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Sample records for biotrol soil washing

  1. Technology evaluation report: Biotrol Soil Washing System for treatment of a wood-preserving site. Volume 2, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.; Evans, J.; Kitaplioglu, O.; McPherson, J.

    1991-12-01

    The SITE Program demonstration of one configuration of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS) was conducted to obtain reliable performance and cost data that can be used to evaluate the potential applicability of the technology as a remediation alternative for sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The BSWS treatment train used in the study consists of three technologies: a soil washer; an aqueous treatment system; and a slurry bio-reactor. The demonstration was carried out at the MacGillis and Gibbs Superfund site in New Brighton, MN. The report analyzes the results from the SITE demonstration. It includes discussion of the operation of the three separate treatment technologies (SW, SBR, and BATS) evaluated in the test and provides flow diagrams, a summary of the sampling and analytical programs, an economic analysis, and a quality assurance/quality control evaluation of the data. Conclusions were reached concerning the technology's suitability for use in remediations involving both similar and different materials at other sites

  2. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  3. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  4. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl.

  5. Soil washing for oil removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, A.; Chhabra, M.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary research presented in this paper, introduces soil washing as a technology that can be used to remediate soils contaminated with oil. a combination of surface active agents and solvents were used to recover added motor oil from a sandy loam soil. At the final stage, both the oil and the surface active material are recovered simultaneously. In some surfactant and solvent combinations oil recovery was complete, approaching close to 100 percent. Several surfactant and organic solvents were screened for their applicability to the soil washing procedure. The best results were obtained with isopropanol (IPA) and four surfactants (WA799, WDPG482, WDRA22, and W4016)

  6. Soil washing for brine removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  7. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  8. Soil washing: From characterization to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, F.L.; Groenendijk, E.

    1995-01-01

    Only recently has soil washing begun to be applied to remediation of contaminated soils in the US. The experience gained during full-scale and large pilot-scale projects points to the importance of soil and site characterization in correctly evaluating the applicability of soil washing to a site and determining accurate cost estimates for its implementation. This paper will discuss actual case studies of various treatability and pilot study approaches that led to successful evaluation and implementation of soil washing remedies. Soil washing is applicable to a broad variety of chemical contaminants. Target contaminants include metals, radionuclides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as combinations of these contaminants. Because the contaminants noted above are deposited in the soils in a variety of forms, the unit operations necessary to treat the soil vary. It is the diversity of the available treatment alternatives, and the ability to use the units in a variety of process flow configurations that result in a very broad definition of soil washing

  9. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  10. Lead removal via soil washing and leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. K.; Man, X. D.; Walsh, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    A soil washing and leaching process was tested for removing lead from soils. A soil-washing circuit, including size and gravity separations, was employed to remove the coarse metallic lead particles, while the leaching was applied to remove fine metallic lead particles and other lead species. The soil-washing tests proved that the metallic lead particles larger than 0.15 mm (100 mesh) could be effectively removed. The sodium-chloride-based leaching solution with ferric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as oxidants was adopted in the leaching. The leaching experimental results indicated that under the pH of 2 and Eh of 1,300 mV, the metallic lead particles smaller than 0.15 mm and other lead species can be dissolved in the leaching solution within 60 minutes.

  11. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  12. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cena, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system

  15. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  16. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  17. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  18. An overview of the Department of Energy's soil washing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Soil Washing Workshop was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, on August 28--29, 1990 at the request of C.W. Frank, Associate Director, Office of Technology Development, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of existing soil washing technologies and their applicability to specific soil contamination problems at DOE sites and at Superfund sites of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). From the workshop deliberations, a course of action would be recommended in developing soil washing technologies. Presentations were given describing the soil contamination problems at various DOE sites. The factors addressed for each site included: type of contamination (organic, heavy metals, radionuclides, etc.), sources of contamination (leaking tanks, ponds, soil columns, pipes, etc.), types of soils that are contaminated, magnitude of the problem, current site activities (remediation), other considerations that impact the use of soil washing technology (e.g., environmental, site policies, etc.), and regulations and standards the sites are required to meet. Major findings and presentations of the workshop are presented

  19. Dioxin removal from contaminated soils by ethanol washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sofia; Lind, Henrik; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential utility of ethanol washing for remediating soils contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as a cost-efficient alternative to conventional remediation methods of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. Initially, screening experiments were performed with a two-level full factorial design to examine the effects of temperature, extraction time and ethanol concentration on the removal efficiency. The screening experiments showed that the ethanol concentration was the most important parameter. In addition, repeated washing cycles considerably improved the results. Ethanol washing conditions were then selected (10 wash cycles with 75% ethanol at 60 degrees C), and applied to four soils with different soil characteristics and contamination levels to test the robustness of the selected method. Treatment efficiencies of 81% and 85% were obtained for a lightly contaminated sandy-silty soil and a highly contaminated clay soil rich in graphite particles, respectively. Even higher treatment efficiencies (> or = 97%) were obtained for two other highly contaminated soils, one of which contained high amounts of organic matter. PCDD/Fs were found to both dissolve in the solvent and migrate into it as species adsorbed to particles. The relative contributions of these mechanisms and the overall efficiency of the removal seem to depend on contaminant concentration, the types of carbon in the soil matrix and the particle size distribution. The study shows that ethanol washing has effective remediation potential for a variety of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2017-04-01

    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H 3 PO 4 , NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H 3 PO 4 , 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H 3 PO 4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H 3 PO 4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of uranium from gravel using soil washing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ilgook; Kim, Kye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of nuclear technology has led to increasing radioactive waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the nuclear sites. Fine grained soils with a size of less than 4 mm are normally decontaminated using soil washing and electro-kinetic technologies. However, there have been few studies on the decontamination of gravels with a size of more than 4 mm. Therefore, it is necessary to study the decontamination of gravel contaminated with radionuclides. The main objective of the present study on soil washing was to define the optimal condition for acid treatment of uranium-polluted gravel. In this study, soil washing method was applied to remove uranium from gravel. The gravel was crushed and classified as particle sizes. The gravel particles were treated with sulfuric acid in a shaking incubator at 60 .deg. C and 150 rpm for 3 h. The optimal particle size of gravel for soil washing in removal of uranium was between 0.45 and 2.0 mm.

  2. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  3. Recovery of MSWI and soil washing residues as concrete aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Abbà, Alessandro; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues and aggregates derived from contaminated soil washing could be used as alternative aggregates for concrete production. Initially, chemical, physical and geometric characteristics (according to UNI EN 12620) of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes and some contaminated soils were evaluated; moreover, the pollutants release was evaluated by means of leaching tests. The results showed that the reuse of pre-treated MSWI bottom ash and washed soil is possible, either from technical or environmental point of view, while it is not possible for the raw wastes. Then, the natural aggregate was partially and totally replaced with these recycled aggregates for the production of concrete mixtures that were characterized by conventional mechanical and leaching tests. Good results were obtained using the same dosage of a high resistance cement (42.5R calcareous Portland cement instead of 32.5R); the concrete mixture containing 400 kg/m(3) of washed bottom ash and high resistance cement was classified as structural concrete (C25/30 class). Regarding the pollutants leaching, all concrete mixtures respected the limit values according to the Italian regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  5. Physical separations soil washing system cold test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, J.P.

    1993-07-28

    This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

  6. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-11-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg{sup -1} Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8{+-}1.3 mg kg{sup -1} Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg{sup -1} exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53{+-}0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  7. Soil remediation: humic acids as natural surfactants in the washings of highly contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, Pellegrino; Agretto, Anna; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The remediation of the highly contaminated site around the former chemical plant of ACNA (near Savona) in Northern Italy is a top priority in Italy. The aim of the present work was to contribute in finding innovative and environmental-friendly technology to remediate soils from the ACNA contaminated site. Two soils sampled from the ACNA site (A and B), differing in texture and amount and type of organic contaminants, were subjected to soil washings by comparing the removal efficiency of water, two synthetic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX100), and a solution of a natural surfactant, a humic acid (HA) at its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The extraction of pollutants by sonication and soxhlet was conducted before and after the soil washings. Soil A was richer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas soil B had a larger content of thiophenes. Sonication resulted more analytically efficient in the fine-textured soil B. The coarse-textured soil A was extracted with a general equal efficiency also by soxhlet. Clean-up by water was unable to exhaustively remove contaminants from the two soils, whereas all the organic surfactants revealed very similar efficiencies (up to 90%) in the removal of the contaminants from the soils. Hence, the use of solutions of natural HAs appears as a better choice for soil washings of highly polluted soils due to their additional capacity to promote microbial activity, in contrast to synthetic surfactants, for a further natural attenuation in washed soils. - Solutions of natural humic acids appear to be a better choice for washing highly polluted soils

  8. Soil Chemistry Effect on Feasibility of Cr-decontamination by Acid-Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Isoyama, Masahiro; Wada, Shin-Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Soil washing with sample acid jas been proven to be effective for removal of cationic heavy metals from contaminated soils. Since the obsorption of anitonic heavy metals is enhanced in acidic medium, the efficiency of acid-washing may not be guaranteed for soils that are doubly contaminated with cationic and anitonic heavy metals. To evaluate the efficiensy of acid-washing, nine soils are artifically contaminated with chromate and chromium was extracted with hydrochrolic acid of 0.5 mmol L[-1...

  9. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  10. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  11. [Strengthening Effects of Sodium Salts on Washing Kerosene Contaminated Soil with Surfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhao-lu; Chen, Quan-yuan; Zhou, Juan; Xie, Mo-han

    2015-05-01

    The impact of sodium salt on kerosene contaminated soil washing with surfactants was investigated. The results indicated that sodium silicate greatly enhanced the washing efficiency of SDS. Sodium tartrate can largely enhance the washing efficiency of SDBS and Brij35. Sodium salts can enhance the washing efficiency on kerosene contaminated with TX-100. No significant differences were observed between different sodium salts. Sodium salt of humic acid and sodium silicate had similar enhancement on kerosene contaminated soil washing with saponin. Sodium humate can be a better choice since its application can also improve soil quality. The enhancement of sodium silicate on kerosene contaminated soil washing with Tw-80 increased with the increase of Tw-80 dosage. However, the impact of sodium chloride and sodium tartrate was opposite to sodium silicate. Sodium salts can reduce surface tension and critical micelle concentration of ionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Sodium salts can also reduce re-adsorption of oil to soil with nonionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Kerosene contamination can increase the contact angle of soil, which indicated the increase of hydrophilicity of soil. Washing with surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicitiy of soil according to contact angle measurement, which indicated that kerosene contaminated soil remediation with surfactant can also benefit nutrient and water transportation in the contaminated soil.

  12. Testing of multistep soil washing for radiocesium-contaminated soil containing plant matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funakawa, Masafumi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Okuda, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination work following radiocesium exposure requires a vast reduction in the amount of contaminated soil generated. The current study subjected 4 types of contaminated soil with different properties to multistep soil washing under the same conditions. This study also determined the effectiveness of radiocesium decontamination and the extent to which the amount of contaminated soil was reduced. In addition, the effectiveness of plant matter separation, adsorbent addition, and grinding as part of multistep soil washing was determined using the same contaminated soil. Results of testing indicated that the rate of radiocesium decontamination ranged from 73.6 to 89.2% and the recovery rate ranged from 51.5 to 84.2% for twice-treated soil, regardless of the soil properties or cesium level. Plant matter in soil had a high radiocesium level. However, there was little plant matter in our soil sample. Therefore, plant matter separation had little effect on the improvement in the percentage of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. Soil surface grinding improved the rate of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. However, radiocesium in soil tightly bound with minerals in the soil; thus, the addition of an adsorbent also failed to improve the rate of radiocesium decontamination. (author)

  13. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Wontae; Son, Younggyu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process was investigated and compared with ultrasonic process and mechanical process using a relatively large lab-scale sonoreactor. It was found that higher removal efficiencies were observed in the combined processes for 0.1 and 0.3 M HCl washing liquids. It was due to the combination effects of macroscale removal for the overall range of slurry by mechanical mixing and microscale removal for the limited zone of slurry by cavitational actions.

  14. Radionuclide contaminated soil: Laboratory study and economic analysis of soil washing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H.; Patel, B.; Bowerman, B.; Brower, J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the work discussed in this report is to determine if soil washing is a feasible method to remediate contaminated soils from the Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The contaminants are predominantly Cs-137 and Sr-90. The authors have assumed that the target activity for Cs-137 is 50 pCi/g and that remediation is required for soils having greater activities. Cs-137 is the limiting contaminant because it is present in much greater quantities than Sr-90. This work was done in three parts, in which they: estimated the volume of contaminated soil as a function of Cs-137 content, determined if simple removal of the fine grained fraction of the soil (the material that is less than 0.063 mm) would effectively reduce the activity of the remaining soil to levels below the 50 pCi/g target, assessed the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical (as well as combinations of the two) methods of soil decontamination. From this analysis the authors were then able to develop a cost estimate for soil washing and for a baseline against which soil washing was compared

  15. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-01-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  16. Environmental Impacts of Spent Wash on Soil Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been undertaken primarily to assess environmental impact of distilleries on soil quality. Research work is an experimental comparative study. Three locations were selected in Sindh Province of Pakistan among two were considered polluted and one was unpolluted or controlled site and controlled sample was taken from Sujawal City. Soil samples were taken as vertically and horizontally from and around distilleries. Spent wash samples were taken from the first two locations. Analytical assessment shown soil samples exceeded the limits those of the control soil samples, like pH of Mirpurkhas location surface soil 6.2 to 8.1, EC 308 µS/cm to 4.50 mS/cm, salinity 0.5%o to 2.4%o, T.N 24.8mg/l to 47.9mg/l, T.K 249.7mg/l to 291.5mg/l, T.P 0.29mg/l to 4.18mg/l, T.H 529mg/l to 1120mg/l, T.C 305mg/l to 690mg/l, S 71 mg/l to 101mg/l and Cl 27mg/l to 34.9mg/l and vertical soil of Mirpurkhas having pH 7.6 to 8.03, EC 221µS/cm to 725µS/cm, salinity 0.1%o to 0.4%o, T.N 32.7 mg/l to 49.8mg/l, T.P 0.26mg/l to 1.29mg/l, T.K 217.6 mg/l to 298.6mg/l, T.H 450mg/l to 1030mg/l, T.C 217mg/l to 630mg/l, S 65mg/l to 118mg/l and Cl 23.4mg/l to 39.3 mg/l, and deep soil having pH 7.9 to 8.30, EC 240µS/cm to 713µS/cm, salinity 0.2%o to 0.4%o, T.N 32.6 mg/l to 51.8mg/l, T.P 1.22 mg/l to 1.98 mg/l, T.K 264.2mg/l to 293.7mg/l, T.H 400 mg/l to 890mg/l, T.C 270mg/l to 450mg/l, S 67mg/l to 113mg/l and Cl 21mg/l to 35.2mg/l. Similarly, spent wash samples also exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards limits.

  17. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  18. Copper removal from contaminated soils by soil washing process using camellian-derived saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fernanda Campos, Maria; Videla, Álvaro; Letelier, María Victoria; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2015-04-01

    Antofagasta Region in North of Chile has been the main copper producer district in the world. As a consequence of a lack of mining closure regulation, a large number of abandon small-to-medium size metal-contaminated sites have been identified in the last survey performed by the Chilean Government. Therefore, more research development on sustainable reclamation technologies must be made in this extreme arid-dry zone. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of soil remediation by washing contaminated soil using camellian-derived saponin for the mobilization of copper. Soil samples were taken from an abandoned copper mine site located at 30 km North Antofagasta city. They were dried and sieved at 75 µm for physico-chemical characterization. A commercial saponin extracted from camellias seed was used as biosurfactant. The soil used contains 67.4 % sand, 26.3 % silt and 6.3 % clay. The soil is highly saline (electric conductivity, 61 mScm-1), with low organic matter content (0.41%), with pH 7.30, and a high copper concentration (2200 mg Kg-1 soil). According to the sequential extraction procedure of the whole soil, copper species are mainly as exchangeable fraction (608.2 mg Kg-1 soil) and reducible fraction (787.3 mg Kg-1 soil), whereas the oxidizable and residual fractions are around 205.7 and 598.8 mg Kg-1 soil, respectively. Soil particles under 75 µm contain higher copper concentrations (1242 mg Kg-1 soil) than the particle fraction over 75 µm (912 mg Kg-1 soil). All washing assays were conducted in triplicate using a standard batch technique with and without pH adjustment. The testing protocols includes evaluation of four solid to liquid ratio (0.5:50; 1.0:50; 2.0:50, and 5.0:50) and three saponin concentrations (0, 1, and 4 mg L-1). After shaking (24 h, 20±1 °C) and subsequently filtration (0.45 µm), the supernatants were analyzed for copper and pH. The removal efficiencies of copper by saponin solutions were calculated in according to the

  19. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and 137 Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. - Highlights: • Fine soil erosion showed large impact on radiocaesium wash-off. • Exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and eroded soil. • Radiocaesium concentration in the discharged soil was depending on land use

  20. Heavy metal removal by GLDA washing: Optimization, redistribution, recycling, and changes in soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhang, Chuer; Jia, Yongxia; Li, Ting; Deng, Ouping; Li, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Soil washing, an emerging method for treating soils contaminated by heavy metals, requires an evaluation of its efficiency in simultaneously removing different metals, the quality of the soil following remediation, and the reusability of the recycled washing agent. In this study, we employed N,N-bis (carboxymethyl)-l-glutamic acid (GLDA), a novel and readily biodegradable chelator to remove Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. We investigated the influence of washing conditions, including GLDA concentration, pH, and contact time on their removal efficiencies. The single factor experiments showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn removal efficiencies reached 70.62, 74.45, and 34.43% in mine soil at a GLDA concentration of 75mM, a pH of 4.0, and a contact time of 60min, and in polluted farmland soil, removal efficiencies were 69.12, 78.30, and 39.50%, respectively. We then employed response surface methodology to optimize the washing parameters. The optimization process showed that the removal efficiencies were 69.50, 88.09, and 40.45% in mine soil and 71.34, 81.02, and 50.95% in polluted farmland soil for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the overall highly effective removal of Cd and Pb was connected mainly to their highly effective removal from the water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fractions. GLDA-washing eliminated the same amount of metals as EDTA-washing, while simultaneously retaining most of the soil nutrients. Removal efficiencies of recycled GLDA were no >5% lower than those of the fresh GLDA. Therefore, GLDA could potentially be used for the rehabilitation of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation of multiple heavy metal-contaminated soil through the combination of soil washing and in situ immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiuqing; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Bin; Luo, Ninglin; Huang, Mei; Zhang, Qiu; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-13

    The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils is a great challenge for global environmental sciences and engineering. To control the ecological risks of heavy metal-contaminated soil more effectively, the present study focused on the combination of soil washing (with FeCl 3 ) and in situ immobilization (with lime, biochar, and black carbon). The results showed that the removal rate of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu was 62.9%, 52.1%, 30.0%, and 16.7%, respectively, when washed with FeCl 3 . After the combined remediation (immobilization with 1% (w/w) lime), the contaminated soils showed 36.5%, 73.6%, 70.9%, and 53.4% reductions in the bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (extracted with 0.11M acetic acid), respectively, than those of the soils washed with FeCl 3 only. However, the immobilization with 1% (w/w) biochar or 1% (w/w) carbon black after washing exhibited low effects on stabilizing the metals. The differences in effects between the immobilization with lime, biochar, and carbon black indicated that the soil pH had a significant influence on the lability of heavy metals during the combined remediation process. The activity of the soil enzymes (urease, sucrase, and catalase) showed that the addition of all the materials, including lime, biochar, and carbon black, exhibited positive effects on microbial remediation after soil washing. Furthermore, lime was the most effective material, indicating that low soil pH and high acid-soluble metal concentrations might restrain the activity of soil enzymes. Soil pH and nutrition were the major considerations for microbial remediation during the combined remediation. These findings suggest that the combination of soil washing and in situ immobilization is an effective method to amend the soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl 3 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO 3 , Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbS, and Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO 3 , disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na 2 -EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO 4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl 3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl 2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl 2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 and PbCO 3 , we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrodialytic versus acid extraction of heavy metals from soil washing residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille E.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Allard, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of electrodialytic remediation (EDR) for treatment of suspended sludge after soil washing is in focus in the present paper. Five industrially contaminated soils were treated in laboratory scale remediation experiments, and the toxic elements of the investigation were: As, Cd, Cu, ...

  4. Technical support for the Soiltech soil washing project. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomascik, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    The organic removal ability of a surfactant solution was studied for an ''as-received'' soil sample. A 15% surfactant solution was added to an equal portion of the soil sample, by volume, and blended. The mixture was then stirred with a magnetic stirrer. A black precipitate resulted, which was then periodically skimmed off the top of the solution. This was done at both room temperature and at 150 degrees F. The soil sample was examined before and after processing with optical microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) , energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS), and analytical chemical analysis (total oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons)

  5. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and (137)Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of oxyfluorfen from ex-situ soil washing fluids using electrolysis with diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sáez, Cristina; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel Andres

    2016-04-15

    In this research, firstly, the treatment of soil spiked with oxyfluorfen was studied using a surfactant-aided soil-washing (SASW) process. After that, the electrochemical treatment of the washing liquid using boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes was performed. Results clearly demonstrate that SASW is a very efficient approach in the treatment of soil, removing the pesticide completely by using dosages below 5 g of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) per Kg of soil. After that, complete mineralization of organic matter (oxyflourfen, SDS and by-products) was attained (100% of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removals) when the washing liquids were electrolyzed using BDD anodes, but the removal rate depends on the size of the particles in solution. Electrolysis of soil washing fluids occurs via the reduction in size of micelles until their complete depletion. Lower concentrations of intermediates are produced (sulfate, chlorine, 4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenol and ortho-nitrophenol) during BDD-electrolyzes. Finally, it is important to indicate that, sulfate (coming from SDS) and chlorine (coming from oxyfluorfen) ions play an important role during the electrochemical organic matter removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved

  8. Following of erosive wash of soil in variants with different intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Badalíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot experiment established in a sugar beet growing region the erosive washing away of soil was studied in the years 2006 to 2008. The area is located at an altitude of 246 m with the long-term mean precipitation of 500 mm and the mean annual temperature of 8.4 °C. The soils are classified as Chernozem, moderately heavy, loamy, with a good supply of nutrients, humus content of 2.30 % and an alkaline soil reaction. Slope gradient is 12 %, exposition is NE. To study the role of intercrops in erosion control, three variants were established after the harvest of the main crop, two variants with different intercrops and one (control with no intercrop. These were Variant 1 with Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF., a non-freezing intercrop, Variant 2 with cluster mallow (Malva verticillata L., a freezing intercrop, and a control variant with no intercrop. In Variant 1 Secale cereale L. var. multicaule was desiccated with the herbicide Roundup in early spring. All the variants involved maize as the main crop. In variants 1 and 2, maize was sown in intercrop residues after seedbed preparation by Vario and a compactor. In Variant 3 maize was sown after conventional seedbed preparation. For assessment of soil conditions soil samples were taken to determine soil physical and chemical properties and water content in the soil. Soil loss by erosion was determined using specially-designed pockets. Erosive washing away of soil was monitored during the entire growing season of maize. The variants in which intercrops were used were found very effective in soil erosion control. In Variant 3 (control without surface crop residues, the washing away of soil was recorded with each heavy torrential rain. During the all years the total amount of soil loss by erosion in this treatment was 2.25 t . ha−1.

  9. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  10. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  11. Remediation of toxic metal contaminated soil by washing with biodegradable aminopolycarboxylate chelants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Zinnat A; Rahman, Ismail M M; Tate, Yousuke; Sawai, Hikaru; Maki, Teruya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Ex situ soil washing with synthetic extractants such as, aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) is a viable treatment alternative for metal-contaminated site remediation. EDTA and its homologs are widely used among the APCs in the ex situ soil washing processes. These APCs are merely biodegradable and highly persistent in the aquatic environments leading to the post-use toxic effects. Therefore, an increasing interest is focused on the development and use of the eco-friendly APCs having better biodegradability and less environmental toxicity. The paper deals with the results from the lab-scale washing treatments of a real sample of metal-contaminated soil for the removal of the ecotoxic metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) using five biodegradable APCs, namely [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, imminodisuccinic acid, methylglycinediacetic acid, DL-2-(2-carboxymethyl) nitrilotriacetic acid (GLDA), and 3-hydroxy-2,2'-iminodisuccinic acid. The performance of those biodegradable APCs was evaluated for their interaction with the soil mineral constituents in terms of the solution pH and metal-chelant stability constants, and compared with that of EDTA. Speciation calculations were performed to identify the optimal conditions for the washing process in terms of the metal-chelant interactions as well as to understand the selectivity in the separation ability of the biodegradable chelants towards the metal ions. A linear relationship between the metal extraction capacity of the individual chelants towards each of the metal ions from the soil matrix and metal-chelant conditional stability constants for a solution pH greater than 6 was observed. Additional considerations were derived from the behavior of the major potentially interfering cations (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn), and it was hypothesized that use of an excess of chelant may minimize the possible competition effects during the single-step washing treatments. Sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the

  12. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  13. Nanoscale zero-valent iron-assisted soil washing for the removal of potentially toxic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, C; Sierra, C; Martínez-Blanco, D; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Gallego, J R

    2018-05-15

    The present study focuses on soil washing enhancement via soil pretreatment with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for the remediation of potentially toxic elements. To this end, soil polluted with As, Cu, Hg, Pb and Sb was partitioned into various grain sizes (500-2000, 125-500 and accounting correction considering the dilution effects caused by nanoparticle addition. As a result, remarkable recovery yields were obtained for Cu, Pb and Sb, which concentrated with the nZVI in the magnetically separated fraction (WHIMS tests) and underflow (hydrocyclone tests). In contrast, Hg, concentrated in the non-magnetic fraction and overflow respectively, while the behavior of As was unaltered by the nZVI pretreatment. All things considered, the addition of nZVI enhanced the efficiency of soil washing, particularly for larger fractions (125-2000 μm). The proposed methodology lays the foundations for nanoparticle utilization in soil washing operations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the TPH Removal Efficiency in Soil Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A feed forward artificial neural network (FFANN was developed to predict the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from a contaminated soil, using soil washing process with Tween 80. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of developed FFANN model for the estimation of   TPH removal. Materials and Methods: Several independent repressors including pH, shaking speed, surfactant concentration and contact time were used to describe the removal of TPH as a dependent variable in a FFANN model. 85% of data set observations were used for training the model and remaining 15% were used for model testing, approximately. The performance of the model was compared with linear regression and assessed, using Root of Mean Square Error (RMSE as goodness-of-fit measure Results: For the prediction of TPH removal efficiency, a FANN model with a three-hidden-layer structure of 4-3-1 and a learning rate of 0.01 showed the best predictive results. The RMSE and R2 for the training and testing steps of the model were obtained to be 2.596, 0.966, 10.70 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusion: For about 80% of the TPH removal efficiency can be described by the assessed regressors the developed model. Thus, focusing on the optimization of soil washing process regarding to shaking speed, contact time, surfactant concentration and pH can improve the TPH removal performance from polluted soils. The results of this study could be the basis for the application of FANN for the assessment of soil washing process and the control of petroleum hydrocarbon emission into the environments.

  15. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  16. Countercurrent soil washing system for remediation of viscous hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Karlsson, M.K.; Downie, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Drying augers and multicell DAF tanks are excellent machines in which to countercurrently wash soil and remove hazardous hydrocarbons, metals or radionuclides. An auger works well because it preferentially moves soil along one side of its trough. Thus, when enough high pressure and temperature water jets are placed along that path, contaminants can be melted, or dissolved and scoured from the soil. Contaminants and fines flow down the opposite side of the auger and out for extraction in a series of flotation tanks. Countercurrent washing of the silt results when soil settles in tanks through rising water and air bubbles then is pumped through cyclones placed above the next DAF tank of the series. LNAPLs, DNAPLs, or metallic contaminants made hydrophobic by chemicals in the system are removed at the overflow of the cyclones or by flotation in the tanks. The overflow from the cyclones and DAF tanks flows into the previous tank of the series. Examples of contaminants remediated include; arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), uranium, solid oils, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote and coal tars, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons

  17. Soils washing for removal of heavy oil: Naval Air Engineering Center, Lakehurst, NJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.H.; Traver, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    With the recognition that large tracts of land are currently unusable as a result of either accidental spills or past industrial practices (such as oil field development), the USEPA Office of Research and Development evaluated soil washing as an alternative remedial technology for heavy oil contaminated soil at a site located on the Naval Air Engineering Center (NAEC), Lakehurst, New Jersey. The researchers used a self-contained, 100-pound-per-hour soil washer. Electrical, pneumatic, and fluid-pumping capabilities were provided by the trailer-mounted system at a remote No. 6 type oil spill site at the Navy base. Chloroform extracts of the contaminated sandy soil recovered a 0.91 gram/milliliter, 950 centistoke viscosity, dark brown, non-PCB oil. By using a surfactant/solvent solution at ambient temperatures, contaminant levels on the soil were reduced from 3.8% (38,000 milligram/kilogram-RCRA hazardous waste designation) to as low as 0.035% (350 milligram/kilogram) oil concentration. Supplemental laboratory evaluations extending the pilot field evaluations showed at elevated temperatures (120F) that residual oil contamination was less than 0.01% (100 milligram/kilogram). This final oil concentration in the treated soil would be defined as clean under the New Jersey Environmental Cleanup and Responsibilities Act (ECRA). A continuous belt press filter was used to recover the oil in a 47% solids cake that could be used as a secondary fuel feed to a waste boiler. The wash water solution was treated and recycled permitting economical operations

  18. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel de Oliveira da Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroflotation method (EFM for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it is possible to remove these heavy metals by electrocoagulation/electroflotation (ECF attaining 97% of removal using stainless steel mesh electrodes with a power consumption of 14 kWh m−3. The optimal conditions of treatment were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in a molar ratio 3:1, current density around 350 A m−2, ionic strength 3.2 × 10−3 M, pH = 10.0 and 20 min of ECF. This study newly indicated that the proposed method is adequate to simultaneously treat the common heavy metals found in the drilling fluids oil wells.

  19. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  20. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ash

    Full Text Available Shredded card (SC was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water. We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4. Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49 were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC. In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC. In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC. In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil, and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC. A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption. SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  1. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jiao; Hu, Peng-jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44% of Cd and 23% of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32% by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

  2. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  3. Development of a combined soil-wash/in-furnace vitrification system for soil remediation at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, I.L.; Guo, Y.; Lahoda, E.J.; Lai, Shan-Tao; Muller, I.S.; Ruller, J.; Grant, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report addresses research and development of technologies for treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. Weldon Spring raffinate sludges were used in a direct vitrification study to investigate their use as fluxing agents in glass formulations when blended with site soil. Storm sewer sediments from the Oak Ridge, TN, Y-12 facility were used for soil washing followed by vitrification of the concentrates. Both waste streams were extensively characterized. Testing showed that both mercury and uranium could be removed from the Y-12 soil by chemical extraction resulting in an 80% volume reduction. Thermal desorption was used on the contaminant-enriched minority fraction to separate the mercury from the uranium. Vitrification tests demonstrated that high waste loading glasses could be produced from the radioactive stream and from the Weldon Spring wastes which showed very good leach resistance, and viscosities and electrical conductivities in the range suitable for joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) processing. The conceptual process described combines soil washing, thermal desorption, and vitrification to produce clean soil (about 90% of the input waste stream), non-radioactive mercury, and a glass wasteform; the estimated processing costs for that system are about $260--$400/yd 3 . Results from continuous melter tests performed using Duratek's advanced JHCM (Duramelter) system are also presented. Since life cycle cost estimates are driven largely by volume reduction considerations, the large volume reductions possible with these multi-technology, blended waste stream approaches can produce a more leach resistant wasteform at a lower overall cost than alternative technologies such as cementation

  4. Treating soil-washing fluids polluted with oxyfluorfen by sono-electrolysis with diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dos Santos, E; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Martínez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-01-01

    This works is focused on the treatment by sono-electrolysis of the liquid effluents produced during the Surfactant-Aided Soil-Washing (SASW) of soils spiked with herbicide oxyfluorfen. Results show that this combined technology is very efficient and attains the complete mineralization of the waste, regardless of the surfactant/soil radio applied in the SASW process (which is the main parameter of the soil remediation process and leads to very different wastes). Both the surfactant and the herbicide are completely degraded, even when single electrolysis is used; and only two intermediates are detected by HPLC in very low concentrations. Conversely, the efficiency of single sonolysis approach, for the oxidation of pollutant, is very low and just small changes in the herbicides and surfactant concentrations are observed during the tests carried out. Sono-electrolysis with diamond electrodes achieved higher degradation rates than those obtained by single sonolysis and/or single electrolysis with diamond anodes. A key role of sulfate is developed, when it is released after the electrochemical degradation of surfactant. The efficient catalytic effect observed which can be explained by the anodic formation of persulfate and the later, a sono-activation is attained to produce highly efficient sulfate radicals. The effect of irradiating US is more importantly observed in the pesticide than in the surfactant, in agreement with the well-known behavior of these radicals which are known to oxidize more efficiently aromatic compounds than aliphatic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of soil washing with only chelators or combining with ferric chloride on soil heavy metal removal and phytoavailability: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Wei, Zebin; Wu, Qitang; Li, Chunping; Qian, Tianwei; Zheng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In a field experiment on multi-metal contaminated soil, we investigated the efficiency of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu removal by only mixture of chelators (MC) or combining with FeCl3. After washing treatment, a co-cropping system was performed for heavy metals to be extracted by Sedum alfredii and to produce safe food from Zea mays. We analyzed the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater to evaluate the leashing risk of soil washing with FeCl3 and MC. Results showed that addition of FeCl3 was favorable to the removal of heavy metals in the topsoil. Metal leaching occurred mainly in rain season during the first co-cropping. The removal rates of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu in topsoil were 28%, 53%, 41%, and 21% with washing by FeCl3+MC after first harvest. The application of FeCl3 reduced the yield of S. alfredii and increased the metals concentration of Z. mays in first harvest. However, after amending soil, the metals concentration of Z. mays in FeCl3+MC treatment were similar to that only washing by MC. The grains and shoots of Z. mays were safe for use in feed production. Soil washing did not worsen groundwater contamination during the study period. But the concentration of Cd in groundwater was higher than the limit value of Standard concentrations for Groundwater IV. This study suggests that soil washing using FeCl3 and MC for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soil is potential feasibility. However, the subsequent measure to improve the washed soil environment for planting crop is considered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from polluted soil using the citric acid fermentation broth: a promising washing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Gao, Yuntao; Xiong, Huabin

    2017-04-01

    The citric acid fermentation broth was prepared and it was employed to washing remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. A well-defined washing effect was obtained, the removal percentages using citric acid fermentation broth are that 48.2% for Pb, 30.6% for Cu, 43.7% for Cr, and 58.4% for Cd and higher than that using citric acid solution. The kinetics of heavy metals desorption can be described by the double constant equation and Elovich equation and is a heterogeneous diffusion process. The speciation analysis shows that the citric acid fermentation broth can effectively reduce bioavailability and environmental risk of heavy metals. Spectroscopy characteristics analysis suggests that the washing method has only a small effect on the mineral composition and does not destroy the framework of soil system. Therefore, the citric acid fermentation broth is a promising washing agent and possesses a potential practical application value in the field of remediation of soils with a good washing performance.

