Hsu, Chen-Ching; Chung, Meng-Yu; Teng, Shih-Hua; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-05-01

    Among 30 urinary isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus identified by sequencing methods, the rate of accurate identification was 100% for Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 86.7% for the Phoenix PID and Vitek 2 GP systems, 93.3% for the MicroScan GP33 system, and 46.7% for the BBL CHROMagar Orientation system.

  12. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations.

  13. Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Complemented with Selected 16S rRNA and gyrB Genes Sequencing to Practically Identify Clinical Important Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Yang, Qiwen; Kudinha, Timothy; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yupei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    There are challenges in viridans group streptococci (VGS) identification especially for the mitis group. Few studies have investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS system in VGS identification. Using 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequencing as a gold standard, the performance of two MALDI-TOF MS instruments in the identification of 181 VGS clinical isolates was studied. The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS IVD systems correctly identified 88.4% and 98.9% of the 181 isolates, respectively. The Vitek MS RUO system was the least reliable, only correctly identifying 38.7% of the isolates to species level with several misidentifications and invalid results. The Bruker Biotyper system was very unreliable in the identification of species within the mitis group. Among 22 non-pneumococci isolates (S. mitis/S. oralis/S. pseudopneumoniae), Biotyper misidentified 21 of them as S. pneumoniae leading to a low sensitivity and low positive predictive value in these species. In contrast, the Vitek MS IVD demonstrated a better resolution for pneumococci and non-pneumococci despite the inability to distinguish between S. mitis/S. oralis. For more accurate species-level identification, further improvements in the VGS spectra databases are needed. Based on MALDI-TOF analysis and selected 16S rRNA gene plus gyrB genes sequencing, we designed a practical VGS identification algorithm.

  14. Genetic Differentiation of Different Geographical Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Dong; LIU Guo-xia; FAN Zhong-xue; TAO Yun-li; ZHANG You-jun

    2007-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex, which includes different geographical populations with genetic differentiation. The recent progress on the genetic differentiation of various geographical populations of B. tabaci complex was introduced. The genetic differentiation was further analyzed on the basis of the sequences of mtDNA COI and rDNA ITSl recorded in the world's GenBank. Five groups are defined on the basis of mtDNA COI and rDNA ITS1, including the Asia group, America group, Africa group, Australia group, and Biotype B/Mediterranean/Middle East/ Northern Africa/Biotype Ms group. There are several ungrouped geographical classifications, such as the Uganda population, Ivory Coast population, and Taiwan population. Geographical isolation may be the most important factor that contributed to the genetic differentiation of various geographical populations of B. tabaci. Many populations with biological advantages invaded new regions and caused severe economic losses within human activity. It is necessary to strengthen the research of B. tabaci biotype to prevent the spread of invaded populations and the invasion of potentially dangerous populations.

  15. Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, C S P; Chu, F C S; Leung, W K; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P; Siu, S C

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to biotype and characterize phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of oral Candida albicans isolates from 210 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventy-six and 50 C. albicans isolates were obtained from type 2 DM patients and controls, respectively, using the oral rinse technique. The isolates were characterized with a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation patterns and boric acid resistance of the yeasts, and the isolates were further tested for in vitro phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities. The major biotypes of C. albicans isolates from the type 2 DM and control groups were A1R (42.1 %) and J1R (36.0 %), respectively. Significantly higher proteinase and haemolytic activities were found in the isolates from the type 2 DM group (P or =10 years of DM history than those with DM patients than in those from male counterparts (PCandida isolates taken from DM patients.