  7. Assessment of Soil erodibility Indices and Soil wash in a miniature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil textural grades and organic matter content were determined in the laboratory by the hydrometer and Walkely-Black methods respectively. Rates of ground lowering were computed from exposed parts of the pins installed in the field after the 2010 rainy season, while erodibility indices were determined from textural ...

  8. Change of physical and chemical composition of soil washing out during vegetation season from differently used fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryła, A.; Pierzgalski, E.; Karczmarczyk, A.

    2009-04-01

    oil losses due to water erosion not only decrease of soil fertility but also influence on pollution of water bodies. One of the method for limitation of water erosion process is protected soil management and choose suitable plants which requires knowledge about effect and mechanism of erosion under different environmental conditions. The results of measurements of quantity and quality of soil losses from three experimental plots are given in the article. Plots were located in Experimental Agricultural Station Puczniew in central part of Poland. Surface soil layer on the plots had mechanical composition of medium loam soil. On two plots grass and barley were planted. Third plot was used as fallow and tilled land. Measurements were carried out four times in the period May-October 2007. Physical and chemical composition of washed soil material was analyzed.

  9. Removal of heavy metals and arsenic from a co-contaminated soil by sieving combined with washing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoyong; Li, You; Yan, Xiulan

    2016-03-01

    Batch experiments were conducted with a heavy metals and arsenic co-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine to evaluate the feasibility of a remediation technology that combines sieving with soil washing. Leaching of the arsenic and heavy metals from the different particle size fractions was found to decrease in the order: 2mm. With increased contact time, the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate was significantly decreased for small particles, probably because of adsorption by the clay soil component. For the different particle sizes, the removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were 75%-87%, and 61%-77% for Zn and Cu, although the extent of removal was decreased for As and Cr at soil particles >2mm, although good metal removal efficiencies were also achieved in the small particle size fractions. Through SEM-EDS observations and correlation analysis, the leaching regularity of the heavy metals and arsenic was found to be closely related to Fe, Mn, and Ca contents of the soil fractions. The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil by sieving combined with soil washing was proven to be efficient, and practical remediation parameters were also recommended. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Feasibility of lettuce cultivation in sophoroliplid-enhanced washed soil originally polluted with Cd, antibiotics, and antibiotic-resistant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Wan, Jinzhong; Feng, Yanfang; Zhao, Yu; Tian, Da; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable cultivation in soils polluted with heavy metals, antibiotics and a high abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) can seriously threaten human health through the food chain. Therefore, novel techniques that not only remediate soil, but also ensure food security are urgently required. In the present study, two successive washings with 20gL(-1) of sophoroliplid solution plus ultrasonication (35kHz) were effective in extracting 71.2% Cd, 88.2% tetracycline, 96.6% sulfadiazine, and 100% roxithromycin. Simultaneously, relative abundance of ARGs (tetM, tetX, sulI, and sulII) was decreased to 10(-7)-10(-8) (ARG copies/16S copies). Further, lettuce cultivation in the 2nd washed soil showed significant improvement in vegetable growth indices (fresh/dry weight, root surface area, chlorophyll content and soluble protein content) and a decrease in isolate counts for antibiotic-resistant bacterial endophytes and ARG abundance in lettuce tissues. This combined cleanup strategy provides an environmentally friendly technology for ensuring vegetable security in washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological risk assessment of on-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride in cadmium-contaminated paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Horio, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-01

    On-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride reduces Cd levels in soil, and thus the human health risks caused by Cd in food. However, it may threaten aquatic organisms when soil washing effluent is discharged to open aquatic systems. Therefore, we conducted trial-scale on-site soil washing and ecological risk assessment in Nagano and Niigata prefectures, Japan. The ecological effect of effluent water was investigated by two methods. The first was bioassay using standard aquatic test organisms. Twice-diluted effluent water from the Nagano site and the original effluent water from the Niigata site had no significant effects on green algae, water flea, caddisfly, and fish. The safe dilution rates were estimated as 20 times and 10 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively, considering an assessment factor of 10. The second method was probabilistic effect analysis using chemical analysis and the species sensitivity distribution concept. The mixture effects of CaCl(2), Al, Zn, and Mn were considered by applying a response additive model. The safe dilution rates, assessed for a potentially affected fraction of species of 5%, were 7.1 times and 23.6 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively. The actual dilution rates of effluent water by river water at the Nagano and Niigata sites were 2200-67,000 times and 1300-110,000 times, respectively. These are much larger than the safe dilution rates derived from the two approaches. Consequently, the ecological risk to aquatic organisms of soil washing is evaluated as being below the concern level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil decontamination at the Montevecchio-Levante mine site with experimental washing and leaching techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessi, R. [Progemisa SpA, Cagliari (Italy); Fadda, S.; Peretti, R.; Zucca, A. [CSGM, Centro Studi Germinerari e Mineralurgici del CNR, Cagliari (Italy); Serci, A. [Digita, Dipt. di Geoingegneria e Tecnologie Ambientali, Cagliari (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    The soils in the neighbourhood of the Rio Montevecchio-Sitzerri, a stream that flows in the valley below the tailings pond of the Montevecchio-Levante mineral processing plant (SW Sardinia, Italy) are severely contaminated by heavy metals, to the extent that traditional land uses are compromised. Consequently urgent measures are needed both to abate the pollution at source and rehabilitate the contaminated land. This paper is concerned with the problem of soil decontamination using washing and leaching techniques. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in mechanically agitated reactors, using citric acid and acetic acid solutions and brine of hydrochloric acid and calcium chloride. The influence of both reagent concentration and solid-to-liquid ratio has been assessed, and in the most significant cases, the attack kinetics has been determined. The tests showed the brine to be the most effective for removing metals from the soils. Based on the findings of the investigations, the possibility of decontamination by heap leaching has been simulated in the laboratory using the column technique. [Italian] I suoi circostanti il Rio Montevecchio-Sitzerri, che scorre a valle del bacino di decantazione degli sterili dell'impianto di trattamento dei minerali di Montevecchio-Levante (Sardegna Centro-Occidentale), sono caratterizzati da un elevato contenuto di metalli pesanti, che ne pregiudicano gli usi tradizionali. Si rende percio' improrogabile sia la necessita' di intervenire sulle cause all'origine della contaminazione, sia di bonificare i suoli in questione al fine di recuperarli a nuovi usi. La memoria intende portare un contributo alle relative problematiche affrontando la possibilita' di decontaminazione mediante tecniche di lavaggio e lisciviazione. La sperimentazione di laboratorio e' stata condotta in reattori ad agitazione meccanica, utilizzando soluzioni con acido citrico, acido acetico ed una salamoia costituita da acido

  13. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  14. Soil washing in combination with homogeneous Fenton-like oxidation for the removal of 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl from soil contaminated with capacitor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Ling; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Detoxification by chemical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils is very difficult and inefficient because PCBs typically associate with the solid phase or exist as non-aqueous-phase liquids due to their low solubility and slow desorption rates, and thus, they are difficult to remove from soils by using traditional, water-based elution techniques. Surfactant can enhance washing efficiency of PCBs from contaminated soils. This study used Brij 58, Brij 30, Tween 80, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to solubilize 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl (PCB28) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil into solution. The feasibility of PCB28 oxidation in soil washing wastewater through a Fe(3+)-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was subsequently examined. Washing with 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution showed the highest extraction efficiency (up to 61.5 %) compared with that of the three other surfactants. The total concentration of PCB28 in contaminated soil at 25 °C after 48-h extraction was 286 mg L(-1). In contrast to conditions in which no washing agent was added, addition of the four washing agents decreased the efficiency of PCB28 degradation by the Fenton-like reaction, with the decrease due to addition of 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution being the smallest. The optimal concentration of H2O2 for preventing its useless decomposition was found to be 50 mM. The efficiency of PCB28 removal was lower when the initial concentration of PCB28 treated in the Fenton-like reaction was higher. The degradation efficiencies of PCB28 at initial concentrations of 0.1, 10, and 176 mg L(-1) in 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution at 25 °C and pH 3.0 and 9 h of reaction using 50 mM H2O2 were 64.1, 42.0, and 34.6 %, respectively. This result indicates that soil washing combined with Fenton-like oxidation may be a practical approach for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  15. Integrating EDDS-enhanced washing with low-cost stabilization of metal-contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Baek, Kitae; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    While chelant-enhanced soil washing has been widely studied for metal extraction from contaminated soils, there are concerns about destabilization and leaching of residual metals after remediation. This study integrated 2-h soil washing enhanced by biodegradable ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and 2-month stabilization using agricultural waste product (soybean stover biochar pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C), industrial by-product (coal fly ash (CFA)), and their mixture. After integration with 2-month stabilization, the leachability and mobility of residual metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in the field-contaminated soil were significantly reduced, especially for Cu, in comparison with 2-h EDDS washing alone. This suggested that the metals destabilized by EDDS-washing could be immobilized by subsequent stabilization with biochar and CFA. Moreover, when the remediation performance was evaluated for phytoavailability and bioaccessibility, prior EDDS washing helped to achieve a greater reduction in the bioavailable fraction of metals than sole stabilization treatment. This was probably because the weakly-bound metals were first removed by EDDS washing before stabilization. Both individual and combined applications of biochar and CFA showed comparable effectiveness regardless of the difference in material properties, possibly due to the high level of amendments (150 ton ha(-1)). Based on the mobility and bioaccessibility results, the estimated human health risk (primarily resulting from Pb) could be mitigated to an acceptable level in water consumption pathway or reduced by half in soil ingestion pathway. These results suggest that an integration of EDDS washing with soil stabilization can alleviate post-remediation impacts of residual metals in the treated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil Washing Optimization, Recycling of the Solution, and Ecotoxicity Assessment for the Remediation of Pb-Contaminated Sites Using EDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Fabbricino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed at investigating the applicability of ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS as a washing solution for the remediation of Pb-contaminated soil. All aspects of the treatment are analyzed and optimized, including the reuse and the final disposal of the EDDS spent solution. Different molar concentrations of the washing solutions and the efficiencies of varying solid/liquid ratio are tested at different pH values. More than 90% of the mobile Pb fraction is removed in about 24 h at pH 6. Accordingly, soil toxicity strongly decreases as a consequence of the treatment. The regenerated solution exhibits a reduced, but not negligible, extractive capacity. The total extraction of Pb is approximately 50% of the initial value after one regeneration cycle, and almost 20% after a second regeneration cycle. Respirometric tests, conducted using an activated sludge sampled in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, indicate that the spent solutions are not biodegradable, but they do not exert any toxic effect on the biomass. On the contrary, tests on regenerated solutions displayed the same biodegradability as the fresh ones.

  17. Derivation of quantitative removal efficiency of protein stain from K/S value of washing test fabric soiled with hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurono, Rie; Nishio, Naoki; Oya, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    We have improved a previous method for the preparation of hemoglobin-soiled fabrics in order to facilitate quantitative calculation of the efficiency with which protein stains can be removed from such materials. We then evaluated the sensitivity of surface reflectance as a method for stain quantification. Test fabrics were made by spotting a white fabric with a certain amount of hemoglobin solution and drying it. We observed a large difference between the percentage stain removal as measured by surface reflectance when compared with chemical analysis. Deformities in the surface of the soiled fabric caused by capillary action in the drying process likely contributed to this difference. Quantitative removal percentage could be predicted easily from the K/S values of test fabrics that were dry-heated without steam, although soil adhesion was too weak to evaluate the washing power of commercial detergent. Overall, we found that practical test fabrics with adequate soil adhesion properties can be prepared by adopting a steam heating process after dry heating.

  18. Effect of rain drop washes on soil fertility in cotton production zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop production in the Sahel is limited by nutrients availability. The study aimed to estimate the contribution of avifauna, crop rotation and trees to soil fertility and crop production improvement. Pot experiment was carried out with soils sampled in Faidherbia albida parklands in cotton production zone of West Burkina Faso.

  19. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  1. Feasibility study on the use of soil washing to remediate the As-Hg contamination at an ancient mining and metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Carrero, M; Gallego, J R

    2011-11-30

    Soils in abandoned mining sites generally present high concentrations of trace elements, such as As and Hg. Here we assessed the feasibility of washing procedures to physically separate these toxic elements from soils affected by a considerable amount of mining and metallurgical waste ("La Soterraña", Asturias, NW Spain). After exhaustive soil sampling and subsequent particle-size separation via wet sieving, chemical and mineralogical analysis revealed that the finer fractions held very high concentrations of As (up to 32,500 ppm) and Hg (up to 1600 ppm). These elements were both associated mainly with Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxides. Textural and geochemical data were correlated with the geological substrate by means of a multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the Hg liberation size (below 200 μm) was determined to be main factor conditioning the selection of suitable soil washing strategies. These studies were finally complemented with a specific-gravity study performed with a C800 Mozley separator together with a grindability test, both novel approaches in soil washing feasibility studies. The results highlighted the difficulties in treating "La Soterraña" soils. These difficulties are attributed to the presence of contaminants embedded in the soil and spoil heap aggregates, caused by the meteorization of gangue and ore minerals. As a result of these two characteristics, high concentrations of the contaminants accumulate in all grain-size fractions. Therefore, the soil washing approach proposed here includes the grinding of particles above 125 μm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical P recovery from dairy manure using the Quick Wash process and use of low-P washed manure solids as soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large volumes of manure generated by intensive dairy production and their final land disposal is a significant environmental problem. Due to the imbalance of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) (4:1), emendation of soils with dairy manure entails a raise in available soil P levels beyond the crops' capa...

  3. Hand Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have picked up from other people, through contaminated water and food, from surfaces like keyboards, or from animals and animal waste. Defensive Hand Washing In 2010 the American Society for Microbiology and the American Cleaning Institute did a survey ...

  4. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  5. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth intensity of infection in Timor-Leste, using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; Wardell, Rebecca; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-03-01

    No investigations have been undertaken of risk factors for intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in Timor-Leste. This study provides the first analysis of risk factors for intensity of STH infection, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR), examining a broad range of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors, among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. A baseline cross-sectional survey of 18 communities was undertaken as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with additional identically-collected data from six other communities. qPCR was used to assess STH infection from stool samples, and questionnaires administered to collect WASH, demographic, and socioeconomic data. Environmental information was obtained from open-access sources and linked to infection outcomes. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk factors for intensity of Necator americanus and Ascaris infection. 2152 participants provided stool and questionnaire information for this analysis. In adjusted models incorporating WASH, demographic and environmental variables, environmental variables were generally associated with infection intensity for both N. americanus and Ascaris spp. Precipitation (in centimetres) was associated with increased risk of moderate-intensity (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-19.3) and heavy-intensity (ARR 6.6; 95% CI 3.1-14.1) N. americanus infection, as was sandy-loam soil around households (moderate-intensity ARR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-4.3; heavy-intensity ARR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.5; compared to no infection). For Ascaris, alkaline soil around the household was associated with reduced risk of moderate-intensity infection (ARR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51), and heavy-intensity infection (ARR 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.25). Few WASH risk factors were significant. In this high-prevalence setting, strong risk associations with environmental factors indicate that anthelmintic

  6. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at night. A saltwater nasal wash, or nasal irrigation, can help reduce this. A nasal wash: Cleans ... trouble cooperating with a nasal wash, and may need to be held and assisted. Ask your health ...

  7. The comparative photodegradation activities of pentachlorophenol (PCP and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs using UV alone and TiO2-derived photocatalysts in methanol soil washing solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Zhou

    Full Text Available Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs.

  8. Investigating the differential impact of school and community-based integrated control programmes for soil-transmitted helminths in Timor-Leste: the (S)WASH-D for Worms pilot study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Naomi E; Clements, Archie C A; Bryan, Stuart; McGown, John; Gray, Darren; Nery, Susana V

    2016-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions represent an important component of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection control, alongside the administration of anthelmintic drugs, which are generally targeted to school-aged children. Recent modelling studies have suggested that STH control programmes should be broadened to include all age groups across the community. We describe the protocol for a pilot study investigating the impact of school-versus-community-based delivery of integrated WASH and deworming programmes on STH infections in school-aged children in Timor-Leste. The (S)WASH-D for Worms pilot is a two-arm, non-randomised cluster intervention study. The aims are to determine feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and study procedures and to establish proof of principle for the hypothesis that STH control programmes directed to the entire community will lead to greater reductions in STH infections in children than programmes directed only to school-aged children. Of the six participating communities, three receive a school-based integrated WASH and deworming programme and three additionally receive a community-based integrated WASH and deworming programme. The primary outcomes are the proportions of eligible children who enrol in the study and participate in the data collection, and outcomes relating to WASH and deworming programme completion, coverage, and use. Secondary outcomes are the cumulative incidence and mean intensity of STH infection in school-aged children at 6-month follow-up, mean haemoglobin concentration and several anthropometric indices. Results will inform the design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT). This pilot study is being conducted in preparation for a cluster-RCT investigating the differential impact of school- and community-based integrated STH control programmes on STH infections in school-aged children. It aims to establish feasibility and proof of principle, while results of the subsequent RCT

  9. Late Washing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO 2 - ] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO 2 - ] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft 2 for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec

  10. Decontaminant wash composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie-Swanson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A wash for removing skin contaminants such as cobalt-60 comprises an alkyl dimethyl betaine, a non-ionic surfactant and water. In the exemplified composition, the betaine and the non-ionic surfactant are mixed in equal proportions with a larger volume of distilled water and the resulting wash was found to be capable of decontaminating pork skin of cobalt-60 contaminant. (author)

  11. Probabilistics since WASH-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Literature since the issuing of WASH-1400 reactor safety study shows that although the methodology has been attacked, it stands criticism well. Contrary to the aim of the study, which was to give a realistic, rather than a conservative risk estimate, there are many conservatisms in it. The strongly attacked treatment of common mode failure involving the square bounding model is shown here to be very likely to give correct results - and the applications of it in WASH-1400 do not often give results different from using the mean instead of the median. The Three-Mile Island accident is not such as to change the conclusions of WASH-1400 regarding core melt probabilities

  12. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  13. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  14. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  15. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  16. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  17. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  18. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using a Detergent-free Laundry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sung Paal

    2005-07-01

    In this study, a new laundry system to wash clothes without using detergent (detergent-free) was applied to wash clothes contaminated with radionuclides at the RWTF of KAERI. If the clothes contaminated with radionuclides and soil decontaminated and cleaned by washing without using detergent, the problem caused by the detergent could be solved naturally. The experiment was performed in two stages. In the first stage, washability of the processed water from the detergent=free laundry system was investigated with regard to its decontamination efficiency for the radionuclides and the detergency for the soil by using the test cloth specimens. In the second stage, real working clothes contaminated with radionuclides from the RWTF were washed by using a laundry machine equipped with a detergent-free system. Decontamination and detergency of the clothes were estimated after washing and the wastewater was also analyzed for its properties.

  19. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using a Detergent-free Laundry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sung Paal

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new laundry system to wash clothes without using detergent (detergent-free) was applied to wash clothes contaminated with radionuclides at the RWTF of KAERI. If the clothes contaminated with radionuclides and soil decontaminated and cleaned by washing without using detergent, the problem caused by the detergent could be solved naturally. The experiment was performed in two stages. In the first stage, washability of the processed water from the detergent=free laundry system was investigated with regard to its decontamination efficiency for the radionuclides and the detergency for the soil by using the test cloth specimens. In the second stage, real working clothes contaminated with radionuclides from the RWTF were washed by using a laundry machine equipped with a detergent-free system. Decontamination and detergency of the clothes were estimated after washing and the wastewater was also analyzed for its properties

  20. A basket for washing benthological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgeby, James H.

    1971-01-01

    Since benthological samples collected with dredges are usually too large to be preserved in toto, a washing method must be employed to reduce the sample volume without losing or damaging the organisms. Traditionally, the sample is washed in a sieve until the volume is small enough for convenient handling or preservation. Most washing procedures are time-consuming and laborious. To save time in washing samples, a washing 'basket' was designed which accomadates a Ponar dredge. The only additional equipment needed to employ the washing basket effectively is a pump that delivers about 8 gallons of water per minute.

  1. assessment of soil wash and soil erodibility indices on miniature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    1976-02-03

    Feb 3, 1976 ... Greenwich Meridian in the savanna region with Aw type of climate. The study site at ... negative geomorphic processes such as accelerated .... The Aw climate is characterised by six months dry season from. November to April and six months rainy season from May to October. The vegetation is southern.

  2. Method of washing contaminated clothings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of washing contaminated clothings deposited with contaminates such as radioactive materials. The clothings are put into an extractor, and gaseous carbon dioxide is supplied under pressure and heating to the extractor. The clothings are brought into contact with gaseous carbon dioxide for a predetermined period of time, to separate oils and fats and water content deposited to the clothings by dissolving them into the gaseous carbon dioxide. The gaseous carbon dioxide containing the oils and fats and the water content are taken out from the extractor and charged to a separator, in which the oils and fats and the water content are separated, and then released to the atmosphere passing through a high performance filter. The clothings are transferred from the extractor to a water-washing vessel and immersed in a fresh water to remove salts derived from man's body, powdery dusts in the air, radioactive substances, etc. by rinsing. Then, the clothings are dried by a dryer. This can eliminate worries of undesired effects on circumstances by a simple method. (I.N.)

  3. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  4. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  5. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  6. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water system...

  7. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim Nor Haslina; Zayadi Nadzirah

    2016-01-01

    The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the st...

  8. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing

  9. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  10. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  11. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  12. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  13. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  14. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  15. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  16. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and urbanization in Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a cell-based model for the Las Vegas Wash (LVW) Watershed in Clark County, Nevada, was developed by combining the traditional hydrologic modeling methods (Thornthwaite’s water balance model and the Soil Conservation Survey’s Curve Number method) with the pixel-base...

  17. Efeito da aplicação de água residuária da lavagem dos frutos de café sobre as propriedades químicas do solo Effect of the application of coffee fruit washing and pulping wastewater on soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações químicas de solos tratados com água residuária de café (ARC. O experimento foi conduzido em colunas de PVC, onde foram avaliadas quatro doses de ARC (0; 174; 522 e 870 t ha-1, em dois Argissolos Amarelos subdivididos em quatro camadas, para dois períodos de incubação (30 e 60 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial, e as variáveis analisadas foram cálcio, magnésio, potássio, sódio, pH e condutividade elétrica do extrato da pasta saturada. As doses de ARC alteraram as propriedades químicas dos solos nos dois períodos de incubação estudados, aumentando os teores de Ca++, Na+ e, principalmente, K+ nos dois solos. A dose de aplicação de 174 t ha-1 de ARC elevou a concentração de K+ no solo para a faixa ideal, de acordo com as exigências nutricionais da cultura. A camada superficial apresentou maior concentração de K+, Na+, Ca++ e, consequentemente, maior CEes.The objective of the present study was to evaluate chemical changes of soils treated with coffee fruit washing and pulping wastewater (CWW. The experiment was carried out in PVC columns, where it was applied four doses of CWW (0, 174, 522, and 870 t ha-1 in two Yellow Argisoil split into four layers in two incubation periods (30 and 60 days. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement, and it was analyzed calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, pH and electric conductivity of the saturated paste extract. The CWW doses affected chemical soil properties in both incubation periods evaluated increasing Ca++, Na+ and mainly K+ in both soils. The CWW dose of 174 t ha-1 increased K+ concentration in soil to the recommended level according to nutrition necessity of the crop. The surface layer presented higher concentration of K+, Na+, Ca++ and, consequently, higher ECes.

  18. Washing the citizen: washing, cleanliness and citizenship in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    Participation in the community and citizenship for patients are common ideals that inspire improvements in mental health care. But what is meant by citizenship? Here an analysis is made of washing practices in psychiatric nursing in long-term mental health institutions. Four repertoires of washing

  19. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  20. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  1. Auto-Washing Panty Toilet for Care

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 王, 宇; 小島, 多香子; 福室, 允央

    2004-01-01

    It is important jobs to change diapers for a bedridden patient. Changing diapers hurts prides of the patient, so that a panty toilet, that can be worn to the patient, is of importance, in which feces and urine are washed automatically. In this study, a new-type automatic washing panty toilet system is presented. The system consists of a rubber made panty toilet with tubes at both thighs and a torso, and the control system. In the panty toilet, air expands the tubes, and water leakage is preve...

  2. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  3. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  4. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  5. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th) Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be effectively

  7. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara

    Full Text Available One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1 and a domestic washing (method-2 on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be

  8. Ultrafiltration to reuse laundering wash water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giagnorio, Mattia; Søtoft, Lene Fjerbæk; Tiraferri, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Laundering industry consumes and discharges large amounts of water and surfactants, and the demand of surface active agents used for washing is increasing worldwide. Some of these substances are considered contaminants of emerging concern, as they persist in the environment. This work aimed...... and ceramic membranes. Wash water samples were collected at an industrial laundering facility for hospital linen and filtered through different ultrafiltration membranes with varying molecular weight cut-off. The critical micelle concentration of the detergent was quantified, and capillarity measurements were...... used to determine the concentration of free surfactants in water. The system was designed to comprise two filtration steps in series: a pre-filtration step did not allow recovery of surfactant or the production of a high quality permeate, but it was necessary to remove large contaminants...

  9. Process of disposing radioactive washed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yasuyuki; Shirai, Takamori; Hasegawa, Akira.

    1973-01-01

    Object: To use a surface active agent, which produces no bubble when vaporized and concentrated, as a cleaning material, to effect processes of vaporization and concentration without removing the surface active agent from the cleaned waste. Structure: A cleaning agent containing 10 - 30% of a non-ion surface active agent comprising a combination of polyethylene-alkyl-ether and polyethylene-alkyl-phenylether in a ratio of 1 to 1, 0 - 30% of chelate, 1% of re-adhesion prohibitor (CMC), and 1 - 5% of emulsion stabilizer is used to wash a radioactive contamination, an anti-foaming agent in a small amount is added to the washed waste only when in start to directly vaporize and concentrate the same, after which it is heated and dried and thereafter, it is decomposed at a temperature less than 400 0 C for treatment of reduction in volume. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  11. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using A Detergent-Free Laundry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, S. P.; Ahn, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Shon, J. S.; Chung, H.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Lee, W. S.

    2003-02-25

    In this study, we describe a new laundry system to wash clothes, including those contaminated with radionuclides, without using detergent. The main part of this system is electrolytic cell that consists of a cathode with a special coating of nickel, an anode of nickel, and a cation exchange membrane between the two electrodes. The electrolyte is supplied to the anode and the tap-water to the cathode. When an electricity of 5 volts and 25 amperes is applied to the electrodes, the processed water is produced from the cathode. This processed water containing no detergent was investigated experimentally with regard to its decontamination efficiency of radionuclides and detergency of soil as compared to the conventional washing using detergent. It was found that the processed water from this system has an ability to simultaneously remove radionuclides and soil from the cloth with good efficiency.

  12. Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM and mismatch (MM probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental

  13. Road Dust Emission Sources and Assessment of Street Washing Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Amato, Fulvio; Moreno, Teresa; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Borge García, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust samples were collected in two sites, namely Reference site (where the road surface was not washed) and Pelayo site (where street washing was performed daily during night). Following the chemical c...

  14. Hand Washing Practices amongst Doctors in A Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand Washing Practices amongst Doctors in A Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. BA Alex-Hart, PI Opara. Abstract. Washing hand with soap and water is said to be the single most important intervention against hospital acquired infections. This study aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing ...

  15. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  16. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  17. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section 2902.51... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in... wash solutions. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or reviewing...

  18. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211... § 211.52 Washing and toilet facilities. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities easily...

  19. Mercury in waders from the Wash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parslow, J.L.F.

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined in the livers of seventy-three waders (Limicolae) collected during August-March on the Wash, eastern England, in order to obtain baseline data on levels of this element in birds living in a non-industrial and presumably lightly polluted estuarine area. In the knot (Calidris canutus), mercury levels were relatively low, about 1 ppm dry weight, in early autumn but increased through the winter until, by February-March, they were about 10-20 times higher. On more limited or scattered data, the dunlin (C. alpina) and redshank (Tringa totanus) also showed much higher mercury levels in late winter compared with autumn. The results imply that mercury accumulation in the liver during the winter months (when the birds are exclusively estuarine, mainly in temperate latitudes) is eliminated in summer (on mainly inland arctic and subarctic breeding grounds). The results are discussed in relation to the moult, movements and food of the main species. The biological significance of the concentrations found in the Wash waders is uncertain, but it is suggested that in industrial estuaries mercury levels in the same species may be very much higher and, by analogy with other species, could be having detrimental physiological effects. 26 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Comparison of the Laboratory Standard Washing Using CIPAC Washing Agent and the Domestic Washing on Three Recommended Types of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is “Savon de Marseille”, because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized “CIPAC washing agent”. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Methods Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. Results The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Conclusion Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets

  1. Evaluation of DNA extraction techniques for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Asian elephant trunk wash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Meagan K; Linke, Lyndsey; Triantis, Joni; Salman, M D; Larsen, R Scott

    2011-02-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in elephants are lacking. DNA extraction with PCR analysis is useful for tuberculosis screening in many species but has not been validated on elephant trunk wash samples. We estimated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of three DNA extraction methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in trunk wash specimens. A ZR soil microbe DNA kit (ZR) and a traditional salt and ethanol precipitation (TSEP) approach were evaluated under three different treatment conditions: heat treatment, phenol treatment, and contamination with Mycobacterium avium. A third approach, using a column filtration method, was evaluated for samples contaminated with soil. Trunk wash samples from uninfected elephants were spiked with various concentrations of M. bovis cells and subjected to the described treatment conditions prior to DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was amplified using IS6110-targeted PCR analysis. The ZR and TSEP methods detected as low as 1 to 5 M. bovis cells and 10 M. bovis cells, respectively, per 1.5 ml of trunk wash under all three conditions. Depending on the amount of soil present, the column filtration method detected as low as 5 to 50 M. bovis cells per 1.5 ml of trunk wash. Analytical specificity was assessed by DNA extraction from species of nontuberculous mycobacteria and amplification using the same PCR technique. Only M. bovis DNA was amplified, indicating 100% analytical specificity of this PCR technique. Our results indicate that these DNA extraction techniques offer promise as useful tests for detection of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in elephant trunk wash specimens.

  2. Extraction of Pentachlorophenol from Soils using Environmentally Benign Lactic Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil contamination with pentachlorophenol (PCP) is widespread across the globe. Soil washing/extraction is a common technique to remove this compound. Several soil washing/extraction solutions have been used but a majority of them have the problem of persistence in the environmen...

  3. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  4. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Valderi Duarte Leite; Luciana Maria Andrade da Silva; Gilmara Henriques Araujo; Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima; José Tavares Sousa; Luciene Gonçalves Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in t...

  5. Geomorphic Characterization of the FortyMile Wash Alluvial Fan, Nye County, Nevada, In Support of the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline; De Long; Pelletier; Harrington

    2005-01-01

    In the event of an unlikely volcanic eruption through the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, contaminated ash would be deposited in portions of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin and would subsequently be redistributed to the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes. As part of an effort to quantify the transport of contaminated ash throughout the fluvial system, characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan is required, especially the spatial distribution of fluvial activity over time scales of repository operation, and the rates of radionuclide migration into different soils on the fan. The Fortymile Wash alluvial fan consists of extremely low relief terraces as old as 70 ka. By conducting soils-geomorphic mapping and correlating relative surface ages with available geochronology from the Fortymile Wash fan and adjacent piedmonts, we identified 4 distinct surfaces on the fan. Surface ages are used to predict the relative stability of different areas of the fan to fluvial activity. Pleistocene-aged surfaces are assumed to be fluvially inactive over the 10 kyr time scale, for example. Our mapping and correlation provides a map of the depozone for contaminated ash that takes into account long-term channel migration the time scales of repository operation, and it provides a geomorphic framework for predicting radionuclide dispersion rates into different soils across the fan. The standard model for vertical migration of radionuclides in soil is diffusion; therefore we used diffusion profiles derived from 137 Cs fallout to determine infiltration rates on the various geomorphic surfaces. The results show a strong inverse correlation of the geomorphic surface age and diffusivity values inferred from the 137 Cs profiles collected on the different surfaces of the fan

  6. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure...

  7. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices, predispose to childhood morbidity and mortality globally, and especially from diarrhoeal diseases. Machakos County in its community strategy utilises Community Health Workers (CHWs) to promote WASH practices and to collect household based data ...

  8. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  9. Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care Workers in the Intensive Care Unit of a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. ... Posters and education materials on proper hand washing techniques should be made available in and around the ICU. Regular provision of soap and water, paper towels and hand dryers ...

  10. Assessment of knowledge of hand washing among health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase mortality and morbidity although adherence to simple hand washing procedures is suggested to reduce these. Purpose: To assess knowledge of hand washing among health care providers in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan and establish associations with ...

  11. Evaluation of Water Consumption by Car Wash Facilities in Bauchi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi ...

  12. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  13. Wash-off effects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Steger, F.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of the activity distributed in urban areas in three Austrian cities after a radioactive fall-out, by run-off and wash-off effects from stabilised surfaces and the resulting dose reduction to the population were investigated four years after the Chernobyl fall-out to predict the long term external exposure of the population. The measurements were performed in cities with different fractions of dry and wet deposition after the Chernobyl accident in order to determine whether any differences in radionuclide removal with regard to wet and dry fall-out was observable. High resolution in situ gamma spectroscopy was employed to measure the gamma flux from 137 Cs and 134 Cs at points over stabilised surfaces, which was then compared with undisturbed grass surfaces. The average reduction of the place activity on stabilised surfaces amounted to a factor of 10±5 compared to the original deposition after the fall-out. Asphalt showed the highest reduction factor (11.4), concrete less (8.1), stone slabs and cobblestone only about 4.5 and gravel virtually no reduction (1.1). Only very little variation of this reduction with dry or wet deposition was observed. (author)

  14. Road dust contribution to PM levels - Evaluation of the effectiveness of street washing activities by means of Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Moreno, Teresa; Amato, Fulvio; Lumbreras, Julio; Narros, Adolfo; Borge, Rafael; Tobías, Aurelio; Boldo, Elena; Linares, Cristina; Pey, Jorge; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of road dust to airborne particulate matter (PM 10) and evaluate the effects of street washing on the mitigation of resuspension. With this purpose an intensive campaign was carried out in a heavily trafficked central road of Madrid (Spain) including PM 10 sampling and chemical analysis. PM 10 daily levels during dry, unwashed conditions were 2-15% higher than those present during the day after nightly street washing. However, this reduction is lower than the standard deviation of the PM 10 measurements. The diurnal variation of PM 10 revealed that a reduction in PM 10 was noticeable only during the morning hours. The emission sources for the urban area of Madrid were resolved by means of a receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization, PMF. The results showed that the main sources were vehicle emissions, road dust, secondary aerosol including sulphate and nitrate, and soil. Vehicle emissions and road dust were the major contributor to PM 10 particle mass with similar average contributions of 31% and 29% respectively. The effect of street washing was also evaluated by examining the daily variation of the road dust source contribution between days with and without street washing. The mass contribution from the road dust source was ˜2 μg m -3 lower during the days that street washing was implemented with this corresponding to a reduction of 15% of its mass contribution during the days that the road surface was left untreated.

  15. Organic contaminants in soil : desorption kinetics and microbial degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlebaum, W.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of organic contaminants in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g.) soil washing or soil venting) depends on the desorption kinetics of these contaminants from the soil matrix. When the organic contaminants desorb very slow from the

  16. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  17. The impact of WASH-1400 on reactor safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Trends in reactor safety evaluation in France following the publication of WASH-1400 (the Rasmussen Report) are presented. What is called 'the meteorite case' is first schematically presented as follows: WASH-1400 shows nuclear risk equivalent to meteorite risk and reasonable corrections cannot make many orders of magnitude, consequently present safety rules are adequate. The very impact of WASH-1400 on safety approach is then discussed as for: assistance to deterministic safety analysis, introduction of probabilistic safety criteria, acceptable level of risk, and the use of results in research and reactor operating experience

  18. Performance of a Small-scale Treatment Wetland for Treatment of Landscaping Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Fayed, E.; Fish, W.

    2011-12-01

    A large number of lawn mowers and related equipment must be cleaned each day by commercial landscaping operations and state and local highway maintenance crews. Washing these devices produces wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter and potentially problematic nutrients, as well as oil and grease and other chemicals and metals that come from the machinery itself. Dirty water washes off the mowers, flows off the pavement and into nearby storm drains without any kind of treatment. A better idea would be to collect such wastewater, retain it in an appropriate catchment such as an engineered wetland where natural processes could break down any pollutants in the wash water, and allow the water to naturally evaporate or percolate into the soil where it could recharge ground water resources safely. This research examines the performance of a small-scale treatment wetland tailored to remove nitrogen from landscaping wash water by incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic phases. Contaminants are analyzed through physical and chemical methods. Both methods involve collection of samples, followed by standardized, validated analytical laboratory tests for measuring total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease, and metals (Zn and Cu). High levels of total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease are found. Zinc and copper levels are low. Wetland treatment removes 99% total solids, 77% total kjeldahl nitrogen, 100% nitrates, 94% total phosphorus, 86% dissolved phosphorus, 94% COD, 97% BOD, and 76% oil and grease. The results will be a critical step towards developing a sustainable low-energy system for treating such wastewater that could be used by private landscaping companies and government agencies.

  19. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  20. Control of IPMSM drive system for drum washing machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woncheol; Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen

    2007-12-01

    The use of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has increased in the industrial field because of its excellent characteristics such as high efficiency, wide range of speed operation, and flexibility of the rotor structure. Therefore, IPMSM, especially one using the rare earth permanent magnet, is being actively studied. In IPMSM using the rare earth permanent magnet, typically the permanent magnet is deeply embedded in the rotor. The washing machine has large load variation and needs high torque. So, IPMSM is better than any other motor types for washing machines. This paper suggests a control algorithm of IPMSM for washing machines. Some experimental results are given in order to show the feasibility of the proposed control schemes for washing machines.

  1. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand washing a rule for everyone, especially: before eating and cooking after using the bathroom after cleaning around the house after touching animals, including family pets before and after visiting or ...

  2. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  3. New method of trenchless cable replacement by the new HDD wash over technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have become time-worn technical defects or need a capacity increase. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in nature reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.New patented methods of trenchless cable replacement by using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, reaming around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shaped or sigmoidal embracing, depending on the coating structure of the old cable. The cable replacement drill heads separate the cable from adhesive or contacting soil or sand bedding, create a very small annular space around the cable which enables a pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between a start and an exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable is smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods embedding the new cable into a rich bed of Bentonite.The replacement drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits in order to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads can very fast (up to 3 meters per minute and effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary, only, the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and includes many practical job examples.

  4. Removal of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis after Hand Washing with Antimicrobial and Nonantimicrobial Soap and Persistence of These Bacteria in Rinsates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garza, J; García, S; Heredia, N

    2017-10-01

    Food handlers are important sources of contamination in the agricultural environment. This study was conducted (i) to evaluate the activity of antimicrobial soaps against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis using a hand washing model with soiled hands and (ii) to determine the survival and persistence of these bacteria in rinsates. Sterilized agricultural soil from tomato and pepper farms was inoculated with E. coli or E. faecalis at 10 3 or 10 6 CFU/g. Decontaminated hands were placed in contact with contaminated soil for 2 min and were then washed with soaps with or without antimicrobial compounds (citric extracts, chloroxylenol, triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate). As the control, hands were washed with sterile distilled water. The levels of bacteria remaining on the hands and recovered from the rinsates were determined using a membrane filtration method and selective media. Antimicrobial soaps removed levels of E. coli similar to those removed by distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap on hands contaminated with E. coli at 10 3 CFU/g. However, when hands were contaminated with E. coli at 10 6 CFU/g, more E. coli was removed with the chlorhexidine gluconate soap. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 3 CFU/g, bacteria were removed more effectively with soaps containing chloroxylenol or chlorhexidine gluconate. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 6 CFU/g, all of the antimicrobial soaps were more effective for removing the bacteria than were distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap. E. coli grew in all of the hand washing rinsates except that containing triclosan, whereas E. faecalis from the 10 6 CFU/g treatments grew in rinsates containing chlorhexidine gluconate and in the distilled water rinsates. Washing with antimicrobial soap was more effective for reducing bacteria on soiled hands than was washing with water or nonantimicrobial soap. However, persistence or growth of bacteria in these rinsates poses health risks.

  5. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  6. Sorption of fomesafen in Brazilian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G.R.; D'Antonino,L.; Faustino,L.A.; Silva,A.A.; Ferreira,F.A.; Texeira,C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of a herbicide in the soil focus on the interactions with environmental components to obtain agronomic efficiency, ensuring selectivity to the culture and risk reduction of environmental impact. This study evaluated the sorption process of fomesafen in the Brazilian soils Ultisol, Cambisol, and Organosol. Besides soil, washed sand was used as an inert material for determination of the sorption ratio of fomesafen in the soil. The bioassay method was applied, using Sor...

  7. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  8. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  9. Prospects for separating heavy metal from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, M.; Hoberg, H.; Hamacher, B.

    1994-01-01

    For decades, large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants have been brought into the soil as a result of the industrial operations of smelting and coking plants. This paper reports on the prospects of separating heavy metals from soil contaminated by smelting and coking plants by means of a physical/chemical washing procedure. Besides the description of virgin soil characteristics, cleaning results and process parameters of calssification, density separation and flotation processes are presented. It is shown that heavy metal pollution of virgin soil can be reduced by the classical process stages of soil washing. The metal content of virgin soil are critically assessed whereby the limits of the physical-chimical washing process will also be entered into. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the determination of limiting values for inorganic contamination, especially for soil contaminated with both organic and inorganic pollution. (orig.) [de

  10. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-07-01

    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  11. Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

    2014-01-01

    The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant.

  12. Towards a durability test for washing-machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamminger, Rainer; Tecchio, Paolo; Ardente, Fulvio; Mathieux, Fabrice; Niestrath, Phoebe

    2018-04-01

    Durability plays a key role in enhancing resource conservation and contributing to waste minimization. The washing-machine product group represents a relevant case study for the development of a durability test and as a potential trigger to systematically address durability in the design of products. We developed a procedure to test the durability performance of washing-machines as a main objective of this research. The research method consisted of an analysis of available durability standards and procedures to test products and components, followed by an analysis of relevant references related to frequent failures. Finally, we defined the criteria and the conditions for a repeatable, relatively fast and relevant endurance test. The durability test considered the whole product tested under conditions of stress. A series of spinning cycles with fixed imbalanced loads was run on two washing-machines to observe failures and performance changes during the test. Even though no hard failures occurred, results clearly showed that not all washing-machines can sustain such a test without abrasion or performance deterioration. However, the attempt to reproduce the stress induced on a washing-machine by carrying out a high number of pure spinning cycles with fixed loads did not allow equal testing conditions: the actions of the control procedure regarding imbalanced loads differ from machine to machine. The outcomes of this research can be used as grounds to develop standardised durability tests and to, hence, contribute to the development of future product policy measures.

  13. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.

    2017-10-01

    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  14. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  15. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ∼ 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause.

  16. Facility for washing and drying of multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachev, G.M.; Krotov, S.V.; Minakov, G.D.; Nikachalo, I.I.; Filimonov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A design of a special device for washing and drying multiwire chambers having an area of up to 1.5x2 m is described. The device consists of a heat-insulated ultrasonic bath and a 1.8 m 3 vacuum desiccator. The device reduces labour consumption when cleaning the chambers. For instance, it takes 1.5 h to wash a 88x86 cm chamber. Upon completion of washing and drying the chamber has the following characteristics: the efficiency plateau in the Ar+20% CO 2 mixture constitutes 200 V, while the noise level at the end of the efficiency plateau constitutes 5x10 -2 Hz/cm 2

  17. Dry washing: the solution for contaminated liquid effluent releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'homme, D.; Trambouze, P.

    1998-01-01

    The release of wash water used for contaminated garments poses an ever-increasing problem on nuclear sites. Even though the radioactivity is low, it mixes with organic compounds, thus polluting a large quantity of liquid effluents. In many cases, several thousands of m 3 /year per nuclear site are produced, which at times represents more than 30% of the volume of total releases. The conventional dry cleaning process is not a viable option, given that repeated washing cause clothes to fade and the odors are rot removed completely. In order to eliminate releases, STMI has developed, after several years of research with the Technological University of Compiegne, France, a solvent dry washing process for garments used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  18. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-06-12

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions.

  19. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm 3 along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm 3

  20. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions.

  1. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... estimate soil erosion under different forest conditions including regions, vegetation type, and stand density as influenced by ... health. The anti-scouring feature of the forest land soil is considered to be an important part of the assessment as such feature help soil resist from being washed. In the. 1960s, Zhu ...

  2. Geochemical and C, O, Sr, and U-series isotopic evidence for the meteoric origin of calcrete at Solitario Wash, Crater Flat, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, L. A.; Paces, J. B.; Marshall, B. D.; Peterman, Z. E.; Whelan, J. F.

    2005-08-01

    Calcite-rich soils (calcrete) in alluvium and colluvium at Solitario Wash, Crater Flat, Nevada, USA, contain pedogenic calcite and opaline silica similar to soils present elsewhere in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Nevertheless, a ground-water discharge origin for the Solitario Wash soil deposits was proposed in a series of publications proposing elevation-dependent variations of carbon and oxygen isotopes in calcrete samples. Discharge of ground water in the past would raise the possibility of future flooding in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. New geochemical and carbon, oxygen, strontium, and uranium-series isotopic data disprove the presence of systematic elevation-isotopic composition relations, which are the main justification given for a proposed ground-water discharge origin of the calcrete deposits at Solitario Wash. Values of δ13C (-4.1 to -7.8 per mil [‰]), δ18O (23.8-17.2‰), 87Sr/86Sr (0.71270-0.71146), and initial 234U/238U activity ratios of about 1.6 in the new calcrete samples are within ranges previously observed in pedogenic carbonate deposits at Yucca Mountain and are incompatible with a ground-water origin for the calcrete. Variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes in Solitario Wash calcrete likely are caused by pedogenic deposition from meteoric water under varying Quaternary climatic conditions over hundreds of thousands of years.

  3. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  5. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Development and deployment of a chemical extraction treatment technology for uranium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated soils is a major contributor to the cost of the environmental restoration effort at DOE sites previously employed in the DOE weapons production complex. At the RMI Decommissioning Project (RMIDP) in Ashtabula, Ohio, soil remediation by traditional ship and bury methods comprised over $44 million of the $164 million decommission baseline budget. The RMIDP has developed and is preparing to deploy a chemical treatment technology for washing uranium contaminated soil. Soil washing provides a significant volume reduction alternative to transportation and burial or on-site disposal when all life cycle costs of burial are considered. Soil washing at the RMIDP is projected to save the DOE over $13 million in direct remediation costs of the 40,000 tons of uranium contaminated soil, and $12 million in indirect project savings through schedule reduction. From August 1996 through February 1997, the RMIDP performed Process Definitive Testing (PDT) to validate initial screening study findings regarding the viability of soil washing. PDT defined the operating process parameter requirements for the soil washing carbonate leaching system, and provided valuable design data to be used in production plant design. A 2 ton per batch soil washing plant was designed, constructed, and operated in a 6 month period. Over 68 tons of soil were processed to provide operating data at a scale close to production scale. The data derived from pilot operations proved the technical viability of carbonate leaching on RMI soil and provided sufficient plant operating data to allow a cost-benefit assessment of soil washing to be performed. The RMIDP soil washing production facility design is complete and the facility was started up in April 1999

  7. All You Have to Do is Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast teaches children how and when to wash their hands properly.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  8. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics coated with nanosol composites of silica–titania. I KARTINI1,*, I ILMI1, E S KUNARTI2 and KAMARIAH3. 1Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Gadjah Mada,. Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, ...

  9. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  10. Comparative studies on dyeing rate migration and wash fastness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration and diffusion properties of synthesized azo dyes from 2-aminothiazole derivatives applied on commercial grade undyed cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) were investigated using dyeing conditions of 2% on weight of fabric (owf), 50:1 liquor ratio and subjected to ISO3 and ISO4 standard wash ...

  11. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components ...

  12. Microbial Pollution of Hand Washing Liquids in Kurdistan University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Ghahramani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many nosocomial infections are transferred by hand contact between personnel. Among basic actions to control such infections is the investigation of hygienic conditions of washing hands with hand washing liquids. In such situations, if the hand washing agents are contaminated with pathogenic agents, they may lead to the development of nosocomial infections. Objectives: In this study, we investigated infections in hand washing liquids in public hospital of Sanandaj during 2011. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in public hospitals of Sanandaj. The type and species of microorganisms from 52 samples were examined and diagnosed. Statistical analysis was done using Excel with frequency distribution tables and descriptive tests. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (47.36% and Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.31% had the highest frequencies and Escherichia coli (5.26% had the lowest isolation rate. Conclusions: The results indicated that the level of contamination at public hospitals of Sanandaj was very high (59.37%. An important finding of this study was the need for appropriate training because we observed liquid containers without lids or with unsuitable lids.

  13. Radioactive demonstration of the ''late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ''late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests

  14. Effectiveness Of Different House-Hold Hand Washing Agents On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in infection control. Washing agents commonly in use were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, and imperial leather. The hands were inoculated (deliberate ...

  15. Ultrasonic system for continuous washing of textiles in liquid layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A; Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Victor; Rodríguez, Germán; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic energy for washing of textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the softness of the fibres makes the cavitation to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favours the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. In addition, a high proportion of water with respect to the wash load and a certain water degassing is required to assure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. Such requirements have hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing machines for domestic purposes. For specific industrial applications, a great part of these limitations may be overcome. This article deals with a new process in which the fabric is exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format. Such process has been implemented at laboratory and at semi-industrial stage by using specially designed power ultrasonic transducers with rectangular plate radiators. The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitation field generated by the plate radiator within a thin layer of liquid where the fabric is introduced. The homogeneity of such effect is achieved by the successive exposure of all the fabric areas to the intense acoustic field. In this paper the structure and performance of the developed system are shown.

  16. Cultivation of freshwater microalgae in biodiesel wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; Sassi, Roberto; Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; Abrahão, Raphael

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel wash water is a contaminating industrial effluent that must be treated prior to disposal. The use of this effluent as a low-cost alternative cultivation medium for microalgae could represent a viable supplementary treatment. We cultivated 11 microalgae species with potential use for biodiesel production to assess their growth capacities in biodiesel industrial washing waters. Only Monoraphidium contortum, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum sp., and one unidentified Chlorophyceae species grew effectively in that effluent. M. contortum showed the highest growth capacity and had the second highest fatty acid content (267.9 mg g -1 of DW), predominantly producing palmitic (20.9%), 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic (14%), oleic (16.2%), linoleic (10.5%), and linolenic acids (23.2%). In the second phase of the experiment, the microalgae were cultivated in biodiesel wash water at 75% of its initial concentration as well as in WC (control) medium. After 21 days of cultivation, 25.8 and 7.2% of the effluent nitrate and phosphate were removed, respectively, and the chemical oxygen demand was diminished by 31.2%. These results suggest the possibility of cultivating biodiesel producing microalgae in industrial wash water effluents.

  17. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing ... design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components of the machine to carry .... incorporation of a graphic interface shown in Figure 3. This.

  18. Osmotic Fragility in Stored Non-Detergent Washed Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic fragility (OF) of non-detergent washed erythrocytes was evaluated in Nigerian human male erythrocytes stored for 0h, 12h, 24h and 48h. Storage of these human erythrocytes for up to 24h did not significantly alter their membrane characteristics. Mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) diminished and correlated negatively ...

  19. Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, ...

  20. Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives Caring for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hand washing is widely acknowledged to be crucial in preventing the spread of germs and reducing infections which contribute to 27 neonates deaths /1000 live births. However, little is known about the extent to which handwashing is practiced among healthcare providers caring for newborns in Rwanda and ...

  1. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    knowledge, attitudes and hand washing practices both in and outside the hospital amongst medical students in ... simple questionnaire exploring perceptions, attitudes and self reported behavior was used. Information obtained ..... Journal of Japanese Society of Nursing. Research 2003; 26: 59-66. 10. Tibballs J. Teaching ...

  2. Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

  3. Freeze concentration of proteins in Antarctic krill wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangming; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Kuo; Guo, Hui; Ma, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Water-washing removes fluoride from Antarctic krill but produces large volumes of wash water containing water- soluble proteins and fluoride. The freeze concentration method was tested to determine if it could be used to recover water-soluble proteins while leaving the fluoride in solution. After freezing and thawing the wash water, protein and fluoride contents of the thawed fractions were determined to explore the melting regularity of components in the wash water. The highest concentration factors of protein and fluoride were obtained after 80 min of thawing, such as 1.48 ± 0.06 and 1.35 ± 0.04 times, respectively. The free amino-nitrogen (FAN) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern results revealed that the highest concentrations of all ingredients were obtained after 80 min of the process. The degree of hydrolysis of all fractions from the thawing process fluctuated in a narrow range around 12% during the entire process, indicating that the thawing order did not change with various proteins or time during the entire thawing course. These results demonstrate that the freeze concentration method can be used to concentrate protein solutions, even those with fluoride. It was concluded that condensation was achieved and no ingredient could be separated, regardless of fluoride, amino acids, or different proteins in the water.

  4. Cadmium Removal from Rice by Separating and Washing Protein Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yinqiang; Du, Hongying; Xue, Bingying; Niu, Meng; Zhao, Siming

    2016-06-01

    In this study detoxification of 3 Chinese Cd-contaminated cultivars (Jinyou463, Yuchi, and Xiangzaoxian 32) of rice was explored. By separation with an alkaline method, Cd concentrations of the starch isolates were decreased from 0.2769, 0.4037, and 0.5156 mg/kg in starting milled rice to 0.1056, 0.1585, and 0.1923 mg/kg, respectively. However, the Cd concentrations reached up to 2.5905, 3.1628, and 4.8593 mg/kg in the protein isolates, respectively. Therefore, 10 common acids in food industry were investigated to remove Cd from protein isolate by washing process. The optimal washing conditions were 0.5 M citric acid, acid to rice protein isolate ratio of 6:1 v/w, shaking time of 1 h at room temperature. The rice protein isolate showed a significant decrease in Cd concentration and the removal efficiency was more than 95% after 2 washings at optimized conditions. Rice proteins were not degraded at all and had very little loss during citric acid washing process. The study presents a promising way of depurating Cd-contaminated rice, and meanwhile it reduces the risk of heavy metal causing food safety issues effectively. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Fate of Escherichia coli O145 present naturally in bovine slurry applied to vegetables before harvest, after washing and simulated wholesale and retail distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, M L; Harrison, D; Heath, J F; Monaghan, J M

    2017-12-01

    To determine the fate of Escherichia coli on vegetables that were processed through commercial wash treatments and stored under simulated retail conditions at 4°C or wholesale at fluctuating ambient temperatures (0-25°C, dependent on season). Bovine slurry that was naturally contaminated with E. coli O145 was applied without dilution or diluted 1:10 using borehole water to growing potatoes, leeks or carrots. Manure was applied 1 week prior to harvest to simulate a near-harvest contamination event by manure deposition or an application of contaminated water to simulate a flooding event or irrigation from a contaminated water source. At harvest, crops were contaminated at up to 2 log cfu g -1 . Washing transferred E. coli into the water of a flotation tank used for potato washing and did not completely remove all traces of contamination from the crop. Manure-contaminated potatoes were observed to contain 0·72 cfu E. coli O145 g -1 after processing and retail storage. Manure-contaminated leeks harboured 0·73-1·55 cfu E. coli O145 g -1 after washing and storage. There was no cross-contamination when leeks were spray washed. Washing in an abrasive drum resulted in less than perfect decontamination for manure-contaminated carrots. There were five post-distribution isolations from carrots irrigated with contaminated water 24 h prior to harvest. Standard commercial washing and distribution conditions may be insufficient to reliably control human pathogenic E. coli on fresh produce. Previous speculation that the cause of a UK foodborne disease outbreak was soil from imperfectly cleaned vegetables is plausible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Remediation of soils contaminated with chromium using citric and hydrochloric acids: the role of chromium fractionation in chromium leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Tu, Yao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Acid washing is a common method for soil remediation, but is not always efficient for chromium-contaminated soil. Both soil particle size and the forms of chromium existing in the soil affect the efficiency of soil washing. Laboratory batch and column dissolution experiments were conducted to determine the efficiencies of citric and hydrochloric acids as agents to extract chromium from soils contaminated with chromium. The effects of soil particle size and chromium fractionation on Cr leaching were also investigated. About 90% of chromium in the studied soil existed either in residual form or bound to iron and manganese oxides, and Cr fraction distributions were similar for all soil particle sizes. Almost all exchangeable and carbonate-bound chromium was removed by washing once with 0.5 M HCl, whereas organic chromium was more effectively removed by washing with citric acid rather than with HCl solution of the same concentration. For chromium fractions that were either bound to Fe-Mn oxides or existed as residual forms, the efficiencies of acid washing were usually 20% or less, except for 0.5 M HCl solution, which had much higher efficiencies. Separation of the soil sample by particle size before the separate washing of the soil fractions had little improvement on the chromium removal.

  7. Four deaths due to carbon monoxide poisoning in car washes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, H J; Stephens, P J

    1999-09-01

    In a period of 13 months, three separate incidents of lethal carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in closed car wash bays resulted in the deaths of 4 white men aged 20 to 36 years. Each man appears to have been intoxicated with mind-altering substances, which may impair judgment, perception of outside conditions, and self-awareness. All four died in winter months. For three men, the deaths were ruled accidental, and for the remaining man, the previous deaths appear to have provided a model for suicide. Warning signs may not be effective to prevent future CO deaths in car washes because of the possible role of intoxication. Mechanical or electronic methods to prevent a bay door from closing completely may be preferable.

  8. Light-reactivation of (Tris-washed)-DPIP-treated chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Tomita, Giiti

    1976-01-01

    Incorporation of 54 Mn into Tris (pH8.8, 1hr)-washed chloroplasts and oxygen evolving activity were stimulated by DPIP treatment and light-reactivation, but inhibited by atebrin, DCCD, gramicidin J, DCMU and EDTA. Omission of DTT on the light-reactivation resulted in accumulation or deposit of Mn in chloroplasts which had no function for the recovery of oxygen-evolving activity. The chlorophyll fluorescence quenched by Tris-washing was restored by DPIP-treatment and light-reactivation. The chloroplast structure, monitored by its packed volume and optical density at 750mm, changed reversibly with inhibition and DPIP-treatment. The action spectrum of light-reactivation suggested that the effective light-receptor might be photosystem II. (auth.)

  9. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  10. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  11. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  12. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  13. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    iment load in Burdekin River in Australia. The mean annual wash load was estimated as 3.0 mil- lion tons of silt ... showed a pulse of coarse sediment on the rising limb of the hydrograph that may reflect the remo- bilization of ...... Himalaya; J. Asian Earth Sci. 79(Part A) 224–234. Smith S M C and Wilcock P R 2015 Upland ...

  14. Washing of Uranium Gel Resulted from Gelation Using Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurwijayadi; Bangun-Wasito; Sukarsono; Endang-Nawangsih

    2000-01-01

    Washing of uranium gel resulted from gelation using ammonia underconcentration of 1, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5 % has been carried out. The sol wasprepared by reacting uranyl nitrate, urea and HMTA at 5 o C. The resulted solwas dropped into a column containing paraffin oil at temperature of 95 o C.The resulted gel color was orange. It was simmered in a 2.5 % ammoniasolution for 24 hours. After that, the gel was washed in an ammonia solutionunder a concentration variation. The best washing process occurred at ammoniaconcentration of 2.5 % with most absorbed ion nitrate, i.e. 292.2 ppm. Theresulted true density using N 2 was about 8.3 - 8.6 g/ml, specific surfacearea using multi point BET was about 1.5 - 3.1 m 2 /g, average pore radius was22.27 -41.22 A and total pore volume was 3.55 x 10 -3 cc/g. (author)

  15. Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks

  16. Degradation of a washed carrot preparation by cellulases and pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, H K; Frey, M D; Radola, B J; Scherz, H

    1984-07-01

    A washed carrot substrate, prepared with high yields and easy handling properties, was found to be a suitable substrate for studying cellulolytic and pectinolytic degradation processes. A cellulase from Trichoderma reesei, and Rohament P, a macerating enzyme from Aspergillus alleaceus in endopolygalacturonase, degraded the washed carrot substrate to an extent of 60%. With the combined action of both enzymes, degradation was more than 80%. Simultaneous action of both enzymes was more efficient than their sequential use. The effect of temperature, pH, incubation time, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration on the degradation by the single enzymes and their mixture were studied. Gas chromatographic sugar analysis revealed that Rohament P liberated glucose, arabinose, and galactose in the low-molecular-weight fraction obtained by ultrafiltration, in addition to high amounts of galacturonic acid. These carbohydrates were also found in the high-molecular-weight fraction (retentate) together with rhamnose and mannose. Cellulase BC released mainly glucose, although galacturonic acid, arabinose, xylose, and mannose were also detected both in the ultrafiltrate and retentate. Morphologically, during Rohament P degradation of the washed carrot substrate, damaged tissues and disintegrated cells were seen, whereas on cellulase BC action mainly disintegrated cell walls were observed.

  17. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Bucher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS workers, respectively. Methods: We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results: There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003. Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion: Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  18. Remediation for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivekaes, L. [Lohja Envirotec, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    A versatile remediation centre for contaminated soils has operated at Virkkala close to Helsinki since 1998. It is the first regional soil remediation centre in Finland and serves a large area in south- western Finland. Contaminated soils are collected from tens of small and large sites each year and transported to Virkkala for a very high class and environmentally safe treatment under controlled conditions. The centre consists of a 2 ha large hall for storage and treatment of the soils, a 1 ha outside bio-remediation field and a service and truck washing hall. Three treatment technologies are available at the centre: Stabilization/solidification, washing and bio-remediation. With these methods all the most common types of contamination can be treated: Heavy metals, oils, PAHs, creosotes and chlorophenols. Special care has been taken with prevention of environmental emissions, because the centre is located close to a housing area and on a lake-front. All the storage and treatment areas are covered with a double or triple bottom liner system and all environmental emissions are being monitored constantly. EU's Life Environment -fund has supported the project. (orig.)

  19. Effects of hillslope gully stabilization on erosion and sediment production in the Torreon Wash watershed, New Mexico, 2009–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Anne Marie; Tillery, Anne C.; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.