  16. Distribution of Glyphosate- and Thifensulfuron-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Poirier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth was first confirmed in North Carolina in 2005. A survey that year indicated 17 and 18% of 290 populations sampled were resistant to glyphosate and thifensulfuron, respectively. During the fall of 2010, 274 predetermined sites in North Carolina were surveyed to determine distribution of Palmer amaranth and to determine if and where resistance to fomesafen, glufosinate, glyphosate, and thifensulfuron occurred. Palmer amaranth was present at 134 sites. When mortality for each biotype was compared to a known susceptible biotype for each herbicide within a rate, 93 and 36% of biotypes were controlled less by glyphosate (840 g ae ha−1 and thifensulfuron (70 g ai ha−1, respectively. This approach may have underestimated resistance for segregating populations due to lack of homogeneity of the herbicide resistance trait and its contribution to error variance. When mortality and visible control were combined, 98% and 97% of the populations were resistant to glyphosate and the ALS inhibitor thifensulfuron, respectively, and 95% of the populations expressed multiple resistance to both herbicides. This study confirms that Palmer amaranth is commonly found across the major row crop production regions of North Carolina and that resistance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides is nearly universal. No resistance to fomesafen or glufosinate was observed.

  17. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  18. Salmonella species on meat contact surfaces and processing water in Sokoto main market and abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Oludayo Faleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine Salmonella contamination of food contact surfaces and processing water in meat, fish and poultry processing units in Sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 200 swab (100 from abattoir and 100 from poultry and fish markets and 60 processing water samples (30 from abattoir and 30 from poultry and fish markets were collected between May to August 2015. Cultural isolation, bio-typing and sero-grouping using Salmonella Sero-Quick Group Kit was conducted to analyse the samples. Seventy-five (75/260, 28.8 % of the total samples were positive to Salmonella by cultural isolation and bio-typing. Thirty (30/130; 23.1 % of samples collected in abattoir and 45 (45/130; 34.6 % of those collected from poultry and fish markets were positive for Salmonella respectively. Sero-groups D+Vi (Salmonella Typhi, B (Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Typhimurium and C (Salmonella Paratyphi C, Salmonella Cholerae suis were identified as the prevailing sero-groups in this study. Sero-group D+Vi has the highest prevalence (73.3 %; 55/75 from the positive bio-typing isolates. This study revealed the presence of contaminating and pathogenic Salmonella on food contact surfaces and processing water in the meat retail markets, indicating there is an urgent need to improve on the hygienic status of retail meat, poultry and fish markets.

  19. Genetic and biochemical diversity of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Janulaitiene, Migle; Lasickiene, Rita; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-06-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is considered a substantial player in the progression of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We analysed 17 G. vaginalis strains isolated from the genital tract of women diagnosed with BV to establish a potential link between genotypes/biotypes and the expression of virulence factors, vaginolysin (VLY) and sialidase, which are assumed to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BV. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed two G. vaginalis genotypes. Gardnerella vaginalis isolates of genotype 2 appeared more complex than genotype 1 and were subdivided into three subtypes. Biochemical typing allowed us to distinguish four different biotypes. A great diversity of the level of VLY production among the isolates of G. vaginalis may be related to a different cytotoxicity level of the strains. We did not find any correlation between VLY production level and G. vaginalis genotype/biotype. In contrast, a link between G. vaginalis genotype and sialidase production was established. Our findings on the diversity of VLY expression level in different clinical isolates and linking sialidase activity with the genotype of G. vaginalis could help to evaluate the pathogenic potential of different G. vaginalis strains.

  20. A rapid and improved method for the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus strains grown on hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S K; Pandian, S; Todd, E C; Farber, J M

    2002-06-01

    DNA probe-based detection methods were developed and characterized as an alternative to time-consuming and less specific conventional protocols. Digoxigenin-labeled probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the targeted sequences in the specific amplicons generated from genomic DNA. Specific probes with high yields were generated for the detection of the tlh gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the cth gene of V. vulnificus. Colony (Southern) hybridization analyses were carried out using hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) to allow biotype-specific differentiation of the two species. Eight strains of V. vulnificus and five strains of V. parahaemolyticus, including one standard (ATCC) strain of each biotype, were examined. Colony lysis, hybridization, and nonradioactive detection parameters were optimized for identification of the target biotypes arranged on the same HGMF and also on a conventional nylon membrane, thereby confirming the specificity of the probes and the comparative usefulness of the HGMFs. The experimental procedure presented here can be completed in 1 day. The protocol was designed specifically to identify the target Vibrio spp. and could potentially be used for the enumeration and differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in foods.

  1. Factors affecting population dynamics of maternally transmitted endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci.

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    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available While every individual of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae harbors the primary symbiont (P-symbiont Portiera, the infection frequencies of the six secondary symbionts (S-symbionts including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea vary greatly among different populations. To characterize the factors influencing the infection dynamics of the six S-symbionts in B. tabaci, gene-specific PCR were conducted to screen for the presence of the P-symbiont Portiera and the six S-symbionts in 61 (17 B and 44 Q biotypes field populations collected from different plant species and locations in China. All individuals of the 61 populations hosted the P-symbiont Portiera, but none of them harbored Arsenophonus and Fritschea. The presence and infection rates of Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and their co-infections Rickettsia + Hamiltonella (RH, Rickettsia + Cardinium (RC, Hamiltonella + Cardinium (HC and Rickettsia + Hamiltonella + Cardinium (RHC varied significantly among the 61 field populations; and the observed variations can be explained by biotypes, sexes, host plants and geographical locations of these field populations. Taken together, at least three factors including biotype, host plant and geographical location affect the infection dynamics of S-symbionts in B. tabaci.

  2. Morphological differentiation between S. mutans and S. sobrinus on modified SB-20 culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Marta Estela; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Ito, Izabel Yoko; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Emilson, Claes-Göran

    2011-01-20

    Due to the major role of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the etiology of dental caries, it is important to use culture media that allow for differentiating these bacterial species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a modified SB-20 culture medium (SB-20M) for the isolation and morphological differentiation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, compared to biochemical identification (biotyping). Saliva samples were collected using the spatula method from 145 children, seeded on plates containing the SB-20M, in which sucrose was replaced by coarse granular cane sugar, and incubated in microaerophilia at 37°C during 72 h. Identification of the microorganisms was performed under stereomicroscopy based on colony morphology of 4904 colonies. The morphological identification was examined by biochemical tests of 94 randomly selected colonies with the macroscopic characteristic of S. mutans and S. sobrinus using sugar fermentation, resistance to bacitracin and production of hydrogen peroxide. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between morphological identification in the SB-20M medium and biochemical identification (biotyping). Biotyping confirmed that S. mutans and S. sobrinus colonies were correctly characterized in the SB-20M in 95.8% and 95.5% of the cases, respectively. Of the mutans streptococci detected in the children 98% were S. mutans and 2% S. sobrinus. The SB-20M medium is reliable for detection and direct morphological identification of S. mutans and S. sobrinus.

  3. Characterization of Biofilm Formation in [Pasteurella] pneumotropica and [Actinobacillus] muris Isolates of Mouse Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Martin; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Gougoula, Christina; Benga, Laurentiu

    2015-01-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris are the most prevalent Pasteurellaceae species isolated from laboratory mouse. However, mechanisms contributing to their high prevalence such as the ability to form biofilms have not been studied yet. In the present investigation we analyze if these bacterial species can produce biofilms in vitro and investigate whether proteins, extracellular DNA and polysaccharides are involved in the biofilm formation and structure by inhibition and dispersal assays using proteinase K, DNase I and sodium periodate. Finally, the capacity of the biofilms to confer resistance to antibiotics is examined. We demonstrate that both [P.] pneumotropica biotypes but not [A.] muris are able to form robust biofilms in vitro, a phenotype which is widely spread among the field isolates. The biofilm inhibition and dispersal assays by proteinase and DNase lead to a strong inhibition in biofilm formation when added at the initiation of the biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed [P.] pneumotropica biofilms, revealing thus that proteins and extracellular DNA are essential in biofilm formation and structure. Sodium periodate inhibited the bacterial growth when added at the beginning of the biofilm formation assay, making difficult the assessment of the role of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides in the biofilm formation, and had a biofilm stimulating effect when added on pre-established mature biofilms of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and a majority of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz strains, suggesting that the presence of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides on the bacterial surface might attenuate the biofilm production. Conversely, no effect or a decrease in the biofilm quantity was observed by biofilm dispersal using sodium periodate on further biotype Jawetz is