    2018-04-10

    Sediment erosion and deposition in two sets of paired (treated and untreated) upland drainages in the Torreon Wash watershed, upper Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico, were examined over a 3 1/2-year period from spring 2009 through fall 2012. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of shallow, loose-stone check dams, or “one-rock dams,” as a hillslope gully erosion stabilization and mitigation method, and its potential for retaining upland eroded soils and decreasing delivery of sediment to lower ephemeral stream channels. Two high-resolution topographic surveys, completed at the beginning and end of the study period, were used to assess the effects of the mitigation measures at paired-drainage sites in both Penistaja Arroyo and Papers Wash watersheds, and at six main-stem-channel cross-section clusters along Penistaja Arroyo and Torreon Wash in the Torreon Wash watershed.For both drainage pairs, the treated drainage had greater sediment aggradation near the channel than the untreated drainage. Erosion was the dominant geomorphic process in the untreated Penistaja Arroyo drainage, whereas aggradation was the dominant process in the other three drainages. For the Penistaja Arroyo paired drainages, the treated site showed a 51-percent increase in area aggraded and 67-percent increase in volume aggraded per area analyzed over the untreated site. Both Papers Wash drainages showed net aggradation, but with similar treatment effect, with the treated site showing a 29-percent increase in area aggraded and 60-percent increase in volume aggraded per area analyzed over the untreated site. In the untreated Penistaja Arroyo drainage, the calculated minimum erosion rate was 0.0055 inches per year (in/yr; 0.14 millimeters per year [mm/yr]), whereas the calculated aggradation rates for the three drainages for which aggradation was the dominant geomorphic process were 0.0063 in/yr (0.16 mm/yr) for the Penistaja Arroyo treated drainage, 0.012 in/yr (0.31 mm/yr) for the Papers

  20. Wash flow disturbance and summer wash flow in the Mojave Desert: Influence on dispersion, production, and physiological functioning of dominant shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlander, April

    In many Mojave Desert ecosystems, water infiltrates to root-zones in greatest proportion via washes. As such, washes have a pronounced effect on plant dispersion and size across these landscapes. Desert roads alter the natural spatial patterns of washes on alluvial fans (locally called bajadas) and potentially affect plant production and distribution. As a winter-rainfall dominated ecosystem, climate changes in the Mojave Desert that increase summer precipitation may also play an important role in altering vegetation processes influenced by washes. Road effects on the spatial distribution of desert plants on a Mojave Desert bajada were examined using remotely sensed LiDAR data and ground based measurements of plant size. Plant physiological responses to summer wash flow were also quantified by measuring gas exchange and water status of two dominant perennial species, Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa. Larrea and Ambrosia plants were nearly 7x and 4x larger where wash flow has been enhanced by road culverts, relative to undisturbed areas and areas where flow has been cut-off by the presence of a road/railroad. Clustering of large plants occurred along wash margins, with clustering most pronounced in areas of enhanced wash flow. No clustering was found where wash flow has been eliminated. For ecophysiological traits, both species showed pronounced responses to the pulse of water; however, these responses varied as a function of distance from wash. Larrea plants within 3 m and Ambrosia plants within ca. 2 m from the wash responded to the pulse of water. Leaf phenology dictated the timing of carbon gain as Larrea experienced a rapid but short-lived increase in stomatal conductance compared to a significant response for over a month following the pulse for Ambrosia. These results indicate that disturbance of desert washes has a pronounced impact on vegetation structure, and changing climatic conditions that impact plant function could potentially lead to even

  1. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in § 57.800...

  2. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...

  3. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  4. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1091-1 - Losses from wash sales of stock or securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Losses from wash sales of stock or securities. 1.1091-1 Section 1.1091-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1091-1 Losses from wash...

  6. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.130 Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. If a tank... grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of crude...

  7. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  8. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  9. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Hartley, S.A.; Jagoda, L.K.; Rappe, K.G.; Urie, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-microm sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft 2 . The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft 2 . In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft 2 . In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding

  10. Comparative characterization of the quaternary deposits of Northwest Peninsular Malaysia by wash boring and CPTU site investigation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Mohamad R.; Rosli, Ros N.; Ramli, Muhd H.; Azmi, Mastura; Kumaravelu, Prakash; Govindasamy, Darvintharen

    2017-10-01

    A site investigation by wash boring method was carried out in the compound of the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, in Northwest Peninsular Malaysia. The subsurface soils of the region are known to be comprised of quaternary deposits including the prominent marine clays of the Gula formation. The conventional Standard Penetration Test, or SPT, was carried out for every 1.5m depth. The 18 disturbed samples collected were tested for grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and specific gravity; and categorized according to the unified soil classification system. The results indicate low SPT numbers, or SPTN, i.e. SPTN8 for depths deeper than 12m. Samples from shallower than 12m were mostly classified as low plasticity clay, or CL, which represents the soft marine clay while the underlying materials were mostly sands, namely poorly graded sand, or SP, silty sand, or SM, clayey sand, or SC, and well graded sand, or SW. Another site investigation by the CPTU method was also carried out 5m from the wash boring position, penetrating the entire soft clay stratum, thus giving another marine clay characterization in addition to the one given by the first method. The CPTU results generally gave SPTN≤2 for depths lesser than 8m, 2≤;SPTN≤4 for depths between 8 and 12m, and SPTN=23 at 12.5m, where the CPTU test terminated. The CPTU method classified the soft materials as sensitive fine grains, clays, and clayey silts to silty clays. Thus the CPTU results did not agree very well with the conventional wash boring SPT results in terms of the SPTN obtained. Nevertheless both methods equally identified the prominent presence of the soft marine clay stratum in the top 12.5m and the underlying strong sandy bed with higher bearing capacity values.

  11. Ecological Impact of Changing Rainfall Pattern, Soil Processes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the northern Guinea savanna, the tendency for soil wash and large-scale soil erosion becomes imminent. While little or nothing can be done concerning the changes observed in rainfall pattern, several options could be considered for reducing its negative impacts on the environment. Ecological anti-erosion techniques ...

  12. BACTERIOPHAGE TRANSPORT IN SANDY SOIL AND FRACTURED TUFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophage transport was investigated in laboratory column experiments using sandy soil, a controlled field study in a sandy wash, and laboratory experiments using fractured rock. In the soil columns, the phage MS-2 exhibited significant dispersion and was excluded from 35 to ...

  13. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Tel: +81-11-706-6949. Fax: +81-11-706-5105. drinking water and inhaling air or soil contaminated by .... washed in 3% HNO3 and rinsed at least twice with distilled water. One gram of each soil or sediment sample ... using a mercury analysis system MA-2000 (Nippon Instruments. Corp., Tokyo, Japan) after preparation of ...

  14. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  15. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  16. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  17. Chelant extraction and REDOX manipulation for mobilization of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.D.; Peters, R.W.; Miller, G.A.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Was the result of open burning and open detonation of chemical agents and munitions in the Toxic Burning Pits area at J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland, soils have been contaminated with heavy metals. Simultaneous extraction is complicated because of the multitude of contaminant forms that exist. This paper uses data from a treatability study performed at Argonne National Laboratory to discuss and compare several treatment methods that were evaluated for remediating metals-contaminated soils. J-Field soils were subjected to a series of treatability experiments designed to determine the feasibility of using soil washing/soil flushing, enhancements to soil washing/soil flushing, solidification/stabilization, and electrokinetics for remediating soils contaminated with metals. Chelating and mobilizing agents evaluated included ammonium acetate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid, Citranox, gluconic acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid, in addition to pH-adjusted water. REDOX manipulation can maximize solubilities, increase desorption, and promote removal of heavy metal contaminants. Reducing agents that were studied included sodium borohydride, sodium metabisulfite, and thiourea dioxide. The oxidants studied included hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium permanganate. This paper summaries the results from the physical/chemical characterization, soil washing/soil flushing, and enhancements to soil washing/soil flushing portions of the study

  18. On-site remediation of chromium-contaminated sediments by combination of sediment washing and stabilization with magnesium oxide/limestone mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildt, C.; Gibert, O.; Cortina, J.L. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Coscera, G. [Compania General de Sondeos CGS, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils and sediments is of significant value to industrial areas around the world. The spread of such pollutants can result in a potential risk of entering the groundwater system and being transported to potential receptors. Leaching techniques can be an effective treatment option for the metal removal from soils and sediments. This approach consists of washing or leaching the contaminated soil with an appropriate reagent and the subsequent treatment of the leaching in an above-ground installation (on-site treatment) where metals can be removed and concentrated into a smaller volume. Among the heavy metals, chromium is a commonly identified soil contaminant, particularly in sites with intensive economic activities including agriculture, industrial, mining and mineral processing. (orig.)

  19. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  20. Effects of hand wash agents: Prevent the laboratory associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurjeet, Urhekar AD, Raksha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in hands of the laboratory workers. Laboratory associated infections are an occupational hazard for laboratory workers in the microbiology laboratory. The workers can expose to infection if they do not properly wash their hands before taking food. Materials: Swabs from 35 laboratory workers was taken before and after applying the different disinfectants. The swabs were directly inoculated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar and nutrient agar. Inoculated plates were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. The antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Results: This study detects the major pathogenic bacteria in hands i.e. Staphylococcus aureus (40.58%, CoNS (21.74%, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.70% were isolated. Conclusion: This study helps to minimize the infections by proper hand washing and also minimizing the spread of infection from one person to others.

  1. Kinetics of iodine removal by washing with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Motonari

    1978-01-01

    Removal of iodine vapor by washing with water is an important problem in the safety and protection of environmental air in the surrounding of nuclear facilities. Investigations on its development and practical use have been conducted in Japan. However, it seems to be important that the theoretical proof for these experimental results should be fully made through the fundamental researches. From the above described point of view, absorption mechanism and absorption rate have been investigated concerning iodine removal by washing with water as seen in the previous report. In the investigation, the effect of carbon dioxide on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of iodine in air-sodium hydroxide solution system has been measured by using semi-continuous type and batch type vapor-liquid equilibrium measuring apparatuses. Over-all vapor-liquid partition coefficient of iodine significantly reduced with the increase of carbon dioxide concentration. This is due to the fact that the existence of carbon dioxide greatly decreases the iodine and iodate ions. These experimental results can be explained by considering carbon dioxide reaction in sodium hydroxide solution together with iodine reaction. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Biodegradation of biodiesel wash water from a biodiesel fuel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Naohiro; Habe, Hiroshi; Ito, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was the modification of our biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process to make higher quality BDF. The existing process which does not include a water washing process for raw BDF, has the advantage of no wash water discharge, but occasionally the resultant BDF is of lower grade due to residual ingredients. First, we attempted to integrate water washing into the existing process. After being neutralized and washed with H2SO4, the raw BDF was then washed with water equal to 20% of the raw BDF volume. A good separation of BDF and wash water was achieved, and the resultant wash water contained less than 2% methanol. Second, we evaluated biodegradation of the resultant wash water constituents, and 70% of the strains isolated from environmental samples removed 80 to 90% of total organic carbon. Among these, strain No. 20-68 removed both glycerol and methanol in the wash water within 7 days and was identified as Fusarium falciforme, a ubiquitous environmental microorganisms. These results suggest that if the wash water is released to the environments, the effects on environmental microorganisms will be minimal.

  3. In Situ Evaluation of Crop Productivity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils after Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Chae, Yooeun; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Dokyung; Cui, Rongxue; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-15

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals have been reused for agricultural, building, and industrial uses following remediation. This study assesses plant growth and bioaccumulation of heavy metals following remediation of industrially contaminated soil. The soil was collected from a field site near a nonferrous smelter and was subjected to laboratory- and field-scale studies. Soil from the contaminated site was remediated by washing with acid or mixed with soil taken from a distant uncontaminated site. The activities of various soil exoenzymes, the rate of plant growth, and the bioaccumulations of six heavy metals were measured to assess the efficacy of these bioremediation techniques. Growth of rice (Oryza sativa) was unaffected in acid-washed soil or the amended soil compared to untreated soil from the contaminated site. The levels of heavy metals in the rice kernels remained within safe limits in treated and untreated soils. Rice, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated in the same soils in the laboratory showed similar growth rates. Soil exoenzyme activities and crop productivity were not affected by soil treatment in field experiments. In conclusion, treatment of industrially contaminated soil by acid washing or amendment did not adversely affect plant productivity or lead to increased bioaccumulation of heavy metals in rice.

  4. Radiological assessment of the use of turf cut from sea-washed land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For more than 40 years, sea-washed land along the coast of north Wales, northwest England and southwest Scotland has received sediment containing artificial radionuclides as a result of authorised discharges into the Irish Sea from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Some parts of this sea-washed land have been used to produce high-quality turf for many years, and the radiation doses to those people who abstract the turf have been kept under review by Government departments and agencies. For the turf-cutters themselves, external irradiation was the dominant exposure pathway. The original intention was to estimate external dose rates arising from non-natural sources by taking field dose rate measurements and subtracting an appropriate background dose rate measured at a control site that contained, as far as possible, only naturally occurring radionuclides. This approach is similar to that adopted in the previous study undertaken by the Fisheries Research Laboratory (now CEFAS) in 1989. However, in some cases subsequent radiochemical analyses indicated that the control sites had been inundated by the sea. Consequently, external dose rates attributable to non-natural sources were estimated using measurements of concentrations of artificial radionuclides at various depths in the soil, together with an established predictive model. Observed and predicted external dose rates were compared for those sites where the controls were suitable. The predicted values were up to about five times greater than those observed in the field. This was to be expected because the predictions were based on small locations where concentrations of radionuclides in soil were highest, whereas instrument measurements at the same location would give values that were representative of an area of about 20 m in diameter. At most sites, the overall annual doses to turf-cutting operatives were less than 10 (μSv. In some cases this was due to very low external dose rates and in others to

  5. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Taneja, Davendra Kumar; Badhan, Suresh Kumar; Ingle, Gopal Krishan

    2013-01-01

    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, slogan writing competition; classroom interactions. Data were analyzed in the SPSS 16.0 software and Mcnemar test and Student paired t-test were used. After the program, 95% felt that hand should be washed frequently. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding hand-washing and frequency of hand-washing practices after the intervention. 42% children shared this information with their parents. The intervention proved effective in improving awareness and highlights the potential of school for hand-washing promotion activities.

  6. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Guan-Bu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 , and Mg(OH) 2 to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg −1 ) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L −1 DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH 4 ) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively

  7. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-11-15

    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis.

  9. Screening for new surface washing agents and mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    1997-01-01

    Surface washing agents (SWAs) for oil spills were screened using the inclined through method developed by Environment Canada. There are two categories of SWAs, i.e. non-surfactant based solvents, and surface active agents (surfactants). Results showed that among the SWAs tested, the systems based on a normal alkane solvent, including POD20, BOD123, and BOD124, had the best performance and the lowest toxicity. The optimum hydrophilic/lipophilic (HLB) value of hydrocarbon-based SWAs was found to fall in the range of 11 and 13, which is the HLB range between dispersants and detergents. The importance of reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water, and of making solid substrate surface water-wettable was also identified. The use of low-concentration aqueous surfactant solutions as rinsing water was found to improve effectiveness under field conditions. 10 refs., 21 figs

  10. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Francis K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p ® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703 respectively. For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p 0.0001. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence the insecticidal activity of LLINs. The standard WHOPES washing protocol underestimates the amount of insecticide washed from LLINs compared to the abrasive washing procedures that are used in the field

  12. Potential cross-contamination of E. coli between lettuce and wash water simulating an industrial fresh-cut lettuce wash process

    OpenAIRE

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide information about E. coli contamination of washing water to prevent water becoming a vehicle for transfer of microbial contamination to lettuce and to get insight on the factors affecting proper water management. A lettuce wash process was simulated to determine (1) the ability to use “clean” water and the tolerable E. coli levels for “clean” water and its’ potential to respect it upon re-use of water in the first washing bath, (2) the need and effect of using potable w...

  13. Centrifugation-free washing: A novel approach for removing immunoglobulin A from stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Eszter; Piety, Nathaniel Z; Strachan, Briony C; Lu, Madeleine; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2018-08-01

    Washed red blood cells (RBCs) are indicated for immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficient recipients. Centrifugation-based cell processors commonly used by hospital blood banks cannot consistently reduce IgA below the recommended levels, hence double washing is frequently required. Here, we describe a prototype of a simple, portable, disposable system capable of washing stored RBCs without centrifugation, while reducing IgA below 0.05 mg/dL in a single run. Samples from RBC units (n = 8, leukoreduced, 4-6 weeks storage duration) were diluted with normal saline to a hematocrit of 10%, and then washed using either the prototype washing system, or via conventional centrifugation. The efficiency of the two washing methods was quantified and compared by measuring several key in vitro quality metrics. The prototype of the washing system was able to process stored RBCs at a rate of 300 mL/hour, producing a suspension of washed RBCs with 43 ± 3% hematocrit and 86 ± 7% cell recovery. Overall, the two washing methods performed similarly for most measured parameters, lowering the concentration of free hemoglobin by >4-fold and total free protein by >10-fold. Importantly, the new washing system reduced the IgA level to 0.02 ± 0.01 mg/mL, a concentration 5-fold lower than that produced by conventional centrifugation. This proof-of-concept study showed that centrifugation may be unnecessary for washing stored RBCs. A simple, disposable, centrifugation-free washing system could be particularly useful in smaller medical facilities and resource limited settings that may lack access to centrifugation-based cell processors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

  15. Softening effect of bentonite and redeposition of solid impurities on washed cotton fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Fité, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a contribution to obtain an improvement in the redeposition of solid impurities on cotton fabric during washing with ecological surfactants and also the enhancement of their smoothness. For that purpose, sodium bentonite was added to the detergent formulations to produce a smoothing effect while washing, to obtain what is known as “softergent”. Thus, smoothing with this product, the necessity of adding softener in the last rinse during washing is eliminated,...

  16. Comparison of chemical washing and physical cell-disruption approaches to assess the surface adsorption and internalization of cadmium by Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaunay, Aurélien; Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Subcellular distribution of cadmium in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 cells. • Comparison of a chemical (EDTA washing) and a physical method (physical disruption). • EDTA washings strongly overestimated membrane-bound Cd concentrations. • The physical method revealed surprisingly over 80% of Cd internalization in the cells. • Metal biosorption by bacteria cannot be considered as a surface complexation process. - Abstract: Bacterial biosorption of heavy metals is often considered as a surface complexation process, without considering other retention compartments than cell walls. Although this approach gives a good description of the global biosorption process, it hardly permits the prediction of the fate of biosorbed metals in the environment. This study examines the subcellular distribution of cadmium (Cd) in the metal-tolerant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 through the comparison of an indirect chemical method (washing cells with EDTA) and a direct physical method (physical disruption of cells). The chemical washing approach presented strong experimental biases leading to the overestimation of washed amount of Cd, supposedly bound to cell membranes. On the contrary, the physical disruption approach gave reproducible and robust results of Cd subcellular distribution. Unexpectedly, these results showed that over 80% of passively biosorbed Cd is internalized in the cytoplasm. In disagreement with the common concept of surface complexation of metals onto bacteria the cell wall was poorly reactive to Cd. Our results indicate that metal sorption onto bacterial surfaces is only a first step in metal management by bacteria and open new perspectives on metal biosorption by bacteria in the environment, with implications for soil bioremediation or facilitated transport of metals by bacteria.

  17. Concentration levels of new-generation fungicides in throughfall released by foliar wash-off from vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P; Soto-Gómez, D; Paradelo, M; López-Periago, J E

    2017-12-01

    The presence of agricultural pesticides in the environment and their effects on ecosystems are major concerns addressed in a significant number of articles. However, limited information is available on the pesticide concentrations released from crops. This study reports losses of new-generation fungicides by foliar wash-off from vineyards and their potential impact on the concentrations of their main active substances (AS) in surface waters. Two experimental plots devoted to vineyards were treated with various combinations of commercial new-generation fungicide formulations. Then, up to sixteen throughfall collectors were installed under the canopy. Concentrations of sixteen different AS in throughfall were determined along nine rainfall episodes. Concentrations in throughfall far exceeded the maximum permissible levels for drinking water established by the European Union regulations. Dynamics of fungicide release indicated a first-flush effect in the wash-off founding the highest concentrations of AS in the first rain episodes after application of the fungicides. This article shows that foliar spray application of commercial formulations of new-generation fungicides does not prevent the release of their AS to soil or the runoff. Concentration data obtained in this research can be valuable in supporting the assessment of environmental effects of new-generation fungicides and modeling their environmental fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  19. Heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection of wash waters from the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María Victoria; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María Angeles; Gil, María Isabel

    2008-02-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic disinfection for control of natural and potentially pathogenic microflora in wash waters used for fresh-cut vegetables was evaluated. Wash waters for lettuce, escarole, chicory, carrot, onion, and spinach from a fresh-cut vegetable processing plant were treated with a titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic system. The vegetable wash waters were impelled out with a pump at a flow rate of 1,000 liters/h and conducted through a stainless steel circuit to the filtration system to reach the TiO2 photocatalyst fiber, which was illuminated with a 40-W UV-C lamp. The microbial and physicochemical qualities of the wash water were analyzed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was an effective disinfection method, reducing counts of bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Most of the treated wash waters had total bacteria reductions of 4.1 +/- 1.3 to 4.8 +/- 0.4 log CFU/ml after 10 min of treatment when compared with untreated water. Higher decontamination efficacy was observed in carrot wash water (6.2 +/- 0.1-log reductions), where turbidity and organic matter were lower than those in the wash waters for other vegetables. The tested heterogeneous photocatalytic system also was effective for reducing water turbidity, although chemical oxygen demand was unaffected after the treatments. The efficacy of the photocatalytic system for reducing microbial load depended on the physicochemical characteristics of the wash water, which depended on the vegetable being washed. The conclusions derived from this study illustrate that implementation of a heterogeneous photocatalytic system in the fresh-cut vegetable washing processes could allow the reuse of wash water.

  20. Integrated Nanozero Valent Iron and Biosurfactant-Aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs have been identified as environmental hazards for years. Due to historical issues, a considerable amount of PCBs was released deep underground in Canada. In this research, a nanoscale zero valent iron- (nZVI- aided dechlorination followed by biosurfactant enhanced soil washing method was developed to remove PCBs from soil. During nZVI-aided dechlorination, the effects of nZVI dosage, initial pH level, and temperature were evaluated, respectively. Five levels of nZVI dosage and two levels of initial pH were experimented to evaluate the PCB dechlorination rate. Additionally, the temperature changes could positively influence the dechlorination process. In soil washing, the presence of nanoiron particles played a key role in PCB removal. The crude biosurfactant was produced using a bacterial stain isolated from the Atlantic Ocean and was applied for soil washing. The study has led to a promising technology for PCB-contaminated soil remediation.

  1. Reuse of Ablution Water to Improve Peat Soil Characteristics for Ornamental Landscape Plants Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reuse of ablution water for washing peat soil in order to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in these soils which might effect negatively on the plant growth. The washing process design was similar to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW consist of layers of peat and sand soil and surrounded by gravel on both sides. Strelitzia sp. was used to detect the presence negative effect of the washing process on the morphological characteristics of the plants. The physical and chemical characteristics of ablution water was examined before and after the washing process by using Inductively Couple Plasma- Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The characteristics of peat soil before and after the washing process were examined by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The results revealed that the percentage of FeO3in peat soil reduced from 45.80 to 1.01%. The percentage of SiO2 in sand soil dropped from 87.7 to 67.10%. Parameters of ablution water resulted from the washing process which including Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and heavy metals have increased but still within the standard limits for the disposal of ablution water into the environment. No atrophy was observed in Strelitzia sp. leaves, indicating the ability of plant to grow normally. It can be concluded that the utilization of ablution water in the washing of peat soil has improve the characteristics of the soil without effect on their organic constitutes.

  2. Are cannabinoids detected in hair after washing with Cannabio shampoo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Jamey, C; Ludes, B

    1999-09-01

    Today, cannabis plants are used in shampoo preparations, in foodstuffs (e.g., oils, noodles, crackers, etc.), and in beverages (e.g., tea). These products often contain cannabidiol (CBD, 4079 ng/mL) and cannabinol (CBN, 380 ng/mL). In order to verify if normal hygiene practices with Cannabio shampoo can result in positive tests for cannabinoids in hair, three subjects washed their hair with this shampoo once daily for two weeks. After this period, hair specimens were collected. In the three hair specimens, THC, CBD, and CBN were never detected within their limits of detection, 0.05, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. We concluded that the use of Cannabio shampoo during normal hygiene practices cannot be considered as a source of potential contamination of hair. In a second experiment, drug-free hair specimens (200 mg) were incubated in 10 mL water/Cannabio shampoo (20:1, v/v) for 30 min, 2 h, and 5 h. After incubation, hair strands were washed with water and separated into two portions. One portion was extracted directly; the second was decontaminated with methylene chloride and then extracted. After an incubation period of 30 min, the analysis of hair by GC-MS did not reveal the presence of THC, CBD, and CBN in hair, regardless of whether the hair was decontaminated. After an incubation period of 2 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.11 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.10 ng/mg with decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). After an incubation period of 5 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.25 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.14 ng/mg after decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). In all cases, THC was never detected. Extensive but unrealistic use of Cannabio shampoo can cause drug-free hair to test positive for CBD and CBN but not for the primary psychoactive drug THC.

  3. A Survey of the Pattern of Hand Washing Practices among Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand washing reduces the contanmination of the hands of health care workers with infection-causing pathogens. The study was conducted to determine the pattern of hand washing practices among health care workers in the Intensive Care Unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Structured-type questionnaires ...

  4. Increased hand washing reduces influenza virus surface contamination in Bangkok households, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jens W; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Simmerman, James M; Jarman, Richard G; Johnson, Kara; Olsen, Sonja J; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

    2014-01-01

    Within a hand-washing clinical trial, we evaluated factors associated with fomite contamination in households with an influenza-infected child. Influenza virus RNA contamination was higher in households with low absolute humidity and in control households, suggesting that hand washing reduces surface contamination. © 2013 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increased hand washing reduces influenza virus surface contamination in Bangkok households, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jens W; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Simmerman, James M; Jarman, Richard G; Johnson, Kara; Olsen, Sonja J; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

    2014-01-01

    Within a hand-washing clinical trial, we evaluated factors associated with fomite contamination in households with an influenza-infected child. Influenza virus RNA contamination was higher in households with low absolute humidity and in control households, suggesting that hand washing reduces surface contamination. PMID:24373290

  6. 40 CFR 429.110 - Applicability; description of the log washing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the log... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Log Washing Subcategory § 429.110 Applicability; description of the log washing subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  7. Effects of the particle size on the adhesive strength of washed cottonseed meal with white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water wash of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environment-friendly than the protein isolation which involves alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effect of the pa...

  8. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  9. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205...; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means a toilet, washing, or shower space that is accessible only from one single or double occupancy sleeping...

  10. Report regarding decontamination of radioisotopes by wash from polluted clothes derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident and estimation of wash on radiation safety of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    A huge amount of radioisotopes(RI), such as 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs etc., was released into the atmosphere by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company. According to the news immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident, it was reported that almost all clothes were largely contaminated with the RI, confirmed by the early screenings of the general public evacuated from the Fukushima nuclear accident. On account of a worry about the RI contamination on clothes, many inhabitants could not dry their clothes out of doors in an area indicated the high radiation dose caused by the RI contamination in both Fukushima prefecture and some prefectures next to Fukushima prefecture even after the accidental release of RI was stopped from the accidental Fukushima nuclear power plant. In order to settle this situation effectively, the Ad Hoc Committee on Safety Measures against Radioactive Iodine and Cesium of the Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management (JRSM) established a clothes analysis group. The Clothes Analysis Group aimed to analyze the actual RI contamination on clothes, and to develop a simple method to remove the RI by using washing machine sold on market, and so on. The results were summarized as follows; (1) The RI contamination was recognized obviously on clothes worn around the accidental Fukushima nuclear power plant immediately after the accident. However, on the clothes worn at July 2011, the RI contamination was not detected by a survey meter, but was detected a little by a Ge semiconductor detector. (2) The RI on clothes was decontaminated easily by a wash using a usual washing machine and detergent sold on the market. The RI decontamination ratios of the March clothes and the July one in 2011 were approximately 84% after three times wash and 88% after a once, respectively. (3) Radioactive Cs remained slightly after the wash and attached a little on clothes dried out of doors. Whenever the public

  11. Analysis of Cleaning Process for Several Kinds of Soil by Probability Density Functional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Terumasa; Oya, Masaru

    2017-10-01

    A method of analyzing the detergency of various soils by assuming normal distributions for the soil adhesion and soil removal forces was developed by considering the relationship between the soil type and the distribution profile of the soil removal force. The effect of the agitation speed on the soil removal was also analyzed by this method. Washing test samples were prepared by soiling fabrics with individual soils such as particulate soils, oily dyes, and water-soluble dyes. Washing tests were conducted using a Terg-O-Tometer and four repetitive washing cycles of 5 min each. The transition of the removal efficiencies was recorded in order to calculate the mean value (μ rl ) and the standard deviation (σ rl ) of the removal strength distribution. The level of detergency and the temporal alteration in the detergency can be represented by μ rl and σ rl , respectively. A smaller σ rl indicates a smaller increase in the detergency with time, which also indicates the existence of a certain amount of soil with a strong adhesion force. As a general trend, the values of σ rl were the greatest for the oily soils, followed by those of the water-soluble soils and particulate soils in succession. The relationship between the soil removal processes and the soil adhesion force was expressed on the basis of the transition of the distribution of residual soil. Evaluation of the effects of the agitation speed on µ rl and ơ rl showed that σ rl was not affected by the agitation speed; the value of µ rl for solid soil and oily soil increased with increasing agitation, and the µ rl of water-soluble soil was not specifically affected by the agitation speed. It can be assumed that the parameter ơ rl is related to the characteristics of the soil and the adhesion condition, and can be applied to estimating the soil removal mechanism.

  12. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  13. Washing of Rocky Flats Combustible Residues (Conducted March - May 1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary E. Barr; Ann R. Schake; David A. Romero; Gordon D. Jarvinen

    1999-03-01

    The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of washing plutonium-containing combustible residues using ultrasonic disruption as a method for dislodging particulate. Removal of plutonium particulate and, to a lesser extent, solubilized plutonium from the organic substrate should substantially reduce potential fire, explosion or radioactive release hazards due to radiolytic hydrogen generation or high flammability. Tests were conducted on polypropylene filters which were used as pre-filters in the rich-residue ion-exchange process at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. These filters are similar to the Ful-Flo{reg_sign} cartridges used at Rocky Flats that make up a substantial fraction of the combustible residues with the highest hazard rating. Batch experiments were run on crushed filter material in order to determine the amount of Pu removed by stirring, stirring and sonication, and stirring and sonication with the introduction of Pu-chelating water-soluble polymers or surfactants. Significantly more Pu is removed using sonication and sonication with chelators than is removed with mechanical stirring alone.

  14. Reverse osmosis for wash water recovery in space vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Saltonstall, C. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were carried out on both synthetic and real wash water derived from clothes laundry to determine the utility of reverse osmosis in recovering the water for recycle use. A blend membrane made from cellulose di- and triacetates, and a cross-linked cellulose acetate/methacrylate were evaluated. Both were found acceptable. A number of detergents were evaluated, including a cationic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, potassium palmitate, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The tests were all made at a temperature of 165 F to minimize microbial growth. Long-term (15 to 30 day) runs were made at 600 and 400 psi on laundry water which was pretreated either by alum addition and sand filtration or by filtration only through 0.5 micron filters. A 30-day run was made using a 2-in. diameter by 22-in. long spiral module at 400 psig with filtering as the pretreatment. The membrane fouling by colloidal matter was found to be controllable. The unit produced initially 55 gal/day and 27 gal/day after 30 days.

  15. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Colton, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are being developed to treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The wastes will be partitioned into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. The HLW will be vitrified into borosilicate glass and disposed of in a geologic repository, while the LLW will be immobilized in a glass matrix and will likely be disposed of by shallow burial at the Hanford Site. The wastes must be pretreated to reduce the volume of the HLW fraction, so that vitrification and disposal costs can be minimized. The current baseline process for pretreating Hanford tank sludges is to leach the sludge under caustic conditions, then remove the solubilized components of the sludge by water washing. Tests of this method have been performed with samples taken from several different tanks at Hanford. The results of these tests are presented in terms of the composition of the sludge before and after leaching. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron dispersive x-ray techniques have been used to identify the phases in the untreated and treated sludges

  16. THE SEARCHING OF DIMENSIONAL CHANGES ON THE KNITTED FABRICS AND GARMENTS AFTER WASHING AND DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha DEMİRHAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the dimensional changes of the fabrics of the textile materials such as fabrics remain in limits after washing. Especially at the export markets the dimensional stability is the most important factor of quality. Therefore; some standarts regarding the dimensional changes which can occur during washing for the knitted and woven fabrics had been agreed in the world and also in our country. When mentioning about "the dimensional changes after washing" we usually think of the length shrinkages or shortening which the fabric is mostly stretched on the length dırectıon. This explaines us where the most problems come from. In this study the dimensional changes of the various fabrics which occurs during line-dry and tumble dry process after washing has been examined and evaluated. Beside this, the shrinkages of the garments made from this fabrics after washing and ironing has been searched.

  17. Assessment of Cr and Ni phytotoxicity from cutlery-washing waste-waters using biomass and chlorophyll production tests on mustard Sinapis alba L. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargasová, Agáta; Molnárová, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    all tested samples, a stronger reduction in chlorophylls than in carotenoids was confirmed. The phytotoxicity of waste-waters from cutlery production line washing reservoirs was evaluated and the effects on dry and fresh mass production and photosynthetic pigments amount was discussed as Cr and Ni toxicity. It is concluded from the present study that washing waste-waters from cutlery production line are quite toxic to plants, thus reducing biomass and photosynthetic pigment production and influencing water translocation through the plant. These determined adverse effects of washing waste-waters from this cutlery production line classified them as too dangerous to be spread on open-land soil. On the basis of this study, high toxicity of the presented waste-waters from metal surface-finishing as well as justness of their liquidation as hazardous wastes by legally assigned persons were recommended.

  18. Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ali Ataee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male′s hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001. The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient′s manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  19. Effect of egg washing on the cuticle quality of brown and white table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, S; Messens, W; De Reu, K; De Preter, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Baerdemaeker, J; Michiels, C W; Bain, M

    2011-10-01

    Egg washing is currently not permitted within the European Union, with few exceptions. This is mainly because there are concerns that cuticle damage could occur during or after the washing process, as a result of a suboptimal operation. In this study, the cuticle coverage levels of 400 washed or unwashed eggs, derived from either a brown or a white egg-laying flock at the end of lay, were compared. The eggs from older hens inherently have poorer cuticle coverage and as a result arguably constitute a greater risk to consumer safety if they are then washed. Thus, the effects of the washing procedure used in this study on cuticle quality were tested under the worst-case scenario. A standard Swedish egg washing process was used. The cuticle coverage of the eggs was assessed by a colorimeter by quantifying the color difference before and after staining with Tartrazine and Green S. The cuticle of an additional 30 eggs from each of the four groups was then visually assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The staining characteristics of the cuticle varied greatly within each group of eggs and showed that the washing process did not lead to cuticle damage. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that there was no irreversible damage to the cuticle of the washed eggs and that it was not possible to correctly assign the treatment (washed or not) based on a visual assessment. In conclusion, no evidence could be found to suggest that the washing procedure used in this investigation irreversibly changed the quality of the cuticle.

  20. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns...... macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  1. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  2. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137 Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  3. Droplet-based microfluidic washing module for magnetic particle-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Xu, Linfeng; Oh, Kwang W

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a continuous flow droplet-based microfluidic platform for magnetic particle-based assays by employing in-droplet washing. The droplet-based washing was implemented by traversing functionalized magnetic particles across a laterally merged droplet from one side (containing sample and reagent) to the other (containing buffer) by an external magnetic field. Consequently, the magnetic particles were extracted to a parallel-synchronized train of washing buffer droplets, and unbound reagents were left in an original train of sample droplets. To realize the droplet-based washing function, the following four procedures were sequentially carried in a droplet-based microfluidic device: parallel synchronization of two trains of droplets by using a ladder-like channel network; lateral electrocoalescence by an electric field; magnetic particle manipulation by a magnetic field; and asymmetrical splitting of merged droplets. For the stable droplet synchronization and electrocoalescence, we optimized droplet generation conditions by varying the flow rate ratio (or droplet size). Image analysis was carried out to determine the fluorescent intensity of reagents before and after the washing step. As a result, the unbound reagents in sample droplets were significantly removed by more than a factor of 25 in the single washing step, while the magnetic particles were successfully extracted into washing buffer droplets. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate a magnetic particle-based immunoassay with streptavidin-coated magnetic particles and fluorescently labelled biotin in the proposed continuous flow droplet-based microfluidic platform.

  4. Changes within the stabilizing layer of ZnO nanoparticles upon washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Torben; Schmutzler, Tilo; Schmiele, Martin; Lin, Wei; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang; Appavou, Marie-Sousia; Kriele, Armin; Gilles, Ralph; Unruh, Tobias

    2017-10-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are highly relevant for various industrial applications, however, after synthesis of the NPs residual chemicals need to be removed from the colloidal raw product by washing, as they may influence the performance of the final device. In the present study we focus on the effect of washing by antisolvent flocculation with subsequent redispersion of the NPs on the stabilizing acetate shell. Purification of the ZnO nanoparticles is reported to be optimal with respect to zeta potential that has a maximum after one washing cycle. In this work, we will shed light on this observation using small angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS, SANS) by demonstrating that after the first washing cycle the content of acetate in the ligand shell around the ZnO NPs increases. In detail, it was observed that the diffuse acetate shell shrinks to the size of a monolayer upon washing but the acetate content of this monolayer is higher than within the diffuse shell of the particles of the native dispersion. A second washing cycle reduces the acetate concentration within the stabilizing shell and the stability of the dispersion drops accordingly. After another (third) washing cycle strong agglomeration was observed for all investigated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THE EFFECT OF WATER REDUCTION IN KRAFT PULP WASHING IN ECF BLEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Frigieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main objective of this work was to study the technical viability of using the cellulose bleaching effluent, at several stages of the process, seeking fresh water reduction in pulp washing, and evaluating its effect on pulp quality. Eucalyptus spp. industrial cellulosic pulp with oxygen was used in this experiment. The same bleaching sequence D(E+PDP was performed ten times, under the same conditions (temperature, consistency and time. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different washing factors: 9, 6, 3, 0 m3 of distilled water/ton of pulp, trying to reach brightness of 92 ± 0,5% ISO. The ten sequences sought to achieve the stability of the effluent organic load, measured by the chemical oxygen demand (COD. Then, the COD results were compared to the brightness ones from the bleached pulp. The evaluated results from the ten sequences and four different washings showed an increasing in COD due to the organic load accumulation, resulting from the reuse of effluent from previous sequences. This COD increasing provided the lower brightness results during the cycles, besides the water reduction, evidencing the necessity of washing between bleaching stages. In this study, the obtained result for the pulp washing up to 3m3/t was tolerable and even recommended. On the other hand, the pulp without any washing (0m3/t, due to the lack of enough brightness, it is commercially unviable.

  6. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over emphasized as the world is working ... farms further establishes the role of blue green algae in soil nutrients for plant growth. Key words- Soil Fertility, Soil ... with sunlight will promote the growth of soil algae and their contribution to ...

  8. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  9. Quantification Of Heavy Metals In The Various Branded Face Wash Available In The Bangladeshi Markets.

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. M. Morshed

    2017-01-01

    The current study has played an important role for the determination of heavy metals in the different types of face wash. In this study 32 samples of 15 branded face wash were gathered from the local market in Bangladesh. The analysis of these samples has performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AAS. A total of 16 samples are herbal and also 16 are synthetic out of 32 samples. The range of heavy metal concentration for synthetic face wash was obtained 0.55 11.35ppm for iron follow...

  10. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  11. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  12. Residues of maneb in potatoes and lettuce and their persistence during cooking, washing and uv exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Sennaoui, Z.; Zennouche, B.; Hylin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Lettuce plants were treated each with 0,186 mg of 14C maneb and 1,86 mg unlabelled maneb. The plants were analyzed 30 days later and subjected to washing. Washing eliminates 17,46% of total 14C maneb applied. No Etu was observed in water.Washing and baking cause a significant decrease of EBDC in potatoes samples and the UV exposition involves a decrease of the fungicide and a formation of Etu. On the other hand 54 % and 38% of lettuce and potatoe samples analyzed by CS2 method exceed the authorized norms

  13. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin

    2016-07-15

    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of Radium-226 from Radium-Contaminated Soil using Distilled Water and Humic Acid: Effect of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Muhamat Omar

    2011-01-01

    Effect of washing solutions' pH removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid extracted from Malaysian peat soil was studied by batch washing method. The study encompassed the extraction of humic acid and the washing of radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid solutions of 100 ppm, both with varying pHs in the range of 3 to 11. The radioactivity concentration of radium-226 was determined by gamma spectrometer.The removal of radium-226 was greater when humic acid solutions were used compared to distilled water at the pH range studied and both washing solutions showed greater removal of radium-226 when basic solutions were used. Nevertheless, comparable removal efficiencies were observed when neutral and highly basic humic acid solutions were used. (author)

  15. Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year in the United States, an estimated 40,000 children are born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, causing an estimated 400 deaths and leaving approximately 8000 children with permanent disabilities such as hearing or vision loss, or mental retardation. More children are affected by serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood maladies, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. Discussion Congenital CMV is a prime target for prevention not only because of its substantial disease burden but also because the biology and epidemiology of CMV suggest that there are ways to reduce viral transmission. Because exposure to the saliva or urine of young children is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women, it is likely that good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing, can reduce the risk of CMV acquisition. Experts agree that such measures are likely to be efficacious (i.e., they will work if consistently followed and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians counsel pregnant women about preventing CMV acquisition through careful attention to hygiene. However, because of concerns about effectiveness (i.e., Will women consistently follow hygienic practices as the result of interventions?, the medical and public health communities appear reluctant to embrace primary CMV prevention via improved hygienic practices, and educational interventions are rare. Current data on the effectiveness of such measures in preventing CMV infection are promising, but limited. There is strong evidence, however, that educational interventions can prevent other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, suggesting that effective interventions can also be found for CMV. Until a CMV vaccine becomes available, effective educational interventions are needed to inform women about congenital CMV prevention. Summary Perhaps no single

  16. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pat...

  17. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  18. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  19. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...

  20. Water usage characteristics of car wash facilities in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province

    OpenAIRE

    Karabacak, Volkan; Topbaş, Murat; Karakullukçu, Serdar; Demirtaş, Yusuf; Çankaya, Sertaç; Çan, Gamze; Beyhun, N. Ercüment

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. Water management is ontop of the agenda for all countries Aimof the study. The aim of this study was to determine the water usage in thecar wash facilities of Ortahisar district of Trabzon province, such as thefeatures of the water used in drinking and car washing, the disposal ofwastewater and case of water interruption situation in the facilities. Material and methods. This descriptivestudy was conducted in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province. The studypopulation of the res...

  1. Planning a layout design for the washing line of Parker Hannifin Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Lartey, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to design a new layout and select the best conveyor system to enhance material flow to the complex industrial washing machines at the washing line. The purpose was also to prepare an Approval for Execution (AFE) plan to enable the commissioning organization to review the current and future benefits and payback time before the project is implemented. The thesis was commissioned by Parker Hannifin Oy in Urjala. In spring 2011 Parker Hannifin Oy decided to streamli...

  2. An In-Plant Evaluation of Froth Washing on Conventional Flotation Cells for Coal

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Timothy Josiah

    2001-01-01

    Column flotation cells have become increasingly popular in the coal industry due to their ability to improve flotation selectivity. The improvement can be largely attributed to the use of froth washing, which minimizes the nonselective entrainment of ultrafine minerals matter into the froth product. Unfortunately, the practice of adding wash water in conventional flotation machines has been largely unsuccessful in industrial trials. In order to better understand the causes of these failure...

  3. Host cell protein clearance during protein A chromatography: development of an improved column wash step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhinav A; Hinckley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Host cell protein (HCP) contaminant clearance is a significant concern during downstream process development for biopharmaceuticals. Protein A chromatography as a capture step for monoclonal antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can clear a large proportion of these impurities from cell culture harvest. Nevertheless, remaining levels of this process-related impurity class do present significant constraints on the rapid development of effective and robust polishing steps. Conventionally, an intermediate pH wash is employed between column loading and elution to minimize HCP levels after Protein A chromatography. A significant mechanistic finding presented in this work is that HCP contaminants that persist following Protein A capture predominantly comprise species that associate with the product in preference to direct interaction with the chromatographic resin. This suggests that the development of improved column wash techniques to maximize HCP clearance ought to focus on disrupting protein-HCP interactions rather than Protein A-HCP interactions. A higher wash pH to preserve product--Protein A binding along with the use of additive combinations to disrupt interactions between HCPs and the product are investigated. This strategy was successfully applied to develop a broadly applicable wash condition that has the potential for eliminating the need for product specific optimization of wash conditions. A combination of 1 M urea and 10% isopropanol in the wash buffer were successfully applied as a platform wash condition for Protein A chromatography. Use of this (and other similar) wash conditions are anticipated to aid the rapid development of effective downstream processes for monoclonal antibodies and Fc fusion proteins resulting in their rapid introduction into clinical trials.

  4. Infrared measurements of pristine and disturbed soils 1. Spectral contrast differences between field and laboratory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Lucey, P.G.; Horton, K.A.; Winter, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of emissivity spectra (8-13 ??m) of pristine soils in the field with laboratory reflectance spectra of the same soils showed that laboratory spectra tend to have less spectral contrast than field spectra (see following article). We investigated this the phenomenon by measuring emission spectra of both undisturbed (in situ) and disturbed soils (prepared as if for transport to the laboratory). The disturbed soils had much less spectral contrast than the undisturbed soils in the reststrahlen region near 9 ??m. While the increased porosity of a disturbed soil can decrease spectral contrast due to multiple scattering, we hypothesize that the effect is dominantly the result of a difference in grain-size distribution of the optically active layer (i.e., fine particle coatings). This concept was proposed by Salisbury et al. (1994) to explain their observations that soils washed free of small particles adhering the larger grains exhibited greater spectral contrast than unwashed soils. Our laboratory reflectance spectra of wet- and dry-sieved soils returned from field sites also show greater spectral contrast for wet-sieved (washed) soils. We therefore propose that undisturbed soils in the field can be characterized as 'clean' soils (washed free of fine particles at the surface due to rain and wind action) and that disturbed soils represent 'dirty' soils (contaminated with fine particle coatings). The effect of packing soils in the field and laboratory also increases spectral contrast but not to the magnitude of that observed for undisturbed and wet-sieved soils. Since it is a common practice to use laboratory spectra of field samples to interpret spectra obtained remotely, we suggest that the influence of fine particle coatings on disturbed soils, if unrecognized, could influence interpretations of remote sensing data.Comparison of emissivity spectra (8-13 ??m) of pristine soils in the field with laboratory reflectance spectra of the same soils showed that

  5. Detecting Wash Trade in Financial Market Using Digraphs and Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Sonya; Belatreche, Ammar; McGinnity, Thomas Martin

    2016-11-01

    A wash trade refers to the illegal activities of traders who utilize carefully designed limit orders to manually increase the trading volumes for creating a false impression of an active market. As one of the primary formats of market abuse, a wash trade can be extremely damaging to the proper functioning and integrity of capital markets. The existing work focuses on collusive clique detections based on certain assumptions of trading behaviors. Effective approaches for analyzing and detecting wash trade in a real-life market have yet to be developed. This paper analyzes and conceptualizes the basic structures of the trading collusion in a wash trade by using a directed graph of traders. A novel method is then proposed to detect the potential wash trade activities involved in a financial instrument by first recognizing the suspiciously matched orders and then further identifying the collusions among the traders who submit such orders. Both steps are formulated as a simplified form of the knapsack problem, which can be solved by dynamic programming approaches. The proposed approach is evaluated on seven stock data sets from the NASDAQ and the London Stock Exchange. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively detect all primary wash trade scenarios across the selected data sets.

  6. Evaluation of different water-washing treatments effects on wheat straw combustion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effects of various water-washing solid-liquid ratios (1:50 and 1:10) and the stirring on wheat straw (WS) combustion properties. Comparing different solid-liquid ratio groups, a 16% increment in the higher heating value was obtained for 1:50 groups and only 5% for 1:10 groups relative to the raw material. Moreover, energy was lost 4-26 times greater in 1:10 groups than 1:50 groups. While water-washing reduced the comprehensive combustibility index by 14.89%-32.09%, the index values of washed WS were all higher than 2, indicating good combustion performance. The combustion activation energy of four washed WS were 175, 172, 186, and 176kJ/mol, which were all higher than the 160kJ/mol of WS. The fouling/slagging propensity of washed WS reduced to a lower possibility compared to medium of untreated WS. Overall, the recommended condition for washing WS before combustion is 1:50 ratio without stirring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A review of diesel use in pressure wash guns in the upstream petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Oil-based drilling fluids are used in wash guns to clean downhole tools and equipment. Base oils such as diesel are used instead of water to limit potential impacts on mud systems. This study was conducted after a near-miss incident in which an employee using diesel fuel in a high-pressure wash gun experienced sensitization to the diesel fluid and its fumes. The employee's service company banned the use of diesel fuel in wash guns in all its Canadian operations as a result of the incident. This study investigated the potential fire and explosion hazards that may be caused by use of the fuel in wash guns, and evaluated the potential for adverse health effects in workers exposed to diesel fluid and vapours. The study summarized alternative products for use in the wash guns and provided a compilation of industry policies, procedures, and job safety and hazard assessments that have been developed in relation to diesel fuels and wash guns. A review of field tests and studies on the health and safety effects of diesel fuel was also conducted. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. The recovery of ureaplasmas from bovine embryos following in vitro exposure and ten washes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, A P; Miller, R B; Ruhnke, H L; Johnson, W H

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-six unhatched embryos and ova were exposed to Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 in vitro for 16 h and subsequently washed ten times. Fifteen of the embryos and their wash fluids were cultured for ureaplasmas. Of the remaining 11 embryos, six were incubated with rabbit anti-Ureaplasma immunoglobulin (RAI) and five were incubated with serum from naive rabbits(NRS), after which all were incubated with protein A gold and prepared for electron microscopy. On ultrastructural examination, ureaplasmas were observed on the outer surface of the zona pellucida of all 11 embryos. The ureaplasmas on the six embryos incubated with RAI were labeled with gold particles, while those on the five embryos incubated with NRS were not labeled. Ureaplasmas were recovered from all 15 of the cultured embryos and all of the first and second wash fluids as well as intermittently from the third, fourth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth wash but not fom the fifth or tenth wash. It was concluded that viable ureaplasmas adhered to the zona pellucida during in vitro exposure of bovine embryos and were not removed by ten washes.

  9. Effect of treatments and washing cycles on the quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Boarin Alcalde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of proteins from wastes reduces production costs and environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two treatments involving decanting/sieving or centrifugation and the number of washing cycles on the quality of protein concentrate obtained from mechanically separated meat (MSM of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Results were analyzed in terms of final yield and proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash after each washing cycle. Moisture did not vary statistically with the treatments and after the third washing cycle. However, the process involving centrifugation was more efficient for protein concentration because the final protein content increased 2.0 folds (79.82%, dry basis and fat decreased 6.1 folds (8.29%, dry basis. After four washing cycles, it was obtained a protein concentrate with 79.82% protein, 8.29% lipid and 0.45% ash (dry basis, and 80.0% yield, using the centrifugation procedure. Visual whiteness was highly improved after four washing cycles using both processes. It was concluded that the centrifugation process with four washing cycles was the most appropriate method for producing protein concentrate from MSM of Nile tilapia.

  10. A laboratory test of NOM-assisted remediation of arsenic and copper contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Bonde; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils contaminated by arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) must be remediated because As and Cu are non-degradable and toxic. On moderately contaminated soils, As and Cu may be removed by in-situ plant uptake (phytoremediation), whereas strongly contaminated soils must be removed and cleaned by soil...... washing at a soil disposal site (ex-situ). Strong bonding of As and Cu to soil solids requires the use of strong complexants to release the elements. Often synthetic chemicals such as EDTA and NTA are used. Since such chemicals are environmentally problematic, their replacement with natural organic matter...... (NOM) such as humic substances (HS) and citrate might be attractive. To test this possibility, a moderately contaminated calcareous urban soil from a soil depot (called the CRC soil) and a soil from a wood impregnation site (called the CCA soil) highly contaminated with As and Cu were extracted...

  11. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils using new selective EDTA derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jun-Min; Huang, Xiong-Fei; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng-Yong; Luo, Guo-Fan; Xu, Yao-Wei; Wu, Ying-Xin; Mao, Zong-Wan; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-11-15

    Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives for removing metal contaminants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its salts can substantially increase heavy metal removal from contaminated soils and have been extensively studied for soil washing. However, EDTA has a poor utilization ratio due to its low selectivity resulting from the competition between soil major cations and trace metal ions for chelation. The present study evaluated the potential for soil washing using EDTA and three of its derivatives: CDTA (trans-1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid), BDTA (benzyldiaminetetraacetic acid), and PDTA (phenyldiaminetetraacetic acid), which contain a cylcohexane ring, a benzyl group, and a phenyl group, respectively. Titration results showed that PDTA had the highest stability constants for Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and the highest overall selectivity for trace metals over major cations. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the EDTA derivatives at extracting Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Ca(2+), and Fe(3+) from a contaminated soil. At pH 7.0, PDTA extracted 1.5 times more Cu(2+) than did EDTA, but only 75% as much Ca(2+). Although CDTA was a strong chelator of heavy metal ions, its overall selectivity was lower and comparable to that of EDTA. BDTA was the least effective extractant because its stability constants with heavy metals were low. PDTA is potentially a practical washing agent for soils contaminated with trace metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of a novel agent for TCA precipitated proteins washing - comprehensive insights into the role of ethanol/HCl on molten globule state by multi-spectroscopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhif, Balkis; Lange, Justin; Guignard, Nadia; Batonneau, Yann; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Papot, Sébastien; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Poinot, Pauline

    2018-02-20

    Sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a key step for ensuring reliable data. In gel-free experimental workflows, protein purification often starts with a precipitation stage using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). In presence of TCA, proteins precipitate in a stable molten globule state making the pellet difficult to solubilize in aqueous buffer for proteolytic digestion and MS analysis. In this context, the objective of this work was to study the suitability of a novel agent, ethanol/HCl, for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins. This method optimized the recovery of proteins in aqueous buffer (50 to 96%) while current organic solvents led to losses of material. Following a mechanistic study, the effect of ethanol/HCl on the conformation of TCA-precipitated proteins was investigated. It was shown that the reagent triggered the unfolding of TCA-stabilized molten globule into a reversible intermediate, characterized by a specific Raman signature, which favored protein subsequent resolubilization. Finally, the efficiency of ethanol/HCl for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins extracted from a biofilm, a soil or a mouse liver was demonstrated (data available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008110). Being versatile and simple, it could be of great interest to include an ethanol/HCl wash-step to produce high-quality protein extracts. In mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflows, proteins precipitation and/or washing usually involves the use of acetone. In fact, this solvent is effective for removing both biological interferences (e.g. lipids) and chemicals employed in protein extraction/purification protocols (e.g. TCA, SDS). However, the use of acetone can lead to significant protein losses. Moreover, when proteins are precipitated with TCA, the acetone-treated precipitate remains hard to disperse, leading to poor resolubilization of proteins in aqueous buffers. Here, we investigated the use of ethanol/HCl for washing TCA

  13. Wash-off of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from two experimental plots. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Bulgakov, A.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    Surface water runoff from contaminated land is one of the major processes responsible for the contamination of water bodies. For example, the large area of land contaminated after the Chernobyl accident has become a continuing source of radionuclide contamination for natural waters and the aquatic ecosystem. Based on data from the Chernobyl accident, the 'Wash-off' scenario was developed to provide an opportunity to test models concerned with the movement of trace contaminants from terrestrial sources to water bodies. In particular, this scenario provides an opportunity for (1) evaluation of the movement of contaminants from soil to water, (2) calculation of the alteration and migration of contaminants in soil over different time scales, (3) increased understanding of contaminant transport at the process level, and (4) development and use of methods for estimation of key parameters. Modelers were provided with descriptions of two experimental plots near the Chernobyl NPP, one using simulated heavy rain (plot HR) and one using snow melt (plot SM). Initial information for plot HR included soil properties; hydrographs of rainfall and runoff dynamics; the time of application of rainfall; rainfall amounts, duration, and intensities; soil moisture content before the application of rainfall; regional data on average monthly precipitation and temperature; recorded information on naturally occurring precipitation between May and October 1986; and chemical forms of radionuclides in the soil of the plots prior to the experiments. Information for plot SM included the soil description and properties, snow storage in the snow melt period of 1988, chemical composition of the snow water, a hydrograph of the runoff dynamics, chemical radionuclide forms in the soil at the end of the experiment, and air and soil temperatures for the plot during the snow melt period. For each experimental plot, modelers were requested to estimate the vertical distribution of radionuclides (137 Cs and

  14. Effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim using 3/sup 3/ factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, F.; Mahmood, M.

    2017-01-01

    Denim garment is getting popular day by day. It is highly demandable because of its versatility, comfort and durability. Different techniques of denim washing increase this demand drastically. Denim washing is the process to enhance the appearance of a garment. This enhanced appearance may be the aged look, faded look, greyer cast, or any other shade setting or resin application. The two most advanced washing techniques are; ozone wash and laser wash. The effects of ozone on environment as well as on the garment are significant and cannot be neglected because number of benefits achieved such as time saving, less energy consumption, chemical, labour cost reduction, less discharge of water and chemicals. Therefore, effects of process parameters on ozone washing for denim fabric have been investigated in this research work using three level factorial design. 33 factorial design has been designed and conducted to investigate the effect of gas concentration, time and speed on the response variables namely; Shrinkage, Tensile and Tear strength of ozone washing. The influence of individual factors and their interactions has been critically examined using software Design Expert 8.0. Prior to the analysis of variance model accuracy has been examined through various residuals plots. The study of residuals plots shown that the residuals are normally distributed and significant evidence of possible outliers was not found. So the model can be used to predicted results with 95% confidence interval. The results from the experiment suggest that two out of three factors were significant, which are speed and time that influences mainly on the tear strength of the denim garment. (author)

  15. Plasma-depleted platelet concentrates prepared with a new washing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Shibata, K; Kora, S

    1993-01-01

    In certain clinical situations, complete removal of the plasma proteins from the platelet concentrates (PCs) is necessary by washing prior to transfusion. A simple electrolyte solution with a pH of 6.5 was developed for washing PCs. The platelet-rich plasma collected with acid-citrate-dextrose solution by apheresis in a 0.6-liter polyolefin bag was centrifuged. After removal of the supernatant plasma from pelleted platelet buttons, 200 ml of a washing solution consisting of 90 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 17 mM NaH2PO4, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 23 mM Na acetate, 17 mM Na3 citrate, 23.5 mM glucose, 2 mM adenine, 0.1% dextran, and 28.8 mM maltose (pH 6.5) was added to the pelleted platelet button. Steam sterilization of the solution was carried out under nitrogen to avoid caramelization of glucose. After resuspension of the pelleted platelet button with a washing solution and a second centrifugation, Seto additive solution (Seto sol, pH 7.4) was introduced into the bag to resuspend the platelet buttons for storage for 3 days at 22 degrees C. All of these procedures were completed within 3 h using a sterile docking device. In washed PCs, 99.1% of the plasma was removed and platelet recovery was 96%. The washed PCs were compared for 3 days with plasma-poor PCs consisting of 11% plasma and 89% Seto solution. There were no significant differences in percent hypotonic shock response, aggregation, energy metabolism, and morphology of platelets between the two groups during 3 days, except for significant swelling of 3-day-old platelets in washed PCs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. [Characteristics of soil water infiltration in sub-alpine dark coniferous ecosystem of upper reaches of Yangtze River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zhao, Yutao; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Genwei

    2003-01-01

    Dark coniferous forest is the predominant type of vegetation in the upper reaches of Yangtze River. Difference among different types of soil exists. The sand content of soil is higher and the soil texture is coarser in the early stage of forest succession. The sand content of soil decreases with the advancement of the forest succession while that of soil in Abies fabri over-mature forest is the lowest. In slope wash soil, the sand content of soil decreases with the increasing soil depth. The soil porosity and soil water-holding capacity increases and soil bulk density decreases with the advancement of forest succession and decrease of soil depth. The deeper soil depth or the smaller soil water content are, the smaller the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil measured by CGA method. Moreover, the correlation of soil water content with unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil can be simulated by an exponential function. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil decreases exponentially with the increasing soil depth. The time to attain the stable infiltration rate is different among different soil depth, while the deeper the soil depth is, the longer the time needs. The variation in soil texture, soil physical properties and the high infiltration rate of soil there implicated that there are scarce surface runoff, but abundant in subsurface flow, return flow and seepage, which is the result of regulation by dark coniferous forest on hydrological processes.

  17. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  18. The Biodegradation of Fuels in Soils and Sediments: Differences as a Function of Mineralogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-15

    indicators of fuel biodegradation, the API#35 illite strongly inhibits bioremediation of fuela/ components, and that any loss observed appears to be a...a creosote - contaminated soil by soil washing and slurry-phase bioreactors (Budapest, Hungary, 1992). 9. Jespersen, C., Baugh, K.D. & Exner, J.H...1-267-273 (1991). 12. Gunnison, D., Zappi, M.E. & Marcev, J.R. Rapid development of microbial strains for bioremediation of military soils and dredged

  19. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Guan-Bu

    2013-01-15

    Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg(-1)) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L(-1) DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (NNH(4)) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transfer of 137Cs from soil to plants in different types of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Radenkovic, M.; Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.

    1998-01-01

    The investigations were carried out in two mountainous regions in the West and South region of the country). Three main types of soils were examined: shale, limestone and the mixed type, and several plants: grass, meadow flora, pinewood, blueberries, an endemic species of Mt. Sara and the bioindicators: moss and lichen. The transfer factors lay in the range of 0.1 - 2.0 in dependence on the type of soil and plant (3.0 - 10.0 for the bioindicator plants). The vertical distribution of 13' 7Cs in the first 15 cm layer of the soil indicates a slow migration of Chernobyl cesium through soil, except on riversides where the wash-out effect plays a role. Generally, the concentration of 137 Cs in soils strongly depends on the configuration of the ground

  1. Hemolysis of red blood cells after cell washing with different automated technologies: clinical implications in a neonatal cardiac surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Mandy Flannery; Szklarski, Penny; Klein, Thomas M; Young, Pampee Paul

    2011-05-01

    In subsets of pediatric cardiac surgery patients, red blood cells (RBCs) are often washed to reduce extracellular potassium (K) to avoid hyperkalemia, but mechanical manipulation and time delay in issuing washed products may increase hemolysis and K. This study's purpose was to evaluate the quality of washed RBCs with regard to hemolysis and extracellular K using different cell washers as a function of postprocessing time. Fresh (index (HI) were analyzed. Academic pediatric hospitals were surveyed to ascertain practice trends regarding indications for washing, washing device, and expiration time for washed RBCs. K concentration at 24 hours for units washed with the COBE devices met or exceeded prewash values. At 12 hours, there was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in K concentration between all devices, with the CATS maintaining the lowest K concentration. HI increased immediately after wash on all devices and showed a significant difference between the COBE devices and CATS at times of more than 6 hours (p < 0.01). At storage times beyond 4 hours, hemoglobin exceeded 100 mg/dL on the COBE Model 1. Survey of pediatric hospitals indicated that COBE devices are commonly used, and storage time after washing was 12 hours or more in blood banks queried. Hemolysis levels vary among different cell washers. Decreasing the expiration time of units after washing may be warranted. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Process for reprocessing and regenerating wash water containing ammonia. Verfahren zur Aufarbeitung und Regenerierung ammoniakhaltiger Waschwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, G.; Lahr, H.

    1978-10-05

    In order to produce nuclear fuels, an oxide hydrate gel is precipitated by hydrolysis from nitrate solutions of uranium, plutonium and thorium, which contains the rest of the precipitation chemicals and by-products of the reaction, which have to be removed before further processing. Apart from ammonium salts, the 2-3% solution of ammonia in water used as wash water contains small quantities of heavy metal salts after being used several times. The waste water containing ammonia is evaporated to a concentration of about 1000 g/litre and the vapour produced is washed with hot (above 100/sup 0/C) 30% caustic soda solution before condensation, in order to prevent dissolving of oxide particles by wash water containing carbonate. The regenerate obtained in this way, which is now free of carbonate, can be used to wash the oxide hydrate gel out, after adding the ammonia. The soda solution produced in this washing out or the soda produced by drying is the only waste product of the process, apart from filter material.

  3. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as well as the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 hours of observation 4101 activities requiring hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended signifi cantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical signifi cance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. Conclusion: The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  5. Gravity and magnetic data of Fortymile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Kohrn, S.B. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Waddell, S. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along six traverses across Fortymile Wash, in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site suggest that there are no significant vertical offsets below Fortymile Wash. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly, in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash, is produced by the Paintbrush fault, on the west flank of Fran Ridge. Inferred vertical offset is about 250 {+-} 60 m (800 {+-} 200 ft). Geophysical data indicate that the fault is about 300 m (1,000 ft) east of its mapped, but concealed location. North of Busted Butte, near Fran Ridge, geophysical data do not preclude the existence of small vertical offsets bounding Fortymile Wash. However, gravity and magnetic profiles south of Busted Butte show little correlation to those to the north and suggest that vertical offsets, comparable in size to the Paintbrush fault, are not present. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash is 1.80 to 2.00 g/cm{sup 3}.

  6. New method for determination of efficacy of health care personnel hand wash products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, M C

    1989-01-01

    A method of studying the effects of health care personnel hand wash products is described. The fingernail regions of the hands of volunteers are inoculated with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, and the areas are dried for a standard time. After routine hand washing, each fingernail region is individually scrubbed with an electric toothbrush which moves longitudinally to the handle into collection fluid contained in a petri dish. The test bacteria in the fluid are then enumerated. (Bacillus subtilis spores may be included as tracers to show degree of physical removal of the procedure.) This method has several advantages over the frequently used glove juice technique. Experimental designs with large numbers of volunteers, multiple sampling sites, and many hand wash products may be performed. Ten sampling sites (fingers) are available, versus the two gloved hands for testing products. (Efficiency is almost 100% in the recovery of spore tracers placed on the fingernails.) Many commercial health care personnel hand wash products containing antimicrobial agents substantive to the skin do not rapidly reduce numbers of inoculated bacteria in the fingernail regions to any greater extent than nonantimicrobial hand washes. Products containing isopropanol or ethanol are very effective in decreasing bacteria in areas around and under the fingernails. PMID:2685028

  7. Guidelines To Validate Control of Cross-Contamination during Washing of Fresh-Cut Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombas, D; Luo, Y; Brennan, J; Shergill, G; Petran, R; Walsh, R; Hau, H; Khurana, K; Zomorodi, B; Rosen, J; Varley, R; Deng, K

    2017-02-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires food processors to implement and validate processes that will result in significantly minimizing or preventing the occurrence of hazards that are reasonably foreseeable in food production. During production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, microbial contamination that may be present on the product can spread throughout the production batch when the product is washed, thus increasing the risk of illnesses. The use of antimicrobials in the wash water is a critical step in preventing such water-mediated cross-contamination; however, many factors can affect antimicrobial efficacy in the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, and the procedures for validating this key preventive control have not been articulated. Producers may consider three options for validating antimicrobial washing as a preventive control for cross-contamination. Option 1 involves the use of a surrogate for the microbial hazard and the demonstration that cross-contamination is prevented by the antimicrobial wash. Option 2 involves the use of antimicrobial sensors and the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained during worst-case operating conditions. Option 3 validates the placement of the sensors in the processing equipment with the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained at all locations, regardless of operating conditions. These validation options developed for fresh-cut leafy vegetables may serve as examples for validating processes that prevent cross-contamination during washing of other fresh produce commodities.

  8. Wastewater Treatment Model in Washing Stations for Vehicles Transporting Dangerous Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Car washing is a task performed by every passenger carowner more or less frequently, mainly to achieve a finer appearanceof the vehicle rather than for the need for cleanness.In the transport business, the owner's concern is to presentclean and orderly vehicles on the road as a relevant external elementof order, implying good corporate image to customers. Onthe other hand, in dangerous goods transportation there areother reasons requiring special technology of washing, applicableto the transport means used, depending on the change oftype of goods in carriage, the preliminary preparation of a vehicleto load the cargo, or to undergo maintenance.Water applied in the technology of washing collects the residueof goods carried in the vehicle and is polluted to such an extentthat it cannot be discharged into sewers - nor directly into awatercourse - without previous treatment.The paper presents a solution model and a sequence oftechnological procedures involved in an efficient treatment ofthe polluted wastewater in tank wash stations, in which mostlyvehicles carrying ADR goods are washed.

  9. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  10. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L.; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine)

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  11. Selected aspects of the technological processes of the aircraft engine washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudawska Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In production, treatment or operation of selected components it is not possible to avoid dirtiness. Given the fact that impurities significantly affect the quality, functionality and service life of a part, the surface preparation of such an element is a key aspect in the regeneration process. The choice of contaminant removal method will depend on the type of impurity. This operation is often treated as a separate technological process, during which the type and properties of the removed dirt are determined, along with assessing the degree of purity required to ensure the correctness of subsequent operation or operations. Rising expectations regarding specific effects of purification have led to massive improvement of traditional methods, and development of new processes that require the use of complex technologies. The present research was to prepare the technological process of washing selected parts of the aircraft turbine engine. The preliminary assumption was to use the LUA-1000 automatic washing processing line, which selecting and modifying particular parameters of the process in order to comply with the technological assumptions. The elaborated process includes the following stages: preparing the selected parts for washing, washing the engine parts and the quality control of washing. The primary objective of the study was to achieve the most beneficial parameters possible and, at the same time, to minimise the costs of the machine’s work, as well as to preserve high quality and to comply with environmental standards.

  12. Development of complex electrokinetic decontamination method for soil contaminated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Hye-Min; Kim, Wan-Suk; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Hyeon, Jay-Hyeok

    2012-01-01

    520L complex electrokinetic soil decontamination equipment was manufactured to clean up uranium contaminated soils from Korean nuclear facilities. To remove uranium at more than 95% from the radioactive soil through soil washing and electrokinetic technology, decontamination experiments were carried out. To reduce the generation of large quantities of metal oxides in cathode, a pH controller is used to control the pH of the electrolyte waste solution between 0.5 and 1 for the formation of UO 2+ . More than 80% metal oxides were removed through pre-washing, an electrolyte waste solution was circulated by a pump, and a metal oxide separator filtered the metal oxide particles. 80–85% of the uranium was removed from the soil by soil washing as part of the pre-treatment. When the initial uranium concentration of the soil was 21.7 Bq/g, the required electrokinetic decontamination time was 25 days. When the initial concentration of 238 U in the soil was higher, a longer decontamination time was needed, but the removal rate of 238 U from the soil was higher.

  13. Critical assessment of the available technologies for sanitation of contaminated soil and their limits of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, M.; Glaeser, E.

    1993-01-01

    Sanitation of polluted land comprises safety measures and soil purification measures. Soil purification can take place either in situ, or on-site or off-site after digging up the contaminated soil. In-situ processes are soil deaeration, groundwater purification and biological methods. Soil deaeration is suited for volatile pollutants in the unsaturated zone of loose soils, while groundwater purification is commonly applied for water-soluble pollutants in the saturated zone of soils with a high k f value. On-site or off-site purification of contaminated soils can take place by thermal processes, by soil washing, by microorganisms, or by physical processes. Thermal processes have the widest range of applications; they are suited for most soils polluted with mostly organic pollutants, and the residual contamination is lowest. Soil washing is limited to sandy and noncohesive soils and for emulsifiable or elutable pollutants. Biological on-site and off-line methods are limited to biodegradable pollutants which are not in phase. Loosening agents may be added in order to overcome geotechnical limitations. Physical purification of soils is limited to specific applications e.g. removal of volatile hydrocarbons. (orig.) [de

  14. A novel study on UV protection and antibacterial properties of washed denim garment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Md. Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On this planet, many investigations are applied to switch conventional chemical cloth techniques via eco-pleasant and economically attractive bioprocesses using enzymes. The present study offers an enzymatic washing system using enzyme (Cellzyme SPL H/C for boosting the ultraviolet and antimicrobial undertaking of denim garments. Experimental results showed that the 4.0% o.w.f enzyme awareness furnished a greater UPF than the other concentrations and before washed. Results divulge that enzyme (Cellzyme SPL H/C not handiest preserve the fabric surface from UV degradation but also performed extended degree of antibacterial endeavour in opposition to some species of bacteria that leading to act as a nice antibacterial agent on the denim materials. The enzyme washing healing diminished the skin hairiness and accelerated the skin evenness of the denim fibres as shown by means of SEM measurements.

  15. Diagnostic use of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in oral wash samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Benfield, T

    1998-01-01

    There is a need to develop noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients unable to undergo bronchoscopy or induction sputum. Oral wash specimens are easily obtained, and P. carinii nucleic acid can be amplified and demonstrated by PCR. In routine clinical use...... and was compared to a previously described PCR protocol (mitochondrial RNA) run in a research laboratory. Both PCR methods amplified a sequence of the mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. carinii. Paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oral wash specimens from 76 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected...... persons undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy were included. The TD-PCR procedure was quicker than the mitochondrial PCR procedure (oral wash...

  16. Electroless copper plating on 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane modified PET fabric challenged by ultrasonic washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yinxiang

    2009-01-01

    Electroless deposition of Cu on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric modified with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane was investigated. Morphology, composition, structure, thermal decomposing behavior of copper coating PET fabric after ultrasonic washing in water for 1 h were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. Copper plating on modified fabric has good adherence stability and high electric conductivity before and after ultrasonic washing, while copper coating fabric without modification is easily destroyed during the washing process, which leads to the textile changing from conductor to dielectric. As the copper weight on the treated fabric is 28 g/m 2 , the shielding effectiveness (SE) is more than 54 dB at frequency ranging from 0.01 MHz to 18 GHz.

  17. Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

    1998-12-11

    Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

  18. Performance Study of Screen-Printed Textile Antennas after Repeated Washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazani I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability of wearable textile antennas after 20 reference washing cycles was evaluated by measuring the reflection coefficient of different antenna prototypes. The prototypes’ conductive parts were screen-printed on several textile substrates using two different silver-based conductive inks. The necessity of coating the antennas with a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU coating was investigated by comparing coated with uncoated antennas. It is shown that covering the antennas with the TPU layer not only protects the screen-printed conductive area but also prevents delamination of the multilayered textile fabric substrates, making the antennas washable for up to 20 cycles. Furthermore, it is proven that coating is not necessary for maintaining antenna operation and this up to 20 washing cycles. However, connector detachment caused by friction during the washing process was the main problem of antenna performance degradation. Hence, other flexible, durable methods should be developed for establishing a stable electrical connection.

  19. Suppression of deicing salt corrosion of weathering steel bridges by washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shuichi; Miura, Masazumi; Uchiumi, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the influences of deicing salts and high pressure (2-4 MPa) washing on the characteristics of the rust formed on weathering steel bridges, washing experiments have been carried out for three years. The rust was characterized by means of ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction and adsorption of N 2 . The rust thickness was measured, and also the rust weight per unit area of the steel surface was measured. It was found that water-soluble chloride accelerated the rate of corrosion because the rust particles grow by the chloride ions and micro-pore structure of the rust appeared by the chloride ions. Washing with water suppressed corrosion owing to the disappearance of chloride ions

  20. Wash-off potential of urban use insecticides on concrete surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Lin, Kunde; Haver, Darren; Qin, Sujie; Ayre, Gilboa; Spurlock, Frank; Gan, Jay

    2010-06-01

    Contamination of surface aquatic systems by insecticides is an emerging concern in urban watersheds, but sources of contamination are poorly understood, hindering development of regulatory or mitigation strategies. Hardscapes such as concrete surfaces are considered an important facilitator for pesticide runoff following applications around homes. However, pesticide behavior on concrete has seldom been studied, and standardized evaluation methods are nonexistent. In the present study, a simple batch method for measuring pesticide wash-off potential from concrete surfaces was developed, and the dependence of washable pesticide residues was evaluated on pesticide types, formulations, time exposed to outdoor conditions, and number of washing cycles. After application to concrete, the washable fraction of four pyrethroids (bifenthrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and cyhalothrin) and fipronil rapidly decreased, with half-lives residues were still found in the wash-off solution for most treatments after 112 d. The slow decrease may be attributed to a fraction of pesticides being isolated from degradation or volatilization after retention below the concrete surface. Wash-off potential was consistently higher for solid formulations than for liquid formulations, implying an increased runoff contamination risk for granular and powder formulations. Trace levels of pyrethroids were detected in the wash-off solution even after 14 washing-drying cycles over 42 d under outdoor conditions. Results from the present study suggest that pesticide residues remain on concrete and are available for contaminating runoff for a prolonged time. Mechanisms for the long persistence were not clearly known from the present study and merit further investigation. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  1. Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Ranpura, Ashish; Coombes, Yolande; Maina, Peninnah Mukiri; Matiko, Carol Nkatha; Curtis, Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Washing hands with soap at the right times - primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant - can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be divided into three kinds of control over behaviour: automatic or habitual responses, motivated or goal-driven behaviour to satisfy needs, and cognitive causes which reflect conscious concerns. Empirical results are based on 3-h-long structured observations of hand-washing behaviour in 802 nationally representative Kenyan households with children under five, and structured interviews with the primary female caretaker in these households, collected in March 2007. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified three psychological factors which are also significant predictors of observed hand-washing behaviour: having the habit of hand-washing at particular junctures during the day, the motivated need for personal or household cleanliness, and a lack of cognitive concern about the cost of soap use. These factors each represent a different kind of psychological cause. A perceived link between clean hands and sexual attractiveness also appeared in the factor analysis, but was not a determinant of actual behaviour. We also report evidence that those who express concern about the cost of soap use are those with relatively few economic resources. We suggest that those developing hygiene promotion programmes should consider the possible existence of multiple types of strategies for increasing hand-washing behaviour. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Washing increases the susceptibility to exogenous oxidative stress in red deer spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Fernández-Santos, M R; García-Alvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2009-11-01

    The effects of routine sperm work are often overlooked. We assessed the effect of washing cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa from red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus, Helzheimer 1909). After thawing, epididymal samples (four stags) were diluted in TALP-HEPES. A split was left untouched, another was centrifuged (300 x g, 5 min) and resuspended, and a third was centrifuged and the supernatant substituted by fresh TALP-HEPES (washing). Each split was supplemented either with nothing, 1mM of the antioxidant Trolox, 100 microM of the oxidant Fe (with ascorbate), or both. The 3x4 treatments were incubated at 37 degrees C and assessed each hour up to 3h for motility (computer-aided sperm assessment) and viability/apoptosis plus mitochondrial status (YO-PRO-1, propidium iodide, Mitotracker Deep Red; flow cytometry). DNA damage at 4h was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Centrifugation alone affected neither sperm quality nor DNA, and the oxidant had no effect in control or centrifuged samples. Washed samples were not different than control, but oxidant decreased motility, mitochondrial status and viability, and altered the motility subpopulation pattern, being partially suppressed by Trolox. Spermatozoa with damaged DNA dramatically increased in the washed-oxidized sample (from 22.30+/-3.52% to 67.94+/-5.07%), but not when antioxidant was present. Although samples from different males behaved similarly, male-to-male variability was detected regarding susceptibility to oxidative damage after washing. We concluded that, although red deer thawed spermatozoa seemed resilient to centrifugation, the vulnerability to oxidative stress after washing makes it advisable to supplement manipulation media with antioxidants, especially taking into account male-to-male variability.

  3. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  4. Sorption studies of radioiodine on soils with special references to soil microbial biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bors, J. (Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Radiooekologie, Hannover (Germany, F.R.)); Erten, H. (Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry); Martens, R. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Bodenbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    In batch experiments with two types of soils, chernozem and podzol, radioiodine ({sup 125}I) showed an initial rapid sorption, followed by a long and slow further increase. Very little sorption (R{sub d} < 1) was detected in clay minerals. Generally, higher R{sub d}-values were observed for the chernozem soil, characterized by a higher amount of organic substance and of soil biomass. The sorption process was predominantly irreversible, the isotherms were linear at low ion concentrations and deviated from linearity starting at 10{sup -5} mmol.ml{sup -1}. Sorption ratio was found to increase with increasing volume to mass ratio. The composition of liquid phases (bidistilled water, synthetic soil water, rain water) highly affected iodine sorption. In experiments with KBr solution, the sorption of I{sup -} was found to be strongly preferred to Br{sup -}. Incubation of soil samples under varied conditions (decreased or increased soil biomass, O{sub 2}-concentration, incubation temperature, soil water content and storage conditions) delivered indications for the participation of soil microflora in iodine immobilization. Test with isolated soil bacteria and fungi showed that radioiodine can be incorporated by soil microorganisms under certain conditions only: Considerable uptake of radioiodine was found in washed (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}) cells with both bacteria and fungi, but no incorporation was detected into cells incubated with radioiodine in the culture medium. (orig.).

  5. Sorption studies of radioiodine on soils with special references to soil microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, J.; Erten, H.; Martens, R.

    1991-01-01

    In batch experiments with two types of soils, chernozem and podzol, radioiodine ( 125 I) showed an initial rapid sorption, followed by a long and slow further increase. Very little sorption (R d d -values were observed for the chernozem soil, characterized by a higher amount of organic substance and of soil biomass. The sorption process was predominantly irreversible, the isotherms were linear at low ion concentrations and deviated from linearity starting at 10 -5 mmol.ml -1 . Sorption ratio was found to increase with increasing volume to mass ratio. The composition of liquid phases (bidistilled water, synthetic soil water, rain water) highly affected iodine sorption. In experiments with KBr solution, the sorption of I - was found to be strongly preferred to Br - . Incubation of soil samples under varied conditions (decreased or increased soil biomass, O 2 -concentration, incubation temperature, soil water content and storage conditions) delivered indications for the participation of soil microflora in iodine immobilization. Test with isolated soil bacteria and fungi showed that radioiodine can be incorporated by soil microorganisms under certain conditions only: Considerable uptake of radioiodine was found in washed (NaCl, CaCl 2 ) cells with both bacteria and fungi, but no incorporation was detected into cells incubated with radioiodine in the culture medium. (orig.)

  6. Retromer- and WASH-dependent sorting of nutrient transporters requires a multivalent interaction network with ANKRD50

    OpenAIRE

    Kvainickas, Arunas; Orgaz, Ana Jimenez; Nägele, Heike; Diedrich, Britta; Heesom, Kate J.; Dengjel, Jörn; Cullen, Peter J.; Steinberg, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Retromer and the associated actin-polymerizing WASH complex are essential for the endocytic recycling of a wide range of integral membrane proteins. A hereditary Parkinson's-disease-causing point mutation (D620N) in the retromer subunit VPS35 perturbs retromer's association with the WASH complex and also with the uncharacterized protein ankyrin-repeat-domain-containing protein 50 (ANKRD50). Here, we firmly establish ANKRD50 as a new and essential component of the SNX27– retromer–WASH sup...

  7. Experimental evaluation of washing for treatment of combustible plutonium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.; Wisbey, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out in order to assess the potential of washing as a method for removing plutonium from contaminated combustible wastes. A wide range of aqueous (eg 1 M HNO 3 , 1 M NaOH) and organic (1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane) reagents have been investigated. Both synthetically contaminated and real wastes have been investigated. The preferred wash reagent has been identified as 1 M sodium hydroxide solution; plutonium recoveries of ca.80 to 90% can be achieved. (author)

  8. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Yemam, Dinberu Molla; Kim, Baek-Joong; Moon, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Chongku

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0–20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increas...

  9. Hydraulic transport and washing of low grade coal. Transportul hidraulic si spalarea carbunilor inferior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G.; Baran, N.; Marin, O.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient method to improve the calorific power of coal residues is the washing method used with a view to separate the waste from the coal. This method can be associated with the transportation of coal or waste and at the same time can be used in hydrocyclone-equipment offering constructive advantages and a low price. The washing of low coal in hydrocyclones has led to an improvement of its calorific power with about 600 kcal/kg. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  11. Distribution of phosphate solubiliser fungi on soil micro habitats in two landscapes from Guaviare, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Diana Fernanda; Perez, Hernando; Valencia Hernando

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of the phosphate solubiliser myco biota in two different soil micro habitats present in Guaviare Colombia, were studied. Twelve samples from Araza rhizosphere (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh) and from soil without roots were processed using the soil washing method (Domsch et al., 1980). The percentage of colonization of soil particles by fungi was 69 %, with a higher intensity of colonization coming from the rhizospheric micro habitat. The high percentage of potential solubiliser colonies may point to this type of soil as reserve pf solubiliser fungi. The rhizospheric effect has been the main factor involved in the composition of the solubiliser fungi community

  12. High performance of treated and washed MSWI bottom ash granulates as natural aggregate replacement within earth-moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, A; van Zomeren, A; Harpe, P; Aarnink, W; Simons, H A E; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was treated with specially designed dry and wet treatment processes, obtaining high quality bottom ash granulate fractions (BGF) suitable for up to 100% replacement of natural gravel in concrete. The wet treatment (using only water for separating and washing) significantly lowers the leaching of e.g. chloride and sulfate, heavy metals (antimony, molybdenum and copper) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Two potential bottom ash granulate fractions, both in compliance with the standard EN 12620 (aggregates for concrete), were added into earth-moist concrete mixtures. The fresh and hardened concrete physical performances (e.g. workability, strength and freeze-thaw) of high strength concrete mixtures were maintained or improved compared with the reference mixtures, even after replacing up to 100% of the initial natural gravel. Final element leaching of monolithic and crushed granular state BGF containing concretes, showed no differences with the gravel references. Leaching of all mixtures did not exceed the limit values set by the Dutch Soil Quality Degree. In addition, multiple-life-phase emission (pH static test) for the critical elements of input bottom ash, bottom ash granulate (BGF) and crushed BGF containing concrete were assessed. Simulation pH lowering or potential carbonation processes indicated that metal (antimony, barium, chrome and copper) and sulfate element leaching behavior are mainly pH dominated and controlled, although differ in mechanism and related mineral abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Terrestrial Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Synthetic Rice Washed Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroño, Washington; Guambo, Alex; Pérez, Mario; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Recalde, Celso

    2016-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells represent an innovative technology which allow simultaneous waste treatment, electricity production, and environmental monitoring. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the use of terrestrial Single chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFCs) as biosensors. Three cells were created using Andean soil, each one for monitoring a BOD concentration of synthetic washed rice wastewater (SRWW) of 10, 100, and 200 mg/L for SMFC1, SMFC2 and SMFC3, respectively. The results showed transient, exponential, and steady stages in the SMFCs. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) peaks were reached during the elapsed time of the transient stages, according to the tested BOD concentrations. A good linearity between OCV and time was observed in the increasing stage. The average OCV in this stage increased independently of the tested concentrations. SMFC1 required less time than SMFC2 to reach the steady stage, suggesting the BOD concentration is an influencing factor in SMFCs, and SMFC3 did not reach it. The OCV ratios were between 40.6-58.8 mV and 18.2-32.9 mV for SMFC1 and SMFC2. The reproducibility of the SMFCs was observed in four and three cycles for SMFC1 and SMFC2, respectively. The presented SMFCs had a good response and reproducibility as biosensor devices, and could be an alternative for environmental monitoring.

  14. A Terrestrial Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell-based Biosensor for Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Synthetic Rice Washed Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Logroño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells represent an innovative technology which allow simultaneous waste treatment, electricity production, and environmental monitoring. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the use of terrestrial Single chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (SMFCs as biosensors. Three cells were created using Andean soil, each one for monitoring a BOD concentration of synthetic washed rice wastewater (SRWW of 10, 100, and 200 mg/L for SMFC1, SMFC2 and SMFC3, respectively. The results showed transient, exponential, and steady stages in the SMFCs. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV peaks were reached during the elapsed time of the transient stages, according to the tested BOD concentrations. A good linearity between OCV and time was observed in the increasing stage. The average OCV in this stage increased independently of the tested concentrations. SMFC1 required less time than SMFC2 to reach the steady stage, suggesting the BOD concentration is an influencing factor in SMFCs, and SMFC3 did not reach it. The OCV ratios were between 40.6–58.8 mV and 18.2–32.9 mV for SMFC1 and SMFC2. The reproducibility of the SMFCs was observed in four and three cycles for SMFC1 and SMFC2, respectively. The presented SMFCs had a good response and reproducibility as biosensor devices, and could be an alternative for environmental monitoring.

  15. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti

    2015-03-01

    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  17. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9 with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7 without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungus (Candida albicans were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound.

  18. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches

  19. Anaerobic treatment of distillery spent wash - a study on upflow anaerobic fixed film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bhavik K; Mohana, Sarayu; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from a distillery industry having very high COD (1,10,000-1,90,000 mg/L) and BOD (50,000-60,000 mg/L) was studied in a continuously fed, up flow fixed film column reactor using different support materials such as charcoal, coconut coir and nylon fibers under varying hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates. The seed consortium was prepared by enrichment with distillery spent wash in a conventional type reactor having working capacity of 3 L and was used for charging the anaerobic column reactor. Amongst the various support materials studied the reactor having coconut coir could treat distillery spent wash at 8d hydraulic retention time with organic loading rate of 23.25 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) leading to 64% COD reduction with biogas production of 7.2 m3 m(-3)d(-1) having high methane yield without any pretreatment or neutralization of the distillery spent wash. This study indicates fixed film biomethanation of distillery spent wash using coconut coir as the support material appears to be a cost effective and promising technology for mitigating the problems caused by distillery effluent.

  20. Acidogenic spent wash valorization through polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis coupled with fermentative biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulya, K; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2014-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus tequilensis biocatalyst using spent wash effluents as substrate was evaluated to increase the versatility of the existing PHA production process and reduce production cost. In this study, spent wash was used as a substrate for biohydrogen (H2) production and the resulting acidogenic effluents were subsequently employed as substrate for PHA production. Maximum H2 production of 39.8L and maximum PHA accumulation of 40% dry cell weight was attained. Good substrate removal associated with decrement in acidification (53% to 15%) indicates that the VFA generated were effectively utilized for PHA production. The PHA composition showed presence of copolymer [P (3HB-co-3HV)] with varying contents of hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate. The results obtained suggest that the use of spent wash effluents as substrate can considerably reduce the production cost of PHA with simultaneous waste valorization. PHA synthesis with B. tequilensis and spent wash effluents is reported for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A modified technique for making putty-wash two-step impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The current article has given the options of using wax as spacer for making putty wash two step impressions for the fabrication of tooth-supported fixed restorations. Further research is required to find whether there is any dimensional inaccuracy caused in restorations due to usage of wax as a spacer.

  2. Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-01-01

    Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed.

  3. The sloping alveolar plateau of tracer gases washed out from mixed venous blood in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrikker, A.C.M.; Vries, W.R. de; Zwart, A.; Luijendijk, S.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the slope of the alveolar plateau for inert tracer gases that were washed out from mixed venous blood. Two pairs of tracer gases were used (He, SFe) and (C2H2, Freon 22). The gases of each pair share almost the same blood-gas partition coefïicient but they have different

  4. Influence of hydrophobic substance on enhancing washing durability of water soluble flame-retardant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindasuwan, Sunisa; Sukmanee, Nattinee; Supanpong, Chanida; Suwan, Mantana; Nimittrakoolchai, On-uma; Supothina, Sitthisuntorn

    2013-06-01

    Flame-retardant textiles are used in many consumer products. Among halogen-free flame retardant substances, inorganic flame retardants are mainly based on phosphorus, antimony, aluminum and boron-containing compounds. These coatings are soluble in water and therefore are not subjected to washing. In this study, washing durability of the inorganic flame retardant has been improved by incorporation of the hydrophobic substance to the coating. Composition of the coating which is the flame-retardant, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and the hydrophobic substances, poly(methylhydrogen siloxane) (PMHS) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)), were varied to find the optimum coating solution. The results of SEM and TGA analysis, as well as the burning and washing tests, revealed that the coating solution consisting of MAP:PMHS:PDMS = 5:2:1 wt.% was the optimum condition. It showed the increased residue on the TGA profile compared to the uncoated sample, and self-extinguish after removal of the ignition source. The flame-retardant property can be maintained after washing, making it feasible for variety of applications.

  5. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  6. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  7. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  8. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-hematology. 864.9285 Section 864.9285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In...-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device used...

  9. PERCHLORATE UPTAKE BY SALT CEDAR (TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA) IN THE LAS VEGAS WASH RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  10. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (iii) Pressure and flow of the... COW machines. (ii) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (iii... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and...

  11. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used to pass the inspections under § 157.140: (1) Pressure and flow of the crude oil pumped to the COW machines. (2) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (3) Pressure and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank...

  12. A study of wash-out process of contrast media in balloon occlusion hepatic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Yukio; Hosoya, Takaaki; Suzuki, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    Balloon occlusion hepatic angiography (BOHA) is coming into wide use recently because of its usefulness for high detectability of the liver tumor. In spite of complete occlusion of the hepatic artery by the balloon, contrast media injected from the catheter tip into the hepatic artery is gradually washed out. This wash-out process may reflect the collateral circulation corresponded to the acute occlusion of the hepatic artery. The process varies according to the position of its occlusion and the arterial variations of branchings. We analyzed the wash-out process in 92 cases of BOHA performed in our department from a viewpoint of collateral circulation. In BOHA at the proper hepatic artery without extra-hepatic branches contrast media were washed out mainly by the flow from the epicholedocal plexus, and contrast media often persisted till late in the umbilical portion of the hepatic artery which is considered as a water-shed of the intrahepatic collateral flow. Furthermore, we refered to the clinical significance of the collateral circulation observed in BOHA with special emphasis upon some problems in the chemoembolization of the liver tumor and visualization of the gallbladder wall. (author)

  13. Assessment of a closed wash system developed for processing living donor femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, M J; Man, J; Rooney, P; McQuillan, T A; Galea, G; Kearney, J N

    2017-12-01

    NHS Blood and Transplant Tissue and Eye Services (TES) and Scottish National Blood Transfusion Services Tissues and Cells Directorate (TCD) currently bank whole, frozen femoral head bone from living donors who are undergoing primary hip replacement surgery. When required, the bone is issued to a surgeon still frozen on dry ice (- 79 °C). Consequently, the femoral head bone is not processed, is not sterilised and at the time of issue, it contains donor blood, bone marrow and associated cells. We have previously shown that, cut, shaped and washed bone from deceased donors can be processed to remove up to 99.9% of blood, bone marrow and associated cells (Eagle et al. 2015). However, cut and shaped bone is not suitable for some orthopaedic procedures and some orthopaedic surgeons do not wish to use irradiated bone; therefore in this report, a method has been developed in which whole femoral heads can be washed to remove donor blood and bone marrow components. Processing results in excess of 99% bone marrow component removal-soluble protein, haemoglobin and DNA; the procedure is performed inside a closed system, thereby eliminating the need for terminal sterilisation by irradiation. In addition, uniaxial testing demonstrated no difference in compressive strength between washed and unwashed bone. We suggest that this washed bone may be capable of improving incorporation after grafting without disturbing biomechanical properties of the graft.

  14. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  15. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  16. Comparison of reactive oxygen species in neat and washed semen of infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Reza; Vahidi, Serajedin; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Tabibnejad, Nasim

    2014-05-01

    Male are involved in near 50% of cases of infertility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) playing an important role in decreasing fertility potential. Accurate measurement of ROS seems to be important in evaluation of infertile male patients. To compare ROS measurement in neat and washed semen samples of infertile men and define the best method for evaluation of ROS in these patients. We measured the level of ROS in semen samples of thirty five non-azoospermic men with infertility. The semen samples were divided into two parts and the semen parameters and ROS levels in neat and washed samples were evaluated. We also evaluated the presence of pyospermia using peroxidase test. The differences regarding sperm count and quick motility were significant in neat and washed semen samples. The mean ROS level was significantly higher in neat samples compared with washed spermatozoa (7.50 RLU vs. 1.20 RLU respectively). Difference in ROS levels was more significant in patients with pyospermia compared to whom with no pyospermia (378.67 RLU vs. 9.48 RLU respectively). Our study confirmed that neat or unprocessed samples are better index of normal oxidative status of semen samples. Because we do not artificially add or remove factors that may play an important role in oxidative equilibrium status.

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into WaSH Development Planning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Salley; Hadwen, Wade L

    2017-07-10

    Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. Despite awareness of climate change, adaptation measures have not been considered, and the immediate WaSH needs remain the priority. Overall, stakeholders felt the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.

  18. Efficacy of seawater for washing oiled birds during an oil spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graeme R; Louise Chilvers, B; Pearson, Hayley; White, Bridey J; Finlayson, Serena T; Sievwright, Karin; van Zyl, Nicki; Morgan, Kerri J; Clumpner, Curt

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic pollution events can be detrimental to the survival of wildlife, particularly birds. To decontaminate affected birds, large quantities of fresh water are required. A recent study using seabird feathers, demonstrated that seawater wash/rinse can effectively remove oil from feathers. However to determine whether seawater was effective for live birds, we used 36 mallard ducks to replicate the oiled feather wash/rinse study. We investigated the time and volume of water used, bird water-proofing scores after daily swims and a barbule amalgamation index (BAI), for feathers collected at stages throughout the process. Results indicate that for oiled mallard ducks, the use of seawater for decontamination wash/rinse was effective. Seawater wash however, took longer and used a greater quantity of water. Time to birds being waterproof, was not significantly different between groups. The use of seawater has worldwide application for oiled wildlife response activities particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash. Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 Subpart F--Exempt...

  20. 78 FR 54449 - Subzone 8I, Authorization of Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-43-2013] Subzone 8I, Authorization of Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio On May 1, 2013, Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool) submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign...

  1. Cost-consequence analysis of "washing without water" for nursing home residents: A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, L.; Gaal, B.G. van; Teerenstra, S.; Adang, E.M.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No-rinse disposable wash gloves are increasingly implemented in health care to replace traditional soap and water bed baths without proper evaluation of (cost) effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To compare bed baths for effects on skin integrity and resistance against bathing and costs. DESIGN:

  2. A Total Water Management Analysis of the Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change, land use change, and population growth are fundamental factors affecting future hydrologic conditions in streams, especially in arid regions with scarce water resources. Located in the arid southwest, Las Vegas Valley located within the Las Vegas Wash watershed is...

  3. Reduction of microbial counts during kitchen scale washing and sanitization of salad vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Joosten, Han; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Reij, Martine W.

    2018-01-01

    Washing with or without sanitizers is one of the important steps designated to reduce or eliminate microbial hazards in fresh vegetables but the settings, conditions and effectiveness of this step remain contentious. In this study, we investigated kitchen scale salad preparation practices in a field

  4. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  5. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  6. FANS Simulation of Propeller Wash at Navy Harbors (ESTEP Project ER-201031)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 2085 August 2016 FANS Simulation of Propeller Wash at Navy Harbors (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn...4 2.1 FANS Model Simulation Results for DDG 51 Ship ............................................................ 5 2.2 Disturbed Velocity...15 3.1 FANS Model Simulation Results for Tugboat with Ducted Propellers ..............................18 3.2 Disturbed Velocity Profiles

  7. Assessment of seasonal variation for air pollutant accumulation by Zizyphus tree under washing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Mohamed Abdulraheem; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy Saad; Almehmadi, Fahd Mosallam; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Al-Shareef, Abdulmohsin Rajeh

    2016-06-01

    A field study was carried out near Jeddah Industrial Zone to estimate the leaf impairment, physiological disorders, and air pollutant accumulation potential of Ziziphus tree. The experiment was triplicated in RCBD design with factorial arrangement having seasonality as the main plot and washing as subplot treatments along with the control. Accumulation of heavy metals and micronutrients in plant foliage varied significantly under the influence of seasons and washing treatments. The maximum accumulation of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were perceived in summer season while the minimum was observed in winter. Contrarily, a greater acquisition of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was observed in autumn. Washing significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb by 58, 90, 80, and 96 %, while Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn by 89, 37, 60, and 93 %, respectively. Leaf protein and nitrogen content illustrated a greater adjustment for pollutants by presenting a minimum variation (14-18 % and 2-3 %) to seasonality. In contrast, leaf area and stomatal aperture were significantly disturbed and resulted in minimum recovery under washing. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger negative interaction of heavy metal accumulation to leaf features while non-significant interaction was perceived for microelements. In conclusion, planting of Ziziphus trees along industrial areas may impede potential threats of toxic pollutants to human and ecosystem.

  8. Silver speciation and release in commercial antimicrobial textiles as influenced by washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of nanoscale Ag in textiles is one the most often mentioned uses of nano-Ag. It has previously been shown that significant amounts of the Ag in the textiles are released upon washing. However, the form of Ag present in the textiles remains largely unknown as product label...

  9. Flexographic newspaper deinking : treatment of wash filtrate effluent by membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Chabot; G.A. Krishnagopalan; S. Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafiltration was investigated as a means to remove flexographic ink pigments from wash filtrate effluent generated from various mixtures of flexographic and offset old newspapers from deinking operations. Membrane separation efficiency was assessed from permeate flux, fouling rate, and ease of membrane regeneration (cleaning). Ultrafiltration was capable of...

  10. Effect of washing and boiling on residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistiawaty, M.; Anwar, E.

    1996-01-01

    The residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0-2-diethylamino-6-methyl-pyrimidine-4-il-o-dimethyl phos-phorothioate) in soybean grains were studied using 14 C-labelled-pirimiphos-methyl. Jute sock containing soybean grains were sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl and then stored at room temperature. The results indicated than residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans before washing, after washing, and after washing + boiling at 0 week storage were: 1.0, 0.42, and 0.01%: then increased to 42.01, 30.75, and 10.02%, respectively, after 12 weeks, and finally decreased to 38.33, 27.01, and 6.10%, respectively, after 24 weeks storage. The residues of pirimiphos-methyl in washing water at 0 week storage was 0.41%, then increased to 8.01% after 24 weeks storage. The percentage was calculated based on the amount of residue found compared to the initial pirimiphos-methyl used. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  12. Preliminary gravity and magnetic models across Midway Valley and Yucca Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along ten traverses across Midway Valley and Yucca Wash on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley. Gravity and magnetic data across the northwest trending Yucca Wash and the inferred Yucca Wash fault indicate no major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm 3 along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. In addition, a broad magnetic high coincides with the approximate location of the hydrologic gradient and probably reflects moderately magnetic Topopah Spring Tuff or lavas in the Calico Hills Formation

  13. Effect of health education on hand washing of mothers of under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in middle and low income countries. Nearly one in five child deaths is due to diarrhea and globally it accounts for 1.5million deaths annually. Although hand washing with soap is effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhea ...

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into WaSH Development Planning in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. Despite awareness of climate change, adaptation measures have not been considered, and the immediate WaSH needs remain the priority. Overall, stakeholders felt the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning. PMID:28698518

  15. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... machine parts to the list of approved finished products and would also add imported components to the...; refrigeration parts; dishwashing machine parts; drying machine parts; water inlet valves; AC/DC fan motors; AC... Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines): Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool...

  17. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  18. Effect of washing on the plasma membrane and on stress reactions of cultured rose cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Y.C.; Nguyen, T.; Murphy, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured cells of Rosa damascena have been used as a model for studies of responses of plant cells to various stresses, including UV radiation, protein-synthesis inhibitors, and elicitors from pathogens. Many of the responses involve reactions at the plasma membrane: efflux of K + , changes in the acid balance between cytoplasm and external medium, synthesis of H 2 O 2 , and inhibition of ferricyanide reduction. In previous studies, the cells have typically been washed with a solution of low ionic strength. We now show that this washing procedure results in changes in the protein composition of the plasma membrane, in the labeling of the proteins in the plasma membrane, and in the specific activity of ATPase in purified plasma membrane vesicles. Also, compared to the unwashed cells, the washed cells show less net K + efflux after UV-C and Phytophthora elicitor treatments; more synthesis of H 2 O 2 after UV-C and a pattern of accumulation of H 2 O 2 after elicitor treatment that shows a delayed but higher peak; and more inhibition of ferricyanide reduction after UV-C, but not after elicitor treatment. The results suggest that washing has differential effects on the mechanisms by which cultured plant cells perceive or respond to two stresses, UV-C and elicitor

  19. Effect of acid washing on pyrolysis of Cladophora socialis alga in microtubing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Hoang Vu; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Jae Hyung; Woo, Hee Chul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of macroalgae Cladophora socialis was conducted in micro tubular reactor. • Acid washing affected the pyrolysis behavior of Cladophora socialis. • Pyrolysis of raw and acid washed C. socialis produced bio-oils with different compositions. • Pyrolysis reaction pathway was from C. socialis to liquid and then to gas (C 1 –C 4 ). - Abstract: Cladophora socialis is a unique macroalga that is widely grown in the coastal regions of Vietnam. In this work, the pyrolysis characteristics of C. socialis were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis in a tubing reactor. Macroalgae have a high content of inorganic compounds. These compounds result in high char content during pyrolysis of the macroalgae, which degrades the quality of the product bio-oil. In order to study this effect, C. socialis was demineralized by acid washing to remove the inorganic compounds. The effect of acid washing on the pyrolysis product distribution and the selectivity of composition in pyrolysis oil was carefully investigated. The kinetic parameters and the primary reaction pathways were also determined based on experimental data using nonlinear least-squares regression assuming a first-order kinetics model.

  20. Release of polyester and cotton fibers from textiles in machine washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Markus; Sainio, Pirjo

    2017-08-01

    Microplastics are widely spread in the environment, which along with still increasing production have aroused concern of their impacts on environmental health. The objective of this study is to quantify the number and mass of two most common textile fibers discharged from sequential machine washings to sewers. The number and mass of microfibers released from polyester and cotton textiles in the first wash varied in the range 2.1 × 10 5 to 1.3 × 10 7 and 0.12 to 0.33% w/w, respectively. Amounts of released microfibers showed a decreasing trend in sequential washes. The annual emission of polyester and cotton microfibers from household washing machines was estimated to be 154,000 (1.0 × 10 14 ) and 411,000 kg (4.9 × 10 14 ) in Finland (population 5.5 × 10 6 ). Due to the high emission values and sorption capacities, the polyester and cotton microfibers may play an important role in the transport and fate of chemical pollutants in the aquatic environment.

  1. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  2. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on poplar, douglas fir, walnut, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength and w...

  3. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  4. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on four types of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on the utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength a...

  5. Weed seed spread and its prevention: The role of roadside wash down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Nguyen, Thi; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2018-02-15

    Vehicles are one of the major vectors of long-distance weed seed spread. Viable seed removed from vehicles at roadside wash down facilities was studied at five locations in central Queensland, Australia over a 3-year period. Seed from 145 plant species, belonging to 34 different families, were identified in the sludge samples obtained from the wet particulate matter collection pit of the wash down facilities. Most of the species were annual forbs (50%) with small or very small seed size (weed was observed in these samples. More parthenium weed seed were found in the Rolleston facility and in the spring, but its seed was present in all facilities and in all seasons. The average number of viable seed found within every ton of dry particulate matter removed from vehicles was ca. 68,000. Thus, a typical wash down facility was removing up to ca. 335,000 viable seed from vehicles per week, of which ca. 6700 were parthenium weed seed. Furthermore, 61% of these seed (ca. 200,000) were from introduced species, and about half of these (35% of total) were from species considered to be weeds. Therefore, the roadside wash down facilities found throughout Queensland can remove a substantial amount of viable weed seed from vehicles, including the invasive parthenium weed, and the use of such facilities should be strongly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guan-Bu [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg{sup −1}) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L{sup −1} DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH{sub 4}) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively.

  7. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations.

  8. Proven and potential clinical benefits of washing red blood cells before transfusion: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt AE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Schmidt, Majed A Refaai, Scott A Kirkley, Neil Blumberg Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Red blood cells (RBCs are washed for a variety of reasons such as to remove excess potassium, cytokines, and other allergen proteins from the supernatant and/or to mitigate the effects of the storage lesion. The storage lesion is a product of RBC aging and include leakage of potassium and chloride from the RBCs, depletion of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate, loss of phospholipids and cholesterol, exposure of phosphatidylserine, elaboration of lipid mediators, loss of glutathione, autoxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin contributing to decreased blood flow viscosity and adherence to endothelial cells, increased microparticle formation, and disruption of NO-mediated vasodilation. A storage lesion is thought to be caused in part by oxidative stress, which is characterized by functional and structural changes to the RBCs. The effects of the RBC storage lesion on patient morbidity and mortality have been studied intensively with mixed results. Here, we will summarize the potential benefits of RBC washing. Notably, all patient-based studies on washed RBCs are single-center, small randomized studies or observational data, which await replication and tests of generalizability. Some of the most promising preliminary data suggest that washed transfusions of red cells and platelets reduce mortality in low risk, younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia, mitigate lung injury, and substantially reduce mortality in cardiac surgery. Larger randomized trials to replicate or refute these findings are urgently needed and, most importantly, have the potential to strikingly improve clinical outcomes following transfusion. Keywords: washed blood, transfusion, immunomodulation, red blood cell

  9. Potential of Cinnamon Oil Emulsions as Alternative Washing Solutions of Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaiqiong; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cinnamon oil emulsions as alternative washing solutions to improve the microbial safety of carrots. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic (GA), lecithin, and their combinations were used to prepare cinnamon oil emulsions. The emulsions were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter (D h ) during 7 days of storage and their antimicrobial activity against cocktails of Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . The D h of the emulsion prepared with the GA+WPC blend did not change significantly (195.0 to 184.1 nm), whereas all other emulsions showed varying degrees of increases in D h . Compared with free cinnamon oil dissolved in 5% ethanol, all emulsions showed similar or lower MICs and MBCs. Emulsions prepared with GA and equal masses of GA and WPC were chosen and diluted to 0.2 and 0.5% cinnamon oil to wash carrots that were surface inoculated with bacterial cocktails because of their lower MICs and MBCs than free oil. Emulsions resulted in significantly higher reductions of pathogens on carrots than free cinnamon oil, 3.0 to 3.7 versus 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g at 0.5% cinnamon oil and 2.0 to 3.0 versus 1.0 to 1.7 log CFU/g at 0.2% cinnamon oil. No transfer of bacteria from inoculated carrots to wash solutions and no effects of organic load on log reductions were only observed for wash treatments with 0.5% emulsified cinnamon oil. Thus, the cinnamon oil emulsions are potential alternative postharvest washing solutions for fresh produce production.

  10. Effects of household washing on bacterial load and removal of Escherichia coli from lettuce and "ready-to-eat" salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Elisabeth; Olsson, Crister; He, Jiayi; Stark, Therese; Sadowska, Zuzanna; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Alsanius, Beatrix; Håkansson, Åsa

    2017-11-01

    Customer demands for fresh salads are increasing, but leafy green vegetables have also been linked to food-borne illness due to pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. As a safety measure, consumers often wash leafy vegetables in water before consumption. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of household washing to reduce the bacterial content. Romaine lettuce and ready-to-eat mixed salad were washed several times in flowing water at different rates and by immersing the leaves in water. Lettuce was also inoculated with E. coli before washing. Only washing in a high flow rate (8 L/min) resulted in statistically significant reductions ( p  < .05), "Total aerobic count" was reduced by 80%, and Enterobacteriaceae count was reduced by 68% after the first rinse. The number of contaminating E. coli was not significantly reduced. The dominating part of the culturable microbiota of the washed lettuce was identified by rRNA 16S sequencing of randomly picked colonies. The majority belonged to Pseudomonadaceae , but isolates from Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceaceae were also frequently found. This study shows the inefficiency of tap water washing methods available for the consumer when it comes to removal of bacteria from lettuce. Even after washing, the lettuce contained high levels of bacteria that in a high dose and under certain circumstances may constitute a health risk.

  11. Olieslachtoffers op de Nederlandse Kust, 2010/2011 = Oiled Seabirds Washing Ashore in the Netherlands, 2010/2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the proportion of dead oiled birds washed ashore in TheNetherlands of the total number of birds washing ashore as a result of beachedbird surveys conducted by volunteers of the Dutch Seabird Group (NZG/NSO).Apart from the survey results for winter 2010/11, a summary is provided

  12. Effects of particle size on the morphology and waterand thermo-resistance of washed cottonseed meal-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water wash of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environment-friendly than the protein isolation which involves alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effects of the p...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1091-2 - Basis of stock or securities acquired in “wash sales”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Basis of stock or securities acquired in âwash salesâ. 1.1091-2 Section 1.1091-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1091-2 Basis of stock...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-1T - Coordination of loss deferral rules and wash sale rules (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coordination of loss deferral rules and wash sale rules (temporary). 1.1092(b)-1T Section 1.1092(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities...

  15. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or without laundry facilities subcategory...

  16. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry facilities subcategory. 429...

  17. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000...

  18. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20...

  19. Transport of phosphorus, wash load and suspended sediment in the River Varde A in southwest Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodsen, Hans; Hasholt, Bent; Pejrup, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and wash load have been measured at three river monitoring stations in the River Varde Angstrom system since 1998. This provides the possibility of studying the link between SSC and wash load and concentrations of TP....... Transport rates of TP, suspended sediment and wash load at the three stations, calculated using rating curves, indicate the dependence of TP transport on the transport of suspended sediment and wash load. Two stations are located on tributaries flowing upstream of the third station located at a weir...... at the end of a small impoundment. Transport rates at the upstream stations were 57% higher for suspended sediment and 27% higher for wash load than at the downstream station, while transport of TP was the same. This indicates that phosphorus is transported adhered to the finest grain size fractions that do...

  20. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  1. Spin Labeling ESR Investigation of Covalently Bound Residues in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Steinhoff, Heinz-Juergen; Klasmeier, Joerg; Schulz, Marcus; Matthies, Michael

    2013-04-01

    contained the paramagnetic substance at a required concentration of 3 mM. For some hours, soil samples were incubated with NR and then washed, using the serial additions of some distilled water to each soil sample. Subsequently, each washed soil sample was centrifuged. The content of NR in the retentates and permeates of centrifuged washed samples of contaminated soil were analyzed for different volumes of percolate by means of ESR spectroscopy. We received a gradually decreasing content of both NR in retentates with increasing volumes of percolates. However, 4-Amino Tempo can be completely washed out, whereas approximately 6% of the Aniline Tempo remained in soil after repeated washing. Thus, both SL are reversibly bound because they can be washed out from soil. In addition, Aniline Tempo is partly irreversibly bound. We concluded that the aromatic moiety of Aniline Tempo favours the covalent binding of the NH2 moiety in contrast to the aliphatic NH2 moiety of 4-Amino Tempo.

  2. Soil penetrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. A.; Hotz, G. M.; Bryson, R. P. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An auger-type soil penetrometer for burrowing into soil formations is described. The auger, while initially moving along a predetermined path, may deviate from the path when encountering an obstruction in the soil. Alterations and modifications may be made in the structure so that it may be used for other purposes.

  3. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  4. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-11-12

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  5. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks. Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5 and 14 days (94.8. Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1. Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days. Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.

  6. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbi Sifat E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC’s water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH programme areas over time. Methods This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006, midline (2009 and end-line (2011 surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. Results A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Conclusion Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  7. Stability and Wash Resistance of Local Made Mosquito Bednets and Detergents Treated with Pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to evaluate different fibres of bednets impregnated with various pyrethroids. The stability of insecticide on the bednet was measured using different methods of washings as well as local made detergents.Methods: The entire test was carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. In addition, the impact of the numbers of washes on the stability of the insecticides was determined. Permethrin 10% (EC, deltamethrin 10% (SC, lambdacyhalothrin 2.5% (CS and cyfluthrin 5% (EW were used at the recommended dosages. Three different lo­cal detergents were used. Two kinds of washing methods (shaking, no shaking were used and in each method four kinds of washings, i.e. no wash, one wash, two washes and three washes was done. The main malaria vectors, Anophe­les stephensi, which is susceptible to all insecticides (BEECH strain, was tested with impregnated bednets in 3 minutes exposure time and the mortality was measured after 24 hours recovery period. Knock-down was measured as well using appropriate statistical methods.Results: Lambdacyhalothrin has saved its insecticidal impact after being washed, whereas, deltamethrin has lost its activ­ity faster than other insecticides. Tow other insecticides had moderate effect. Golnar soap detergent has least ef­fect on the durability of insecticides, but the Shoma had the most. Whit increasing  the times of washing, insecticidal ef­fects was decreased , but shaking had no influence on the decreasing  of the quality of insecticidal impact.Conclusion: Results will be useful for local people who wish to use pyrethroid-impregnated bednets with their own lo­cal made detergent and bednets. 

  8. Stability and Wash Resistance of Local Made Mosquito Bednets and Detergents Treated with Pyrethroids against Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We aimed to evaluate different fibres of bednets impregnated with various pyrethroids. The stability of insecticide on the bednet was measured using different methods of washings as well as local made detergents."nMethods: The entire test was carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. In addition, the impact of the numbers of washes on the stability of the insecticides was determined. Permethrin 10% (EC, deltamethrin 10% (SC, lambdacyhalothrin 2.5% (CS and cyfluthrin 5% (EW were used at the recommended dosages. Three different lo­cal detergents were used. Two kinds of washing methods (shaking, no shaking were used and in each method four kinds of washings, i.e. no wash, one wash, two washes and three washes was done. The main malaria vectors, Anophe­les stephensi, which is susceptible to all insecticides (BEECH strain, was tested with impregnated bednets in 3 minutes exposure time and the mortality was measured after 24 hours recovery period. Knock-down was measured as well using appropriate statistical methods."nResults: Lambdacyhalothrin has saved its insecticidal impact after being washed, whereas, deltamethrin has lost its activ­ity faster than other insecticides. Tow other insecticides had moderate effect. Golnar soap detergent has least ef­fect on the durability of insecticides, but the Shoma had the most. Whit increasing  the times of washing, insecticidal ef­fects was decreased , but shaking had no influence on the decreasing  of the quality of insecticidal impact."nConclusion: Results will be useful for local people who wish to use pyrethroid-impregnated bednets with their own lo­cal made detergent and bednets. 

  9. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtfouse, E.

    1997-01-01

    Soil has been regarded for a long time as an inert and closed medium where it was possible to dump any kind of hazardous wastes without implications on living organisms. But all pollutants entering the soil system can be stocked, transformed (often into more hazardous compounds) and transferred towards the atmosphere, groundwater and rivers. Obviously, the building up of toxic wastes into the soil system is a risk for all living beings. Pollution sources are numerous and diverse. They are given here into details. To follow the path of pollutants into the soil puzzle, with emphasis on the determination of bound residues, analytical experiments using labelled elements are by far the most efficient. But as a matter of fact, real toxicity can only be measured with biological tests, where living organisms such as light-emitting bacteria or plants are grown in contact with the toxic media. In order to minimize the diffusion of pollutants toward other natural media, a wide panel of remediation techniques are under development. Incineration and thermal desorption, for instance, are fast. Alternatively, the spreading of detergents onto the soil surface solubilizes pollutants that are later water-washed toward other media. Nonetheless, it is rarely complete and favors the migration of the pollutants toward groundwater, rivers and other ecosystems. On the other hand, mild, low-cost and efficient biological methods are now developing rapidly. Their principle lies on the natural ability of living organisms to extract and degrade toxic molecules. Lastly, plants may be used to remedy polluted soils, a process called ''phyto-remediation''. Its principles lies on two main phenomena. Firstly, some plant species are able to selectively extract large amounts of heavy metals from the ground then store them. Secondly, plants activate strongly the microbial biomass by injection of exudate enriched in organic nutriments in the root zone called ''rhizosphere''. Thus, the microbes, well

  10. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  11. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  12. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  13. Investigation of heterogeneous ice nucleation in pollen suspensions and washing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischmeier, Katharina; Budke, Carsten; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as pollen often show ice nucleation activity at temperatures higher than -20 °C. Immersion freezing experiments of pollen washing water demonstrate comparable ice nucleation behaviour as water containing the whole pollen bodies (Pummer et al., 2012). It was suggested that polysaccharide molecules leached from the grains are responsible for the ice nucleation. Here, heterogeneous ice nucleation in birch pollen suspensions and their washing water was investigated by two different experimental methods. The optical freezing array BINARY (Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY) allows the direct observation of freezing of microliter-sized droplets. The IN spectra obtained from such experiments with birch pollen suspensions over a large concentration range indicate several different ice nucleation active species, two of which are present also in the washing water. The latter was probed also in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experiments of emulsified sub-picoliter droplets. Due to the small droplet size in the emulsion samples and at small concentration of IN in the washing water, such DSC experiments can exhibit the ice nucleation behaviour of a single nucleus. The two heterogeneous freezing signals observed in the DSC thermograms can be assigned to two different kinds of ice nuclei, confirming the observation from the BINARY measurements, and also previous studies on Swedish birch pollen washing water (Augustin et al., 2012). The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project BIOCLOUDS (KO 2944/1-1) and through the research unit INUIT (FOR 1525) under KO 2944/2-1. We particularly thank our INUIT partners for fruitful collaboration and sharing of ideas and IN samples. S. Augustin, H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, B. Pummer, H. Grothe, S. Hartmann, L. Tomsche, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann, Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989

  14. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  15. Flood potential of Fortymile Wash and its principal southwestern tributaries, Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, R.R.; Young, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Flood hazards for a 9-mile reach of Fortymile Wash and its principal southwestern tributaries - Busted Butte, Drill Hole, and Yucca Washes - were evaluated to aid in determining possible sites for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes on the Nevada Test Site. Data from 12 peak-flow gaging stations adjacent to the Test Site were used to develop regression relations that would permit an estimation of the magnitude of the 100- and 500-year flood peaks (Q 100 and Q 500 ), in cubic feet per second. The resulting equations are: Q 100 = 482A 0 565 and Q 500 = 2200A 0 571 , where A is the tributary drainage area, in square miles. The estimate of the regional maximum flood was based on data from extreme floods elsewhere in Nevada and in surrounding states. Among seven cross sections on Fortymile Wash, the estimated maximum depths of the 100-year, 500-year, and regional maximum floods are 8, 11, and 29 feet, respectively. At these depths, flood water would remain within the deeply incised channel of the wash. Mean flow velocities would be as great as 9, 14, and 28 feet per second for the three respective flood magnitudes. The study shows that Busted Butte and Drill Hole Washes (9 and 11 cross sections, respectively) would have water depths of up to at least 4 feet and mean flow velocities of up to at least 8 feet per second during a 100-year flood. A 500-year flood would exceed stream-channel capacities at several places, with depths to 10 feet and mean flow velocities to 11 feet per second. The regional maximum flood would inundate sizeable areas in central parts of the two watersheds. At Yucca Wash (5 cross sections), the 100-year, 500-year, and regional maximum floods would remain within the stream channel. Maximum flood depths would be about 5, 9, and 23 feet and mean velocities about 9, 12, and 22 feet per second, respectively, for the three floods

  16. Combined effectiveness of anthelmintic chemotherapy and WASH among HIV-infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna R Means

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current global helminth control guidelines focus on regular deworming of targeted populations for morbidity control. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions may also be important for reducing helminth transmission. We evaluated the impact of different potential helminth protective packages on infection prevalence, including repeated treatment with albendazole and praziquantel with and without WASH access.We conducted a cohort study nested within a randomized trial of empiric deworming of HIV-infected adults in Kenya. Helminth infections and infection intensity were diagnosed using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. We conducted a manual forward stepwise model building approach to identify if there are packages of interventions that may be protective against an STH infection of any species (combined outcome and each helminth species individually. We conducted secondary analyses using the same approach only amongst individuals with no anthelmintis exposure. We used interaction terms to test for potential intervention synergy. Approximately 22% of the 701 stool samples provided were helminth-infected, most of which were of low to moderate intensity. The odds of infection with any STH species were lower for individuals who were treated with albendazole (aOR:0.11, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.20, p<0.001, adjusting for age and sex. Although most WASH conditions demonstrated minimal additional benefit in reducing the probability of infection with any STH species, access to safe flooring did appear to offer some additional protection (aOR:0.34, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56, p<0.001. For schistosomiasis, only treatment with praziquantel was protective (aOR:0.30 95%CI: 0.14, 0.60, p = 0.001. Amongst individuals who were not treated with albendazole or praziquantel, the most protective intervention package to reduce probability of STH infections included safe flooring (aOR:0.34, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.59, p<0.001 and latrine access (aOR:0.59, 95%CI: 0.35, 0.99, p = 0

  17. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  18. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    The surficial geologic map of lower Comb Wash was produced as part of a master’s thesis for Northern Arizona University Quaternary Sciences program. The map area includes the portion of the Comb Wash alluvial valley between Highway 163 and Highway 95 on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah. The late Quaternary geology of this part of the Colorado Plateau had not previously been mapped in adequate detail. The geologic information in this report will be useful for biological studies, land management and range management for federal, state and private industries. Comb Wash is a south flowing ephemeral tributary of the San Juan River, flanked to the east by Comb Ridge and to the west by Cedar Mesa (Figure 1). The nearest settlement is Bluff, about 7 km to the east of the area. Elevations range from 1951 m where Highway 95 crosses Comb Wash to 1291 m at the confluence with the San Juan River. Primary vehicle access to lower Comb Wash is provided by a well-maintained dirt road that parallels the active channel of Comb Wash between Highway 163 and Highway 95. For much of the year this road can be traversed without the aid of four-wheel drive. However, during inclement weather such as rain or snow the road becomes treacherous even with four-wheel drive. The Comb Wash watershed is public land managed by the Bureau of Land management (BLM) office in Monticello, Utah. The semi-arid climate of Comb Wash and the surrounding area is typical of the Great Basin Desert. Temperature in Bluff, Utah ranges from a minimum of –8° C in January to a maximum of 35° C in July with a mean annual temperature of 9.8° C (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1999). The difference between day and nighttime temperatures is as great as 20° C. Between 1928 and 1998, annual rainfall in Bluff averaged 178 mm per year (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1999). Annual rainfall in Comb Wash averaged 240 mm per year from 1991 to 1999 while Bluff received an average of 193 mm for the same 8 year period

  19. Soil-biological parameters as tools in biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Soil-biological parameters (enzyme activities, content of metabolites) are sensitive indicators of environmental changes. On the one hand, we tested the possibilities of this method in the vicinity of the trunks of beeches, where most of the pollutants are washed into the soil with the runoff of precipitation water from the tree trunks. On the other hand, we compared soils used for intensive agriculture with more natural soils in the vicinity. In the first of these cases, especially the activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were influenced by atmospheric pollution. In the latter case, a marked effect of agricultural management on the entire soil-biological state was to be noted. The results are derived from investigations by A. Baumgarten, O. Linher, K. Spadinger and S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern. (orig.) [de

  20. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  1. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  2. Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, C. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides results from a second-phase research study of a phenomenon generally referred to as wind washing. Wind washing is the movement of unconditioned air around or through building thermal barriers in such a way as to diminish or nullify the intended thermal performance. In some cases, thermal and air barriers are installed very poorly or not at all, and air can readily move from unconditioned attic spaces into quasi-conditioned interstitial spaces. This study focused on the impact of poorly sealed and insulated floor cavities adjacent to attic spaces in Florida homes. In these cases, unconditioned attic air can be transferred into floor cavities through pathways driven by natural factors such as wind, or by thermal differences between the floor cavity and the attic. Air can also be driven into a floor cavity through mechanical forces imposed by return duct leakage in the floor cavity.

  3. Design and Construction of a Live Insulator Washing System for Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizama-Cámara Y.A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashovers due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the “Laguna Verde” power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer insulator cleaning methodology, which identifies the main variables to take into account (the voltage level of the transformers, the pollution level of the insulators, determination of the optimal wash time, the amount of water, the optimal pressure of water jet, the maximum conductivity of the water and the wind velocity, reference values are given for these variables. In addition, we present an economic cost analysis when applying a method of this kind in an electric substation.

  4. A comparison of ethanol and methane fermentation of currant-and sultana-washing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasopoulos, Nikolaos (Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Wastewater from currant- and sultana-washing processes was successfully treated in an ethanol fermenter at 33[sup o]C; the pH of the wash water was controlled at 2.8; the reducing sugar content was 38.8 g/litre; commercial baker's yeast was used as inoculum at a concentration of 2.5 g/litre; formaldehyde at a concentration of 150 mg/litre was used as antiseptic; the ethanol yield was 70.6% of the theoretical value in 24 h; the COD removal after a single distillation was 84%. The overall economics of ethanol fermentation are very promising compared to methane fermentation. (author)

  5. Effect of transoral tracheal wash on respiratory mechanics in dogs with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.

  6. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  7. Salt works and their impact on soil and groundwater. The cases of Anghelohori and Kitros, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulos Angelopoulos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil and groundwater caused to salt works occurs due to infiltration of a part of seawater from the lakes of salt works through the soil and into phreatic aquifers and from there percolating to artesian aquifers. In the same time, while salt remaining in place is washed out by rain, contaminating soil and both phreatic and artesian aquifers. In the areas of Angelohori and Kitros this contamination of soil has been detected through chemical analysis while groundwater contamination has been suggested through pressure level contours.

  8. Assessment of Mercury-Polluted Soils Adjacent to an Old Mercury-Fulminate Production Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arbestain, M. Camps; Rodríguez-Lado, L.; Bao, M.; Macías, F.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury contamination of soils and vegetation close to an abandoned Hg-fulminate production plant was investigated. Maximum concentrations of Hg (>6.5 g kg−1 soil) were found in the soils located in the area where the wastewater produced during the washing procedures carried out at the production plant used to be discharged. A few meters away from the discharge area, Hg concentrations decreased to levels ranging between 1 and 5 g kg−1, whereas about 0.5 ha of the surrounding soil to the NE (f...

  9. An improved method for seed-bank analysis : Seedling emergence after removing the soil by sieving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, G.N.J.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, J.P.; Verweij, G.L.

    1. The seedling emergence method for assessing the size of the seed bank is improved by washing soil samples on a fine sieve and spreading the thus concentrated samples in a 3-5 mm thick layer on sterilized potting compost. 2. The method largely increases the number of seedlings that emerge as

  10. The influence of platinum washing-out time on its recovery from used auto catalytic converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The used catalytic converters contain small amounts of precious metals. Recovery of these metals is essential for environmental and economic reasons. This work presents a method of Platinum Group Metals (PGM recovery from auto catalytic converters in which they are washed out by a liquid metal. The magneto-hydro-dynamic pump was used to force circulation of liquid metal under the influence of electromagnetic fields The influence of process time on platinum recovery was also carried out.

  11. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Herber, R.F.M.

    1981-11-01

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  13. Design and Construction of a Live Insulator Washing System for Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Lizama-Cámara Y.A.; Mendieta-Antúnez J.A.; Blanco-Brisset E.; Olivares Galván J.C.; Escarela-Pérez R.

    2012-01-01

    Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashovers due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the “Laguna Verde” power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer ins...

  14. Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site

  15. Prevalence of Methicillin?Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, A.G.; Rankin, S.C.; Duffee, L.A.; Morris, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Methicillin?resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. Hypothesis/Objective MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horse...

  16. Facial skin physiology recovery kinetics during 180 min post-washing with a cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, J; Seo, Y K; Baek, J H; Choi, A R; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-05-01

    Facial cleansing is important to clean and exfoliate the skin while maintaining optimal physiologic function. However, there is insufficient data on the very early stage of skin change after applying soap or cleansing foam. We investigated the recovery kinetics of facial skin physiology during 180 min after exposure to the cleanser. For the study, 22 Korean female subjects with normal and dry to oily skin type were recruited in this study. Study subjects were required to have face washing done within the 12 hours prior to visiting the research center, with only toner, lotion, or cream applied. The next day, the subjects visited the research center without face washing. We evaluated the skin hydration (Corneometer(®) CM 825), sebum (Sebumeter(®) SM 815), transepidermal water loss (Tewameter(®) TM 300), and pH (Skin-pH-Meter(®) PH 905) to define recovery kinetics of facial skin physiology during 180 min exposure post-cleansing. Skin hydration, sebum, and TEWL were significantly decreased at 20 min after washing, as compared to the baseline (P < 0.05). And skin hydration returned at 40 min, and skin sebum and TEWL returned at 120 min after washing. However, skin pH did not show significant differences at all times points. This study indicated that each of the skin parameters was restored at defined time points post-cleansing. Our result could be a useful reference to set the resting time in the estimation of skin bioengineering parameters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    direction of the flow generated by the propeller. The body of the camera housing was parallel to the sea bottom, taking images of the laser “sheet...intensity histogram (RGB channel) for each image was adjusted in Adobe Photoshop ® to maximize contrast without distortion. The jpeg images were then...NOTES The original document contains color images . 14. ABSTRACT Propeller wash induces disturbances to the bottom sediment in Department of

  18. Influence of Industrial Washing and Cyclic Fatigue on Slippage of Linen Fabric Threads along the Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina KORUNČAK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All seams of garments shall withstand the established force effect in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Resistance to thread slippage along the seam is a major property of fabrics that is regulated by strict guidelines. In many research works, lining fabrics are chosen as the object of research as thread slippage is the most typical of them. What concerns the reports exploring slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam, just very few papers are available. Studies dealing with the influence made by industrial washing and cyclic load on the defect under investigation, thereby taking into account operational properties of garments are not readily available at all. The objective of the paper is to define the influence of industrial washing and cyclic tensile on slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam. For the research, five 100 % linen fabrics of plain weave have been selected. Control test specimens, unwashed and processed with different washing methods, have been analysed. Cyclic tensile of the test specimens has been carried out by a tensile machine “Tinius Olsen” at tensile force P = 20 N, tensile speed of 12.55 mm/s, number of cycles of 100. The carried-out testing has demonstrated that industrial washing decreased resistance of linen fabrics to thread slippage along the seam in the most cases. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that cyclic tensile led to particularly significant increase in the seam gap. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2486

  19. Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and gamma irradiation on quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag Zaied, S.E.A.; Aziz, N.H.; Ali, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of 5 selected spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds, and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, obtained from the local market, were washed with pure tap water then dried at room temperature, subjected to a thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 15 minutes or exposed to a gamma radiation source (5.0 or 10 kGy). The treatments were evaluated using microbiological and chemical studies

  20. Designing and Developing Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golvardi Yazdi M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Many items are needed for dressing including sterile dressing set, antiseptic and washing solutions, leucoplast tape, waste bin for infectious garbage, waste bin for noninfectious garbage, safe disposal trash for sharp cutting instruments, bedpan and sometimes drugs. All the items are laid out on a simple wheeled trolley. The multiplicity of items together with problems in placing tools on trolley, forgetting some items, disturbing sterile condition, falling and damaging equipment and the need for at least two people for each procedure, all are the reasons to design and develop Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds. Material and Method: To develop a mobile unit which meets our needs for dressing, the trolley patents registered in America and different companies were evaluated as well as the materials and methods used while dressing were considered. Results: Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds was designed and developed. It comprises the followings: drawer, waste bin for infectious garbage, waste bin for noninfectious garbage, shelves for serum and betadine solution, serum stand, peristaltic pump, flexible tube for connecting serum, a place for bedpan, foot pedal for serum flow, two eye-sensor chambers for solution betadine and scrub, an auxiliary work surface. Conclusion: Due to the usual requirements for dressing, we have designed an equipped mobile unit which covers all the objectives of dressing and increases the speed of procedure. Moreover, due to the contrived equipment on the trolley, procedures are done quickly and second person is not required to assist. Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds is made up of stainless steel which could be mass housing and commercializing which would play a deserving role in improving the fundamentals of health care and wound treatment.

  1. Analytical and clinical validation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Lasho, Michael A; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) quantitation in fine needle aspirate biopsy (FNAB) saline washings complements current modalities for parathyroid tissue localization. To establish the performance characteristics of the Roche Elecsys intact PTH immunoassay in FNAB needle washings and its diagnostic performance for the identification of parathyroid tissue. Accuracy, precision, reportable range, and analytical specificity and sensitivity for the intact PTH immunoassay in FNAB needle washings were established. For clinical validation, 93 specimens from 79 patients were evaluated. Diagnostic cut-offs were established via receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Performance of PTH in FNAB needle washings was compared to cytology. Measurement of the PTH in FNAB needle washings demonstrated a matrix interference that was overcome by supplementation of the samples with a protein based matrix prior to analysis. ROC area under the curve (AUC) was 0.96 for PTH in FNAB needle washings. A PTH concentration ≥100pg/mL showed 100% specificity and 82% sensitivity for identifying parathyroid tissue. On histology-confirmed parathyroid specimens, 21/38 (55%) were correctly identified by cytology; whereas 31/38 (82%) were identified by PTH. Measurement of PTH in FNAB washings complements cytology for identification of parathyroid tissue. Analytical validation to exclude interference in the PTH immunoassay and proper localization of the parathyroid tissue by ultrasound is necessary to ensure the robustness of the method. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María A; Gil, María I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the disinfection efficacy of ozone (O(3)) and UV-C illumination (UV), and their combination (O(3)-UV) for reducing microbial flora of fresh-cut onion, escarole, carrot, and spinach wash waters collected from the industry. Furthermore, the influence of water physicochemical parameters on the decontamination efficacy and the effect of these technologies on physicochemical quality of wash water were analyzed. O(3), UV, and O(3)-UV were effective disinfection treatments on vegetable wash water, with a maximum microbial reduction of 6.6 log CFU mL(-1) after 60 min treatment with O(3)-UV. However, maximum total microbial reductions achieved by UV and O(3) treatments after 60 min were 4.0 and 5.9 log CFU mL(-1), lower than by O(3)-UV treatment. Furthermore, turbidity of wash water was reduced significantly by O(3) and O(3)-UV treatments, while UV treatment did not affect the physicochemical quality of the water. Conclusions derived from this study illustrate that O(3) and O(3)-UV are alternatives to other sanitizers used in the fresh-cut washing processes. The use of these technologies would allow less frequent changing of spent water and the use of much lower sanitizer doses. Nevertheless, in specific applications such as carrot wash water, where levels of undesirable microbial and chemical constituents are lower than other vegetable wash water, UV treatment could be an appropriate treatment considering cost-effectiveness criteria.

  3. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  4. Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babič, Monika Novak; Zalar, Polona; Ženko, Bernard; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. Washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. These conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. We focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. Out of 70 residential washing machines sampled in Slovenia, 79% were positive for fungi. In total, 72 strains belonging to 12 genera and 26 species were isolated. Among these, members of the Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani species complexes, Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis represented 44% of fungi detected. These species are known as opportunistic human pathogens and can cause skin, nail or eye infections also in healthy humans. A machine learning analysis revealed that presence of detergents and softeners followed by washing temperature, represent most critical factors for fungal colonization. Three washing machines with persisting malodour that resulted in bad smelling laundry were analysed for the presence of fungi and bacteria. In these cases, fungi were isolated in low numbers (7.5 %), while bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sphingomonas species prevailed. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling losses of copper-based fungicide foliar sprays in wash-off under simulated rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P.; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Soto-Gómez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Wash-off experiments of three Cu-based fungicides were conducted with a single raindrop simulator with known drop size and fall height. Losses were quantified as total Cu (CuT), in solution (CuL), and particulate (CuP). Cu wash-off time course was modeled for two different drop sizes using...... a stochastic model based on the cumulative detachment by random scattered raindrop impacts. In other set of experiments, the influence of raindrop size, fall height, and fungicide dose was analyzed statistically by means of a full factorial design. Most Cu was lost as particles sized from 0.3 to 1 lm...... area that exhaust non-rainfast fungicide (4.2 ± 3.0 small drops and 2.5 ± 0.5 large drops for the high performance level, low performance level needed 30 ± 10 large drops and 40 ± 88 small drops), and the mass washed-off by a single-drop impact (from 1.27 ± 0.2 lg Cu to 3 ± 1 ng Cu per impact...

  6. Combining sieving and washing, a way to treat MSWI boiler fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ashes contain some compounds that could be extracted and valorised. A process based on wet sieving and washing steps has been developed aiming to reach this objective. Such unique combination in MSWI fly ash treatment led to a non-hazardous fraction from incineration fly ashes. More specifically, MSWI Boiler Fly Ash (BFA) was separately sampled and treated. The BFA finer particles (13wt%) were found to be more contaminated in Pb and Zn than the coarser fractions. After three washing steps, the coarser fractions presented leaching concentrations acceptable to landfill for non-hazardous materials so that an eventual subsequent valorisation may be foreseen. At the contrary, too much Pb leached from the finest particles and this fraction should be further treated. Wet sieving and washing permit thus to reduce the leachability of MSWI BFA and to concentrate the Pb and Zn contamination in a small (in particle size and volume) fraction. Such combination would therefore constitute a straightforward and efficient basis to valorise coarse particles from MSWI fly ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metal contents in Egyptian meat and the role of detergent washing on their levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Arab, A A

    2001-06-01

    Pollution of the environment with heavy metals is a serious problem, which is recognized in most countries of the world. Metals accumulate in the liver, and particularly in the kidneys. The present study provides information about the concentrations of metals in animal organs from both rural and industrial areas. It was surprising that the Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe contents in muscle, liver, kidney, heart and spleen in industrial areas were higher than in the same organs of rural areas. Lead concentrations in bovine liver and kidney, in buffalo, elk, sheep and goat kidneys as well as Cd in elk liver and kidneys were higher in the present study than the recommended values. The effect of washing for bovine muscle, liver and kidney using tap water and other detergent solutions on the metals was studied. Washing by only tap water was less effective than the other detergent. The results indicate the efficient role of washing by acidic detergent in the reduction of Pb, Cd and Zn from naturally contaminated meat compared with neutral and alkaline detergent.

  8. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-06-18

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors.

  9. Preservation Method and Phosphate Buffered Saline Washing Affect the Acute Myeloid Leukemia Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wangen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML primary cells can be isolated from peripheral blood, suspended with media containing bovine serum and cryoprotectant, and stored in liquid nitrogen before being processed for proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry (MS. The presence of bovine serum and human blood proteins in AML samples can hamper the identifications of proteins, and thereby reduce the proteome coverage of the study. Herein, we have established the effect of phosphate buffered saline (PBS washing on AML patient samples stored in media. Although PBS washes effectively removed serum and blood contaminants, the saline wash resulted in cell burst and remarkable protein material loss. We also compared different methods to preserve the AML proteome from THP-1 and Molm-13 cell lines before MS analysis: (1 stored in media containing bovine serum and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; (2 stored as dried cell pellets; and (3 stored as cell lysates in 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. MS analysis of differently preserved AML cell samples shows that preservation with DMSO produce a high number of fragile cells that will burst during freezing and thawing. Our studies encourage the use of alternative preservation methods for future MS analysis of the AML proteome.

  10. Role of macromolecules in the safety of use of body wash cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Tomasz; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia

    2015-11-01

    One of the most challenging problems related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their potential to cause skin irritations. Surfactants can bind with proteins, remove lipids from the epidermal surface, contribute to the disorganization of liquid crystal structures in the intercellular lipids, and interact with living skin cells. These processes can lead to skin irritations and allergic reactions, and impair the epidermal barrier function. The present study is an attempt to assess the effect of polymers and hydrolysed proteins present in the formulations of model body wash cosmetics on product properties. Special attention was given to the safety of use of this product type. The study examined three macromolecules: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrolysed wheat protein crosspolymer (PVP/HWP). The addition of the substances under study was found to improve the foaming properties of body wash cosmetics, increase their stability during storage, and contribute significantly to an improvement in the safety of product use by reducing the irritant potential. The strongest ability to reduce the skin irritation potential was determined for the formula enriched with the PVP/HWP crosspolymer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E.; Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford's 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications

  12. Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications.

  13. Inorganic impurity removal from waste oil and wash-down water by Acinetobacter johnsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Xianming; Chen, Guoxu

    2012-11-15

    The removal of the abundant inorganic impurities in waste oil has been one of the most significant issues in waste oil reclamation. Acinetobacter johnsonii isolated from waste oil in aerobic process was employed to remove the inorganic impurities in waste oil and wash-down water. The biological process was developed through the primary mechanism research on the impurity removal and the optimization of the various parameters, such as inoculum type, inoculum volume and disposal temperature and time. The results showed that waste oil and wash-down water were effectively cleansed under the optimized conditions, with inorganic impurity and turbidity below 0.5% and 100 NTU from the initial values of 2% and 300 NTU, respectively. Sulfide, the main hazardous matter during waste oil reclamation, was also reduced within 1mg/L. After the biotreatment, the oil-water interface was clear in favor of its separation to benefit the smooth reclamation of waste oil and wash-down water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Basic characteristics of leachate produced by various washing processes for MSWI ashes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renbo; Liao, Wing-Ping; Wu, Pin-Han

    2012-08-15

    Approximately 19.2% of Taiwan's municipal solid waste (MSW) that passes through incineration disposal is converted into ashes (including bottom ash and fly ash). Although bottom ash can pass nearly all of the standards of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), its high chloride content makes its reuse limited; it generally cannot be used as a fine aggregate material in concrete applications. This research examined washing four types of bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with water to reduce their chloride content. The optimal water intensity for washing pretreated bottom ash was found to be 7-8L of water per kg of bottom ash, and the optimal water intensity for washing untreated fly ash was found to be 20-25 L of water per kg of fly ash. Based on regression analyses of the chloride concentrations of the leachates and their electrical conductivity (EC) values, each MSW incineration plant has its own ash characteristics as well as a specific regression line in bottom or fly ash leachate. Clearly, it is possible to monitor the EC values of the leachates online by estimation from regression equations to determine the chloride concentrations in the leachates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-09-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

  16. Presence of nanoparticles in wash water from conventional silver and nano-silver textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrano, Denise M; Rimmele, Elisa; Wichser, Adrian; Erni, Rolf; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2014-07-22

    Questions about how to regulate nanoenhanced products regularly arise as researchers determine possible nanoparticle transformation(s). Focusing concern on the incorporation and subsequent release of nano-Ag in fabrics often overshadows the fact that many "conventional silver" antimicrobials such as ionic silver, AgCl, metallic Ag, and other forms will also form different species of silver. In this study we used a laboratory washing machine to simulate the household laundering of a number of textiles prepared with known conventional Ag or nano-Ag treatments and a commercially available fabric incorporating yarns coated with bulk metallic Ag. Serial filtration allowed for quantification of total Ag released in various size fractions (>0.45 μm, textiles, regardless of whether the treatment is "conventional" or "nano", can be a source of silver nanoparticles in washing solution when laundering fabrics. Indeed, in this study we observed that textiles treated with "conventional" silver have equal or greater propensity to form nano-silver particles during washing conditions than those treated with "nano"-silver. This fact needs to be strongly considered when addressing the risks of nano-silver and emphasizes that regulatory assessment of nano-silver warrants a similar approach to conventional silver.

  17. Efficiency of the surgical washing of hands with brush and without brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresia Canales Carmona

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to establish the answer to a clinical question regarding the effectiveness ofpreoperative hygiene with hand washing brush or without it. This first technique has been performed on the skinto reduce transient bacteria and to inhibit the growth of resident microorganisms as a common and required actbefore any surgical procedure. Despite this measure and others such as prophylactic antibiotics, the mainoperative complication continues to be the surgical wound infection. Today, it is as prevalent as in the past withthe consequent negative effects derived from it, both for the institutions and for patients. Being controversialtoday which one is the most effective and safe surgical hand washing method for the binomial: professionalsurgical team/ patient, this study is done under the criteria of the Evidence-Based Nursing.A question was builtin PICO format (Personal, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome. After this is done, continues informationsearch in the databases GOOGLE ACADÉMICO, Pub Med, Cochrane y Base de Datos para la Investigación enEnfermería (BDIE We obtained 20 articles related to the topic of them 8, which fulfilled the set CASPe criteriato answer the clinical question, were analyzed. We conclude that washing hands with a brush is equally effectiveas without brush technique in terms of decreased of the superficial skin bacterial flora, although this technique hasadvantages over the traditional practice.

  18. Decolorization of Distillery Spent Wash Using Biopolymer Synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles David

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain was isolated from tannery effluent which can tolerate high concentrations of potassium dichromate up to 1000 ppm. The isolated microorganism was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by performing biochemical tests and molecular characterization. In the presence of excess of carbohydrate source, which is a physiological stress, this strain produces Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. This intracellular polymer, which is synthesized, is primarily a product of carbon assimilation and is employed by microorganisms as an energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are limitedly available. Efforts were taken to check whether the PHB has any positive effect on spent wash decolorization. When a combination of PHB and the isolated bacterial culture was added to spent wash, a maximum color removal of 92.77% was found which was comparatively higher than the color removed when the spent wash was treated individually with the PHB and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PHB behaved as a support material for the bacteria to bind to it and thus develops biofilm, which is one of the natural physiological growth forms of microorganisms. The bacterial growth in the biofilm and the polymer together acted in synergy, adsorbing and coagulating the pollutants in the form of color pigments.

  19. Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmark, Désirée; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2018-03-15

    Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitigation of heavy metals in different vegetables through biological washing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Sattar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of nutritious and healthy food is the foremost challenging issue in all over the word. Vegetables are essential part in human diet and considered as natural reserves of nutrients gifted by Almighty Allah to human beings. Heavy metals are among the most toxic food pollutants and their intake through diet leads to several disorders. The sources of heavy metal contamination include waste water irrigation, industrial emissions, transportation and application of metal-based pesticides. In Pakistan this situation is more alarming as vegetables grown in peri-urban areas have shown high incidence of heavy metals accumulation. In this study effort was made to mitigate different heavy metals (Ar, Cd, Cr and Pb in cauliflower, spinach, okra and brinjal collected from peri-urban areas through washing with different biological solutions. Heavy metals contents were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS. Vegetable showed high load of heavy metals in unwashed form that reduced significantly by washing with different biological solutions. Among the different biological solutions, washing of vegetables with 8% ginger solution was found to be more effective.

  1. Value of washed sputum gram stain smear and culture for management of lower respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Luong Dong; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Takeda, Nobue; Nigo, Yukiko; Aizawa, Jirou; Kuroki, Haruo; Kohno, Yoichi

    2004-02-01

    To date, the technique of washed sputum examinations has not been widely used in the clinical management of lower respiratory tract infections in children. A total of 224 sputum samples from 125 pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infections were collected for washed sputum Gram stain smears and cultures. The results with these methods were compared to find correlation rates. The value of washed sputum cultures was assessed by examining the clinical responses of the patients who received antibiotic therapies instituted on the basis of the sputum culture results. Isolation rates of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were 22.4%, 9.4%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. For the prediction of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis, the sensitivities of the washed sputum Gram stain smears compared with the culture method were 86.0%, 81.0%, and 90.9%, respectively. The specificities of the washed sputum Gram stain smear technique were 94.8%, 97.5%, and 98.1%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the washed sputum Gram stain smear method were 85.5% and 87.2%, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from only one specimen; and washed sputum Gram stain smear estimation was correlated with the culture result. On the basis of the washed sputum culture results, appropriate antibiotic therapies were instituted for 93.3% of the patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections. This study suggests that the techniques of washed sputum Gram stain smear and culture are valuable and should be encouraged in clinical practice for the management of lower respiratory tract infections in children.

  2. Polyester Textiles as a Source of Microplastics from Households: A Mechanistic Study to Understand Microfiber Release During Washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Edgar; Nowack, Bernd; Mitrano, Denise M

    2017-06-20

    Microplastic fibers make up a large proportion of microplastics found in the environment, especially in urban areas. There is good reason to consider synthetic textiles a major source of microplastic fibers, and it will not diminish since the use of synthetic fabrics, especially polyester, continues to increase. In this study we provide quantitative data regarding the size and mass of microplastic fibers released from synthetic (polyester) textiles during simulated home washing under controlled laboratory conditions. Consideration of fabric structure and washing conditions (use of detergents, temperature, wash duration, and sequential washings) allowed us to study the propensity of fiber shedding in a mechanistic way. Thousands of individual fibers were measured (number, length) from each wash solution to provide a robust data set on which to draw conclusions. Among all the variables tested, the use of detergent appeared to affect the total mass of fibers released the most, yet the detergent composition (liquid or powder) or overdosing of detergent did not significantly influence microplastic release. Despite different release quantities due to the addition of a surfactant (approximately 0.025 and 0.1 mg fibers/g textile washed, without and with detergent, respectively), the overall microplastic fiber length profile remained similar regardless of wash condition or fabric structure, with the vast majority of fibers ranging between 100 and 800 μm in length irrespective of wash cycle number. This indicates that the fiber staple length and/or debris encapsulated inside the fabric from the yarn spinning could be directly responsible for releasing stray fibers. This study serves as a first look toward understanding the physical properties of the textile itself to better understand the mechanisms of fiber shedding in the context of microplastic fiber release into laundry wash water.

  3. Remediation Of Radioactive Contaminated Soil in Oil Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.A.; Hassib, G.M.; Ibrahim, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in evaporation pond has been evaluated. At several onshore oil field locations, the produced water is discharged to form artificial lagoons or ponds. Subsequently, the released waters drain to the ground leaving radioactive deposits associated with the soil that eventually require remedial action in accordance with radiation protection principles. The present study aims to investigate the remediation of contaminated soil in some oil fields and in this concern, two scenarios were proposed. The first scenario is studying the feasibility of using soil washing technique (a physical-chemical separation process) for removing radium-226 from the contaminated soil samples collected from an evaporating pond. The size/activity distribution analyses were carried out. The data obtained showed that almost 68 % of the investigated soil was coarse sand (≥ 300 μm), 28 % was medium and fine sand (≤300 μm and (≥75 μm) and only small fraction of 4 % was silt and clay (≤75 μm). A series of mild acids such as HCl and mild NaCl/HCl (chloride washing) were used for washing the investigated soil fractions. The obtained data showed that the coarse fraction ≥ 300 μm can be re mediated below a regulatory level of 1Bq/g. and the radium from this coarse fraction could be easily removed by screening and chloride washing. For the remediation of (≤ 300 μm and (≥ 75 μm soil fractions, a series of mild chloride washing experiments also showed that the chloride base (NaCl/HCl) was found to be potentially useful. However, there was a difficulty in achieving a low radium value in the fine (≥ 75 μm size fractions using chloride washing. The second scenario is to get rid of all contaminated soil and store it in a concrete basin through the program of radiological protection of personnel and environment. Preliminary gamma survey of contaminated soil showed that the significant area of the investigated

  4. Bacterial flora of processed broiler chicken skin after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur; Cason, John A

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the size of populations of different groups of bacteria composing the normal flora of processed broiler skin were examined after each of five consecutive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Portions of skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses were washed in distilled water (control) or in mixtures of 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA by using a stomacher laboratory blender to agitate the skin in the solutions. After each wash, skin was transferred to fresh solutions, and washing was repeated to provide samples washed one to five times in each solution. Bacteria in rinsates of the washed skin were enumerated on plate count (PC) agar, Staphylococcus (STA) agar, Levine eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) agar, and Perfringens (PER) agar with TSC supplement. Selected isolates recovered on each medium were identified. Overall, no significant differences were observed in numbers of bacteria recovered on PC, STA, or EMB agars from skin after repeated washing in water, but there were significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on LAB and PER agars. Repeated washing of skin in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA generally produced significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on all media. Furthermore, no bacteria were recovered on PER agar from skin washed five times in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA. Likewise, no bacteria were recovered on EMB or LAB agars from skin washed three or more times in 0.5% KOH-1% LA or on PER agar from skin washed four or five times in this solution. Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the skin isolates with the highest degree of resistance to the bactericidal activity of KOH-LA. Findings indicate that although bacteria may be continually shed from poultry skin after repeated washings, bactericidal surfactants can be used to remove and kill several types of bacteria found on the surface of the skin of processed broilers.

  5. Washing and chilling as critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Pearce, R A; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of preslaughter washing, pre-evisceration washing, final carcass washing and chilling on final carcass quality and to evaluate these operations as possible critical control points (CCPs) within a pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. This study estimated bacterial numbers (total viable counts) and the incidence of Salmonella at three surface locations (ham, belly and neck) on 60 animals/carcasses processed through a small commercial pork abattoir (80 pigs d(-1)). Significant reductions (P HACCP in pork slaughter plants. This research will provide a sound scientific basis on which to develop and implement effective HACCP in pork abattoirs.

  6. Design, development and transfer of a sanitation hand-washing dispenser to rural areas in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilkinson, M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available . Data were analysed using SPSS. Respondents to a questionnaire were asked questions relating to hand washing behaviour, which included whether they washed their hands: • Before handling of food and food preparation? • Before eating? • After visiting.... Devices that were being used in these programmes included: • A bucket with a wine tap attached (see Photograph 1); • A Built-in hand washing facility; or • An open basin or bucket (see Photograph 2) One of the key findings of research undertaken...

  7. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  8. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  9. Quantification Of Heavy Metals In The Various Branded Face Wash Available In The Bangladeshi Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Morshed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study has played an important role for the determination of heavy metals in the different types of face wash. In this study 32 samples of 15 branded face wash were gathered from the local market in Bangladesh. The analysis of these samples has performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AAS. A total of 16 samples are herbal and also 16 are synthetic out of 32 samples. The range of heavy metal concentration for synthetic face wash was obtained 0.55 11.35ppm for iron followed by BDL for cobalt BDL 0.50ppm for nickel BDL 0.66ppm for copper 0.28 10.92ppm for zinc BDL 0.21ppm for lead BDL for cadmium BDL 0.51ppm for manganese and BDL 7.19ppm for chromium. On the other hand herbal face wash samples contain the range of heavy metals as 0.80 1358.46ppm for iron followed by BDL for cobalt BDL 0.43ppm for nickel BDL 1.85ppm for copper 0.37 136.77ppm for zinc BDL 28.13ppm for lead BDL 0.02ppm for cadmium BDL 32.17ppm for manganese and BDL 14.95ppm for chromium. It was referred that very high concentration of iron has found in three herbal samples. One herbal product also contains high concentration of lead. The excess range of chromium has found in one synthetic and two herbal products. It was observed that four herbal samples hold the high concentration of zinc and also two herbal products contain excess amount of manganese. The high mean value of iron was obtained from both synthetic as 5.58ppm and herbal as 166.42ppm face washes. It was noted that the low mean value was found for both cobalt and cadmium in synthetic samples where only the cobalt has shown low mean value in herbal samples.

  10. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglianti, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Centre Sciences, Information et Technologies pour l' Environnement (SITE) - ENS de Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 cours Fauriel - 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: khalilhanna@hotmail.com; Brauer, Christine de [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Germain, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. {beta}-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 {sup o}C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200. - An innovative method using a biodegradable and non-toxic flushing agent for the depollution of industrially aged-contaminated soil.

  11. Dynamics of agricultural soil erosion in European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, L. F.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Dobrovol'skaya, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Socioeconomic transformation together with climate change in recent decades significantly affected the geography of agricultural erosion in European Russia. Calculations of erosion rate and soil loss from slopes using logical-mathematical erosion models within different landscape zones and administrative regions revealed spatial-temporal regularities in the dynamics of these parameters and made it possible to assess the role of changes in the main natural and anthropogenic factors of erosion. A universal significant reduction in the mass of soil material washed from tilled slopes is revealed on the background of multidirectional changes in erosion rate.

  12. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 -- Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets.

  13. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Rivonkar, G.

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50...

  14. [Investigation of the methods of extension of useful life of nanofiltration membranes in washing water regenerating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I V; Krivobok, S M; Maksimov, E D

    2000-01-01

    Transport and selective characteristics of Russian nanofiltration membranes OPMN-K were investigated in order to find approaches to extend useful life of the membranes and, therefore, of the nanofiltration assembly and the washing water regenerating system at large. Hygienic cleansing agents as washing water ingredients pollute but not irreversibly impair the membranes. Flushing of membranes after regeneration of various model detergents was shown to recover the membrane permeability virtually up to original level.

  15. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear.To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts.A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed.Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS and 35% using household water treatment (HWT. All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions. 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence.The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in

  16. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian

  17. MI (2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) contained in detergents is not detectable in machine washed textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Maja A; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Aberer, Werner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    European legislation has banned the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) from inclusion in leave-on cosmetics. However, the risk for allergic reactions depends on exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of MI in laundry detergents for household machine washing. Different formulations of laundry detergents with commercial MI levels, up to one thousand ppm were used and three different types of clothes were washed in a normal household machine setting one time and 10 times. The level of MI was measured by HPLC. While MI could be retrieved in the positive control of clothes drenched with washing powder but not washed afterwards, MI could not be detected in any specimen of clothes washed under household conditions. The detection limit was 0.5 ppm. It is important to discuss the difference of risk and hazard. While MI clearly is a high hazard as a strong contact allergen, the risk depends on exposure. Regarding the risk of exposure levels for the consumer to MI in clothes it can be stated that the use of MI in laundry detergents is safe for the consumer if these products are used according to the instructions in the normal household setting machine wash.

  18. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; de Vries, F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend

  19. Vancomycin added to the wash solution of the cell-saver. Effect on bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ferrer, A; Gredilla-Díaz, E; de Vicente-Sánchez, J; Navarro-Suay, R; Gilsanz-Rodríguez, F

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether the addition of a low-dose of antibiotic (vancomycin) to the wash solution (saline) of the cell-saver reduces the incidence of bacterial contamination of the autologous red blood cell (RBCs) concentrate recovered. Experimental, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study performed on 20 consecutive patients scheduled for posterior spinal fusion surgery. Intraoperative bleeding was processed through a cell-saver: HaemoLite ® 2+, in which the RBCs were washed according to randomization group, with saline (control group) or saline+10μg/ml -1 vancomycin (vanco group). Data regarding age, weight, processed and recovered volume, blood count, blood culture, and vancomycin concentration in RBCs concentrates obtained and incidence of fever after reinfusion were collected. Processed volume was 843±403ml and recovered volume 121±29ml, with haemoglobin concentration 10.4±5.0g/dl -1 and haematocrit 29.1±15.9% (mean±SD). Recovered RBC concentrate cultures were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in 5 cases (50%) of the control group while all cultures were negative in the vanco group (P=.016). The difference between the theoretical concentration of vancomycin administered and the concentration determined in the recovered RBC concentrate was 1.31μg/ml -1 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.43; P=.074). The addition of vancomycin at a concentration of 10ug/ml -1 to the wash solution of the cell-saver achieved similar concentrations in the autologous blood concentrate recovered allowing for bacterial removal, with negative blood cultures in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of Bronchial Washing and Brushing Cytology in the Diagnosis of Non-Neoplastic Lung Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Giti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is often the initial technique for diagnosis of lung and bronchial tumors. Many studies have shown the high accuracy rate of bronchial washing and brushing cytology in the evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic bronchopulmonary lesions. The aim of this study is to emphasize the value of the bronchial cytologic findings for diagnosis of non-neoplastic bronchopulmonary lesions. In a cross-sectional study, we retrieved all cases with bronchial washing and brushing cytology from 21 Mach 2014 to 21 December 2015. The slides of 100 patients with negative cytological reports were reviewed and concomitantly correlated with history, physical examination, clinical and pathologic documents. The cases with insufficient clinical and pathological diagnostic documents were rejected. The results classified in subgroups according to final diagnosis and cytological findings were discussed. We evaluated 100 cases that were previously had negative cytological reports.60 cases were male, and 40 cases were female with male to female ratio: 6/4. The age range was between 21 to 88 with the mean age of 57 years. Regarding lung cancer, 31% of cases were false negative. Causes of these falsely negative reports were been errors in screening, low cellularity, unsatisfactory smears and poor fixation. 23% were known cases of tuberculosis with some cytological findings including inflammation, necrotic calcified deposits, multinucleated giant cell and reserve cell hyperplasia. 19% were pneumonic patients with smears demonstrating inflammation, curschmann’s spiral and reserve cell hyperplasia. Other non-neoplastic cases included in this study were asthma, granulomatous inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Wegener, SLE, heart failure, hydatid cyst, interstitial lung disease, and end stage renal disease. Cytological specimens from patients underwent bronchoscopic washing and brushing should be carefully examined. In situations